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SISSTA welcomes you all to its 47th Annual Convention being held in Tirupati to share the
experiences, exchange new ideas, innovations, enrich knowledge and have fun. SISSTA is
entering the Golden Jubilee year successfully and rededicate itself to reverse the stagnation in the
Sugar Industry and working to fillip the growth of the Industry. With around 3500 dedicated
members, SISSTA is constantly working to pass on the latest technologies in Sugar Cane
Cultivation, Environment protection, Factory Technology, Conservation of water,use of organic
fertilizers, etc.

The 47thAnnual Convention to be held on 30th June and 1st July, 2017 at the holy city of Tirupati will
be a mega event in the year 2017, for all of us in SISSTA & this is an occasion for us to look back and
assess our performance in the last 12 months. After the 46th Annual Convention in July 2016, the
present council under my Presidentship took charge in November 2016. In the short span of 7
month with the co-operation of council members the following activities were done in a good
43 Council meeting were conducted and 1 extra-ordinary council meeting was conducted.
4In the 49 years of SISSTA history first time a one day seminar was conducted in Khammam in
Andhra Pradesh.
4First time a one day workshop was organized for sugar cane farmers at Puducherry.
4One joint seminar with SNSI was conducted at Belagavi, Karnataka.
4SISSTA office interior work was completed.
4Changing SISSTA website to portal is planned.

After completing the above program in the short span, now SISSTA is going to celebrate it's
Annual mega event 47th Annual convention. In this convention, we will be having galaxy of
eminent personalities among us during the convention and I am confident members will be
immensely benefited by their interaction with them. To encourage and motivate the Sugar
Factories, SISSTA is giving Best Factory Award in different disciplines like Best Cane
Development, Best Technical Efficiency, Best Cogeneration & Best Distillery to the Sugar
Factories in the southern states based on their performance last year. We are also organizing a
Sugar Expo 2017 during the Annual Convention and many leading manufacturers are
participating in the Sugar Expo.

I once again extend a warm welcome to all the Delegates attending the Annual Convention and
assure you that this Annual Convention will be an informative and memorable one.

President, SISSTA


(July 2016 to June 2017)
(a) Note on 46 Annual Convention
th th th
The 46 Annual Convention of SISSTA was held on 15 & 16 July 2016 at Hotel Crowne
Plaza, Chennai. The Annual Convention had a great start on 15th July 2016. After lighting of
Traditional Lamp by the VIP's Shri N.Prabhakar, President, SISSTA, welcomed Delegates.
The Convention was inaugurated by Dr Bakshiram, Director, Sugarcane Breeding Institute,
Coimbatore. The Keynote address was delivered by Shri Narendra Mohan, Director,
National Sugar Institute, Kanpur. This was followed by Special Address by VIP's and
address by Chief Guest Dr.K.Ramasamy, Vice Chancellor, Tamil Nadu Agricultural
University, Coimbatore. Dr K.Ramasamy released the 46th Annual Convention Proceedings.
To encourage the Best Performing Sugar Factories and Distilleries in the Southern States of
Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka & Tamil Nadu, SISSTA presented Trophies to the factories in
different categories. Awards for the best Technical Papers presented during the 45 Annual
Convention at Bengaluru were presented.

Vote of Thanks was delivered by Shri E.Muthuvelappan, Vice President and Convenor of 46th
Annual Convention.
The Sugar Expo 2016 was inaugurated by Shri Mahesan Kasinathan I.A.S, Commissioner of
Sugar, Tamil Nadu. 24 Exhibitors were participated in the Sugar Expo, 2016 to displayed
their products and Services. Delegates interacted with the Exhibitors and they were given all
the details by the Exhibitors.
S.V.Parthasarathy Memorial Lecture on Sugarcane and Agriculture was delivered by Shri
Aravind Chudasama, Editor, International Sugar Journal and London. This was followed by
Dr.N.A.Ramaiah Memorial Lecture by Shri M.S.Sundaram, Managing Director,
J.P.Mukherji & Associates Pvt Ltd, Pune.

In the Afternoon session on 15th July 2016 and on 16th July 2016 various technical papers were
presented on Sugarcane, Co-Gen & Engineering, Process, By-Product & Management by
The two day convention ended with summing up by Shri N.Prabhakar, President SISSTA.
(b) Note on One Day Joint Seminar with SNSI, Belagai, Karnataka.
A one day joint seminar was held in association with Sri Nijalingappa Sugar Institute,
Belagavi, Karnataka on 25.02.2017 on “Conservation of Energy and Water in Integrated
Sugar Complex” and around 150 Delegates participated in the Deliberations.
After lighting of Traditional lamp and prayer, Shri E.Muthuvelappan, President,
SISSTA welcomed the gathering. Dr. R.B. Khandagave, Director, Sri


Nijalingappa Sugar Institute inaugurated the Seminar. Key note address
Technical was delivered by Shri Narendra Mohan, Director, National Sugar
Institute, Kanpur. Shri Jagadish H Kulkarni delivered Keynote address-cane. This was
followed by special address given by and Shri R.V.Vatnal, Past President, SISSTA. Shri B.R.
Balekundaragi, President, Karnataka State Co-operative Sugar Federation who presided
over the Inaugural Session delivered his presidential address. The Dignitaries in the Dais
were honoured with mementos. Shri A.C.Patil, Vice President, Karnataka and convenor of
Joint Seminar proposed vote of Thanks.

A Table Display was also held during the one day joint Seminar and 7 organisations
participated and displayed their products and services. A Seminar Proceedings was also
brought out during the Seminar with articles from eminent authors.

The following Sugar Factories extended their valuable support to the One Day Joint Seminar
with the Sponsorship.

1. M/s Shree Somashewar S.S.K. Niyamit, Belwadi.

2. M/s Shri Malaprabha S.S.K. Niyamit, Hubli

3. M/s The Nandi S.S.K. Niyamit, Hosur

After the Inaugural Session, Technical paper Session began and papers were presented by
the Authors and there were live discussion after each paper presentation. Delegates had an
opportunity to discuss and learn the latest trends in conservation of Water and Energy.

Shri A.C.Patil, Vice President and Convenor of the Joint Seminar had made excellent
arrangements for smooth conducting of the Joint Seminar and coordinated very well with
SNSI Authorities.

(c) One Day Work shop at Puducherry.

A one day work shop for Sugarcane Farmers from Tamil Nadu and Puducherry was held on
25.03.2017 at Puducherry. Shri E. Muthuvelappan, President, SISSTA welcomed the Farmers
and Officials from Sugar Factories. The Inaugural address was delivered by Shri K.G.P.
Gnanamoorthy, President, Tamil Nadu Co-Operative Sugar Federation. This was followed
by special addresses given by Shri K. Nagendran, Special Director, Thiru Arooran Sugars.
The Presidential address was delivered by Shri A.Ramamoorthy, Director , Agriculture and
Sugar Department, Puducherry. This was followed by releasing of the Workshop handbook
by all the VIPs at the Dais. The Inaugural Session ended with Vote of Thanks by Shri M.Balaji,
Vice President, SISSTA.

In the workshop 138 cane growers from various parts of Tamil Nadu and 66 cane
development officers and executives from sugar mills were attended.


A Table Display was also held where in 3 organizations participated and
displayed their products and services.

The E.I.D. Parry India Ltd, Chennai extended their valuable support to the One Day
workshop with the Sponsorship.

The Technical Session was followed by question and Answer Session in which Farmers
quarries were answered by the experts.

The entire workshop was conducted in Tamil to enable the farmers to understand the subject
and have their quarries clarified.

(d) One Day Seminar at Khammam,Telangana.

A On Day Seminar to discuss on “Modern Intercultural Operation Practice in Sugarcane

Cultivation” was held on 22.04.2017 at Khammam, Telangana and around 80 Delegates
participated in the Deliberations.

After lighting of Traditional lamp and prayer, Shri E.Muthuvelappan, President , SISSTA
welcomed the gathering. Following his welcome address inaugural address was given by
Shri V.S. Naidu, Managing Director, The Thandava Co-operative Sugars, Presidential
address by Dr. N.V. Naidu, Director of Research, Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural
University and Dr. Raghuram Reddy, Addl. Director of Cane & Sugar, Telangana, Special
address by Shri V. Venkateshwara Rao, Cane consultancy of Sudalagunta Sugars Ltd. and
Shri N. Prabhakar, Vice President, Nava Bharat Ventures Ltd., & Past President, SISSTA. The
Inaugural Session ended with vote of by Shri Blessing Garapati, Convenor and Vice

The Technical Session began was chaired by Shri Jagadish H. Kulkarni, Geneticist, The Ugar
Sugar Works Ltd., and Shri Y. Kotaiah, General Manager, Nava Bharat Ventures Ltd.

Madhucon Sugar and Power Industries Ltd., extended their valuable support to the One Day
Seminar with their Sponsorship.

After Lunch, Delegates went on a factory visit to M/s. Madhucon Sugars and Power
Industries Ltd, Khammam. The Delegates had an opportunity to witness the different stages
of sugar production and other bye products.

(e) SISSTA office interior work:

The interior work was taken up in March, 2017 and the work is completed with an attractive
look. Now the SISSTA office gives a modern look having reception area, visitors place,
work place, conference hall and well-furnished library.



1 M/s. Lubeman Engineers Pvt. Ltd. Cover Page - Colour

2 M/s. Apex Tubes Pvt. Ltd Cover Page - Colour

3 M/s. S.S. Engineers Cover Page - Colour

4 M/s. ULKA Industries Pvt. Ltd Cover Page - Colour

5 M/s. Patco Industrial Supplies Cover Page - Colour

6 M/s. EAU Chemical (Mfg.) Pvt. Ltd. Cover Page - Colour

7 M/s. Suviron Equipments Pvt. Ltd Cover Page - Colour


1 M/s. The Andhra Sugars Ltd I

2 M/s. Shin Thermo Dynamic Engineering Pvt. Ltd II

3 M/s. Shree Doodhaganga Krishna S.S.K. Niyamit III

4 M/s. S.J. Industries IV

5 M/s. S.J. Industries V

6 M/s. SMB Engineers Pvt. Ltd VI

7 M/s. SMB Engineers Pvt. Ltd VII

8 M/s. Shrijee Process Engg. Works Ltd. VIII

9 M/s. Spray Engineering Devices Ltd IX

10 M/s. Catalysts Biotechnologies Pvt Ltd X

11 M/s. Industry Aid Products XI

12 M/s. Enviropol Engineers (P) Ltd XII

13 M/s. Triveni Turbine Limited XIII

14 M/s. Kay Bouvet Engineering Ltd XIV

15 M/s. Vishwajeet Industries XV

16 M/s. CA Polytech Pvt. Ltd. XVI

17 M/s. Duro Chem Sugar Chemicals Ltd XVII

18 M/s. ISGEC Heavy Engineering Ltd XVIII

19 M/s. Milteck Engineering Works XIX

20 M/s. Avant - Garde Engineers and Consultants (P) Ltd XX



1 M/s. K.C.P. Sugar and Industries Corpn. Ltd 349

2 M/s. E.I.D. Parry (India) Ltd 350

3 M/s. Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Sugars Pvt. Ltd 351

4 M/s. SNJ Sugars & Products Ltd 352

5 M/s. Ponni Sugars (Erode) Ltd 353

6 M/s. Rajshree Sugars & Chemicals Ltd 354

7 M/s. Nava Bharat Ventures Ltd 355

8 M/s. The Krishna S.S.K. Niyamit 356

9 M/s The Nandi S.S.K. Niyamit 357

10 M/s. Fives Cail-KCP Ltd 358

11 M/s. Sudalagunta Sugars Ltd 359

12 M/s. Chemical Centre (India) 360

13 M/s. ION Exchange (India) Ltd 361

14 M/s. Metal Forms Pvt. Ltd 362

15 M/s. Satish Steel Works 363


1 M/s. Atul Sugars Screens Pvt. Ltd 13

2 M/s. Armec Group 20

3 M/s. IMCO Alloys Pvt. Ltd 41

4 M/s. Shri Mahalakshmi Agency 70

5 M/s. Shree Prabhu Electricals 93

6 M/s. Crecent Electricals 101






Records It's Appreciation and Thanks the Sponsors


Sl.No Name of the Company/Factory


1 M/s. Sudalagunta Sugars Ltd


1 M/s. K.C.P. Sugar and Industries Corporation Ltd.


2 M/s. E.I.D. Parry (India) Ltd

2 M/s. Fives Cail-KCP Ltd


1 M/s. Sri Chamundeshwari Sugars Ltd



? Shri Laljibhai D. Hindocha

Ø ? Shri V.M. Rao

? Shri V.S. Thyagaraja Mudaliar

Ø ? Shri B.B. Ramiah

? Shri J.S. Parbhu

Ø ? Shri M. Prasad R. Morarka

? Shri D.C. Kothari

Ø ? Shri Shivjibhai H. Suchde

? Shri H.C. Kothari

Ø ? Shri T.K.M. Kailasam

? Shri P.D. Kothari

Ø ? Shri S.K. Somaiya

? Dr. N. Mahalingam
Ø ? Shri B.L. Chakradeo

? Shri M. Harischandra Prasad

Ø ? Shri T.S. Chintamani

ØShri P. Maruthai Pillai ? Shri John K. John


? Shri Sardar Gurmeeg Singh -

Ø M/s. Simbhaoli Sugars Ltd.

? Dr. M. Manickam
Ø - M/s. Sakthi Sugars Ltd

? Shri Ram V. Tyagarajan

Ø - M/s. Thiru Arooran Sugars Ltd

? Shri P. Trivikrama Prasad

Ø - M/s. Nava Bharat Ventures Ltd

? Shri Rajkumar Adalaha

Ø - M/s. Uttam Industrial Engg. Ltd.,

? Dr. Gokaraju Gangaraju

Ø - M/s. Delta Sugars Ltd

? Shri N. Krishnaiah
Ø - M/s. Madhucon Sugar & Power Inds. Ltd

? Shri V.L. Dutt

Ø - M/s. Fives Cail – KCP Ltd

? Shri S.B. Bhad

Ø - M/s. S. S. Engineers

? Shri B.B. Nikam

Ø - M/s. Ulka Industries Ltd


Records It's Appreciation and Thanks to the Exhibitors


Sl.No. Name of the Company Stall No.

1 M/s. Caretex Engineers 1
2 M/s. Excell Engineers & Consultants 2
3 M/s. Excell Engineers & Consultants 3
4 M/s. Excell Engineers & Consultants 4
5 M/s. DETS Ltd 5
6 M/s. Carl Bechem Lubricants India (P) Ltd. 6
7 M/s. Meru Industries LLP 7
8 M/s. Calsens Pvt. Ltd 8
9 M/s. Tirth Agro Technology Pvt. Ltd 9
10 M/s. PPI Pupms 10
11 M/s. VRL Automation Engineering & Projects Pvt. Ltd 11
12 M/s. Lubeman Engineers Pvt. Ltd 12
13 M/s. Shingare Industries Pvt Ltd 13
14 M/s. S.S. Techno Limited 14
15 M/s. S.S. Techno Limited 15
16 M/s. Netzsch Pumps & Systems 16
17 M/s. Mega Engineering 17
18 M/s. Mega Engineering 18
19 M/s. Abhitech Energycon Ltd 23
20 M/s. Muthu Engineering Agencies 24
21 M/s. CNH Industrial India Pvt. Ltd 25
22 M/s. ISGEC Heavy Engineering Ltd 29
23 M/s. ISGEC Heavy Engineering Ltd 30



SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


Y. Kotaiah1, Pamidi Venkateswarlu2 and G. Venkateswarlu3
General Manager (Agri and Admn), 2Technical Advisor (Agriculture), 3General Manager (Cane)
M/S. Nava Bharat Ventures Limited, Sugar Division, Samalkot – AP.

Abstract also attributed to stagnation in cane yields.

The genetic deterioration of the locally adopted Use of unhealthy poor quality seed, invasion
varieties at factory level and also use of poor by diseases (YLD), pests (Tissue Borers),
quality seed resulted in to spread of viral varietal degeneration and farmers practices;
disease like Yellow Leaf Disease (YLD) and a forcing industry to evolve and implement a
consortium of tissue borers leading to poor comprehensive three tire seed production
yields. The recent Diagnostic Teams Survey program for sustainable cane production in its
Reports also indicated more than 50% spread operational area duly adopting tissue culture,
of YLD in many parts of the country and seed treatment coupled with PRS technology.
cautioned to focus on quality seed production. Hence, the need to focus on
NBV, SD’s efforts on Comprehensive Comprehensive Three-Tier Sugarcane Seed
Three-Tier Sugarcane Seed Production Production Program (CTSSPP), duly adopting
Program (CTSSPP), duly adopting Tissue Tissue Culture seedlings production, improved
Culture seedlings, assured seed treatment seed treatment practices to eliminate seed
practices, coupled with recently popularized born pests & diseases, coupled with recently
nursery practices for the production of popularized nursery practices for the
Polytray Raised Seedlings (PRS) indicates the production of Polytray Raised Seedlings (PRS)
need for adoption by the Sugar Industry for was realized by all involved in Sugar
their sustainability. Industry.

Introduction Experimented Analysis:

In recent years, area under sugarcane is Seed plays vital role in crop production
diminishing and the reasons are many. in a crop like sugarcane where cane is
Stagnation in sugarcane yields and propagated through vegetative propagation.
diminishing net profits added to the problem. The need for Comprehensive Three-Tier Seed
Soil health deterioration as a result of Production Program to ensure sustainability
depletion of soil organic carbon, limits the in sugarcane production was realized and the
cane yield improvement from the gains made importance of quality seed to eliminate the
through improved technologies in agriculture seed transmitted pests & diseases and
(Varieties, inputs, crop production techniques rejunavation of local adopted varieties was
and products). The focus made by National & focused at Nava Bharat Ventures, Sugar
State Research Institutions resulted in large Division (NBV, SD), Samalkot, right from the
number of new varieties. But, their year 2013. The components of the
adoptability at factory level and further Comprehensive Three-Tier Sugarcane Seed
maintenance of these local performing Production Program being adopted at NBV,
varieties was less focused by the respective SD, are
factories, even though it is a mandatory of the
Sugar Industry. The genetic deterioration of I. Use of Tissue Culture Techniques for the
the locally adopted varieties at factory level rapid, mass multiplication of healthy

Comprehensive Three-tier Seed Production Program Essential for Sustainability in Sugarcane Production
Y. Kotaiah, Pamidi Venkateswarlu and G. Venkateswarlu

genetically pure existing and promising Multiplication & Rooting), Primary &
clones (Nucleus Seed) Secondary Hardening in shade net houses was
standardized by getting technical training
II. Adoption of Three-Tier Sugarcane Seed
from SBI, Coimbatore and RARS, Anakapalli.
Production Program 1. Breeder Seed
So far 4 Batches of Tissue Culture Seedlings
Cane (Stage I), 2. Foundation Seed Cane
were produced and planted at the Demo
(Stage II) & 3. Certified Seed (Stage III).
Farm, Samalkot, for the production of
III. Ensuring Seed Treatment to eliminate Breeders Seed.
seed borne diseases and pests to the
(a) First batch 2,000 Nos of 5 varieties
extent possible and also adopting April 2015 (81V48, 86V96, Co7805,
Vacuum Pressure Seed Treatment with Co86032 and Co6907)
pesticides, fungicides and nutrients.
(b) Second batch 10,000 Nos of Variety
IV. Standardizing Polytray Raised Seedlings Aug 2015 87A298

(PRS) technology for the production of (c) Third batches 20,000 Nos Variety 87A298
healthy sugarcane seedlings in the Aug 2016
Three-Tire Seed Production Program. (d) Fourth 12,000 Nos Variety 2003 V
batches 46
V. Following & Ensuring Sugarcane Seed April 2017
Certification Standards through In-house TOTAL 44,000 Nos (April 2014 to
Teams. April 2017)

VI. Forecasting and planning the seed It is planned to replace entire seed with
requirement for effective implementation Three Tier Program by 2018 by making
of Three tier seed program. efficient use of infrastructure and manpower
facility, as the hardened tissue culture
The focused detailed activities at Nava seedlings would come out for planting three
Bharat Ventures, Sugar Division (NBV, SD), times in a year, ie. Aug, Dec & March.
Samalkot through a Comprehensive
Three-Tier Sugarcane Seed Production II. Adoption of Three-Tier Sugarcane
Program right from the year 2013 are detailed Seed Production Program:
NBV, SD owns the responsibility of
I. Tissue Culture Sugarcane Seedlings providing entire seed requirement for different
Production: months of planting to cane growers in the
factory zone. This program encompasses
A customized tissue culture laboratory
techniques for the production of healthy seed
was established at Integrated Farmers Service
cane and rigorous monitoring. Each tier of the
Centre (IFSC), NNB, SD, in 2014, for rapid,
programme is completed in one year and after
mass multiplication of genetically pure &
third year the certified seed cane in made
healthy seed of locally adopted and newly
available to the farmers. The different stages
introduced & tested new varieties from the
in the Three-Tire Seed Production Program
Research Institutions (Nucleus Seed). The
meristem culture from the parent seed
material plots, duly adopting the standard 1. Breeder Seed Cane (Stage I):
tissue culture practices ensures the Production was planned and maintained
elimination of all the seed born pests & by sourcing the nucleus seed cane from
diseases. Media requirements for different respective Research Stations and also
varieties & stages of multiplication (Initiation, through production of tissue culture

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

seedlings at the company owned treatment practices at different seed stages.

Demonstration Farms. 100% seed To eliminate seed born fungal & pests
treatment and rouging are ensured. different seed treatment methods were
Water logged and fields with un-assured recommended.
irrigation are avoided. The crop is
Hot Water Treatment at 50C
inspected at monthly intervals from the
germination stage till harvest. The temperature for 2.0 hours and Moist Hot Air
observed diseased plant is immediately Treatment (MHAT) at 54C and 95% RH for
rogued out and need based plant 4.0 hours were recommended in the earlier
protection at different stages of crop years. The Hot Water Treatment Units
growth is taken up. The seed cane so established by the factories have become
obtained is called Breeder Seed. non-functional, due to operational and
technical problems.
2. Foundation Seed Cane (Sage II):
Breeder seed cane is multiplied and the The general recommendation of dipping
progeny thus obtained is called the cane setts for 30 minutes before planting
Foundation Seed. All the operations, in a solution of fungicide Carbendizem 0.1%
applied for raising breeder seed cane, are + Insecticide Malathion 0.3%, got popularized
also applied for raising foundation seed. among all the nurserymen with PRS and by
The crop is inspected three times, ie.
few farmers for sett planting. The farmer’s
45-60 DAP, 120 to 130 DAP and 15 days
innovation in collecting the cut setts in a
prior to seed harvest. The Foundation
gunny bag and soaking in chemicals solution
seed production is organized from
in a tub, had made the treatment simple and
breeder’s seed in the demonstration farm
labour effective.
and also in progressive farmers’ fields as
Primary Seed Nursery (PSN). SBI developed a new sett treatment
device (Vacuum Treatment Chambers) in
3. Certified Seed (Stage III): Certified
collaboration with Central Institute of
seed cane is also raised from foundation
Agricultural Engineering’s Regional Center,
seed crop at wider cross section of
which would treat setts under reduced
progressive farmers’ fields as Secondary
Seed Nursery (SSN). The crop is pressure and protects from diseases like Red
inspected thrice as in case of foundation Rot, Smut and other fungal infections. By
seed crop, but in this case only 25% of using the new ecofriendly equipment, the sett
crop is inspected during first inspection treatment can be done in 10 to 15 minutes
and only 10% crop during the course of with more effective diffusion of reusable
second and third inspections. The chemicals into the sugarcane setts or buds.
Certified Seed is distributed to farmers Seed treatment making use of this device is
for commercial cultivation. becoming popular at NBV-SD.

III. Ensuring Cane Seed Treatment IV. Standardizing Production of Polytray

Raised Seedlings (PRS)
Genetically pure apparently healthy seed
cane, unaffected by abiotic & abiotic stresses Conventional sett planting technique of
is taken from a plant crop. Three Tier Seed seed development, involves huge investment
Production Program ensures quality seed on seed material and other associated process.
supply by eliminating the seed transmitted But, quality seed production is not
pests & diseases through various seed guaranteed.

Comprehensive Three-tier Seed Production Program Essential for Sustainability in Sugarcane Production
Y. Kotaiah, Pamidi Venkateswarlu and G. Venkateswarlu

Different types of sugarcane seedling 10. Less gaps in ratoon

production technologies were also developed
11. Ideal for gap filling in sett planted
since long back (1970) and being adopted only
to a little extent. The high attention paid
seedlings production with Bud Chips by Special efforts that made Polytray Raised
National & International Institutions could Seedlings a Success
not get popularized as expected (Anonymous 1. Standardization of protocol (process) of
2009). Saving in quantum of seed material is production of PRS
nullified with infrastructure requirement and
special care. 2. Standardization of rooting media,
produced centrally and supplied to the
Keeping in view the merits and demerits franchisees (Assured quality rooting
of different methods of sugarcane seedlings, media use)
Nava Bharat Ventures Team had initiated in
2011 producing sugarcane seedlings in poly  Coir Pith - 60 – 65%
trays called “Polytray Raised Seedlings” (PRS)  Press mud - 30 – 35%
and standardized the production on large
scale (around 2 crore seedlings per year) by  Neem cake - 50 kg/t
involving Service Provides (Franchisees) duly
 Single super phosphate - 50 kg/t
fine tuning the technologies adopted by Mr
Ramprasad (Prabhakar et al. 2012). The  Fe SO4 – 6 kg/t
unique feature and advantage in this PRS is,
 Zn SO4 – 4 kg,
no requirement of specialized infrastructure,
except the single node cutting machine.  Urea – 10 kg/t

Advantages Derived from PRS:  VAM - 5 kg/t

1. Seed cane saving measures (Requires  Azospirillum, PSB, Pseudomonas,
only 1 – 1.2 t seed cane / ac against 4 Trichoderma veridi each 1 L / t
– 6 t /ac for traditional sett planting)
The Enriched Rooting Media with
2. Disease free quality seed (100% Seed Biofertilizers, Biocontrol Agents and
Treatment) Macronutrients are carried to the main field
along with the ball of earth around the
3. More time gained for land preparation
seedling, which helped in extra vigor of the
(One Month)
seedlings immediately after transplanting.
4. Employment of Non-Farm Women
3. Standardization of cost of production of
Labour in nursery and saving labour at
PRS by including the materials & labour
planting (5 persons / ac)
cost and keeping 10% profit to the
5. Optimum population at planting (100% franchise
4. Identified the Franchisees for different
6. More no. of synchronous tillers locations and providing training in
advance and also intermittently
7. Less pests & Diseases
5. Month wise planning on seedlings
8. Facilitate mechanization
requirements variety wise both for
9. More yield with more number of heavier planting & gap filling and production
Millable Canes through franchisees

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

6. All the raw materials required for PRS seedlings to 4,000, will not suite to NBV, SD
production right from seed, poly-trays, Zone area as climatic conditions in the sea
rooting media, pp chemicals, were cost and flood irrigation practices are
centrally procured and supplied at detrimental for tiller production. Each
pre-fixed cost. (To ensure quality seedling allowed to produce tillering in
material supply at reasonable cost). between 10-15 tillers and later high
earthing-up must be taken up to arrest
7. Arrangements to transport and deliver
further tillering at around 90 days after
the seedlings in specially designed vans
transplantation. Thereby per acre population
right at the fields
must be maintained in between minimum to
8. The cut bud nodes are collected in gunny optimum i.e. 60,000 to 80,000 effective tillers.
bags and these bags with nodes are
The success of the program is mainly
dipped in solution of Carbondazim (1
dependent on the optimum irrigation practices.
gm/lt) and Imidachlorpid (1 ml / 3 lt) for
Drip irrigation, that too Sub-Surface Drip is the
15 minutes for seed treatment.
ultimate to maximize yields. Those, who can’t
9. Healthy and bulged single bud nodes are afford drip, furrow irrigation is a must during
transferred to holes of poly trays half tillering phase to encourage tiller production. Ill
filled with rooting media or the bags drained conditions will reduce the tillering
with nodes are kept under shade for 5 ability and resulted in poor yields.
days, by the time, buds sprout and used
for planting in trays. Important Observations With PRS at
10. Un-sprouted buds are graded out.
 Reduction in water shoots and dead canes.
11. The cavities and sprouting nodes are
Increased average yield in plant crop (3.6
covered completely with rooting media
t / ac) and ratoon crop
and gently pressed with thumbs.
 Reduced the labour requirement (7 men /
12. The filled poly trays are watered ac) and overall average net income
regularly with micro jets. increase of Rs 19,307/ ac (Kotaiah.Y, 2014)
13. Foliar feeding twice with 19 : 19 : 19  Integrated ratoon management along with
NPK at 10 days interval for vigorous gap filling with PRS seedlings, resulted in
growth of seedlings. an average yield improvement of 4.6 t / acre.
14. Renaxypyr is sprayed to the growing  Savings in seed cane, made available for
seedlings to protect them from ESB. crushing

15. 30 to 35 days aged seedlings along with

Initiatives Required for Making the
poly trays are supplied to cane growers
Sugarcane Seedlings Production
in specially designed trucks.
Program a Success:
To Optimize Cost of Production and to Based on the practical experience gained
Achieve Higher Yield: on poly tray raised seedling technology for
Follow a row to row distance of 3-5 feet sustainable cane cultivation, the management
and within the row seedling to seedling 1.25 is encouraging large scale adoption of PRS
to 2 feet distance based on soils and tillers method. Adoption of PRS technology at NBV,
producing ability (8,000 to 10,000 seedlings). SD during the last six years increased from
The elsewhere experiences of limiting 3.7 per cent to 37 per cent.

Comprehensive Three-tier Seed Production Program Essential for Sustainability in Sugarcane Production
Y. Kotaiah, Pamidi Venkateswarlu and G. Venkateswarlu

S# Particulars 2012-2013 2013-2014 2014-2015 2015-2016 2016-2017 2017-18

1. Seedlings used for 21,80,878 151,03,617 120,36,820 144,54,028 139,83,806 200,00,000

planting (Nos)

2. Sedlings used for gap 4,91,139 49,31,435 41,97,447 49,04,904 48,69,119 39.27,000
filling (Nos)

3. Area Planted with 242 (3.68) 1332 1361.41 1247.00 1271.00 1658.35
Seedlings (ac) / (%) (23.96) (34.26%) (28.81%) (35.37%) (37.35%)

4. Area Planted with Setts 6330 4228 2612.66 3081.00 2322.72 3116.15

5. Total Area Planted (ac) 6572 5560 3974.07 4328.00 3593.72 4974.5

Sustainable cane productivity could be Conclusions:

realized by the adoption of PRS technology, The Comprehensive Three Tier Seed
besides reducing cost of cultivation with less Production Program by integrating tissue
reliance on labour. culture, Polytray Raised Seedlings (PRS),
effective seed treatment and planned
1. Promotion of drainage and avoidance of
distribution of healthy cane seed adopted by
water logging / flooding, more so in delta
NBV, SD, Samalkot resulted in its
sustainability. Needs, further fine tuning for
2. Efficient water management (Furrow adoption in the areas, where ever it is
Irrigation) including drip. applicable.

3. Soil health and integrated nutrient
management to meet the nutritional The authors are highly thankful to the
needs of higher targeted yields. management of M/S. Nava Bharat Ventures
Ltd., Sugar Division, Samalkot for providing
4. Weed free maintenance. infrastructural facilities for successful
implementation of comprehensive Three Tire
5. Need based plant protection. seed production program in the operational
area for sustainable cane production and in
V. All the Sugarcane Seed Certification
generating this information.
Standards guidelines and
recommendations are followed through References
the In-house Teams at different stages of 1. Anonymous (2009), Sustainable Sugarcane
crop in the field and also in the Tissue Initiative(SCI) Improved Sugarcane cultivation
Culture Laboratory and Nurseries. in India. ICRISAT-WWF, NRMC, Kolkata –
VII. Advance planning was made on the 2. N. Prabhakar, Y. Kotaiah, G. Venkateswarlu,
requirement of sugarcane seedling / seed S. Venkateswarlu and K. Ramalinga Swamy
for planting in the NBV, SD, Factory (2012) Sustainable Cane Cultivation through
Transplanting Plytray Raised Seedlings. 71st
Zone for planting and gap filling. Plans
Annual Convention, STAI:317-325
are prepared for 100% seed replacement
3. Y. Kotaiah, G. Venkateswarlu, D. Ravindra
with healthy/ rejuvenated / new varieties
and K. Chinnabbai (2014) Practical Experience
through effectively organizing the of Sustainable Cane Cultivation with seedlings
Comprehensive Three-Tier Program Seed technology. 44th Annual Convention, SISSTA:
program by 2018. 50-54

Sugar Journal 2017 - 47th Annual Convention of SISSTA


P.Ashok Kumar1, P.Kumararamalingam2
Sakthi Sugars Limited, Erode District, Tamilnadu 638315.
ashok@sakthisugars.com, 94421 04002

Introduction finally prepare a good seedbed. Land

Sugarcane is a widely grown commercial preparation for sugarcane generally involves
crop in India. It provides employment to over primary tillage consisting of 1 or 2 deep
a million people directly or indirectly besides ploughings followed by secondary tillage with
contributing significantly to the national 2 or 3 harrowings for breaking the soil clods
exchequer. Sugarcane cultivation is carried and achieving fine tilth. Ratoon crop also
out with an intention to achieve better profit requires good tilth in the interspace for better
to the farmers and sustain the economic yield. Further, intense mechanization
viability of sugar industry in the long run. involving traffic of heavy machinery from
Various factors are influencing the cane yield planting to harvesting and transporting to the
and dragging it either static or declining. mill can cause the deterioration of soil
Nowadays, due to increased cost of cultivation physical characters. This translates into soil
and poor yield, farmers are reluctant to grow compaction with a cohort of harmful side
cane. Various yield contributing parameters effects viz., reduction in storage & movement
listed below are vested in the hands of of air & water, mechanical difficulty for root
farmers to increase the cane yield which could growth and difficulty in absorption of
enhance net profit and encourage the farmers
nutrients not only from soil but also from
to continue in cane cultivation.
manure. The soil compaction will affect the
1. Season. sugarcane yield and multiple ratoon
cultivation. Hence, it becomes necessary to
2. Soil fertility.
diagnose soil compaction and takeup remedial
3. Land preparation. measures. Therefore when a new crop is
planted, a through land preparation is
4. Varieties.
absolutely essential to bring the soil to a fine
5. Cultural & management practices and tilth for proper germination of setts & root
growth and field emergence.
6. Harvest management.

Among several factors influencing the Soil conditions suitable for sugarcane
cane yield, soil management practices play a Sugarcane prefers well drained,
major role in yield improvement. Sugarcane structured and aerated loamy or clay loamy
being a long duration crop, it requires deep soil. It should be more than 1 meter deep. It
ploughing and fine tilth. For higher sugarcane could equally be grown on soil with texture
yields, providing optimum soil environment is other than loam or clay loam with appropriate
an essential pre-requisite since the crop management practices. Cane productivity is
remains in the field for about 5 years. affected by unfavorable soil reaction (pH),
Traditionally, land preparation for electrical conductivity (Ec), exchangeable
planting sugarcane involves many intense sodium percentage (ESP) and poor physical
tillage operations. The aim is to remove the conditions such as hard pans, inadequate
stool of the previous crop cycle, alleviate soil drainage, surface crusting and hardening,
compaction, control weeds & volunteers and waterlogging, etc.

Impact of Deep Tillage on Sugar Cane Yield
P.Ashok Kumar and P.Kumararamalingam

Soil hardening / Hard pan favourable for the germination of seed and
The subsoil hard pan particularly in red growth of the crop.
soil is due to illuviation of clay to the subsoil
Objectives of tillage
coupled with cementing action of oxides of Fe,
Al and CaCO3 which increase the soil bulk 1. To prepare a seed bed which permits
density to more than 1.8 g/cm3. Further, hard optimal soil water air relations.
pan can also be developed due to continuous
2. To provide good physical conditions for
cultivation of crop using heavy implements up
early root penetration and proliferation.
to certain soil depth periodically. In black
soil,besides the other factors, higher ESP 3. To incorporate preceding crop residues
results in compaction. Soil hardening lowers and organic manures.
the infiltration & percolation rate, nutrient
movement and free air transport in soil profile 4. To destroy weeds and hibernating pest &
which subsequently results in reduction of disease organisms.
subsoil fertility and crop growth.
5. To facilitate proper soil chemical and
Soil compaction microbial activity.
Soil compaction is reduction of soil Tillage operations employing tractor
volume due to external factors. The soil drawn implements are most ideal and quick.
compaction is higher today than in the past For initial ploughing, use either mouldboard
due to the usage of heavy farm implements plough or disc plough. Whenever, soil turning
in cane cultivation. is desired, a mouldboard plough should be
1. It increases the density and causes low used. When the soil is hard, uneven and
porosity. composed of crop stubbles, a disc plough is
preferable. Ploughing at optimum soil
2. Reduces infiltration & percolation. moisture content is very essential to achieve
good tilth. Too wet soil interrupts movement
3. Enhances soil erosion.
of machinery and causes destruction of soil
4. Increases penetration resistance and structure. On the other hand, too dry soil will
affects root growth. not allow tynes to penetrate deep which
results in frequent mechanical breakdowns,
5. Affects the environment of soil organisms
increased power requirement and cloddy soil
especially earth worm.
surface affecting soil, water & air relations.
6. Influences nutrient uptake due to limited
The principle of cultivation is to turn and
aeration, enhanced ammonia
break down the soil to a fine tilth providing
volatilization and reduced P & K
an ideal environment for seed germination.
availability which in turn inhibits root
This system has been used for centuries. Deep
tillage is the main option available for
Soil compaction and hardening can be reducing the soil compaction and hardening.
managed by deep tillage practices.
The tillage operations for sugarcane
Tillage cultivation are two types.

Tillage is the physical manipulation of I. Primary tillage

the soil with appropriate implements to loosen
the surface soil layer and bring a condition II. Secondary tillage

Sugar Journal 2017 - 47th Annual Convention of SISSTA

I. Primary tillage surfaces. It increases the natural fertility

Depending upon the purpose (or) status of soil due to deep tillage and provides
necessity, different types of tillage practices enough circulation of air, moisture and
like deep ploughing or sub soiling are carried sunlight in the soil. 60 - 85 Hp tractor would
out. be required to plough at 50 - 60cms depth.

Deep ploughing
This operation is performed deeper than
the normal tillage to modify the physical (or)
chemical properties of a soil. The tractor
mounted implements like mouldboard plough
(or) disc plough is used for deep ploughing.
These implements will breakup and turned
over the surface soil to a depth of 30 - 40
Chisel plough
Sub soiling
The subsoiler is the tillage tool which
2. Ripper plough
will breakup and loosen the soil to a depth of
50 - 60cms & will improve growth of crops Rippers or subsoilers break up
where soil compaction is a problem. Angled compacted soil below the depth reached by
wings are used to lift and shatter the hard conventional cultivation to improve drainage
pan that was built up due to compaction. The and aeration. There are several types of deep
design provides deep tillage, loosening soil rippers: vertical, agroplow, parabolic, C shank
deeper than a normal plough. It can disrupt (SJ) and paraplow and they can reach 30 -
the hard pan ground, down to 60cms depth. 90cms into the soil. Most have slanted tines
Heavy duty ripper and chisel plough are used or a sharply angled leading point to lessen
for subsoiling. the power required to pull the ripper. This
design also helps to lift and shatter the
Deep tillage implements subsoil so that any compacted layer is broken
1. Chisel plough. up. Soil should be reasonably dry when it is
ripped. Ripping wet soil does not shatter the
2. Ripper plough.
subsoil and can smear and seal the soil beside
3. Mouldboard plough. the ripper tine. Smeared surfaces prevent air,
water and roots moving through the soil.
4. Disc plough.

1. Chisel plough The shank is built stronger and smarter

with a scissor action design and full frame
The chisel plough is a primary tillage
height extension to make deep ripping and
implement working up to 50 - 60cms to
shattering hard pans in the toughest
ensure development of crop root system at
conditions easier.
proper depth and environment. It is an ideal
implement to use where top soil is fertile but The shank works below the compacted
subsoil is not productive. Chisel ploughs are hard pan to uplift and shatter without
used to shatter but not turn or move the soil. inversion of the soil. Due to ripping, soil will
They work on the same principle as rippers. become aerated without violent separation
Again, the soil must be dry to moist otherwise while allowing greater moisture infiltration
the plough will smear and seal the soil into the seed bed. This minimizes fine soil

Impact of Deep Tillage on Sugar Cane Yield
P.Ashok Kumar and P.Kumararamalingam

aggregates and creates conditions ideal for topsoil structure. It can be used in stony and
microbial action. Crop roots are then free to rooted soils.
pursue moisture and nutrients deep in the soil
4. Disc plough
resulting in better yields.
Disc ploughs break up undisturbed soil
by inverting it to bury surface weeds and
trashes. Regular use of disc ploughs reduces
soil aggregates to small particles and produces
a compacted layer or plough pan which
prevents air, water and roots penetrating the
subsoil. When it rains, soil particles on the
surface collapse together to form a crust
which repels air and water inturn creating
difficulty for seedlings to break through.
Offset disc ploughs which have two rows of
discs running at angles to each other serve a
Ripper plough similar purpose.

3. Mouldboard plough

Disc plough

Mouldboard plough A large revolving, concave steel disc

replaces the mouldboard. The disc turns the
It is the most important plough for furrow slices to one side with a scooping
primary tillage. The parts of mouldboard action. The usual size of disc is 60cms in
plough are frog or body, mouldboard or wing, diameter and this turns a 30 – 40cms furrow
share lard side, connecting rod, bracket. The slice. Disc plough is used for deep ploughing
reversible mouldboard plough is used in in root infested sticky, stony and hard soils.
Sakthinagar area. It is designed to work in The disc angle is adjustable to vary the
all types of soils. The purpose of using penetration with varying soil condition. The
mouldboard plough is to invert and pulverize disc plough is designed to work in all types
the soil completely, uproot all weeds, bury the of soils for basic functions such as breaking,
trash and crop residues under the soil. The raising, turning and mixing.
oblong-shaped mouldboard plough is shaped to
cut and turn over the soil to bury surface Benefits of deep tillage
residues. It has been used successfully where 1. Deep tillage implements are specially
hard setting or crusting occurs to bring up designed for breaking up of hard layers
swelling or shrinking clay subsoil to improve and loosening the sub soil, help better
drainage and root growth.

Sugar Journal 2017 - 47th Annual Convention of SISSTA

2. Increases the water holding capacity of designed with two discs for cutting old roots
soil. and ridges on either side. It is a very useful
implement for off-barring in ratoon fields with
3. Preserves moisture during high rainfall
trash. After machine harvesting, operating
which is very important for the crop to
disc for off barring, reduces soil compaction,
withstand rainfall or drought periods.
cuts the old roots, lowers the C/N ratio,
4. Reduces the soil compaction and facilitates quicker development of new root
hardening which leads to improvement system and contributes for vigorous growth of
in soil health. the ratoon crop. Further, as the dry trashes
are covered with soil, it not only decomposes
5. Provides a simple and economical way to
faster and increases nutrient value of the soil
obtain increased cane yield and net
but also supports in enhancing the ratoon
II. Secondary tillage
Methods and materiels
The tillage operations performed on the
soil after primary tillage to bring a good soil The Sakthi Sugars is a pioneer in cane
tilth are known as secondary tillage. It technologies, who introduced mechanization
consists of lighter or finer operation which is for sugarcane cultivation in India. Here
done to clean the soil, break the clods and mechanical harvesting plots are recommended
incorporate the manure and fertilizers. with primary tillage of 1 deep ploughing using
Harrowing and ploughing are done to crush reversible mouldboard plough (or) disc plough
the hard clods on the soil surface. The followed by a secondary tillage operation of 1
secondary tillage implements are disc ploughing using five arm plough and finally
harrows, cultivator and rotavator. the rotavator is used to obtain a fine tilth.

Off barring in ratoon A field trial was conducted at

Soil compaction is one of the major Gobichettipalayam Division of Sakthinagar
causes for the poor growth of ratoon next to area during 2015-16 crushing season to study
higher C/N ratio in root zone. Compaction the impact of deep and shallow ploughings on
occurs in long duration crops where as many sugarcane yield. 3 plots with an extent of 6
as 30 irrigations are applied in the tropical Ha. for deep ploughing and 2 plots with an
belt. These irrigations, movement of tractor extent of 3.80 Ha. for shallow ploughing were
and machine during harvesting lead to soil taken for the study.
compaction. It affects movement of air and
The following factors were maintained
moisture within soil, development of root
similar for both trial & control plots.
system and finally the absorption of nutrients
and water. For obtaining a better ratoon
1. Irrigation type (wetland, canal irrigation).
stand, it is important to improve the soil
physical condition. Off barring is an operation 2. Soil type (clay loam).
wherein the ridges are broken or cut on either 3. Spacing - 5 feet.
side. The operation is also called as shoulder 4. Variety CoV.92102.
breaking. Subsoiler may also be used for
5. All the intercultural operations by mini tractors.
breaking the compacted soil (between the
ridges). 6. Manure & fertilizer application.

In Sakthinagar area, the disc plough is 7. Age of harvest - 12 months.

used for off-barring purpose. The device was 8. Method of harvest - mechanical harvest.

Impact of Deep Tillage on Sugar Cane Yield
P.Ashok Kumar and P.Kumararamalingam

Cost & Revenue Analysis for Deep and shallow Ploughing Plots
Area in Ha. & value in Rs.
Deep Shallow
Sl.No. Particulars ploughing ploughing
(Trial) (Control)
Reversible mouldboard plough-1 time 10000
Ploughing - 5 arm plough - (Rs.3750/ Ha./ time by tractor) 3750 7500
Rotavator or spring cultivator operation 5000 5000
Ridges and furrows formation (contract basis) 4500 4500
23250 17000
Cost of 25,000 no.of two bud setts 10000 10000
Loading and transport 1750 1750
Planting charges 5000 5000
16750 16750
Biocompost 12 Mts/Ha.(@ Rs.450/Mt) 5400 5400
Di Ammonium phosphate – 7.5 bags (Rs.1200/bag) 9000 9000
Urea – 15 bags ( Rs.284/bag ) 4260 4260
Potash – 7.5 bags ( Rs.550/bag) 4125 4125
MN mixture enriched deep gel -15 bags (Rs. 375/bag) 5625 5625
Labour charges for application of manures – 7 men (@ Rs.300/man) 2100 2100
30510 30510
Control of early shoot borer 1000 1000
Release of parasite 30 cc./Ha.@ Rs.25/cc.(including labour charge) 750 750
1750 1750
Pre-emergence herbicide Atrazine 2.5 Kg./Ha. and spraying charge 1250 1250
Hand weeding Rs.150/woman labourer for 25 women 3750 3750
De trashing operation as contract basis 10000 10000
Earthing-up operation as contract basis 10000 10000
25000 25000
VI IRRIGATION CHARGES (@ Rs.250 for 40 irrigations) 10000 10000
For deep ploughing - 122.367 Mts/Ha. (@ Rs 420/Mt) 51394
For control plots - 106.900 Mts/Ha. (@ Rs.420/Mt) 44898
TOTAL 158654 145908
VIII Revenue
Deep ploughing : 122.367Mts x Rs.2385/- 291845
Control plots : 106.900 Mts x Rs.2385/- 254957
Net returns (Total revenue – Total cost of cultivation) 133191 109049
Net returns /Mt 1088.00 1020.00
Deep ploughing advantage (per Ha.) 24143

Madhu, G, Halikatti, S. I., Khandagave, R.B,
S. Nijalingappa Sugar Institute (SNSI) Belagavi.
UAS, Dharwad.

Abstract plant crop (142.84 t ha-1) and ratoon crop

A field experiment was conducted during the (117.40 t ha-1) as compared to RPP (129.85
seasons of 2014-15 and 2015–16 at S. and 113.22 t ha-1, respectively) and other
Nijalingappa Sugar Institute Belagavi, treatment combinations. However, the lower
Karnataka. The experiment consisted of three cane yield in plant and ratoon crop was
methods of fertilizer application, viz., surface recorded in M1F1K1 (87.32 and 68.95 t ha-1,
application, ploughsole method and ploughsole respectively) and absolute control (53.57 and
method with vermicompost (1:1 ratio on dry 41.40 t ha-1, respectively).
weight basis) along with three fertilizer levels, Keywords: Fertilizer levels, application
viz., 50 % RDF (125: 37.5: 95 kg N, P2O5, methods, split application, use efficiency,
K2O ha-1), 75 % RDF (187.75: 56.25: 142.5 N,
P2O5, K2O ha-1) 100 % RDF (250:75:190 kg Introduction
N, P2O5, K2O ha-1) and split application of Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is
potassium, 100 % K at basal and 50 % K as an important agro-industrial commercial crop
basal & 50 % K at earthing up. At harvest, which plays vital role in national economy by
significantly higher cane yield in plant and contributing 0.67 per cent to GDP because of
ratoon crop was recorded in ploughsole its wider adaptability over varying
method with vermicompost (113.56 and 99.75 agro-climatic condition and also unique among
t ha-1, respectively) followed by only ploughsole agricultural crop in the sense that a number
method (106.18 and 94.31 t ha-1, respectively) of succeeding cane crops are raised from a
over surface application (99.78 and 88.01 t single planting which is an integral
ha-1, respectively). Among the different component of sugarcane production system.
fertilizer levels, significantly higher cane yield All farmers does not have complete knowledge
of plant and ratoon crop was recorded with about the nutrient requirements of sugarcane
100 per cent RDF (122.60 and 109.21 t ha-1, and time of fertilizer application. As per
respectively) compared to other fertilizer levels. Bhingardeve et al. (2014), soil testing was not
Split application of potassium, 50 per cent as adopted by 80 per cent of farmers for nutrient
basal and 50 per cent at earthing up recorded management. Sixty per cent of farmers in
significantly higher cane yield in plant and India are not adopting the proper time and
ratoon crop (109.51 and 95.79 t ha-1, quantity of fertilizer application during all the
respectively) than basal application of planting season sugarcane. But due to the
potassium (103.50 and 92.26 t ha-1, poor knowledge, fertilizer application was
respectively). Among all the treatment adopted by only 24 per cent of farmers. Since
combinations, application of 100 per cent RDF the fertilizers are too costly and involve heavy
in ploughsole method along with vermicompost investment, they have to be properly managed
and split application of potash, 50 per cent as efficiently to increase fertilizer use efficiency
basal and 50 per cent at earthing up (M3F3K2) at present which is very poor. Sugarcane
recorded significantly higher cane yield in farmers are normally practicing surface

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

broadcasting method of fertilizer application experimental site was medium deep black
with low nutrient use efficiency except in drip categorized in order vertisols, low in organic
irrigation (fertigation). Fertilizer application is carbon (0.41 %) and available N (276.23 kg
one of the important agronomic practices ha-1), medium in available P (30.98 kg ha-1)
which highly influence the rapid growth of and available K (244.46 kg ha-1). The
sugarcane plants. While applying fertilizers to experiment laid out in split- split plot design
sugarcane, the farmers should follow the with three methods of fertilizer application in
proper time, quantity, frequency and method main plots, three fertilizer levels in sub plots
of application are important to get maximum and split application of potassium in sub –
benefit for the costly input. Most of the sub plots for plant and ratoon crops. In both
sugarcane growing soils are generally deficit the experiments of plant and ratoon crop,
in nitrogen and medium in phosphorus, NPK, were applied in the form of urea,
potassium which needs their replenishment. Di-ammonium phosphate, and muriate of
Optimum application of fertilizer in potash, respectively. Fertilizers were applied
appropriate methods is a key to success in to plots as per the treatment combinations.
increasing sugarcane productivity, production The nitrogen was applied in 4 splits as basal
and increasing the nutrient use efficiency by (10 %), 6th week (20 %), 10th week (30 %) and
avoiding losses. Furrow application of 14th weeks (40 %) after planting and entire
fertilizers at the time of planting using phosphorus was applied as basal dose while
planters has been found to be effective. But potassium was applied in two equal splits 50
applications of fertilizer even by these % as basal and 50 % at earthing up. For
methods do not distribute fertilizer evenly as ratoon crop 25 % extra nitrogen was applied
per the needs of plant roots. Placement of in three splits 30 % as basal, 35 % each at
8th and 12th week, same quantity of
fertilizer in bands increases the concentration
phosphorus was applied as basal dose and
of nutrients in specific root zones which
potassium was applied in two splits 50 % as
reduces the risk of fixation by decreasing the
basal and 50 % at earthing up after ratoon
soil contact surface area and increases their
initiation. The fertilizers were incorporated
availability to the plants. For maximum
into the soil as per main plot treatments by
efficiency of applied fertilizer, it is essential
covering the soil by using bullock drawn desi
to arrange the flow of nutrients to the roots
of the plants at a rate which is sufficient for
maximum uptake as per crop demand. By RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
increasing the fertilizer use efficiency, the
same level of yield could be obtained with Cane yield (Cf: Table: 1)
lower amount of fertilizer. Cane yield of sugarcane was significantly
influenced by methods of fertilizer application
Materials and Methods
(Table 1). Significantly higher cane yield was
A field experiment was conducted during recorded in ploughsole method with
the seasons of 2014-15 and 2015–16 at -1
vermicompost in plant (113.56 t ha ) and
Agriculture Research Farm of S. Nijalingappa ratoon crop (99.75 t ha-1) than ploughsole
Sugar Institute (SNSI) Belagavi, which lies in method in plant (106.18 t ha-1) and ratoon
Northern Transitional Zone of Karnataka crop (94.31 t ha-1) over only surface
(Zone-8). The experimental site located at application which recorded significantly lower
15 46’ 03.8 North latitude and 74 29 16.27’ cane yield in both plant (99.78 t ha-1) and
East longitudes with an altitude of 534 m ratoon (88.01 t ha-1) crop. The increase in
above the mean sea level. The soil of the cane yield was to the extent of 13.81 and 6.41

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

per cent in plant crop and 13.33 and 7.15 per number of millable canes also contributed to
cent in ratoon crop, respectively over surface more cane yield. The results are in agreement
application and ploughsole method of fertilizer with the findings of Shukla and Ishwar,
application. Earlier reports of Serigio et al., (2011) also reported that among the fertility
2016 and Mandal and Thakur, 2010, also levels, significantly highest cane (70.48 t ha-1)
indicated increased cane yield due to sub were obtained with application of 150, 60 and
soiling-cum-deep fertilizer placement method 60 kg N, P2O5 and K2O ha-1. Whereas,
to the extent of 15.9 per cent over control. significantly lowest yield parameters were
Higher yield of cane in ploughsole method documented under absolute control and
with vermicompost might have been due to ultimately resulted in the lowest cane yield
reduced losses of nutrients as a result of deep (53.57 and 41.40 t ha-1 in plant and ratoon
placement and greater adsorption of nutrients crop, respectively). The significant reduction
by the organic colloid of vermicompost. in cane yield under this treatment was due
Increased nutrient availability over a longer to severe nutrient stress experienced by crop
period during later stages of crop growth during all growth stages.
resulting in better yield. In present investigations, cane yield of
sugarcane was significantly influenced by split
The results revealed that higher cane
application of potassium (Table1).
yield was obtained with higher fertilizer dose
Significantly higher cane yield in plant and
100 per cent RDF (122.60 and 109.21 t ha-1
ratoon crop (109.51 and 95.79 t ha-1,
in plant and ratoon crop) over the lower
respectively) was recorded with split
fertilizer levels. Significantly lower cane yield
application of potassium, 50 per cent as basal
was observed in absolute control (53.57 and
and 50 per cent at the time of earthing up
41.40 t ha-1 in plant and ratoon crop). The
compared to basal application (103.50 and
increment in cane yield of plant and ratoon
92.26 t ha-1, respectively). The increase in
crop was to the tune of 33.59 and 41.59 per
cane yield was to an extent of 6.01 t ha-1 in
cent and 16.59 and 14.09 per cent over 50 per
plant crop and 3.53 t ha-1 in ratoon crop over
cent and 75 per cent RDF, respectively. Crop
basal application. These results are supported
nutrient requirement for attaining higher by Ghaffar et al. (2010) and Ghaffar et al.,
yield could not be met from native soil (2013) who observed maximum stripped cane
fertility as sugarcane producing 100 t ha-1 yield at application of 84 kg K2O ha-1 at
remove 207, 30 and 233 kg N, P2O5 and K2O, sowing and 84 kg K2O ha-1 at 90 DAS.
respectively (Jagtap et al., 2006) thus addition
of 100 per cent RDF might have improved the Agronomic and physiological efficiency
soil fertility status in term of nitrogen, (cf:Table:2)
phosphorous and potassium. Nitrogen is At harvest, in plant and ratoon crop,
essential for plant cell division, directly ploughsole method with vermicompost
involved in photosynthesis, necessary recorded significantly higher agronomic
component of vitamins, aids in production and efficiency (323.6 and 252.3 kg kg-1 N applied,
use of carbohydrates, affects energy reactions respectively). These results are conformity
in the plant necessary for formation of amino with the findings of Ghaffar (2013) the NUEA
acids and the building blocks of protein. These (kg kg-1 of N) and NUEP (kg kg-1 of N) were
significant roles played by primary nutrients found significant at varied level and time of
might have accounted for higher cane and nitrogen application. The maximum NUEA as
sugar yield. The enhanced fertility status and well as NUEP was obtained in T7 (126 kg N
more tillering which converting into higher ha-1 at sowing + 126 kg N ha-1 90 DAS). In

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

plant and ratoon crop split application of of applied fertilizer compared to farmers
potassium at 50 % basal and 50 % at the time practice (surface application).
of earthing up recorded significantly It is possible to save 25 % nutrients by
agronomic efficiency, (299.8 and 233.9 kg kg-1 applying nutrients in ploughsole method.
N applied, respectively) compared to basal
dose alone (271.5 and 217.8 kg kg-1 N applied, Acknowledgements
respectively). Among the different interactions The study was supported by S.
M3F1K2 (349.4 and 276.6 kg kg-1 N applied, Nijalingappa Sugar Institute, Belagavi fund
respectively) significantly recorded higher for the Doctoral research program of higher
agronomic efficiency compared to RPP (305.1 education, Key Project on “Precise nutrient
and 229.8 kg kg-1 N applied, respectively). management of sugarcane” of S. Nijalingappa
These findings closely followed were found by Sugar Institute, Belagavi & UAS, Dharwad
Ali (1999) and Ahmad (2002). Maximum collaborative research work to Support Ph.D.
NUEA in T7 was perhaps due to more stripped Scholar.
cane yield. Contrary to that decline in NUEA
with each increment in fertilizer dose More
1. Ahmad, I. 2002. Bio economic efficiency of
NUEP at T7 might be attributed to more dry
spring planted sugarcane as influenced by
matter accumulation kg-1 of nitrogen uptake spatial arrangement and nutrient
over other nitrogen levels observed by many management. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. Agron.,
researchers (Ahmad, 2002). Contrary results Univ. of Agric., Faisalabad.
were observed in physiological efficiency. 2. Ali, F. G. 1999. Impact of moisture regime and
planting pattern on bio-economic efficiency of
Conclusions spring planted sugarcane (Saccharum
officinarum L.) under different nutrient and
Plough sole method with vermicompost weed management strategies. Ph.D. Thesis,
alone increased cane yield of 13.81 and 13.33 Dept. Agron., Univ. of Agric., Faisalabad.
% in plant and ratoon crop, by reducing the 3. Bhingardeve, S. D. Kolgane, B. T. Patil, S. S.
various losses which increased the efficiency and Tale, N. N., 2014, Knowledge and adoption

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


N.V.Sarala M.Hemanth Kumar M.Subba Rao K.R.Tagore B.Vajantha
T.M.Hemalatha and N.Sabitha
Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University
Agricultural Research Station

Abstract economical seed material. In India the

Field trial was conducted at Agricultural average requirement of seed material per year
Research Station, Perumallapalle, during is approximately 40 million tonnes (Gujja
2016-17 to study the effect of type of seedlings, et.al.,2009).With adoption of bud chip
time of planting of seedlings, nitrogen doses technology there is possibility of saving of
on yield and quality of sugarcane. The approximately 20 million tonnes of seed cane
experimental results revealed that among type that could be sent for milling thus benefitting
of seedlings, single node seedlings recorded both farmers and millers. As chip buds have
higher cane yield (97.5 t/ha) compared to bud minimum amount of mother tissue attached
chip seedlings (87.9 t/ha). Among different to the bud hence seedlings from budchips and
months of planting, January month of single node setts were taken up to study the
planting recorded higher cane yield (96.2 t/ha) survival and vigor and growth. In this regard
compared to February (92.7 t/ha), March (87.2 there is need to develop agro techniques viz.,
t/ha).With regard to nitrogen top dressing source of seedlings raised from budchips,
125% of recommended dose of nitrogen at four single node sets, time of transplanting and
splits that is at the time of planting,30,60 and split doses of nitrogen application to
90 days after planting recorded higher cane sugarcane raised through seedlings. Hence the
yield (92.6 t/ha) compared to 100 % RDN at
present study was taken up.
four splits that is at the time of planting,30,60
and 90 days after planting (89.8 t/ha). Materials and Methods

Introduction The field experiments were conducted at

Agricultural Research Station,
In conventional sugarcane cultivation,
Perumallapalle, Andhra Pradesh, during
about 10 tonnes of seed cane /ha is used as
2016-17. The soils of the experimental field
planting material, which comprises of about
are sandy loam in texture, neutral in pH,
40,000 stalk pieces having 2-3 buds. This
large mass of planting material poses a great normal in EC, low in available nitrogen (210
problem in transport, handling and storage of kg/ha) medium in available phosphorus
seed cane and undergoes rapid deterioration (16kg/ha) and high in available potassium
thus reducing the viability of buds and (282 kg/ha). The experiment was designed in
subsequently their sprouting. One alternative a split -split plot with two replications. The
to reduce the mass and improve the quality treatment details: main plots were seedlings
of seed cane would be to plant excised axillary raised from bud chips, single nodes sub plots
buds (budchips) or small piece of node portion were month of plantings: January February
of cane stalk (single node set). These are less and March Sub subplots : Nitrogen doses viz.,
bulky, easily transportable and more 100 % RDN four splits at the time of planting

Effect of Time of Planting and Nitrogen Levels on Sugarcane Yield And Quality Raised Through Bud Chip and Single Node Seedlings in ...
N.V.Sarala M.Hemanth Kumar M.Subba Rao K.R.Tagore B.Vajantha T.M.Hemalatha and N.Sabitha

30,60,90 DAT and 125 % RDN four splits at were ready for transplanting on 30th day.
the time of planting 30,60,90 DAT Planting of budchip seedlings and single node
seedlings were planted as per treatments.
Method for raising of seedlings from
Atrazine 2 kg a.i/ha was sprayed as
budchips and single nodes : Collected 6 – 7
pre-emergence on the 3rd day of transplanting
months old cane, cane cutting was taken after
of seedlings. Irrigations were provided as and
leaving 2-3 buds from top and bottom, buds
when necessary. Urea was applied as per
should be cut with 75% of cane. Hand
treatments. All other agronomic practices like
operated bud chipper was used to cut the bud
hand weeding, earthing up, trash twist
chips. Sigle node cutter was used for propping etc were carried out according to the
preparation of single node setts. After recommendations. Yield attributing parameters
collection of budchips and single node setts like number of millable canes, cane length,
were treated with solution which is having cane diameter were recorded at the time of
bavistin @ 0.5 gm /l of water + 2 ml of harvest. cane yield was recorded after
malathian as dipping the bud chips or single stripping of the leaves and de topping. Juice
node setts in the solution for 10-15 minutes. quality parameters viz. brix, sucrose%, and
Fill 14 of the pro trays with coco peat and cane yield were recorded at harvest by
place the buds in pro trays at 450angle following standard procedures (Spencer and
arranged the trays (up to 6 trays) one over Meade, 1945). Brix was recorded by using
the other and cover it with polythene sheet hydrometer and sucrose was estimated by pol
up to 4-5 days. After 5 days. Place individual % with polarimeter.
trays on floor without covering with polythene
sheets inside shade house and Provided Results and discussion
watering with rose cane as per requirement. Millable cane length and diameter were
Bud chip seedlings and single node seedlings not significantly influenced by the seedlings,
Table: Agro techniques for improving yield and quality of sugarcane raised through seedlings
Length of Millable cane NMC/ Cane yield Sucrose
millable cane (m) girth (cm) ha (t/ha) (%)
Main: Type of seedlings
Bud chip seedlings 2.73 2.64 68869 87.9 16.95
Single node seedlings 2.62 2.86 79688 96.5 17.93
CD (0.05) NS NS 2767 1.48 NS
Sub: Month of planting
January 2.70 2.82 78093 96.2 17.66
February 2.67 2.83 76260 92.9 17.96
March 2.64 2.65 68472 87.2 16.71
CD (0.05) NS NS 562 2.34 NS
Sub Sub: Nitrogen doses
100 % RDN four splits at the time 2.67 2.74 73992 89.8 17.62
of planting 30,60,90DAT
125 % RDN four splits at the time 2.68 2.77 74557 92.6 17.27
of planting,30,60,90DAT
CD (0.05) NS NS 429 1.88 NS
M at S – – 794 – –
S at M – – 607 – –

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

month of planting and nitrogen levels. Yield planting enhances tiller production and
and yield attributes were significantly increases crop growth. There by increased
influenced by the seedlings, date of plantings number of millable canes enhances the cane
and nitrogen doses. Among of seedlings single yield. Same results were reported by Selvan
node seedlings performed better than budchip (2000). Sucrose per cent was not significantly
seedlings due to more survival per cent and influenced by the seedlings, time of planting
higher seedling vigor. Among months of and nitrogen levels.
planting January month of planting recorded
higher number of millable canes and cane References
yield compared to February and March month
1. Gujja B., Loganandhan N., Vinod Gound, V.,
of plantings this may due to higher survival Manisha Agarwal and Sraban Dalai
per cent of seedlings under favourable 2009.Sustainable Sugarcane Initiative,
weather conditions viz., lower temperatures, Training Manual of ICRISAT-WWF Project
high moisture availability. Lower number of –pp : 6-30
millable canes and cane yield were recorded 2. Selvan N.T.2000 Effect of chip bud method of
with march month of planting due to higher planting and nitrogen on yield and quality of
temperatures causes growth disorders in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) Indian
seedlings. Among nitrogen doses 125% of Journal of Agronomy Vol.45 No.4 pp.787-794
recommended dose of nitrogen was applied 3. Spencer.G.L.and Meade, G.P., 1945. Cane
through urea in four splits at the time of sugar Hand book; John wiley and sons,
planting to seedlings, 30, 60 and 90 days after Newyork,pp:512.

T. Chitkala Devi, Gouri, V and Bharathalakshmi, M.
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle,
Visakhapatnam 531 001, A.P. e-mail: tcdrars@gmail.com
Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh.

Abstract Introduction
A field experiment carried out for two Sugarcane is an important commercial
consecutive years during 2015-2016 and crop of India. In Andhra Pradesh it is being
2016-17 on sandy loam soil of Regional grown in an area of 1.39 lakh hectares.
Agricultural Research station, Anakapalle to Sugarcane cultivation is becoming more
study the influence of different methods of labour intensive throughout the crop season
planting and levels of nitrogen on yield and starting from planting to harvesting.
quality of sugarcane ratoon raised with single Moreover, in sugarcane, cost of cultivation is
node seedlings indicated that, planting increasing day by day and 15 % of the total
sugarcane seedlings in paired rows at 60/120 cost of cultivation is going towards seed
x 60 cm significantly improved the mean material. Hence, farmers are preferring
number of millable canes (63,417/ha) as seedling cultivation owing to its own
compared to wider row planting at 150 x 45cm
advantages in getting higher cane yields in
(49,599/ha) but found comparable to normal
both plant and ratoon crops along with
planting at 90 x 60 cm (63,418/ha). At higher
reduction in cost of seed material. Hence,
level of 175% recommended dose of nitrogen
there appeared a need to evolve new
(62,474/ha) or 150% RDN (59,037/ha) higher
agronomic technologies for further
number of millable canes were recorded when
improvement in yield and quality of sugarcane
compared to 100% RDN (55,496/ha). In
ratoon raised with single node seedlings.
respect of cane yields, seedlings registered
higher mean ratoon cane yield at paired row
Materials and Methods
planting (76.8 t/ha) or normal row planting
(74.9 t/ha) and found significantly superior to The experiment was conducted in sandy
wider row planting, (60.1 t/ha). Higher ratoon loam soil of RARS, Anakapalle (Andhra
cane yields were obtained at 175% RDN (75.1 Pradesh) for two consecutive years during
t/ha) or 150% RDN (70.9 t/ha) when 2015-16 and 2016-17. The experimental soil
compared to 100% RDN (65.7 t/ha). Juice was low in available nitrogen (212 kg/ha),
sucrose percent or commercial cane sugar medium in available phosphorus (35.5 kg/ha)
percent did not vary much with different and high in available potassium (360 kg/ha).
methods of planting during both the years of An early maturing sugarcane variety 2001A63
experimentation. At higher dose of 175% RDN, (Kanaka Maha Lakshmi) was ratooned after
marked reduction in mean percent juice harvest of plant crop experiment during both
sucrose (16.64%) was registered as compared the years of experimentation. The treatments
to 100% RDN (17.31%) or 150% RDN consisted of three methods of planting i.e.
(17.06%). Sugar yield followed the same trend paired row planting (60/120 x 60cm), wider
as that of cane yield during both the years of row planting (150 x 45cm) and normal
experimentation. planting (90 x 60 cm) and three levels of
Keywords: Ratoon Sugarcane, Single node nitrogen i.e. 100% RDN (224 kg N/ha); 150%
seedlings, paired row planting. RDN (336 kg N/ha) and 175% RDN (392 kg

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

N/ha). The experiment was laid out in split 55,496/ha. Interaction effects were found to be
plot design keeping planting methods in main non significant.
plots and nitrogen levels as sub plots and
Percent Juice Sucrose:
replicated thrice. Stubble shaving was done
immediately after harvest of plant corp. During both the years of study
Phosphorus @ 100 Kg P2O5/ha in the form of significant differences were not observed in
SSP and potassium @ 120 kg K2O/ha in the percent sucrose of ratoon crop due to different
form of M.O.P. were applied uniformly by methods of planting (Table – 1). However,
pocketing method near the stubbles. Nitrogen mean percent juice sucrose values ranged
was applied in treatmental plots in four splits from 16.79 to 17.11% in different treatments.
i.e. at ratooning, 15, 30 and 45 days after Significantly higher juice sucrose (17.68% and
ratooning. Irrigations were accorded at weekly 16.95% during 2015 and 2016 respectively)
interval during formative phase of the ratoon was recorded at lower dose of nitrogen (224
crop and at 21 days interval during maturity kg/ha) application when compared to higher
phase of the crop. Off barring was done at 15 dose of nitrogen at 392 kg /ha (17.10%and
days after ratooning and earthing up was 16.18% during 2015 and 2016 respectively).
done at 120 days age of the crop. Ratoon crop
Commercial Cane Sugar (%)
was kept erect by trash twist propping at 6
months age of the crop. Significant differences were not observed
in commercial cane sugar percent due to
Results and Discussion different methods of planting. (Table -1) At
Yield attributes, percent juice sucrose higher level of nitrogen dose the CCS% was
and cane yield were recorded at harvest. significantly less (11.65%) when compared to
lower level of 224 kg nitrogen in (12.37%).
Number of millable canes/ha
Cane Yield (t/ha)
Millable cane number of ratoon crop
Ratoon cane yield varied significantly
varied significantly due to different planting
due to different planting methods and
methods and nitrogen levels during two years
nitrogen levels during both the years of
of experimentation. Single node seedlings
experimentation (Table-2). Seedlings crop
planted in paired rows of 60 / 120 X 60 cm
registered higher mean ratoon cane yield at
registered (Table) higher mean number of
paired row planting (76.8 t/ha) or normal row
millable canes (63,417/ha) than wider row
planting (74.9 t/ha) and found significantly
planting (49,599/ha) but found comparable to
superior to wider row planting, (60.1 t/ha).
normal spacing at 90 X 60 cm (63,417/ha).
These results are in corroboration with
Similar improvement in NMC in paired row
Chitkala Devi et al., 2016 and Gouri et al.,
planting was observed in plant crop raised
with seedlings by Chitkala Devi et al., 2016.
Significant differences in number of millable Significant variation in cane yield was
canes were observed with different nitrogen recorded due to different levels of nitrogen.
levels during two years of study. Application During 2015-16, significantly higher cane
of nitrogen at 175% recommended dose (392 yields were registered at 175% recommended
kg N/ha) recorded higher mean number of nitrogen while during 2016-17 season,
miilable canes (62,474/ha) as compared to response was upto 150% recommended
150% recommended dose of N (59,037/ha). nitrogen only. However, seedling crop
But, at 100% recommended dose of nitrogen responded well to applied nitrogen and higher
millable cane number further reduced to mean ratoon cane yields were obtained at

Influence of Planting Methods and Nitrogen Levels on Yield and Quality of Sugarcane Ratoon Raised From Single Node Seedlings
T. Chitkala Devi, Gouri, V and Bharathalakshmi, M.

Table - 1: Number of millable canes and quality of sugarcane ratoon raised with
seedlings as influenced by methods of planting and levels of nitrogen.
NMC/ha Percent juice sucrose CCS%
2015-16 2016-17 Mean 2015-16 2016-17 Mean 2015-16 2016-17 Mean
Methods of planting:
P1-Paired row planting 60,125 66,710 63,417 17.27 16.71 16.99 11.85 11.81 11.83
60/120  60 cm
P2-Wider row planting 49,016 50,183 49,599 17.22 16.36 16.79 12.28 11.80 12.04
150  45 cm
P3-Normal planting 61,605 65,232 63,418 17.52 16.70 17.11 12.65 11.84 12.24
90  60 cm
S.Em 979 1,160 0.2 0.26 0.18 0.32
C.D (0.05) 2,848 3,352 NS NS NS NS
N Levels(Rec. dose of N - 224 Kg/ha):
N1-224 Kg N/ha 53,261 57,731 55,496 17.68 16.95 17.31 12.43 12.32 12.37
(100% RDN)
N2-336 Kg N/ha 57,013 61,062 59,037 17.49 16.63 17.06 12.34 11.83 12.08
(150% RDN)
N3-392 Kg N/ha 60,615 64,333 62,474 17.10 16.18 16.64 12.00 11.31 11.65
(175% RDN)
S.Em 1,031 977 0.11 0.09 0.08 0.08
C.D (0.05) 2,986 2,823 0.31 0.28 0.24 0.26
Interaction NS NS NS NS NS NS

Table-2: Cane and sugar yield of sugarcane ratoon raised with seedlings as
influenced by methods of planting and levels of nitrogen
Treatment Cane yield (t/ha) Sugar yield (t/ha)
2015-16 2016-17 Mean 2015-16 2016-17 Mean
Methods of planting:
P1-Paired row planting 60/120  60 c m 78.5 75.1 76.8 10.1 8.9 9.5
P2-Wider row planting 150  45 cm 63.3 56.8 60.1 7.7 6.7 7.2
P3-Normal planting 90  60 cm 76.7 73.2 74.9 9.7 8.7 9.2
S.Em 1.6 2.3
C.D (0.05) 4.7 6.6
N Levels(Rec. dose of N - 224 Kg/ha):
N1-224 Kg N/ha (100% RDN) 67.5 64.0 65.7 8.4 7.9 8.1
N2-336 Kg N/ha (150% RDN) 72.7 69.1 70.9 9.0 8.2 8.6
N3-392 Kg N/ha (175% RDN) 78.4 71.9 75.1 9.4 8.1 8.7
S.Em 1.5 1.4
C.D (0.05) 4.3 4.0
Interaction NS NS

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

175% RDN (75.1 t/ha) or 150% RDN (70.9 Guntur for the financial support and facilities
t/ha) when compared to 100% RDN (65.7 rendered in conducting the experiment at
t/ha). Similar results in plant crop raised with Regional Agricultural Research Station,
seedling were also reported by Chitkala Devi Anakapalle under Non-Plan.
et al., 2016.
Sugar Yield (t/ha) 1. Chitkala Devi, T., Gouri, V., Kumari, MBGS,
Sugar yield was computed treatment Bharathalakshmim, M. and Veerabhadra Rao,
K. 2016. Performance of single node seedlings
wise and data are presented in Table-2. Sugar
of sugarcane under wider and paired row
yields followed the same trend as that of cane planting at graded levels of nitrogen
yield. Proceedings of 4th International Agronomy
congress held at New Delhi from 22-26,
Conclusion November, 2016 Precision Nutrient
From two years of experimental results Management Extended summaries Vol 2:
it can be concluded that, for Sugarcane ratoon 985-986.
crop under seedling cultivation, paired row 2. Gouri, V., Chitkala, Devi., T., Bharatha
planting was found suitable than wider row Lakshmi M., Kumari, MBGS and Prasad Rao,
K. 2014. Response of budchip and single node
planting. Seedling crop responded well to
seedlings of sugarcane to different planting
applied nitrogen and higher ratoon yield was methods and nitrogen levels under drip
obtained at higher level of 150% recommended fertigation. Proceedings of 44th Annual
dose of nitrogen or 175% recommended dose Convention of South Indian Sugar and Sugar
of nitrogen when compared with lower level Technologist’s Association held at
of 100% recommended dose of nitrogen. Visakhapatnam, A.P. SISSTA Sugar Journal
The authors are highly thankful to
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University,

R. Mahesh*, N. Asoka Raja and H. A. Archana
Department of Agronomy, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore
*Corresponding author: maheagri@gmail.com, Mobile: 9786357978

Abstract sugarcane is 485 tonnes ha-1, the average

It is well recognized that sugarcane farming cane productivity is low at 66 tonnes ha-1 in
is one of the major contributors to the Indian India. It is estimated that sugar demand will
economy in terms of the large number of increase about 50% in India by 2030. The
people dependent on it for income and demand for sugar is increasing due to
livelihoods. However, sugarcane farmers, increased population but availability of land
especially in India continue to face challenges and water is shrinking. This enhanced
to enhance farm incomes on account of low demand could be met out through new high
farm yields due to the predominance of poor sugar varieties along with adoption of Best
agronomy package of practices. It is essential Agronomic Practices in cane cultivation. The
to develop comprehensive Best Agronomic average sugarcane productivity of India is
Practices (BAP’s) and judiciously adopted to very is less compared to other countries.
optimize the inputs and sustain the higher Therefore, it is essential not only to increase
cane productivity besides maintaining soil the cane productivity but also to maintain its
health. Best Agronomic Practices, especially sustainability possible only through adopting
adoption of suitable high yielding varieties, best agronomics practices right from land
planting material, method of planting, preparation to harvest.
subsurface drip fertigation, fertigation Constraints in Sugarcane cultivation
scheduling, Irrigation scheduling, bio fertilizer
Sugarcane crop belongs to Gramineae, the
application, pest and disease management and
grass family. It responds well to nutrition and
mechanization are imperative. By adopting
water management. Sugarcane productivity can
BAP’s, the yield gap can be narrowed and
be increased if appropriate agronomic package
vertical expansion of cane productivity can be
practices particularly irrigation and nutrient
management are followed.
Introduction The reasons for low productivity in
Sugarcane is a major cash crop in India, sugarcane are:
responsible for the overall socio-economic  Soil fertility is not properly enriched
development of the farming community and
sugar industries. Among sugar producing  Poor land preparation
countries, India ranks second next to Brazil,
 Non adoption of high yielding sugarcane
occupying 22% area under sugarcane with
25% of cane production globally. The
productivity and sugar recovery is of great  Not planting in the proper seasons
concern in the present scenario, though cane
 Unhealthy planting material
and sugar production is achieved substantially
in the recent past. In India, sugarcane is  Improper irrigation management practices
cultivated in 5.15 million hectares with
 Lack of organic manures application
sugarcane production of 360 million tonnes
(2012-13). Though the potential yield of  Imbalanced nutrition management

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

 Non-adoption of best agronomic practices a pH of 6.5 to 8.5. Water logged soils with
poor drainage are not suitable. Gypsum can
 Negligence in crop maintenance
be used for soil reclamation of saline or
 No mechanization alkaline soils. Liming is the most important
practice in the acid soils to improve
 Lack of technical skills among the
productions. General lime recommendation
sugarcane farmers
viz., Sandy soils: 450 - 675 kg/ha every 2
Key technologies to enhance the cane years, Clay loams: 1800 - 2250 kg/ha every 3
productivity - 4 years and Clay soils: 2700 - 3600 kg/ha
every 4 - 5 years. Soil testing before planting
 Assessing the soil fertility status (low,
is desirable as it helps in determining the
medium and high)
optimum quantity of macro and micro
 Adoption of subsurface drip fertigation nutrient application.

 Optimum lateral spacing (5.5 feet) Climatic requirements

 Paired row with Triangular planting In India, sugarcane is grown from 80 N

system to 300 N latitude covering a wide range of
climatic and soil conditions. Heat, humidity
 Use of healthy chip bud seedlings (25 days and sunlight intensity are playing an
old) important role in sugarcane germination,
 Adoption of drip irrigation scheduling once tillering, vegetative growth and maturity.
two days based on pan evaporation rate Sugarcane grows well in humid and hot
weather. For more tillers it requires a
 Developing fertigation schedule based on temperature regime of 30 to 350 C. It requires
soil test crop response method, targeted humidity of 70% for better vegetative growth.
yield, varietal response etc., Sugar conversion is more at lower
 Fertigation of readily available nutrients temperatures. It needs a period of cool
through water soluble fertilizers. weather or a period of water stress for sucrose
accumulation in the stems.
 Adoption of fertigation scheduling once
seven days Land preparation
For higher sugarcane yields, providing
 Injection of liquid biofertilizers and humic
optimum soil environment is an essential
acid through subsurface drip irrigation
pre-requisite. Since, sugarcane roots grow up
 Intercultural operations like weed to 60 cm depth, deep tillage (50-75 cm) is
management, earthing up, detrashing and required with sub soiling or chiseling to break
propping should be done at right time hard compact sub-pan layer. Heavy clods have
to be broken with disc plough and followed by
 Timely integrated pest and disease
cultivator. Prepare the soil thoroughly and
incorporate 10 tons/ac of FYM 15 days before
 Cane harvesting at right time and planting. Fine powder form soil could be
introduction mechanized cane harvesting prepared with rotovator before making
trenches for subsurface drip lateral laying.
Best Agronomic practices of Sugarcane
to maximize the cane productivity Soil Selection of suitable high yielding variet
Sugarcane grows well under loamy soils, Scientific sugarcane cultivation must
medium to heavy textured, well drained with start with choosing an appropriate variety for

Best Agronomic Practices to Maximize the Sugarcane Productivity
R. Mahesh*, N. Asoka Raja and H. A. Archana

planting materials viz., cane setts and bud

chips seedlings are used for raising sugarcane
crop. Chipbud seedlings with 25 days old are
the best source of planting material to
maximize the cane productivity.

Chip bud seedlings technology

 Select freshly harvested sugarcane stalks
free from disease /pests ( 6 month’s age)

 Scoop out bud chips with bud scooping


 Treat with fungicide, Bavistin (0.1%) for

20 min.
the agro-climatic zone, soil type and season  Plant these pretreated bud chips in plastic
concerned. Important considerations in trays filled with soil mixture containing
choosing an appropriate variety includes yield soil, organic matter and sand in a ratio of
potential, juice quality, age group, suitability 1:1:1.
to the growing conditions viz., soil type,
irrigation regime, season etc., ratooning  Spray 1% All 19 nutrients at 2nd week
potential, resistance to pests & diseases and after planting.
adverse growing conditions. The most  Healthy settlings were transplanted in
promising variety suitable for drip fertigation well prepared field after 25th days after
is CO86032. It performs well in all soil types planting
and extremely well under garden land
condition. It is an early maturing variety with Saplings population
high sucrose content, higher yield potential, Optimum chip bud seedlingd population
multiple ratooning capacity and highly of 20202 nos. would be required to plant one
suitable for wider row spacing. ha of land under paired-row with triangular
planting system [(0.4m + 1.25m)  0.60m].
Planting material
With proper establishment of seedlings, this
seed rate is adequate to give a gapless stand
and raise a successful crop.

Subsurface drip fertigation layout

For sugarcane SSDI inline drip laterals
has to be placed 15-20 cm below the surface
which is governed by the soil texture and the
cane effective root volume. The distance
between drip lines depend on the spacing of
the cane rows which is to suit the cutting
blade of the harvester. Pair to pair distance
would be 1.25 m and the lateral to lateral
Sugarcane is vegetatively propagated for spacing is 1.65 m.
commercial cultivation. Different kinds of The irrigation control head has to be
installed with a) Non return valve, b) By-pass

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

valve, c) 34” Ventury with booster pump (1

HP) for fertigation d) Disc filter e) Pressure
gauge f) Vacuum breaker g) Water meters for
measuring water delivered.

The main line of PVC pipes 2.5” (75 mm

OD) with sub main of 2” PVC pipes (63 mm
OD) have to be laid out by making trenches
40 cm width and 20 cm depth below the
ground level. Along the main line an Air cum
Vacuum release valve has to be fitted. At the
tail end of the main and sub main line, flush
valves of appropriate size have to be fitted.
From the sub main, for SSDI, the inline
laterals of 16 mm OD has to be connected at
Planting method
a spacing of 1.65 m. Thus one lateral serves
Trenches of 40 cm wide are made for
2 rows of sugarcane in 40 cm trench. In each
laying sub surface drip system installation.
section, a collecting sub main of 40 mm PVC
The planting of seedlings can be taken up in
pipe is to be provided to connect the group of
paired row system at a spacing of 40 cm row
laterals at the tail end with a flush valve for
spacing in the trenches and 60 cm plant
flushing purpose. Each section of the plot
spacing along the row in zig-zag fashion just
(normally 1 section = 1 acre) has to be fitted
above the lateral (5 cm above).
with an isolation valve for sequential

Best Agronomic Practices to Maximize the Sugarcane Productivity
R. Mahesh*, N. Asoka Raja and H. A. Archana

Drip Irrigation scheduling From the water requirement calculated

Drip irrigation scheduling is to be the time required for drip irrigation is
carried out assessing the evaporation and computed as shown below:
transpiration losses in sugarcane field. The Time of operation hours
evaporation losses will be more at initial
growth stages (0 – 90 days), later on Volume of water lit

transpiration losses will be more compared to No. of emitters/acre  discharge rate lph
evaporation. Under sub surface drip system
Nutrient Management
evaporation losses are minimized from the
early stages itself unlike surface drip system. The most effective way of fertilizer
Hence, water requirement of the cane will application is by applying very dilute solutions
vary depending on the growth stages as of fertilizers through the subsurface drip
decided by the crop factors given below. irrigation system since, absorption of
nutrients by plants depends on the
Table 1. The crop co-efficient (Kc) availability of soil moisture. Hence, in
values for the Sugarcane crop subsurface drip irrigated sugarcane, this can
be achieved when fertilizers are applied
Stage of the crop (month) Kc value
through the subsurface drip irrigation system.
0-1 0.55
Higher fertilizer use efficiency will be
1-2.5 0.80 achieved through fertigation readily available
2.5-4.0 1.00 nutrients at very low concentrations directly
in the effective root zone of crop through
4-10 1.10
subsurface drip irrigation system.
10-11 0.80
Optimized fertilizer recommendation
11-12 0.60
An average crop of sugarcane yielding
Subsurface drip irrigation has to be 100 tonnes per hectare removes 208 kg of N,
scheduled once in 2 days based on evaporation 53 kg of P, 280 kg of K, 30 kg of sulphur,
rate from the USWB Class A Open pan 3.4 kg of Iron and 0.6 kg of copper. For
evaporimeter. The irrigation water achieving the targeted yield of 100 tonnes per
requirement through subsurface drip (volume acre a fertilizer dose of 120:40:80 kg NPK
in liters) could be computed using the per/ac would be required. Apart from the NPK
following formula. fertilizers, Calcium nitrate plays an important
role in cane growth (to avoid split in the rind)
V  2 days CPE  Kp  Kc  A  Wp  Re
and sugar recovery. Hence, Calcium Nitrate
where, (15.5:0:0:19.5) has to be applied @ 25 kg / acre
in 2 times at 90th and 150 days after
V = Volume of water required in litres
transplanting through subsurface drip
CPE = Cumulative Pan Evaporation (mm) irrigation system.

Kp = Pan co-efficient The availability of major nutrients

depends on optimum availability of
Kc = Crop Co-efficient
micronutrients which could be achieved
A = Area of the plant (m2) through application of appropriate
micronutrients to avoid deficiency in
Wp = Wetted percentage (40%)
sugarcane. Hence, micronutrients like water
Re = Effective Rainfall (mm) soluble EDTA and EDDHA forms of iron, zinc,

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Table 2. Irrigation water requirement for subsurface drip irrigated sugarcane

Daily pan Daily water water requirement Irrigation duration
2 days WR
Month evaporation requirement for 2 days (ETc) once in 2 days
(PE) (mm) (ETc) (mm) (mm) (Hr: Min)
January 5.50 1.76 3.52 14254 00:35
February 5.58 1.79 3.57 14449 00:36
March 6.26 3.51 7.01 28380 01:10
April 6.25 5.25 10.50 42494 01:45
May 6.41 6.15 12.30 49780 02:03
June 5.56 5.34 10.68 43228 01:28
July 5.80 5.57 11.14 45092 01:51
August 5.89 5.66 11.32 45794 01:53
September 5.91 5.67 11.34 45896 01:53
October 5.35 4.92 9.84 39839 01:38
November 4.83 4.44 8.89 35967 01:29
December 4.35 4.00 8.00 32392 01:20

borax, copper and manganese have to be on 60, 90, and 120 days after planting @ 1
applied through subsurface drip irrigation litre / acre mixed with 200 litres of water
system. Elemental iron @ 8 kg / acre (2 times through drip system.
during 5th & 7th month after planting) zinc
and manganese each @ 4 kg /acre (2 times
Fertigation is the application of water
during 5th & 7th month after planting) borax
soluble solid fertiliser or liquid fertiliser
and copper each @ 2 kg / acre (2 times during
through drip irrigation system. Fertigation
5th & 7th month after planting) have to be
has become an attractive method of
applied through drip. The dose and time of
fertilisation in modern intensive agriculture
application can be decided based on deficiency
systems. This has assumes added importance
symptoms of particular nutrients.
after the introduction of micro- irrigation
Liquid Bio fertilizers system like drip in irrigated agriculture.
Fertiliser can be injected into drip irrigation
To enhance the uptake of major and
system by selecting appropriate equipment.
secondary nutrients by the crop the liquid
bio-fertilizers play a vital role. Hence, Ventury injector
following liquid bio-fertilizers and humic acid
have to be applied to sugarcane at appropriate
growth stages. Liquid bio fertilizers like
Azosphi, Phosphofix and Potash active have
to be applied @ 250 ml / acre in 3 times on
45, 75, & 120 days after transplanting by
mixing with 500 litres of water through drip
system. While applying liquid bio-fertilizers
there should be a gap of 7 days between
application of chemical fertilizers and
bio-fertilizers. Humic acid should be applied

Best Agronomic Practices to Maximize the Sugarcane Productivity
R. Mahesh*, N. Asoka Raja and H. A. Archana

This is a very simple and low cost device. for removal of left out fertilizers in pipe
A partial vacuum is created in the system net work.
which allows suction of the fertilisers into the
Fertigation scheduling
irrigation system through venturi action. The
vacuum is created by diverting a percentage Fertigation schedules are prepared with
of water flow from the main and pass it different fertilizer grades according to growth
through a constriction which increases the stages and requirements of the crop.
velocity of flow thus creating a drop in Computed fertilizers quantities are dissolved
pressure. When the pressure drops the at 1:5 ratio of fertilizer: water and nutrient
fertilisers solution is sucked into the venturi stock solution has to be prepared. At every
through a suction pipe from the tank and fertigation, drip system is run for wetting as
from there enters into irrigation stream. The a first step and then fertigation is done and
suction rate of venturi is 30-120 litre per finally flushing is done 5-10 minutes once in
hour. The injection rate has to be improved 2 days.
by fitting a booster pump (1 HP) for
maintaining required pressure in main flow.
The use of micro irrigation not only
Steps for effective fertigation offers potential for injecting water soluble
fertilizers but also chemicals for the control of
 Test the native soil fertility status
pests and pathogens present in the soil. Thus,
 Fix the correct fertilizer dose for sugarcane following chemicals can be administered
 Develop appropriate fertigation schedule through subsurface drip irrigation system as
 Select suitable fertilizer grade according
crop stage  To control early stem borer as a
prophylactic measure, injection of
 Installation of drip irrigation should be as
Carbosulphan @ 1 litre / acre mixed with
per accurate design
200 litres of water through drip system.
 Install appropriate fertigation device along
the main line  Similarly, wherever termite is a problem,
Chlorpyriphos can be injected through
 Calculate the required fertilizer quantity drip @ 1 lit / acre mixed with 200 litres
for the actual cropped area of water immediately after planting, 90
 Prepare the nutrient stock solution and 150 days after transplamting.
(Dissolve the solid fertilizer with water at
 Nematode incidence is a common problem
1:5 ratio)
in most soils. Hence, carbofuron @ 5 kg
 Wash the filter element before starting /acre dissolved with 200 litres of water
fertigation and injected through drip system in two
 Operate the drip system for 10-20 minutes times at 30 and 120 days after
for wetting (1st process) transplanting.

 Regulate the valves and initiate Intercultural operations

fertigation (2nd process) at 95 or 186 lph
The seedlings will establish 10 days after
injection rate as per the fertigation device
transplanting. Gap filling has to be done
replacing dead and weaker seedlings with
 Complete the fertigation and finally healthy seedlings to maintain 100%
flushing (3rd process) for 10-15 minutes population.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Table 3. Fertigation scheduling for sugarcane

Dose/ac/time Total Qty

Stages No.of splits Fertilizer Form
(kg) (kg/ac)
7-30 3 MAP (12:61:0) 5.92 17.80
Pottasium Nitrate (13:0:45) 1.73 5.20
Urea (46:0:0) 9.67 29.00
31-60 4 MAP (12:61:0) 4.25 17.00
All 19 (19:19:19) 3.13 12.50
Pot. Nitrate (13:0:45) 2.63 10.50
Urea (46:0:0) 8.75 35.00
61-90 4 MAP (12:61:0) 2.25 9.00
All 19 (19:19:19) 2.88 11.50
Pot. Nitrate (13:0:45) 2.75 11.00
Urea (46:0:0) 9.13 36.50
90-120 4 MAP (12:61:0) 2.00 8.00
All 19 (19:19:19) 2.63 10.50
Pot. Nitrate (13:0:45) 3.63 14.50
Urea (46:0:0) 11.63 46.50
120-180 8 All 19 (19:19:19) 3.43 10.30
Pot. Nitrate (13:0:45) 7.94 63.50
Urea (46:0:0) 4.88 39.00
180-210 4 Pot. Nitrate (13:0:45) 13.75 55.00
Urea (46:0:0) 0.83 3.30

The weed growth can be controlled by in the field. Hence removal of dried leaves
first manual weeding on 25 days after from the plant has to be done at 5th and 7th
transplanting. Depending upon the growth of month after planting.
weeds the second manual weeding can be
Propping: is yet another important
taken up at 45 days after planting. The
operation to maintain the plant stand erect
partial earthing up covering the trench upto
and prevent lodging. This can be done by
surface level has to be done at 75 days after
tying the canes together with a rope of dried
planting. Partial earthing up has to be done
leaves on 7th month after planting.
without covering the emerging tillers. Next to
this high level earthing up can be taken at Mechanization
120 days after transplanting. Thus the
Considering the present trend of
manual weeding and earthing up will keep
availability of labour for sugarcane
the field free from weeds.
cultivation, it has been experienced that use
Detrashing: is an essential operation to of modern machinery is inevitable. Use of
maintain free aeration, to prevent lodging and machinery helps in labour savings ensures
to reduce the incidence of pests and diseases timeliness of operations, reduces drudgery,

Best Agronomic Practices to Maximize the Sugarcane Productivity
R. Mahesh*, N. Asoka Raja and H. A. Archana

helps in improving quality of work, reduces

cost of operation and ensures effective
utilization of resources. Therefore it is
necessary that adoption of mechanization in
sugarcane cultivation. Mechanization can be
introduced the following areas viz.,
1. Land preparation: Mould board plough,
Disc Plough, Cultivator and Rotavator
2. Weeding: Mini tractor in between two
rows of cane
3. Earthing up: Mini Tractor mounted Ridge
plough in between two rows of cane
4. Detrashing: Sugarcane detrasher Tractor drawn subsurface lateral laying
5. Harvesting : Chopper harvester (Austoft
7000) Sugarcane harvester
6. Stubble shaving: Tractor drawn Trouble

Power tiller -Tilling

Tractor drawn cultivator

Mini Tractor- Weeding

Tractor drawn trench maker

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

In due course of time the salts presents
in the irrigation water deposits as calcium
and magnesium carbonate and restricts the
flow through laterals and emitters. The salts
can be removed by injecting commercial
hydrochloric or sulphuric acid (35 %
concentration) into the drip system via
ventury. If the flow in the main line is one
cubic meter approximately 1 litre of acid
would be required. Hence, if main flow is 20
cubic meter 20 litre of acid is required. After
Ridge plough – Earthing up injecting the acids the water collected at the
lateral end should measure 4 pH (litmus
paper) which is sufficient enough to remove
the salts in the lateral and emitters. After
injecting acid the drip system can be left as
such for 24 hours and then flushing has to be
done serially by opening main flush valve, sub
main flush valve, and finally laterals.

If the irrigation water is drawn from
dam, river, irrigation channel etc., usually
bacteria and organic matter deposits in the
media filter, screen filters and laterals.
Fig. Austoft 7000 Sugarcane harvest
Removal of bacteria, algae and other organic
debris can be done through chlorination at
Drip system maintenance
various levels. Depending upon the clogging
 Periodical cleaning of sand and disc filters magnitude, Chlorine can be injected has mild
once in 15 – 30 days depending upon
Chlorination (5 ppm), intermittent chlorination
(100 ppm) and super chlorination (500 ppm).
 Serial flushing of main flush valve The chlorine can be injected in the form of
followed by sub main flush valve and calcium or sodium hypochlorite (10% chlorine).
finally flushing laterals through collecting Finally flushing has to be done as detailed
sub main flush valve under acidification.

 Locating leakages of laterals and rejoining

laterals with connectors
The cost of inputs and price of produce
 Clogging is common in drip system mainly at prevailing market rates was considered for
through salts and bacteria. For preventing working out the cost of cultivation, income
clogging acidification and chlorination and B:C ratio as below
have to be performed.

Best Agronomic Practices to Maximize the Sugarcane Productivity
R. Mahesh*, N. Asoka Raja and H. A. Archana

Table 4. Cost estimate of subsurface drip fertigation system per acre

Unit cost
S.No Item Size Unit Qty Amount (Rs.)
I. Head Control Unit
1. Disc Filter -2.” 25 m3/hr No. 1 5100.00 5100.00
2. Air release/Vacuum breaker 1” No. 2 85.00 170.00
3. Pressure gauge 2” No. 1 495.00 495.00
4. Fertilizer injector (Ventury) 3/4” No. 1 1500.00 1500.00
5. Booster pump 1 HP No. 1 2500.00 2500.00
Sub Total 9765.00
II. Water Carrier System
1. PVC pipe - 4 kg/cm2 75 mm No. 20 54.00 1080.00
2. PVC Pipe - 4 kg/cm 63 mm Mtr. 50 47.00 2250.00
2. PVC Pipe - 6 kg/cm 40 mm Mtr. 50 29.00 1450.00
4. PVC Ball valve 63 mm No. 1 585.00 585.00
5. Flush valve 40 mm No. 4 100.00 400.00
6. Head Connector set 16 mm Sets. 60 10.00 600.00
Sub Total 6365.00
III. Water Distribution System
1. Plain lateral 16 mm Mtr. 30 8.00 240.00
2. Root guard 16-4-40 (lateral) 16 mm Mtr. 2500 12.25 30625.00
Sub Total 30865.00
IV. Fittings & Accessories 2350.00
TOTAL (I+II+III+IV) 49345.00

Table 5. Cost of cultivation per acre in sugarcane under subsurface drip fertigation
No. Particulars Unit Unit cost Rs. Total Rs.
I Land Preparation
1. Tractor Ploughing 2 hrs 400 800.00
2. Rotavator 1 hrs 600 600.00
3. Trench digging 12 hrs 400 4800.00
Sub Total 6200.00
II. Cane planting
1. Cost of chip bud seedling 10800 nos. 1.20 12960.00
2. Cane planting (Labour cost) 12 nos. 150 1800.00
Sub Total 14760.00
III. Weeding
1. Manual weeding (Labour cost) 20 nos. 150 3000.00
Sub Total 3000.00

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

IV. Fertilizers
1. Mono Ammonium Phosphate 51 kg 78.00/kg 3978.00
2. All 19 44.8 kg 86.00/kg 3852.00
3. Potassium Nitrate 159.7 kg 80.00/kg 12776.00
4. Urea 189.3 kg 5.36/kg 1014.00
5. Fertigation and Irrigation 24 nos. 100 2400.00
Sub Total 24021.00
V. Micronutrient
1. ZnSo4 4 kg 30.00/kg 120.00
2. FeSo4 8 kg 8.00/kg 64.00
3. CuSo4 4 kg 30.00/kg 120.00
4. Borax 2 kg 48.50/kg 97.00
5. MnSo4 4 kg 9.00/kg 36.00
6. Calcium Nitrate 25 kg 46.00/kg 1150.00
Sub Total 1587.00
VI. Bio fertilizer
1. Liquid bio fertilizer 3 lit 200 600.00
2. Humic Acid 2 lit 185 370.00
Sub Total 970.00
VII. Earthing up
1. Partial (labour cost) 8 nos. 150 1200.00
2. Full (labour cost) 8 nos. 450 3600.00
Sub Total 4800.00
VII. Detrashing
1. First time (labour cost) 8 nos. 150 1200.00
2. Second time (labour cost) 12 nos. 150 1800.00
Sub Total 3000.00
VIII. Plant protection
1. Chorpyriphos 10 lit 175 1750.00
2. Trichogramma chilonis 10 cc 40 400.00
3. Carbofuron 3 G 10 kg 65 650.00
Sub Total 2800.00
IX. Cane Harvesting & Transporting
1. Cane harvesting (labour cost) 25 nos. 450 11250.00
2. Transporting of cane 3 times 1500 4500.00
Sub Total 15750.00
X. Drip maintenance
1. Chlorine powder (4 time) 15 kg 30/kg 450.00
2. Acid treatment ( HCl) 90 lit 6/lit 540.00
Sub Total 990.00
Grand Total 77878.00

Best Agronomic Practices to Maximize the Sugarcane Productivity
R. Mahesh*, N. Asoka Raja and H. A. Archana

Table 6. Economics of sub surface drip fertigation in sugarcane considering water

saving benefits

No. Particulars Amount (Rs)

1. Fixed cost per hectare for irrigation system* 49345.00

(a) Life (years) 7

(b) Depreciation 7049.28

(c) Interest @ 14.5% 7155.05

(d) Repairs & maintenance (5%) 2067.25

(e) Irrigation system cost (B + C + D) 16671.50

2. Cost of cultivation per Acre 77878.00

3. Seasonal total cost (1e + 2) (Rs/ac) 94549.50

4. Water requirement

(a) Subsurface drip system (mm) 480

(b) Furrow irrigation (mm) 740

(c) Water saving (35%) under subsurface drip (mm) 260

5. Yield (t/ac) 100

6. Price (Rs/tonne) 2500.00

7. Gross income (5x6) (Rs/ac) 250000.00

8. Net income (7-3) (Rs/ac) 155450.00

9. Additional area cultivated due to saving in water (ac) 0.54

10. Additional expenditure due to additional area (3x9) 51056.75

11. Additional income due to additional area (7x9) 135000.00

12. Additional net income (11-10) 83943.23

13. Gross cost of production (3 + 10) 145606.32

14. Gross income (7+11) 385000.00

Gross net income (14-13) 239393.61

Gross benefit cost ratio (14/13) 2.64

G. Venkateshwara Rao1 M. Rama Mohan Rao2
Chief Operating Officer, K.C.P S & I C Ltd 2Deputy General Manager (cane), K.C.P S & I C Ltd

Abstract Introduction
Study was taken up during 2015 to 2017 to Farmers use up fertilizers and other
sort out a suitable fertilizer time schedule to inputs so that plant would take up and use
be practiced in our area to stabilize sugar cane it for growth. Due to untimely and excess
productivity and sugar recovery through application, some of the fertilizer is not being
balanced and timely nutrition management taken up by plant and it will not only increase
especially inorganic fertilizers. Trial was taken the cost of production but also polluting the
up with recently popularized variety 2003V46 environment. Excess fertilizers especially
was taken up at agriculture farm of K.C.P Nitrogen is harmful to crop, prolongs
Sugar and Industries Corporation limited, vegetative growth, delays maturity, increasing
Lakshmipuram, which is situated in east coast reducing sugar content in juice, lowering juice
of Andhra Pradesh. This variety which is quality, increasing soluble Nitrogen in juice
occupying 50% in our area was evaluated at affecting clarification, and crop is susceptible
different growth stages throughout the year. to pest & disease attack. The key is to ensure
Each fertilizer treatment has 31 meters long that we have a good growing condition, so
14 rows with spacing of 0.75 meters, which that the crop can take up and make use of
the applied nutrients. Important aspect of
makes total plot size of 325.5 sq.Meters. There
proper condition is balanced and timely
were 7 treatments with 3 replications and laid
nutrition. Timing of Nitrogen application is
out with RBD design. Quantitative and
very important, because it does not remain in
qualitative parameters like tillers at 120 DAP,
soil for long, it is better to apply in small,
shoot count at 180 DAP, SPAD chlorophyll
regular doses with proper application method.
meter reading at grand growth period, NMC
It is best to time the application to coincide
while harvesting, individual cane weight, and
with the period when the crop needs the most.
CCS% were recorded. Highest CCS% (12.98%)
Unbalanced use of fertilizers is reducing the
is recorded in T4 where 150% RDF is applied
soil fertility and damaging physical condition
in time and through correct application
of the soil. This is because of not application
method of plough sole and pocket method,
of organic manures, resulting in break in
followed by T5 (12.65%) 100% RDF  Bio
carbon cycle. There is urgent need also to
fertilizers and micro nutrient application. maintain soil health by standardizing
Cane yield is highest in T7 (53.530 M.T. per fertilizer application without losing sugar cane
acre) where 150% RDF  Bio Fertilizers and yield and increasing sugar recovery by
micro nutrient mixture were applied but the mitigating the ill effects of excess nitrogen. It
B:C ratio is not superior than T4 (51.930 M.T. is also advised to use bioremediation practices
per acre) or T5 (51.980 M.T. per acre). Hence for restoration of soil fertility.
it is observed that T4 where 150% RDF or T5
where 100% RDF  Bio fertilizers and micro Materials and methods
nutrient mixture, whichever is available is On field study was conducted during
economical than any other treatment. 2015-16 to 2016-17 crushing seasons at

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Table – 1 Treatment 1
DAP 7.95 BASAL 1.43 3.66
MOP 7.95 BASAL 4.77
10:26:26 7.95 45DAP 0.79 2.06 2.06
UREA 7.95 45DAP 3.66
UREA 7.95 90DAP 3.66
UREA 7.95 150DAP 3.66
UREA 7.95 180DAP 3.66
TOTAL/PLOT 16.86 5.72 6.83
TOTAL/AC 212 72 86

Table – 1 Treatment 2
DAP 5.15 BASAL 0.93 2.37
MOP 5.29 BASAL 3.18
UREA 3.31 45DAP 1.52
UREA 3.31 90DAP 1.52
UREA 3.31 150DAP 1.52
TOTAL/PLOT 5.49 2.37 3.18
TOTAL/AC 69 30 40

Table – 1 Treatment 3
DAP 6.44 BASAL 1.16 2.96
MOP 6.61 BASAL 3.97
UREA 4.13 45DAP 1.90
UREA 4.13 90DAP 1.90
UREA 4.13 150DAP 1.90
TOTAL/PLOT 6.86 2.96 3.97
TOTAL/AC 86 37 50

Table – 1 Treatment 4
DAP 7.72 BASAL 1.39 3.55
MOP 7.93 BASAL 4.76
UREA 4.95 45DAP 2.28
UREA 4.95 90DAP 2.28
UREA 4.95 150DAP 2.28
TOTAL/PLOT 8.23 3.55 4.76
TOTAL/AC 104 45 60

Suitable Fertilizer Schedule to Coastal Belt to Stabilize Sugar Cane Productivity and Sugar Recovery
G. Venkateshwara Rao M. and Rama Mohan Rao

Table – 1 Treatment 5
DAP 5.15 BASAL 0.93 2.37
MOP 5.29 BASAL 3.18
UREA 3.31 45DAP 1.52
UREA 3.31 90DAP 1.52
UREA 3.31 150DAP 1.52
TOTAL/PLOT 5.49 2.37 3.18
TOTAL/AC 69 30 40

Table – 1 Treatment 6
DAP 6.44 BASAL 1.16 2.96
MOP 6.61 BASAL 3.97
UREA 4.13 45DAP 1.90
UREA 4.13 90DAP 1.90
UREA 4.13 150DAP 1.90
TOTAL/PLOT 6.86 2.96 3.97
TOTAL/AC 86 37 50

Table – 1 Treatment 7
DAP 7.72 BASAL 1.39 3.55
MOP 7.93 BASAL 4.76
UREA 4.95 45DAP 2.28
UREA 4.95 90DAP 2.28
UREA 4.95 150DAP 2.28
TOTAL/PLOT 8.23 3.55 4.76
TOTAL/AC 1.4 45 60

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

agriculture farm of K.C.P Sugar and Tiller count was noted at 120 DAP, shoot
Industries Corporation Limited, population at 180 DAP, SPAD meter reading
Lakshmipuram in black clay soil, under plant at 210 DAP, NMC while harvesting, average
and ratoon system. The study is continuing cane weight was recorded and CCS% was
and will be continued up to ratoon 3. calculated using standard formula.
Sugar cane variety 2003V46 was planted Plant crop was harvested during January
during the month of January 2015. Seven 2016 and Ratoon crop was harvested during
treatments with Three replications were taken January 2017.
up with farmer practice as control (T1) 100%
RDF (T2), 125% RDF (T3), 150% RDF (T4), Results and discussion:
100% RDF  Bio compost 500 KG  5 KG As per data shown in table 3, in general,
micro nutrient mixture (T5), 125% RDF  Bio Nitrogen fertilizer usage is increasing YOY
compost 500 KG  5 KG micro nutrient due to low price, whereas other nutrient
mixture (T6), 150% RDF  Bio compost 500 consumption is decreasing, leading to
KG  5 KG micro nutrient mixture (T7) (Table imbalanced nutrition. Due to cost variation
1) and habitual practice, farmers are applying
excess, untimely and improper method of
Soil was analyzed before plantation during chemical fertilizer, especially Nitrogenous
May 2015 for its chemical properties. Soil is fertilizers are causing much damage to juice
rich in all macro and micro nutrients except quality due to presence of much reducing
Nitrogen. Data was presented in table 2. sugars, prone to various sucking pests.
Nitrogen fertilizer usage is growing Delayed and excess fertilizers are not helping
abnormally due to government subsidy for in attaining the cane weight.
nitrogen based fertilizer. This leads to Tiller count to 120 DAP are at par in all
imbalanced fertilizer usage and soil depletion. the treatments. Non significant variance is
Data from 2011-12 to 2013-14 reveals the recorded in terms of Tiller count. (Table 4)
same, which is presented in table 3.
T7 recorded highest tillers (35805 per
All agronomic practices were carried out acre) where 150% RDF  Bio fertilizers were
similar in all the treatments except fertilizer
applied but on par with T1 (35725), T4
application. Broad cast method was used for
(35490), T5 (34500) and T6 (34750).
last 3 split application in T1 and in all other
Significant shoot count reduction is noticed in
methods plough sole method was used. Last
T2 (31300) and T3 (31400). (Table 4)
application was taken up with pocketing
method. No significant variance is observed from
SPAD Chlorophyll meter reading in all the
500 KG Bio compost per acre enriched
treatments in grand growth phase. (Table 4)
with 5 KG PSB, 5 kg Azospirillum, 5 KG
VAM, 2 KG T.Viridi was applied at 15 DAP T4 recorded highest NMC (33500 per
while giving second irrigation for T5 to T7. 5 acre) where 150% RDF was applied but is on
KG Micro nutrient mixture having 5.5% Iron, par with T5 (32900), T6 (33100), T7 (33250)
3.50% Manganese and 8.0% zinc was applied and T1 (32450). Significant reduction in NMC
along with chemical fertilizer at 45 DAP. is observed in T2 (29600) and T3 (30600).

50% more Nitrogen was applied for all T7 had recorded highest individual cane
the treatments in ratoon crop. Fertilizer doses weight (1.61 KG). Balanced nutrition along
for other nutrients remain same. with Bio fertilizers had helped in improving

Suitable Fertilizer Schedule to Coastal Belt to Stabilize Sugar Cane Productivity and Sugar Recovery
G. Venkateshwara Rao M. and Rama Mohan Rao

Table - 2 Soil analysis data

ORGANIC CARBON % 0.91% 0.50 – 0.75%
E.C (MM / CM AT 25 C) 0.676 < 0.80 NORMAL
PH 7.72 7.00 TO 7.50 NORMAL
ZINC (MG/KG) 0.87 0.60 MEDIUM
IRON (MG/KG) 20.40 4.50 MEDIUM

Table 3 - Fertilizer consumption in LMT

FERTILIZER 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14
UREA 294.77 301.61 304.54
DAP 111.96 92.30 69.03
MOP 29.92 21.34 21.92
NPK 113.98 77.33 75.16

Table 4 - Effect of different fertilizer schedules on cane yield and quality



T1 44966.00 35725.00 32450.00 42.77 1.43 47.05 11.60

T2 41189.00 31300.00 29600.00 38.70 1.26 37.30 11.85

T3 41492.67 31400.00 30600.00 37.49 1.36 41.62 11.90

T4 45506.67 35490.00 33500.00 42.37 1.55 51.93 12.98

T5 44800.00 34500.00 32900.00 41.88 1.58 51.98 12.65

T6 45100.00 34750.00 33100.00 41.98 1.60 52.96 12.50

T7 46500.00 35805.00 33250.00 42.30 1.61 53.53 12.48

SEm 1448.94 601.52 486.54 5.70 0.047 1.96 0.22

SEd 2048.81 850.55 687.97 2.21 0.066 2.77 0.31

CD NS 1853.34 1499.10 NS 0.144 6.05 0.68

CV (%) 5.70 3.10 2.60 6.60 5.50 7.10 3.10

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

the cane weight but on par with T4 (1.55), T5 Conclusion

(1.58) and T6 (1.60). Significant weight It is concluded that highest CCS% is
difference is recorded in T1 (1.43), T2 (1.26) recorded in T4 where 150% RDF is applied in
and T3 (1.36). Imbalanced fertilizer time and through correct application method
application in these three treatments had not of plough sole and pocket method, followed by
helped in maintaining the individual cane 100% RDF  Bio fertilizers and micro nutrient
weight which is directly proportional to cane
application. Our soils are rich in micro
yield. (Table 4)
nutrients; hence its application may not have
T7 recorded highest cane yield per acre much impact on juice quality. But Bio
(53.53 M.T.) but on par with T4 (51.93 M.T.), fertilizer application with higher dose of
t5 (51.98 M.T.), T6 (52.96 M.T.). Significant chemical fertilizer application might have
cane yield reduction was observed in T1 delayed the maturity of crop as per T6 and
(47.05 M.T.), T2 (37.30 M.T.), T3 (41.62 M.T.). T7 CCS% observations.
Balanced and timely fertilizer application had
It is also concluded that cane yield cane
helped in achieving highest cane yield in T7.
yield is highest in T7 where 150% RDF  Bio
(Table 4)
Fertilizers and micro nutrient mixture were
T4 has recorded highest CCS% of applied but the B:C ratio is not superior than
12.98%, but is on par with T5 (12.65%), T6 T4 or T5. Hence it is concluded that T4 where
(2.50%), and T7 (12.48%). Significant 150% RDF or T5 where 100% RDF  Bio
difference is recorded T1 (11.60%), T2 fertilizers and micro nutrient mixture,
(11.85%), T3 (11.90%). Timely application of whichever is available is economical than any
chemical fertilizers has helped in achieving other treatment.
the highest CCS% in 150% RDF applied plot.
Additional application of Bio fertilizers might Acknowledgements
have delayed the maturity of crop due to
The authors are thankful to the
continuous feeding of nutrients to plant. Vigor
management of M/s K.C.P Sugar and
of crop is observed throughout life cycle.
Industries Corporation Limited, Smt. Irmgard
(Table 4)
Velagapudi, Managing Director, Sri Vinod R
Sethi, Executive Chairman, Smt. Kiran Rao
Velagapudi, Executive Director for extending
their valuable support to carry out the study.

M. Bharthalakshmi1, T. Chitkala Devi2 and N.V. Naidu3
Principal Scientist (Agronomy), RARS, Anakapalle 3Director of Research, ANGRAU, Guntur
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Guntur
Corresponding author Email: bharathalakshmim@gmail.com

Abstract Introduction
Sugarcane being a long duration crop requires Sugarcane is an important commercial crop
high amount of water (1800-2000mm) and grown in Andhra Pradesh. It is cultivated in an
judicious use of this scarce input through area of 1.40 lakh ha with an annual production
micro irrigation enhances water and land of 118 lakh tons. Sugarcane being a long
productivity in sugarcane cultivation. With duration crop requires high amount of water
this background, a field experiment was (1800-2000mm) and judicious use of this scare
carried out during 2007-08 at Regional input through micro irrigation enhances water
Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle on and land productivity in sugarcane cultivation.
a sandy loam soil to recommend optimum Adoption of surface/sub surface drip irrigation
nitrogen dose and fertigation interval for saves irrigation water by 50% and enhance
sugarcane under drip fertigation. The nutrient efficiency by 40% (Soloman 2012).
experimental results indicated that nitrogen
application at 100% recommended dose Material and Methods
increased the no. of millable canes A field experiment was carried out at
(1,05,306/ha in plant, 91,994/ha in ratoon), Regional Agricultural Research Station,
cane (111.1 t/ha in plant, 95.4 t/ha in ratoon) Anakapalle during 2007-08 on a sandy loam
and sugar yields (15.55 t/ha in plant, 13.26 soil. The experimental site was neutral in
t/ha in ratoon) significantly over 50% and reaction (PH: 7.29), normal in E.C. (0.08
75% recommended dose in plant and ratoon dS/m), low in available nitrogen (220 kg/ha)
crops. Irrespective of nitrogen dose, supply of and medium in available phosphorus (30.21
nitrogen at weekly interval commencing from kg/ha) and potassium (247 kg/ha). The
30 DAP to 120 DAP in plant crop and from treatments consisting of 3 nitrogen levels
ratoon initiation to 90 days after ratooning in (50%, 75% and 100% recommended nitrogen)
ratoon crop favored good crop growth and and 3 fertigation intervals (Weekly,
resulted in significantly higher cane yield fortnightly and monthly interval) along with
(115.7 and 101.5 t/ha in plant and ratoon soil application were laid out in a strip plot
crops respectively) than fertigation at design and replicated thrice. An early
fortnightly interval (101.9 and 92 tons/ha in maturing variety Sarada (93A145) was
plant and ratoon crops respectively). Yield planted in January 2007 adopting paired row
attributes and cane yield decreased with spacing of 60/120 cm. Phosphorus @ 100 kg
increase in fertigation interval but proved P205 and potassium @ 120 kgK2O/ha were
superior over soil application (96.3 and 78.6 applied in planting furrows at the time of
tons/ha in plant and ratoon crops planting. Nitrogen in the form of urea was
respectively). Quality parameters viz., sucrose% applied through inline drip as per treatments
and commercial cane sugar percent were not commencing from 30 days after planting to
influenced either by nitrogen level or 120 days after planting. A good crop of
fertigation interval significantly. sugarcane was raised by following all other

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

management practices recommended for north cane length in plant crop and the cane length
coastal zone. The data on no. of millable canes, increased significantly with decrease in
length of millable cane, juice sucrose and cane fertigation interval from monthly (277.6 cm) to
yield were recorded at harvest and analyzed weekly (290.7 cm) interval. Millable cane length
statistically to draw valid conclusions. The of ratoon crop did not vary significantly either
CCS% was calculated based on Brix and with nitrogen level or fertigation interval.
sucrose% and sugar yield was computed.
Quality parameters
In ratoon crop P & K fertilizers @ 100 and
120 kg/ha were applied to soil by pocketing Juice sucrose%
method. Nitrogen @ 224 kg/ha was applied Juice sucrose recorded at harvest was
through drip as per treatments over a period of not influenced by nitrogen dose and
90 days commencing from 15 days after fertigation interval significantly both in plant
ratooning to 105 days after ratooning. In the and ratoon crops. It ranged from 19.2 to
treatment with soil application, urea was applied 19.37% in plant crop and 18.93 to 19.11% in
by pocketing in two splits at ratooning and at ratoon crop under different treatments.
45 days after ratooning. All other cultural Rajanna and Patil (2003) reported that juice
practices were adopted as per recommendation quality parameters viz. brix, sucrose% and
and good ratoon crop was grown. CCS% were not influenced by fertigation
while Shinde et al (2005A) and Mahendran
Results and discussion
and Dhana lakshmi (2003) reported improved
Number of millable canes at harvest juice quality with fertigation over
The no. of millable canes at harvest conventional practice of soil application.
differed significantly with nitrogen dose and
Commercial cane sugar%
fertigation interval. Application of nitrogen at
100% recommended dose recorded Commercial cane sugar % was also not
significantly higher no. of millable canes influenced by nitrogen levels and fertigation
(1,05,306/ha) over 50% (94161/ha) and 75% interval. CCS% in different treatments ranged
(100445/ha) recommended nitrogen in plant from 13.54 to 14.20 in plant crop and 13.61
crop. In the ratoon crop application of 100% to 13.96 in ratoon crop.
recommended nitrogen through fertigation
Cane Yield
registered significantly higher no. of millable
canes (91,944/ha) over 50% recommended N Nitrogen dose and fertigation interval
(84,660/ha) but was found on par with 75% exerted significant influence on cane yield in
recommended nitrogen (88,055/ha). Supply of both plant and ratoon crops. Application of
nitrogen through drip fertigation at weekly nitrogen through drip at 100% recommended
interval (1,09,124/ha and 92,190/ha) produced dose registered significantly higher cane yield
significantly higher no. of millable canes over (111.1 t/ha and 95.4 t/ha in plant and ratoon
fortnightly interval (99,577/ha and 88,512/ha) crop respectively) over 75% (105.2 and 91.0
in plant and ratoon crop respectively. t/ha in plant and ratoon respectively) or 50%
recommended nitrogen (93.2 and 80.9 t/ha in
Length of millable cane plant and ratoon crops respectively). Increase
Length of millable cane increased in cane yield with increase in fertilizer dose
significantly with increase in nitrogen dose under drip fertigation was reported by
from 50% (272.5cm) to 100% (289.7cm) Rajanna and Patil (2003). Irrespective of
recommended dose in plant crop. Fertigation nitrogen dose fertigation at weekly interval
interval had significant influence on millable recorded significantly higher cane yield in

Enhancing the Nitrogen Use Efficiency Through Drip Fertigation in Sugarcane
M. Bharthalakshmi, T. Chitkala Devi and N.V. Naidu

Yield attributes, yield and quality of sugarcane (Plant crop) as influenced by

nitrogen levels and fertigation interval under drip fertigation.

LMC Juice Cane Sugar Nitrogen use

Treatment at Sucrose CCS% yield yield efficiency
at harvest
harvest (%) (t/ha) (t/ha) (Kg/Kg N)
Fertilizer level (F)
50% recommended N 94161 272.5 19.20 13.69 93.2 12.76 1665
75% recommended N 100445 284.2 19.28 13.98 105.2 14.71 1170
100% recommended N 105306 289.7 19.38 13.95 111.1 15.55 993
SEm 2077 2.0 0.19 0.22 1.1 – –
CD (0.05) 6503 5.9 NS NS 2.9 – –
Fertigation Interval (I)
Weekly interval 109124 290.7 19.30 13.72 115.7 15.87 1432
Fortnightly interval 99577 281.7 19.31 13.54 101.9 13.80 1266
Monthly interval 96800 277.6 19.17 14.03 98.9 13.88 1220
Soil application 94367 278.6 19.37 14.20 96.3 13.67 1185
SEm 2169 2.6 0.19 0.21 2.1 – –
CD (0.05) 7190 9.0 NS NS 7.2 – –
Interaction (F x I) NS NS NS NS NS NS –

Yield attributes, yield and quality of sugarcane (Ratoon crop) as influenced by

nitrogen levels and fertigation interval under drip fertigation.

NMC/ Juice Cane Sugar Nitrogen use

LMC at
Treatment ha at Sucrose CCS% yield yield efficiency
harvest (%) (t/ha) (t/ha) (Kg/Kg N)
Fertilizer level (F)
50% recommended N 84660 267.4 18.93 13.75 80.90 11.12 1392
75% recommended N 88055 278.0 18.99 13.78 91.00 12.53 1013
100% recommended N 91944 283.1 18.98 13.90 95.40 13.26 857
SEm 1360 4.2v 0.10 0.28 0.70 – –
CD (0.05) 4074 NS NS NS 2.20 – –
Fertigation Interval (I)
Weekly interval 92190 285.6 18.69 13.61 101.50 13.81 1268
Fortnightly interval 88512 275.8 19.02 13.86 92.00 12.75 1164
Monthly interval 87003 272.3 19.11 13.96 84.40 11.78 1059
Soil application 85185 267.6 19.05 13.81 78.60 10.85 859
SEm 1396 8.4 0.18 0.30 1.20 – –
CD (0.05) 4086 NS NS NS 4.00 – –
Interaction (F x I) NS NS NS NS NS NS –

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

plant (115.7 t/ha) and ratoon (101.5t/ha) crops Conclusion

than at fortnightly interval (101.9 and 92.0 t/ha The study indicated that application of
in plant and ratoon crops respectively). Soil nitrogen at 100% recommended dose favoured
application of nitrogen registered lowest yield of the crop growth and resulted in significantly
96.3 and 78.6 t/ha in plant and ratoon crops higher no. of millable canes, cane and sugar
respectively. Supply of nitrogen through drip at yields over lower levels of application.
weekly interval increased the cane yield by 20.1% However, higher nutrient efficiency was
and 29.1% in plant and ratoon crops respectively observed at lower levels of nitrogen
over soil application. Chandrashekara et al application. Supply of nitrogen through urea
(2013) reported significantly higher cane yields under drip fertigation at weekly interval
with fertigation at weekly interval in 30 splits commencing from 30 DAP to 120 DAP in
from 30 DAP to 240 DAP. plant crop and 15 days after ratooning to 105
days after ratooning in ratoon crop registered
Sugar yield
significantly higher cane yields and increased
Sugar yield followed similar trend as the nitrogen use efficiency over fertigation at
that of cane yield. Application of 100% monthly interval or soil application. Nitrogen
recommended nitrogen recorded highest sugar dose and fertigation interval had no
yield (15.55t/ha and 13.26 t/ha in plant and significant influence on quality parameters.
ratoon crop) than its application at 75%
(14.71t/ha and 12.53 t/ha in plant and ratoon References
crop) or 50% (12.76t/ha and 11.12 t/ha in pant 1. Rajanna M P and Patil V C (2003) Effect of
and ratoon crop) recommended dose. Sugar fertigation on yield and quality of sugarcane.
yield declined with increase in fertigation Indian Sugar. 52(12)1007-1011
interval from weekly interval (15.87 and 13.81 2. Solomon S (2012). Cost effective and input
t/ha in plant & ratoon) to monthly interval efficient technologies for productivity
enhancement in sugarcane. In: 25th meeting of
(13.67 and 11.78 t/ha in plant and ratoon)
sugarcane research and development workers
while lowest sugar yield was obtained with
of A.P. held at Visakhapatnam on 20-21st July,
soil application (13.67 and 10.85 t/ha in plant 2012 P:1-10.
and ratoon crops respectively). 3. Chandrashekara C.P., B.M. Chittapur, D.P.
Biradar, Hiremath, S.M. and Patil, V.C. 2013
Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) (Kg cane / Water and nutrient resource management in
Kg N) sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) through
drip irrigation, fertigation and planting
Nitrogen use efficiency in plant and
pattern. SISSTA and HSSKN joint seminar
ratoon crops under drip fertigation varied
held at Sankeshwar, 16.03.2013 Pp: 173-182.
with nitrogen dose and fertigation interval.
4. Mahendran S and Dhanalakhmi M (2003),
Higher Nitrogen use efficiency was recorded Effect of crop geometry and drip fertigation on
at 50% recommended dose (1665 kg and 1392 growth and yield of sugarcane crop. Sourvenir
Kg / Kg N in plant and ratoon crops) over 65th Annual convention of the Sugar
100% recommended N (993 and 857 Kg / Kg Technologists Association of India, 22-24th
N in plant and ratoon). Similarly, supply of August, Bhubaneshwar, Orissa, Pub. Sugar
Technologists Association of India; New Delhi,
nitrogen through irrigation water at weakly
India pp 80-87.
interval recorded higher nitrogen use
5. Shinde SH, Deshpande AB, Atre AA (2005a)
efficiency (1432 and 1268 Kg/Kg N in plant
Fertigation in sugarcane. Proc. Nation, Sem.
and ratoon respectively) over soil application Relevance of Micro – irrigation in sugarcane,
(1185 and 859 Kg/Kg N in plant and ratoon February, 2015, VSI Pune, Maharashtra India
crops respectively) pp 140-153.

T. Usha Rani1, D. Balaguravaiah2, M. Bharatalaxmi3
Regional Agricultural Research station, Anakapalle.
Author for correspondence: usharani.angrau@gmail.com

Abstract million tonnes and productivity of 70 tonnes

A field experiment was conducted at RARS, per hectare (2010-2011). Sugarcane is an
Anakapalle on the effect of different levels of exhaustive crop and depletes soil nutrients
phosphorus on sugarcane (two plant crops and heavily. Phosphorous is one of the essential
one ratoon crop) in presence and absence of elements required in optimum amounts for
cane trash and mycorrhizae during 2010-2013. the growth and development of the plants.
The experiment was laid out in split plot About 98% soils have inadequate supply of
design with four main levels and four sub available phosphorous and likely to induce
levels. The main levels consists of control deficiency of this nutrient. Application of 100
M1, mycorrhizae alone M2, cane trash and kg P2O5 ha-1 through SSP or DAP along with
mycorrhizae M3 and cane trash alone M4. 112 kg nitrogen ha-1 was found optimum for
sugarcane in sandy loam soils (Devi et al.,
The four sub levels consist of 0, 50, 100 and
2005).The plants which are deficient in P,
150 kg P2O5 ha 1. The fertilizers for the plant
show retarded growth and cause dark green
were 112 kg N, 75 kg P2O5 and 100 kg colouration due to enhancement of
K2O ha 1 and 225 kg N, 75 kg P2O5 and 100 anthocyanin formation (Khan et al., 2009).
Phosphorous is the important nutrient for
kg K2O ha 1 for ratoon crop. Among the
plant growth and root development in crops.
various inorganic P fractions estimated, Ca-P
Application of phosphorus increases the dry
constituted a major fraction of total P
matter yield, internodal length and quality
accounting for 8-10 percent depending on crop
parameters in sugarcane (El Tilibet al., 2004).
growth stage followed by Al-P and Fe-P
Earlier, sugarcane crop was not responding to
accounting for 5.3 and 4.2 percent after plant
P application in A.P. With the advent of
crop. The three fractions of P viz., Al-P, Fe-P
physiologically active improved sugarcane
and Ca-P increased from formative stage to
variety, P nutrition to sugarcane crop played
harvest indicating gradual conversion of
available pool into the insoluble or slowly a vital role in yield and quality improvement.
available pool. Application of phosphate fertilizer increased
the average shoot dry weight. However
Keywords: Mycorrhizae, phosphorus response of sugarcane to P application is
fractions, levels of phosphorus. varying, probably due to variation in the
fraction of P contributing towards P uptake.It
Introduction has been observed that the colonization of
Sugarcane is one of the important cash plant roots with VAM improves the activity
crops in India and plays pivotal role in both of enzyme phosphatase (Dodd, 1987). Since
agricultural and industrial economy of the the world resources of P are limited and they
country. India is the largest producer of sugar can be depleted in a few decades, the
cultivating sugarcane in an area of 5.04 contribution of VAM to P fertilizer
million hectares with a production of 338.168 management is of increasing interest.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) fungi circumstances VAM fungi can be effectively
commonly infect plant roots, including those utilized to enhance the P mobilization.
of sugarcane, forming beneficial symbiotic
Materials and Methods
relationships (Kelly et al., 1997). The primary
benefit to the plant of this symbiosis is The experiment was laid out in split plot
enhanced acquisition of water, phosphorous design with four main treatments and four
and other minerals. VAM fungal hyphae sub levels with a early maturing variety 93
A 145. The setts were selected from the short
provide a greater effective absorbtive root
crop. The seed rate per hectare was 16,000
surface which is able to explore larger
ha-1.. The main treatments consist of control
volumes of soil, thus overcoming nutrient and
(M1), mycorrhizae alone (M2), cane trash and
water depletion zones (Clark and Zeto, 1996;
mycorrhizae (M3) and cane trash alone (M4).
Hetricket al., 1988).
The sub levels consist of 4 levels of
In low input agricultural systems, phosphorus i.e., 0,50,100 and 150 kg P2O5
cultural practices such as organic ha-1. The fertilizers for the plant crop are 112
amendments are known to enhance kg N, 75 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O ha-1 and
Arbuscular mycorrhizae formulation and 224 kg N, 75 kg P2O5 and 100 kg K2O ha-1
fungal propagules (Darzi et al., 2007). These for ratoon crop. The phosphorus in the form
changes in crop growth and yield produced by of single super phosphate and potassium
various organic amendments are ascribed to fertlisers in the form of muriate of potash
changes in the physical, chemical and were applied as per the treatments. The
biological properties of the soils. The response nitrogen was applied at 45 and 90 days after
of crop growth and yield to different organic planting for plant crop and at stubble shaving
amendments may be related to changes in and 45 days after planting for ratoon crop.
population of VAM fungi, as in conventional The cane trash (pre decomposed) was applied
@ 3t ha-1 three days after planting. The
high input farming systems.
mycorrhizae was applied @12.5 kg ha-1 24
It is well established that (i) hours after application of chemical fertilizers.
improvements in plant growth are attributed The EM1 culture was applied on the trash @
to an enhanced access of mycorrhizal root to 1kg ton -1 after application of chemical
soil P located beyond the rhizosphere (Sanders fertilizers. Weeding and irrigation was done
and Tinker, 1973) and (ii) infection by as and when required. Harvesting was done
mycorrhizal fungi is significantly reduced at when the cane attains maturity. The C/N
high soil phosphorus levels (Amijee et al., ratio was estimated at 15 days interval by
1989; Koide and Li, 1990). Although comparing the conventional method and
information on the acquisition of minerals by decomposition by EM1 culture.
plants is available, information on the P is
Results and Discussions
limited. Phosphorus is generally available in
small quantities in soil solution because most Al-P
of inorganic phosphate ions are bound to soil Application of inorganic P across the
colloids or fixed as iron aluminium PO4 combination of cane trash and mycorrhizae
(Larsen etal.,2007). Moreover, less than 15-25 increased the mean Al-P from 13.8 to 15.4 to
percent of P from PO4 fertilizer applied to soil 25.3 ppm respectively at formative (Table 1)
is normally available to plants and a large and harvest stages (Table 2) from control
quantity of P remains unavailable due to its receiving no inorganic P to the treatment
fixation (Singh and Singh, 2007). Under such receiving inorganic P at 150 kg P2O5 ha-1.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Similarly, in ratoon crop, the mean Al-P after ratoon crop at formative stage and
increased to 25.7 and 19.0 ppm with harvest respectively.
application of inorganic P at 150 kg P2O5
Presence or absence of cane trash and
ha-1. (Table 3&4) Among the combinations of
mycorrhizae with inorganic P also was found
the cane trash and mycorrhizae, the mean
to influence the size of the Ca-P pool, the
Al-P was significantly lower in the treatment
lowest value was shown in their absence, the
with mycorrhizae (15.5 and 16.3 ppm in plant
significantly higher values in presence or both
crop 12.7 and 14 ppm in ratoon crop at
cane trash and mycorrhizae, the values being
formative stage and maturity stage
37.3 and 39.1 ppm in plant crop, 35.7 and
36.5 ppm in ratoon crop. (Table 3&4) With
Fe-P increase in inorganic P application, all the
three fractions increased. This could be due
Mean Fe-P also increased sinificantly to the reason that the inorganic P due to
with increase in inorganic P level from control dissolution first enters into the available pool
to 150 kg P increasing from 11.9 to 20.5 ppm then it will be converted slowly into insoluble
at formative stage 13.3 to 22.7 ppm at Fe, Al and Ca phosphates thus increasing the
maturity stage in plant crop.(Table 1&2) size of the pool. When compared to the Ca-P
However, the effect of inorganic P in ratoon the Fe-P and Al-P were smaller in size. This
crop was not significant. Among the is because of the neutral to slightly alkaline
treatments with presence or absence of cane soil reaction with Ca as the predominant
trash and mycorrhizae across the inorganic P, cation.
the significantly lower mean Fe-P was
observed in plot which received the combined The cane trash and mycorrhizae
application of cane trash and mycorrhizae combination decreased the Fe-P and Al-P.
(12.1 and 18.8 ppm respectively at formative This could be due to to the dissolution of the
and maturity stages of plant crop). In ratoon insoluble phosphates by the secretions,
crop, the presence or absence of cane trash decomposition products and their release into
and mycorrhizae did not show any significant soil solution. However, Ca-P was significantly
influence on Fe-P content. (Table 3&4) higher. This might be due to the
reprecipitation of Ca-phosphates removing
Ca-P phosphates from the solution.

Ca-P of the soil at both the stages under These results are in confirmity with the
study in both crops was significantly findings of Liu JianLing et al.,(2001) who
influenced by both inorganic P and stated that the contents of Olsen-P, Ca2-P,
combinations of cane trash and mycorrhizae. and Al-P were lower in the 0-2 mm and 2-4
Mean Ca-P at both the stages was more in mm rhizosphere soil than in the bulk soil.
plant crop (Table 1&2) than in ratoon crop. VAM inoculation significantly increased the
Similar to other fractions of inorganic P, Ca-P uptake of the fractions Olsen-P, Ca2-P, Ca-P,
also increased significantly and reached a Al-P and Fe-P by the plants and improved
peak at 150 kg P2O5 ha-1 at both the stages. their growth, especially in the low-P soil (Liu
The corresponding values being 36.6 and 38.8 Jian Ling, Zhang FuSuo, Liao WenHua.,
ppm in plant crop, 34.5 to 36.6 ppm after 2001).
ratoon crop. The per cent increase in Ca-P
pool with the application of 150 kg P2O5 ha-1 Total P
as against control not receiving inorganic P The total P content of the soil was
was 35 and 39 after 1st plant crop, 36 and 41 influenced by inorganic P application. The

Influence of Mycorrhizae and Levels Of Phosphorus on Phosphorus Fractions of Sandy Loam Soils in Sugarcane
T. Usha Rani, D. Balaguravaiah, M. Bharatalaxmi

mean total P increased significantly to 440.8 5. Clark, R.B. and Zeto, S.K.1996. Mineral
and 353.2 ppm in plant and ratoon crops due acquisition by mycorrhizal maize grown on
acid and alkaline soil.Soil BiolBiochem.28:
to the application of 150 kg P2O5 ha-1 as
against 350.3 and 256.2 ppm in the treatment
6. Kelly, R.M., Edwards, D.G., Magarey, R.C and
not receiving any inorganic P (Table 5).
Thompson, J.P. 1997. The effects of VAM on
This could be due to the reason that the the growth and nutrition of sugarcane.Proc
added P after dissolution will enter the total Aust. Soc. Sugarcane Technol.19: 73-79.
P pool of the soil. The higher mean total P 7. Hetrick, B.A.D., Laslie, J.F., Wilson, G.Tand
in plant crop i.e., 394.9 ppm when compared Kitt, D.G 1988. Physical and topological
assessment of effects of
to 307.4 ppm in ratoon crop might be due to
vasicular-arbuscularmycorrhizal fungus on root
the fact that more root colonization by architecture of big bluestem.New Phytol110:
mycorrhizae in plant crop than ratoon crop 85-96.
which might have resulted in the acquisition 8. Darzi, M.T. Gupta, M.T, Prasad, M. Ram, S
of P from very deeper layers and pumping and Kumar, V. 2007. Study on effect of
into the roots. The same could have been biofertilizer application on Quantification and
added to the total P through exudates, or Quantification Yield of Fennel in Order to
through lysed root cells/hairs. Among the reach to a Sustainable Agroecosystem, Ph.D.
thesis, TarbiyatModarres and Nutrient
combinations of cane trash and mycorrhizae,
Acquisition University, Iran, (In Farsi).
the total P was more when cane trash and
9. Amijee, F., Tinker, P.B and Stribley, D.P
mycorrhizae were applied together across
1989.The development of endomycorrhizal
inorganic P levels. This could be due to the rootsystems. VII: A detailed study of effects of
addition of P through decomposing cane trash soil phosphorus on colonization. New
and also mycorrhizal activity. Phytol.111: 435-446.
10. Sanders, F.E. and Tinker, P.B. 1973.Phosphate
REFERENCES flow into mycorrhizal roots.Pesticide Science.4:
1. Devi, T.C., Rao K.L., Swamy, K.R.L and Raju 385-395.
D.V.N. 2005.Effect of sources and levels of 11. Koide, R.T and Li, M. 1990. On host regulation
phosphorus with zinc on yield and quality of of the vesicular-arbuscular
sugarcane. Thesis submitted to ANGRAU. mycorrhizalsymbiosis. New Phytol.114: 59-65.
2. Khan, A.G. 2009. The occurance of mycorrhiza 12. LarsenJ ., Ravnskov, S. and Sorensen, J. N.
in halophytes, hydrophytes andxerophytes and 2007.Capturing the benefits of
endogone spores in soils. J.Gen.microbial. ArbuscularMycorrhizal in Horticultural. In:
81:7-14. Mycorrhizal in Crop Production, Hamel, C.
3. El-Tilib, M. A., Elnasikh, M. H., Elamin, Plenchette, (eds.), pp: 123 -149.
E.A.2004. Phosphorus and potassium 13. Singh, S.R., Singh, H.P.2007. Occurrence of
fertilization effects on growth attributes and VAM in Uttaranchal and their effectiveness on
yield of two sugarcane varieties grown on colonization growth and NPK uptake on wheat.
three soil series.Journal of Plant Nutrition, Environment and Ecology,.25(3): 526-530.
27(4) : 663-699. 14. Lin Xiangui and HaoWenying.2008. Effect of
4. Dodd, H.H., 1987. Maintenance of soil fertility phosphorus fertilisation on VA mycorrhizal
in the sugarcane plantation.Proc. of S.A Sugar response under unsterilised soil conditions.
technologists Association 17 : 23-25. Actapedologicalsinica. 02-10.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


Ch.Mukunda Rao*, A.Appala Swamy, K.Veerabhadra Rao, N.Venugopala Rao
Acharya N.G.Ranga Agricultural University, RARS, Anakapalle – 531 001
Principal Scientist (Crop Physiology), RARS, Anakapalle – 531001, A.P.

Abstract Keywords: Rainfed sugarcane, SPAD /

SCMR, leaf proline, SOD (super oxide
Twelve pre release sugarcane clones were
dismutase) activity, cane yield, per cent juice
tested against clone Co 6907 for their
sucrose, root spread area and Number of
suitability to late planted conditions (June
millable canes.
planting) at Regional Agricultural Research
Station, Anakapalle during 2014-15 & Introduction
2015-16. Among the pre release clones tested
Sugarcane is grown under completely
sugarcane clones 2006A 223 (71.2t/ha) and rainfed condition in sizeable area during May
2009A 107 (71 t/ha) recorded higher cane - June in North Coastal districts. Nearly
yield over standard Co 6907 (59.4t/ha) 40-50% of cane cultivation of North Coastal
followed by 2000A 213 (64.7t/ha), 2000A 241 zone is under rainfed cane cultivation. The
(64.9t/ha) , 2005A 128 (63.9 t/ha) 2000A 56 crop experiences moisture stress at all crop
(62.9 t/ha) and 2001A 70 (63.4 t/ha). All growth stages. Moisture stress affects
these clones are significantly on par with germination, cane length, cane diameter,
standard Co 6907 with tolerance to red rot single cane weight, cane elongation, biomass
and smut diseases, whereas Co 6907 is production, NMC, cane yields under late
susceptible to smut disease. These clones also planted and rainfed conditions. (Raja
recorded significantly low SLA over standard Rajeswari et.al., 2003 & 2009) The cane yields
Co 6907 which indicates more photosynthetic obtained are ranged from 30 - 35 t/ha under
assimilates per unit area. SPAD / SCMR rainfed conditions. SPAD/SCMR values, SOD
values and carbon isotope distrimination
values at 120 under stress conditions
values indices of moisture stress tolerance in
sugarcane clones 2000A 56, 2000A 241, 2000A
field conditions. High values of SPAD and
213 and 2001A 70 are significantly on par
other ancillary parameters with cane yield of
with standard Co 6907.The ancillary data
sugarcane was recorded high under moisture
denoting stress tolerance like sheath moisture
stress conditions (Sujatha and Jhansi, 2016).
per cent, root spread area, total bio mass Present study was conducted involving 12 pre
production per stool under stress and release clones including the standard Co 6907
physiological parameters like leaf proline to identify a high yielding clone coupled with
content & SOD activity under stress conditions tolerance to suitable for late planted rainfed
is also high in sugarcane clones 2000A 56, conditions (June planting).
2000A 241, 2009A 107 and 2001A 70 over
standard Co 6907. Based on two years of Materials and Methods
finding sugarcane clones 2000A 56, 2000A Twelve promising pre release clones were
241, 2009A 107, 2006A 223, 2005A 128 and studied with Co 6907 under late planted
2001A 70 were found to suitable for rainfed rainfed conditions at Regional Agricultural
cane cultivation based on cane yield, ancillary Research Station, Anakapalle during 2014-15
data and physiological triats in relation to & 2015-16. The design adopted was RBD with
moisture stress tolerance. 3 replications. Each clone was planted in six

Identification of Sugarcane Clones Suitable for Rainfed Cane Cultivation
Ch.Mukunda Rao, A.Appala Swamy, K.Veerabhadra Rao and N.Venugopala Rao

rows of eight meters length with spacing of leaf is SLA (cm2/g). It is ranged from 110.76
60 cms between rows. Trash mulching @ 3t/ha cm2/g (2000A 213) to 162.28 cm2g (2000A 56).
was done at 3rd day after planting. The SLA of sugarcane clones 2000A 213
Management of early shoot borer and white (110.76 cm2/g), 2000A 241 (109.6 cm2/g),
fly was carried out by spraying 2007A 81 (123.4 cm2/g) recorded low SLA over
Monochrotophos @ 1.6ml/lt and biologically other clones tested and standard Co 6907
controlled with using Trichocards. A (148.49 cm2/g) which indicated more
fertilizer dose of 75 kg N  50 kg P2O5  50 photosynthetic assimilates per unit area
Kg K2O / ha was adopted. Nitrogen was under stress conditions.
applied into two equal splits at 30 and 60
Root spread area: Among 12 sugarcane
DAP. Detrashing and spreading on dried
clones tested the root spread area at 120 DAP
leaves was carried out in between two rows
(stress conditions) ranged from 886 cm2
to conserve soil moisture after cessation of
(2007A 126) to 1707 cm2 (2000A 56).
rains. Data was recorded on cane yield, per
Sugarcane clones 2000A 56 (1707 cm2), 2009A
cent juice sucrose, ancillary data (Meade and
107 (1659 cm2), 2001A 70 (1356 cm2) and
Chen, 1971) and NMC at harvest, SCMR
2000A 241 (1351 cm2) recorded higher root
values at 120 DAP leaf proline at 120 DAP
spread area over other clones tested. The
and SOD were recorded adopting standard
standard Co 6907 recorded a root spread area
procedures (Dhopte and Manuel Livera, 1989)
of 1110 cm2.
Results and Discussion
Total bio mass production per stool
The data on cane yield, yield components (g/stool): The dry meter production at 120
and other quality parameters with ancillary DAP (under stress) in sugarcane clones tested
data are given in Table 1. The results is ranged from 732 g/stool (2005A 128) to
obtained are presented on character wise. 1535 g/stool (2000A 56). The dry meter
production at 120 DAP at formative stage
Tiller production: The data on tiller
(under stress) was high in 2000A 56 (1535
production at formative under stress varied
g/stool) followed by 2001A 70 (1518 g/stool),
from 98.85 000/ha (2004A 55) to 131.5 000/ha
2000A 241 (1407 g/stool), 2007A 81 (1332
(2007A 81). Among 12 sugarcane clones tested
g/stool) and 2006A 223 (1231 g/stool) which
2007A 81 recorded significantly higher tiller
are significantly superior over standard Co
production over standard Co 6907 (110.8)
6907 (888 g/stool).
Number of Millable canes: Number of
Sheath moisture per cent: Per cent
millable canes were high in sugarcane clone
moisture in sheath which is an important
2007A 81 (95.9 000/ha) followed by 2005A 128
trait for moisture stress studies was ranged
(93.03 000/ha) which are on par with standard
from 69 per cent (2006A 223) to 75.1 per cent
Co 6907 (82.86 000/ha).
(2000A 56). Higher sheath moisture per cent
Per cent juice sucrose: The cane quality in under stress was recorded in sugarcane clones
terms of per cent juice sucrose was ranged 2000A 56 followed by 2005A 128 (73.2%)
from 17.95 (2001A 70) to 19.6 (2000A 56). which are on par with standard Co 6907
Sugarcane clone 2000A 56 (19.6) recorded per (73.7%).
cent juice sucrose over other clones tested and
Leaf proline ( moles /g fresh weight):
on par with the check Co 6907 (19.2%).
Leaf proline content which is an important
Specific leaf area (Cm2 /g): The parameter drought tolerance denoting trait ranged from
indicating assimilation of photosynthates in 59% moles /g fresh weight (2007A 126) to

Identification of Sugarcane Clones Suitable for Rainfed Cane Cultivation
Ch.Mukunda Rao, A.Appala Swamy, K.Veerabhadra Rao and N.Venugopala Rao

161% moles /g fresh weight (2001A 70). High Conclusions: Among the 12 tested
leaf proline content recorded in 2001A 70 sugarcane clones studied in comparison with
followed by 2000 A241 (156% moles /g fresh Co 6907 under late planted rainfed conditions,
weight), 2009A 107 (153% moles /g fresh sugarcane clones 2009A 107, 2006A 223,
weight) which area superior over standard Co 2000A 546, 2000A 241, 2001A 70 and 2005A
6907 (134.5 % moles /g fresh weight). 128 are found suitable for cane cultivation
Super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity under rainfed situation based on cane yield
(OD min/g): It is a prominent enzymatic and quality parameters in relation to ancillary
physiological in relation to moisture stress yield parameters and physiological stress
tolerance. It is ranged from 0.159 OD min/g tolerance traits.
(2007A 126) to 0.515 OD min/g (2000A 241).
SOD activity was high in 2000A 241 (0.515
OD min/g) and 2001A 70 (0.511 OD min/g) 1. Dhopte A.M and M.Manuel Livera (1989).
followed by 2000A 56 (0.499 OD min/g) and Laboratory techniques for plant scientists.
Publications from Physiologists forum , Akola,
Co 6907 (0.462 OD min/g) which indicates
drought tolerance nature of sugarcane clones
2. Meade G.P. and J.C.P.Chen, (1977). Cane
under moisture stress conditions.
Sugar Book. 10th Edition. John Wiley Inter
SPAD / SCMR values: The values of Science, John and Sons, New York.
SPAD / SCMR of sugarcane clones tested are 3. Raja Rajeswari, V; K.Subash Chandra Bose,
ranged from 32.8 (2003A 255) to 44.35 (2000A N.V.Naidu, (2003). Screening of sugarcane
241). The SPAD / SCMR values of sugarcane clones and their suitability to late planted
rainfed conditions, presented in the National
clones 2000A 241 (44.35), 2007A 126 (44.65),
Seminar on “Physiological Interventions for
2001A 70 (42.65) and 2000A 56 (41.25) are on
improved crop productivity and quality
par with the standard Co 6907 (46.3) opportunities and Constraints” held at
Tirupathi from December,2003. Pp: 241- 244.
Cane yield: Among 12 sugarcane clones
tested cane yield was high in 2006A 223 (71.2 4. Raja Rajewari V; Mukunda Rao Ch and
N.V.Naidu, (2009). Identification of sugarcane
t/ha) and 2009A 107 (71.0t/ha) which are
clones suitable for rainfed conditions. 40th
significantly superior to check Co 6907 (59.43
Annual convention of SISSTA, Pg.49-51
t/ha). Sugarcane clones 2000A 241 (64.9 t/ha),
5. Sujatha T and Jhansi K (2016). Effect of
2000A 213 (64.7 t/ha), 2000A 56 (63.9 t/ha),
moisture stress on quality and yield in pre
2005A 128 (63.9 t/ha) 2001A 70 (63.4 t/ha), release sugarcane clones. 46th Annual
and 2003A 255 (63.1 t/ha) recorded higher convention of SISSA, Pg.1-3.
cane yield over other clones tested and on par
Acknowledgements: The authors are
with the check Co 6907 (59.4 t/ha).
sincerely thankful to the Acharya N.G.Ranga
Similar type of findings on performance Agricultural University, Guntur for providing
of sugarcane clones under rainfed situation facilities to conduct the above study in RARS,
and moisture stress conditions was also Anakapalle and to accord permission for
studied by Raja Rajeswari et.al., 2009 and presentation of the findings in SISSTA
Sujatha and Jhansi,2016. convention.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


B. Vajantha, M. Hemanth Kumar, T.M. Hemalatha, K.R. Tagore,
N.V. Sarala and M. Subba Rao
Agricultural Research Station, Perumallapalle,
ANGRAU, Tirupathi – 517 502, Andhra Pradesh

Abstract concentrations in tissues of many plant

Eleven pre release sugarcane genotypes along species due to the antagonism of Na+ and K+
with two checks were studied for salinity at uptake site in the roots or the inhibition
tolerance at Agricultural Research Station, of uptake processes (Hu and Schmidhalter,
Perumallapalle, Andhra Pradesh during 2005). Excess of Na+ in plant tissues
2016-17. Among all genotypes 2009 T 5 and increases the utilization of energy that the
2010 T 58 showed less reduction percentage in plants must use to acquire water from the soil
germination and the genotypes 2010 T 58, and to make biochemical adjustments. This
2010 T 175 and 2009 T 5 showed less energy is diverted from processes that lead to
reduction percentage in single cane weight in growth and yield which consequently resulted
salt treated plots. 2010 T 172, 2009 T 5 and in reduced plant growth.
2010 T 58 showed less reduction percentage in The differential growth performance of
sucrose. The genotypes 2010 T 152, 2010 T plant species/genotypes under salinity might
172, 2010 T58 and 2009 T 5 showed high be related to their ability to uptake and
K/Na ratio. Based on all parameters 2009 T transport of Na", affinity for K+ over Na+ and
5, 2010 T 58, 2010 T 152 and 2010 T 172 salt exclusion mechanisms. Keeping this in
were found to be tolerant to salinity. view present experiment was designed to
study the relative salt tolerance of sugarcane
Keywords: Sugarcane genotypes, plant
genotypes grown in saline soils with EC of 6
growth, yield, quality and saline tolerance.
dS m-1.
Materials and Methods
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarumL.)
The experiment was conducted at
grown in arid and semiarid regions is
Agricultural Research Station, Perumallapalle
frequently subjected to soil salinity (Lingle
during 2016-17 in cement pots (1 m2
and Weigand, 1997). The crop is moderately
diameter). Eleven pre release sugarcane
sensitive to salinity. The decrease in yield is
genotypes along with two standard checks
0% at an EC 1.7 dS rn-1, 10% at EC 3.3, 25%
were studied with two treatments viz., control
at 6, 50% at EC 10.4 and 100% at EC 18.6
and salt treated pots for salinity tolerance.
dS rn-1 (Hussain et al., 2009). A steep decline
Ten single bud setts per each cement pot were
in growth may take place once the EC rises
planted during February, 2016 and harvested
above 3 dS rn-1 although plants may survive
in January, 2017. The initial soil has neutral
up to 10-15 dS m-1 depending upon genotypes.
pH (7.25), normal in EC (0.216 dS m-1), low
Salinity inhibits plant growth by ion in organic carbon (0.43%), available nitrogen
toxicity, nutritional imbalances, osmotic effect (232 kg ha-1), medium in available phosphorus
and oxidative stress (Chinnusamy et al.,2005). (43.5 kg ha-1) and potassium (241 kg ha-1).
High Na+ concentration in the external Before planting, soil EC was developed to 6
solution cause a decrease in both K+ and Ca2+ dS m-1 and maintained until harvest with

Evaluation of Promising Pre Release Sugarcane Genotypes for Salinity Tolerance
B. Vajantha, M. Hemanth Kumar, T.M. Hemalatha and K.R. Tagore, N.V. Sarala and M. Subba Rao

addition of NaCl, CaCl2 and Na2 SO4 in the plants grown in control ranged between 3.96
ratio of 2:2:1. The experiment was laid out in and 5.10. It reduced to 3.34 and 4.58 in
factorial RBD with two replications. The plant control pots. Maximum K+/Na+ ratio was
samples were collected at grand growth stage observed in 2010T152 (4.58) and was followed
for determination of K and Na content. The by 2010 T 58 (4.25), 2010 T 172 (4.25) and
data on germination%, cane length, girth, 2009 T 5 (4.00).
single cane weight, juice quality parameters
Salinity is one of the major abiotic
like sucrose%, CCS% and Purity, K/Na ratio
stresses that adversely affect crop quality and
in plant tissue were recorded in both
productivity. The plant genotypes differ
genetically in their adaptation to salt stress
Results and Discussion environment (Rezoff, 1995; Wahid et al.,1997).
Characteristics like germination, cane weight,
The germination percent, single cane Na accumulation and K+/Na+ ratio have been
weight and sucrose were significantly affected considered useful guide to assess plants for
by genotypes and treatments. But the salt tolerance. Selection of genotypes on this
interaction effect on germination, cane weight basis is an important strategy to minimize
and sucrose was non significant. The mean yield losses in saline soils (Santa-Maria and
germination percent (66%) was higher in Epstein, 2001). Reduction in cane weight of
control pots compared with salt treated pots sugarcane genotypes in salt treated pots was
(45%). Among the genotypes 2009 T 5, 2010 due to toxicity of Na’ and its imbalances with
T 58 and 2010 T 369 showed less reduction other nutrients like K+ and Ca2+. It
percentage (10%) in germination. The mean consequently resulted in metabolic imbalances
single cane weight was also higher in control which reduced growth and yields.
pots (1.129 kg) than salt treated pots (0.989 Chinnusamy et al. (2005) also reported that
kg).The genotypes, 2010 T 58, 2010 T 175 and under salt stress, the predominant cause of
2009 T 5 showed less reduction percentage in reduced plant growth appeared to be ion
single cane weight of 1.52%, 2.93% and 6.51%, toxicity rather than osmotic stress. The
respectively . The cane length was also magnitude of decline in cane weight among
significantly affected by genotypes and sugarcane genotypes varied possibly because
treatments. But the interaction effect was non of their differential selectivity for K+ over
significant. Na+ (Ashraf, 2007; Asch et al., 2000). Plants
absorbed more Na+ under salinity stress.
The mean sucrose percent and CCS
Reduction in K+/Na+ ratio of sugarcane
percent in control pots (18.72% and 10.91%,
genotypes in the presence of salinity could be
respectively) were higher than salt treated
due to the antagonism of Na" and K+. Wide
pots (15.54% and 10.06% respectively). Among
differences among sugarcane genotypes for
genotypes, 2010 T 172, 2009 T 5 and 2010 T
K+/Na+ ratio could be associated with their
144 showed less reduction percentage in
ability to restrict both the uptake of Na" by
sucrose (0.50%, 0.52% and 1.00%,
root cells from soil. (Mahmoud Shomeili et al
The mean K/Na ratio was more in
control pots than salt treated pots. Applied Conclusion
salinity causes increased Na" concentration Sugarcane genotypes were significantly
and consequently reduced K+/Na+ ratio, different in their germination, single cane
however it varied widely among various weight, Na+ accumulation and K+/Na+ ratio
sugarcane genotypes. The K+/Na+ ratio in when grown in the saline conditions. Among

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Effect of salinity on germination % and cane weight (kg)

Germination % Cane weight (kg single cane-1)
Control Salt treated Mean % reduction Control Salt treated Mean % reduction
2009 T 5 75 65 70 10 1.586 1.483 1.535 6.51
2009 T 10 70 40 55 30 1.255 1.023 1.139 18.50
2010T58 60 50 55 10 1.005 0.990 0.998 1.52
2010T72 50 35 43 15 0.826 0.749 0.788 9.32
2010T144 80 55 68 25 1.076 0.930 1.003 13.57
2010T152 70 30 50 40 0.932 0.722 0.827 22.59
2010T161 55 35 45 20 1.455 1.310 1.383 9.93
2010T172 60 45 5315 1.245 1.045 1.145 16.04
2010T175 75 50 63 25 1.075 1.044 1.060 2.93
2010T344 70 40 55 30 0.860 0.666 0.763 22.48
2010T369 65 55 60 10 1.190 0.948 1.069 20.38
2005T52 60 40 50 20 0.860 0.737 0.798 14.33
83V15 70 50 60 20 1.318 1.209 1.263 8.27
Mean 66 45 1.129 0.989
CD SE(m) CD SE(m)
Treatments 4.81 1.65 0.100 0.035
Varieties 12.28 4.21 0.257 0.088
TxV N.S. 5.96 N.S. 0.124

Effect of salinity on cane length and girth.

Cane length (cm) Cane girth (cm)
Genotypes Salt % Salt %
Control Mean Control Mean
treated reduction treated reduction
2009 T 5 2.84 2.67 2.76 5.95 2.98 2.60 2.79 12.61
2009 T 10 3.08 2.98 3.03 3.41 3.00 2.55 2.78 15.00
2010T58 2.20 2.05 2.12 7.15 3.20 2.78 2.99 13.28
2010T72 2.08 1.96 2.02 6.12 2.98 2.70 2.84 9.24
2010T144 2.69 2.19 2.44 18.59 2.83 2.70 2.76 4.42
2010T152 2.42 1.95 2.18 19.25 2.88 2.78 2.83 3.48
2010T161 2.60 2.55 2.58 2.02 2.80 2.80 2.80 0.00
2010T172 2.72 2.32 2.52 14.71 2.93 2.75 2.84 5.98
2010T175 2.42 2.31 2.36 4.35 3.00 2.60 2.80 13.33
2010T344 2.36 2.28 2.32 3.39 2.95 2.75 2.85 6.78
2010T369 2.33 2.19 2.26 5.80 2.93 2.70 2.81 7.69
2005T52 2.30 2.14 2.22 6.73 2.63 2.48 2.55 5.71
83V15 2.30 1.63 1.97 29.32 2.60 2.53 2.56 2.88
Mean 2.49 2.25 2.90 2.67
CD SE(m) CD SE(m)
Treatments 0.16 0.05 0.10 0.03
Varieties 0.40 0.14 N.S. 0.08
TxV N.S. 0.19 N.S. 0.12

Evaluation of Promising Pre Release Sugarcane Genotypes for Salinity Tolerance
B. Vajantha, M. Hemanth Kumar, T.M. Hemalatha and K.R. Tagore, N.V. Sarala and M. Subba Rao

Effect of salinity on juice quality

Sucrose (%) CCS *%)
Genotypes Salt % Salt %
Control Mean Control Mean
treated reduction treated reduction
2009 T 5 19.65 19.13 19.39 0.52 10.79 10.10 10.45 0.69
2009 T 10 19.10 17.28 18.19 1.83 10.96 10.54 10.75 0.42
2010T58 16.69 15.08 15.88 1.61 11.53 10.47 11.00 1.06
2010T72 19.53 12.86 16.19 6.67 9.64 8.34 8.99 1.30
2010T144 19.47 18.47 18.97 1.00 10.92 10.20 10.56 0.72
2010T152 18.86 15.53 17.20 3.33 10.74 10.54 10.64 0.20
2010T161 16.56 11.58 14.07 4.98 11.87 9.82 10.84 2.05
2010T172 18.08 17.58 17.83 0.50 11.17 10.12 10.65 1.05
2010T175 19.84 12.51 16.18 7.33 9.75 9.38 9.57 0.37
2010T344 16.95 12.51 14.73 4.44 10.81 9.51 10.16 1.30
2010T369 20.58 16.34 18.46 4.25 11.58 10.86 11.22 0.72
2005T52 18.79 17.14 17.97 1.65 10.86 10.02 10.44 0.84
83V15 19.33 15.98 17.65 3.35 11.15 10.89 11.02 0.26
Mean 18.72 15.54 10.91 10.06
CD SE(m) CD SE(m)
Treatments 1.13 0.39 1.389 0.476
Varieties 2.89 0.99 N.S. 1.215
TxV N.S. 1.40 N.S. 1.719

Effect of salinity on K and Na ratio in plant

K (%) Na (%) K/Na raio

Control Salt treated Control Salt treated Control Salt treated
2009 T 5 1.02 1.04 0.20 0.26 5.10 4.00
2009 T 10 1.06 0.96 0.23 0.28 4.61 3.43
2010T58 1.04 1.02 0.22 0.24 4.73 4.25
2010T72 0.94 0.92 0.21 0.24 4.48 3.83
2010T144 0.98 0.98 0.22 0.25 4.45 3.92
2010T152 1.14 1.10 0.24 0.24 4.75 4.58
2010T161 0.95 0.97 0.24 0.29 3.96 3.34
2010T172 1.06 1.19 0.24 0.28 4.42 4.25
2010T175 1.02 1.02 0.23 0.26 4.43 3.92
2010T344 1.12 1.06 0.25 0.28 4.48 3.79
2010T369 0.97 1.02 0.24 0.26 4.04 3.92
2005T52 1.02 1.06 0.22 0.26 4.64 4.08
83V15 1.12 1.02 0.26 0.24 4.31 4.25
Mean 1.03 1.03 0.23 0.26 4.49 3.97

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

the eleven genotypes 2009 T 5, 2010 T 58, 5. Hussain K, Majeed A, Nawaz K, Hayat K and
2010 T 152 and 2010 T 172 were found to be Nisar F 2009 Effect of different levels of
salinity on growth and ion content of Black
tolerance to saline conditions compared to
seeds (Nigella sativa L.). Current Research
other genotypes. Journal of Biological Sciences. 1 (3): 135-138.
References 6. Lingle SE and Weigand CL 1997 Soil salinity
and sugarcane juice quality. Field Crops
1. Ashraf M, Rahmatullah S. Kanwar MA, Tahi
Research. 54:259- 268.
A and Ali L 2007 Differential salt tolerance of
sugarcane genotypes. Pakistan Journal of 7. Mahmoud Shomeili1, Majid nipour, Mosa
Agricultural Sciences 44 (1):85-89. meskarbashee and Rajabi memari 2011
2. Chinnusamy V, Jagendorf A and Zhu JK 2005 Evaluation of sugarcane (Saccharum
Understanding and improving salt tolerance in officinarum L.) somaclonal variants tolerance
plants. Crop Science 45 (2):437-448. to salinity in vitro and in vivo cultures. African
Journal of Biotechnology 10(46), pp. 9337-9343,
3. Asch1 F, Dingkuhn1M, Dörffling K and
Miezan K 2000 Leaf K/Na ratio predicts 8. Santa-Maria GE and Epstein E 2001
salinity induced yield loss in irrigated rice. Potassium/sodium selectivity in wheat and the
Euphytica 113: 109-118. amphiploid cross wheat X Lophopyrum
elongatum. Plant Science 160:523-534
4. Hu Y and Schmidhalter U 2005 Drought and
Salinity: A comparison of their effects on 9. Wahid A, Rao AR and Rasul E 1997
mineral nutrition of plants. Journal of Plant Identification of salt tolerance traits in
Nutrition and Soil Science 168:541- 549. sugarcane lines. Field Crops Research. 54:9-17.

B. AshaJyothi and 2K. Jhansi
Scientist (Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry), SRS, vuyyuru
Principal Scientist (Ento) and Head, SRS, Vuyyuru.
Office email id :srsvyr@yahoo.com
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University,
Sugarcane Research Station, Vuyyuru, Krishna District-521 165

Abstract nutrients at proper time in proper amounts

An experiment was conducted during 2013-14 and balanced proportions to harvest the
at Sugarcane Research Station, Vuyyuru to maximum potential of the existing sugarcane
evaluate the optimum dose of fertilizers for pre varieties.It is very much necessary to study
– release clones of sugarcane. Four clones viz., the optimum dose of fertilizers for promising
2005 V 29, 66, 170 and 177 were tested for pre-release clone. Keeping in view of all these
five nutrient levels of 75 % , 100% ,125%,150% factors, this investigation was taken up with
and 175% of recommended dose of NPK an objective to evaluate the optimum dose of
fertilizers.2005 V170 recorded highest cane fertilizers for promising pre-release clones of
yield (93.49 t/ha) and CCS yield (13.22 t/ha) sugarcane.
among the clones tested and 150 % of
Methods and materials
recommended doses of fertilizers recorded
highest cane yield (99.48 t/ha) and CCS yield A field experiment was conducted during
(13.82 t/ha) among the nutrient levels. 2013-14 in sugarcane plant crop at Sugarcane
Research Station, Vuyyuru, Krishna district of
Introduction Andhra Pradesh. The experiment was
conducted in soil having pH 7.43, EC 0.62
Varieties with high yield potential and
dSm-1 (Table-1). Soil is low in available
quality are being produced and given to the
nitrogen (204 kgha-1) medium in organic
farmers in order to mitigate the requirements
of ever increasing population. These clones or carbon (0.58 %), high in phosphorus (125 kg
varieties differ in nutrient efficiency in P2O5ha-1) and potassium (468 kgK2Oha-1).
utilizing native and applied nutrients. Four promising pre-release clones viz., 2005 V
Indiscriminate use of fertilizers resulting in 29, 66, 170 and 177 were tested with five
increasing cost of cultivation besides spoiling nutrient levels of N, P & K viz., 75%, 100 %,
the soil health reducing its sustainability. 125 %, 150% and 175 % of recommended
Although the biological potential of a high doses of fertilizers. Nitrogen was applied in
yielding variety is inherent in its seed, yet to the form of urea, phosphorus in the form of
explore it under field conditions, a proper SSP and potassium in the form of muriate of
package of inputs &cultural practices has to potash were applied. 100 % of recommended
be adopted in a specific agro – ecological dose of N, P & K fertilisers was 168, 75 &
condition. In this package, balanced use of 100 kg ha -1 and remaining percentages of
fertilizer is of paramount importance. fertilisers were calculated and applied
Increased cropping intensity and the evolution accordingly. Entire phosphorus and potassium
of high yielding varieties has made the were applied as basal and nitrogen in two
fertilizer use indispensable. Therefore, it is splits at 45 & 90 days after planting.
imperative to supplement required plant Treatments were replicated thrice in factorial

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

R.B.D design. Need based plant protection yield of 99.57 t/ha and was on par with 150
measures were taken. Data was collected on % of RDF (99.48 t/ha). Nasiretal. (2000)
cane yield and juice quality. All the data was reported that higher growth rate by sugarcane
statistically analyzed using method described was mainly due to enhanced uptake of N,P,
by Panse and Sukatme (1978). K & Ca. Vijayakumaretal. (1999) reported
Table 1: Initial soil characteristics in that application of balanced dose of N, P &
which experiment was conducted K produced the maximum cane yield. 2005 V
170 resulted with more CCS yield (13.22 t/ha)
S.No. Parameter Value
followed by 2005 V 29 (12.27 t/ha). Interaction
1. pH 7.43
effect is non-significant.
2. E.C.(dSm ) 0.62
3. Available nitrogen (kg/ha) 204 Quality:
4. Available phosphorus (kg/ha) 125 2005 V 66 recorded highest sucrose
5. Available potassium (kg/ha) 468 content in juice (19.98 %). 100 % of
6. Organic carbon (%) 0.58 recommended dose of fertilizers recorded
highest percentage of sucrose in juice (19.53
Results and discussions
%) and 125 and 150 % of recommended dose
Yield: of fertilizers were on par with it.2005 V 170
2005 V 170 recorded highest yield 93.49 recorded more CCS % (14.14 % ), 2005 V 29
t/ha and 2005 V 29 (87.82 t/ha) was on par and 66 wereon par with it.Interaction was
with it. 175 % of RDF resulted in highest cane non-significant (Table 2).
Table 2: Evaluation of optimum dose of fertilisers on yield and quality of promising
pre-release clones of sugarcane
Treatments Cane yield (t/ha) Sucrose (%) CCS (%) CCS Yield(t/ha)
Varieties (V)
V1 : 2005 V 29 87.82 19.28 13.98 12.27
V2 : 2005 V 66 84.14 19.98 13.82 11.63
V3 : 2005 V 170 93.49 19.34 14.14 13.22
V4 : 2005 V 177 85.05 18.58 13.43 11.43
SEm 0.24 0.19 0.14 0.34
CD (0.05) 6.71 0.51 0.40 0.94
Nutrient levels (N)
N1 : 75 % RDF 70.40 18.38 13.28 9.33
N2 : 100 % RDF 79.31 19.53 14.22 11.30
N3 : 125 % RDF 89.38 19.37 14.14 12.65
N4 : 150 % RDF 99.48 19.16 13.93 13.82
N5 : 175 % RDF 99.57 18.82 13.65 13.61
SEm 0.27 0.21 0.16 0.38
CD (0.05) 7.50 0.57 0.45 1.05
Interaction (VXN)
SEm 0.54 0.41 0.32 0.76
CD (0.05) NS NS NS NS
CV% 10.70 3.77 4.03 10.85

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


D. Adilakshmi, Ch. Mukunda Rao, B. Bhavani and N. Raj Kumar
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam Dt.
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad
Email ID: adilakshmi87@gmail.com

Abstract internodes and greenish purple leaf sheath

A promising early clone 2009 A 107 was with dark green foliage and slightly droopy at
developed from 87 A 298 X 87 A 380 at tips. It has recorded low susceptible reaction
Regional Agricultural Research Station, against early shoot borer.
Anakapalle. It was tested against the popular Keywords: Cane yield, Rainfed, Sucrose,
standards 87A298, Co 6907 and 93A 145 for Sugarcane
its performance under yield trials from 2013
– 14 to 2014 – 15 in two plant and one ratoon Introduction
crops. The pre release clone 2009 A 107 Sugarcane has emerged as a multiproduct
recorded maximum number of millable canes crop as a source of basic raw material for the
(111.40 thousands/ha), cane yield (131.07 production of sugar, ethanol, electricity, paper
t/ha), sugar yield (17.49 t/ha) and was found and boards, besides a host of ancillary products.
to be superior to the checks 87A298 (98.35 Sugarcane breeding is advancing in a broad
thousands/ha, 109.51 t/ha and 14.32 t/ha), direction with product diversification as
Co 6907 (88.51 thousands/ha, 91.52 t/ha and comprehensive goal. Saccharum species are one
11.46 t/ha) and 93A145 (97.51 thousands/ha, of the most genetically complex plants due to
102.72 t/ha and 12.27 t/ha) respectively. The polyprloidy and relatively large genome size
quality parameters viz., brix percent (20.87), (Arumuganathan and Earle 1991). These
per cent juice sucrose (18.93) and CCS per features, together with the high heterozygous
cent (13.62) in 2009 A 107 was on par with nature, make planned genetic improvement
the best standard 87A298 (19.59 %, 18.21% programmes guided by the principles of
and 12.78 %) respectively. The clone has
genetics a difficult exercise. Drought severely
recorded higher cane length (296.33 cm), cane
depress cane yield to the tune of 20-40%
diameter (2.89 cm) and single cane weight
whereas sucrose formation and sucrose
(1.14 kg) when compared to best standard
recovery upto 5%. Development and release of
93A145 (275.67cm, 2.39 cm and 1.03 kg)
new verities is a continuous process. The crop
respectively. The clone performed well under
experiences various types of biotic and abiotic
limited irrigated conditions (early plating) and
stress which affect the productivity (Nair
recorded higher cane yield of 76.01 t/ha and
2010). There is every need for the
it has recorded higher cane yield of 67.75 t/ha
development of high yielding, sucrose rich,
under rainfed conditions (June planting).
early maturing clones possessing resistance to
The improved clone 2009 A 107 was also pests and diseases with good ratoonability
resistant to red rot under nodal method of alternate to existing predominant cultivated
inoculation. It is having thick cane with erect, clone in addition to drought
tall growing habit and non lodging nature. resistance/tolerance which posses inherent
The clone can be distinguishable by greenish capabilities under water deficit conditions for
yellow cane with straight alignment of increasing cane yield in Andhra Pradesh.

2009 A 107 – An Elite Early Maturing Sugarcane Clone Suitable for Different Situations for East Coast Zone
D. Adilakshmi, Ch. Mukunda Rao, B. Bhavani and N. Raj Kumar

Material and Methods maximum number of NMC (111.40

The clone 2009 A 107 was developed thousands/ha) in two plant and one ratoon
from 87 A 298  87 A 380. It was tested in crops when compared to checks 87A298 (98.35
main yield trials from 2013-14 to 2014-15 in thousands/ha), Co 6907 (88.51 thousands/ha)
two plant and one ratoon crops at Regional and 93A145 (97.51 thousands/ha) and
Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle. significantly out yielded the best standard.
Each clone was grown in eight rows of eight Cane Yield (t/ha)
meters length. The experiment was laid out Mean data on the performance of 2009
in RBD with three replications. All the A 107, in two plant and one ratoon crops was
recommended package of practices were presented in Table 1. The test clone recorded
adopted for raising a good and healthy crop. a mean cane yield (131.07 t/ha) in two plants
The clone was grown under limited irrigated and one ratoon crop compared to checks
conditions under early planting and under 87A298 (109.51 t/ha), Co 6907 (91.52 t/ha) and
rainfed conditions (June planting) to study its 93A145 (102.72 t/ha) and significantly out
suitability to rainfed situation. Data were yielded the best standard.
recorded on morphological characters, viz.,
Jaggery yield (t/ha)
NMC at harvest, length of millable canes,
single cane weight and diameter of cane, juice Mean data on the performance of 2009
quality parameters (brix (%), sucrose (%), CSC A 107, in two plant and one ratoon crops was
(%) and purity percent) were determined as presented in Table 1. The test clone recorded
per the standard procedures (Meade and Chen a mean jaggery yield (17.98 t/ha) in two
1971). Cane yield was recorded at harvest on plants and one ratoon crop compared to
plot basis and expressed in tons/hectare. checks 87A298 (12.21 t/ha).
Sugar yield was estimated based on cane yield Sugar yield (t/ha)
and CCS per cent., SPAD/SCMR, SOD, Root Mean data on the performance of 2009
spread (m2) and leaf proline content were A 107, in two plant and one ratoon crops was
estimated as per the standard procedure. presented in Table 1. The clone recorded
Reaction to diseases viz., red rot and smut mean sugar yield (17.49 t/ha) when compared
both under natural and artificial conditions to checks 87A298 (14.32 t/ha), Co 6907 (11.46
was recorded against the three predominant t/ha) and 93A145 (12.27 t/ha) and significantly
pathotypes (Cf 419, Cf 671 and Cf 997) of red out yielded the best standard.
rot in Andhra Pradesh. Similarly shoot borer
Yield components
incidence was also recorded at differet days
Mean performance of 2009 A 107 in two
after palnting viz., 45, 60, 90 and 120 DAP.
plant and one ratoon crops for yield
Statistical analysis of data was carried out as
components was presented in Table 1. The
per Panse and Sukhatme (1978).
clones 2009 A 107 has recorded higher cane
Results and Discussion length (296.33 cm), Cane diameter (2.89 cm)
The chief morphological characteristics and single cane weight (1.14 kg) when
and data on yield and yield components, juice compared to checks 87A298 (258.33 cm, 2.45
quality parameters, performance under cm and 1.17 kg), Co 6907 (273.33 cm, 2.25 cm
limited irrigated conditions, under rainfed and 1.09 kg) and 93A145 (285.67 cm, 2.39 cm
conditions (June planting), reaction to red rot and 1.03 kg) respectively
& smut and early shoot borer are furnished Juice Quality parameters
in Table 1 to 6 respectively
Mean data on percent brix, sucrose, CCS
Number of Millable Canes (000s/ha) and purity in juice was presented in Table 2.
Mean data on the performance of 2009 The clone 2009 A 107 (20.87, 18.93,13.62 and
A 107, in two plant and one ratoon crops was 90.67) was found superior over the best
presented in Table 1. The test clone recorded standard 87A298 (19.59, 18.21, 12.78 and

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Table 1: Mean performance of 2009A107 over two plant and one ratoon crops for
yield and yield components in station yield trials, (2013-14 to 2014-15)

Cane Cane Cane Sugar Jaggery

NMC Single cane
S.No Clone No. length Diameter yield yield yield
(‘000/ha) weight (Kg)
(cm) (cm) (t/ha) (t/ha) (t/ha)
1. 2009 A 107 111.40 296.33 2.89 1.14 131.07 17.49 17.98

2. 87A298 98.35 258.33 2.45 1.17 109.51 14.32 12.21

3. Co 6907 88.51 273.33 2.25 1.09 91.52 11.46 –

4. 93A145 97.51 275.67 2.39 1.03 102.72 12.27 -

CD (5%) 8.13 7.72 1.50

CV (%) 13.57 13.68 4.69

Table 2: Mean performance of 2009 A 107 over two plant and one ratoon crops for
Quality traits (2013-14 to 2014-15)

S.No Clone No. Brix Per cent Sucrose Per cent CCS Per cent Purity Per cent

1. 2009 A 107 20.87 18.93 13.62 90.67

2. 87A298 19.59 18.21 12.78 89.54

3. Co 6907 17.86 16.35 11.81 91.57

4. 93A145 18.89 16.76 11.93 88.72

CD at 5% 0.92 1.36 1.24 5.29

CV(%) 2.82 4.69 5.86 3.40

89.54) for brix, sucrose, CCS and purity per the standards (Table.3) (Annual report
cent respectively over two plants and one 2016-17)
ratoon crop while the checks Co 6907 (17.86,
16.35, 11.81 and 91.57) and 93A145 (18.89,
16.76, 11.93 and 88.72 per cent) were recorded
for brix, sucrose, CCS and purity per cent

Performance of 2009 A 107 under limited

irrigated conditions under early planting
The performance of sugarcane clones /
varieties under limited irrigated conditions
(early plating) the clone 2009 A 107 (76.01
(t/ha) performed well and it has also recorded
higher shoot population at 150 DAP (111.60
000’/ha) and millable canes at harvest (99.50
000,ha), high SPAD /SCMR (30.5), higher
SOD (0.483) values and leaf proline (84.8) Root Mass In 2009 A 107 Under Rainfed
content at formative stage when compared to

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Performance of 2009 A 107 under rainfed reaction under nodal and plug methods of
conditions (June planting) (Table 6) inoculation against all three pathotypes of red
In screening of sugarcane clones / rot, whereas the standard Co 6907 was
genotypes under rainfed conditions (June susceptible to red rot under plug method. The
planting) 2009 A 107 has performed well and clone 2009 A 107 recorded moderate
recorded highest higher cane yield of 67.75 susceptibility and the checks registered highly
t/ha compared to the other varieties and susceptible reaction for smut under artificially
recorded higher NMC, SPAD /SCMR (32.0) inoculated conditions.
and SOD (0.526 ), Root spread (1692 cm2) and Reaction to early shoot borer upto 120
leaf proline /G values which denotes days after planting
drought tolerance efficiency under rainfed
In screening for incidence of early shoot
conditions when compared to the standard Co
borer at 45 DAP, 60 DAP, 90 DAP and 120
6907 (table 4) (Annual report 2016-17).
DAP the clone 2009 A 107 has recorded low
Reaction to Red rot and smut incidence of 6.33 (cumulative at 120 DAP)
Reaction of 2009 A 107 and checks for when compared to the susceptible check, 93
red rot and smut was studied under nodal A 145 (17.22) which denotes less susceptibility
inoculated conditions are presented in table (LS) to Early shoot borer (Table 6) (Annual
no.5. The clone 2009 A 107 has recorded report 2014-15)
resistance under nodal method which reflects
its field tolerance, while the standards viz.,
87A298 and 93A145 recorded resistant

Table 5: Reaction to Diseases

Red Rot
S.No Clone No. Nodal Plug Method
Cf 04 Cf 06 Cf 05 Cf 04 Cf 06 Cf 05
1. 2009A107 R R R MR MR MR MS
2. 87A298 R R R R R R HS
3. Co 6907 S S S S S S HS
4. 93A145 R R R S R R HS

R: Resistant, S: Susceptible, MR: Moderately Resistant, MS: Moderately Susceptible, HS: Highly Susceptible

20098 A 107 87 A 298

Red rot screening through plug method

2009 A 107 – An Elite Early Maturing Sugarcane Clone Suitable for Different Situations for East Coast Zone
D. Adilakshmi, Ch. Mukunda Rao, B. Bhavani and N. Raj Kumar

Table 6. Incidence of early shoot borer upto 120 days after planting

No of bored
Genotype 45 DAP 60 DAP 90 DAP 120 DAP upto Grading
2009 A 107 0.83 (4.95) 3.96(9.38) 3.20(10.26) 0.00(2.03) 6.53(14.80) LS 25926
93A145(sus.c) 1.01(5.68) 7.55(15.72) 4.96(11.69) 1.08(5.96) 17.22(19.48) 43056
CoC01061(c) 0.86(2.29) 5.00(12.69) 3.21(100.28) 0.00(2.03) 7.10(15.45) 32407
87A298(c) 0.54 2.61(9.23) 2.32(8.76) 0.76(4.25) 5.43(13.42) 21296
Co6907(c) 1.69 9.44(17.86) 3.20(10.21) 0.00(2.03) 10.32(18.56)
CD (5%) 1.83 3.61 2.66 2.12 3.68
CV (%) 23.11 15.43 1414 34.36 12.63

Conclusion 2. Annual report 2014-15, Department of Plant

Entomology, Regional Agricultural Research
The improved early maturing clone, 2009 Station, Anakapalle.
A 107 with erect and non lodging growth
3. Arumuganathan K, Earle ED (1991) Nuclear
habit desirable morphological characters, DNA content of some important plant species,
higher NMC, cane and sugar yields, PI Mol Biol Reptr 9:208
possessing moderate resistance to red rot and 4. Charumathi M, Prasada Rao K and Naidu NV.
least susceptibility for early shoot borer can 2011 Performance of early maturing clones at
be recommended for commercial cultivation in Anakapalle. 41st Annual Convention of
SISSTA: 9-12
Andhra Pradesh (Charumathi M, 2011) and is
under on – farm testing in farmers fields 5. Meade G.P and JCP Chen, 1977 Cane Sugar.
Hand book. 10th Edition. John Eiley Inter
under different sugar factory operational
6. Nair N V 2010. The challenges and
opportunities in sugarcane agriculture,
References Souvenir STAI. 117-135.
1. Annual report 2016-17, Department of Plant 7. Panse VG and PV Sukhatme 1978 Statistical
Physiology, Regional Agricultural Research Methods for Agricultural Workers. Third
Station, Anakapalle. Edition

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


V.Gouri, A.Appalaswamy, N.Rajkumar and M.Bharathalakshmi
Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University
Regional Agricultural Research Station,
Anakapalle, Andhra Pradesh

Abstract be distinguished by chrome yellow with purple

A study was conducted at RARS, Anakapalle tinge cane with green foliage without any waxy
to evaluate the performance of promising early coating on leaf sheath and easily trashable.
sugarcane genotypes during 2016-17 under Keywords: 2006A102, early pre released
AICRP on Sugarcane.Among different elite clone, Sugarcane,
clones 2006 A 102 (CoA 12322) which is
developed from 88 R 13 GC performed better Introduction
and this genotype was tested against the Sugarcane is an important cash crop in
popular checks Co 6907, CoC 01061 and CoA India both sociologically and economically. It
92081 was evaluated along with other zonal occupies approximately 4% of the total
varieties CoA 12321, CoA 12323, Co Or 12346 cropped area of the country with a
and CoV 12356. 2006A102 recorded highest productivity of 60 t ha -1. To meet the needs
cane yield of 89.8 t/ha as compared to of increasing population, productivity per unit
standards, Co 6907 ( 86.1t/ha), CoC 01061 area is need to be increased as there is very
(84.1 t/ha) and CoA 92081 (77.8 t/ha) and little scope for horizontal expansion. This is
CCS yield of 9.7 t/ha compared to standards, possible mainly through development of high
yielding clones, adoption of ideal agronomic
Co 6907(9.3 t/ha), CoC 01061 (8.8 t/ha) and
practices and plant protection measures
CoA 92081(9.0 t/ha). Per cent juice sucrose
(Nair,2009). There is need to develop new
and commercial cane sugar per cent in 2006A
early varieties which perform better than the
102 (18.0 and 11.1) was on par with Co
existing popular varieties such as 87A 298
6907(17.2 and 10.85) CoC 01061 (17.7 and
(CoA 92081) along with resistance to red rot
10.44) and CoA 92081 (16.7 and 11.63) when
disease which is endemic in the coastal belt.
tested in East coast zone of Anakapalle.
The 2006A 102 is high yielding, medium
Number of millable canes at harvest in 2006A
tillering early maturing clone. It has 10-12 cm
102 (76.66 thousands/ha) was significantly
long, cylindrical internodes and possesses
superior over the three checks Co 6907 (74.8
medium oval bud. Cane is chrome yellow with
thousands/ha), CoC 01061(73.89 purple tinge with out any wax coating which
thousands/ha) and CoA 92081 (70.44 turns to purple colour on exposure. It is
thousands/ha). It is resistant to all three suitable for irrigated conditions.
pathotypes of red rot both under natural and
artificially inoculated conditions (cotton swab Materials and Methods
method). By the plug method, this clone The promising early sugarcane genotypes
showed resistant to two pathotypes( Cf 04 and CoA 12321, CoA 12322, CoA 12323, CoOr
Cf 05) and moderately resistant to one patho 12346, CoV 12356 along with zonal checks Co
type (cf 06) . It was resistant to wilt, 6907, CoC 01061 and CoA 92081 were planted
susceptible to smut and moderately resistant at 120 cm spacing during first week of March,
to YLD (Yellow Leaf Disease). The clone can 2016 at Regional Agricultural Research

Performance of Elite Early Sugarcane Genotypes in North Coastal Zone of Andhra Pradesh
V.Gouri, A.Appalaswamy, N.Rajkumar and M.Bharathalakshmi

Station, Anakapalle under AICRP (sugarcane). Cane Yield (t/ha)

The experiment was laid out in RBD with Cane yield per plot was recorded at
three replications. All the recommended harvest expressed in t/ha and presented in
package of practices are adapted for raising a Table 1. Cane yield of new early sugarcane
good and healthy crop. Data were recorded on genotypes under irrigated conditions varied
morphological characters, number of millable significantly. The promising clone 2006A 102
canes at harvest, juice quality were (CoA12322) gave significantly higher cane
determined as per the standard procedure yield of 89.8 t/ha as compared to the other
(Meade and chen, 1971). Cane yield was new sugarcane genotypes and also check
recorded at harvest on plot basis and varieties viz., Co 6907(86.1 t/ha), CoC 01061
expressed in tons / hectare, sugar yield was (84.1 t/ha), CoA 92081(77.8 t/ha) but found on
estimated based on cane yield and CCS par with CoV 12356 (87.1 t/ha).
percent. Reaction to diseases viz., red rot,
smut and wilt under natural and artificial Juice Sucrose (%)
conditions was recorded against three
Percent juice sucrose in 2006A 102 (18.0)
pathotypes (Cf 419, Cf 671 and Cf 997) of red
was on par with Co 6907 (17.2) CoC 01061
rot in Andhra Pradesh. Statistical analysis of
(17.7) and CoA 92081 (16.7). Significant
data was carried our as per Panse and
differences in juice sucrose (%) were not
Sukhatme (1978).
observed with different new early genotypes.
Results and Discussions
The data on cane yield, yield Commerical cane sugar per cent (%)
components, juice quality parameters, and Commercial cane sugar per cent in
reaction to red rot, wilt, smut and YLD and 2006A 102 (11.1) was on par with Co
chief morphological characteristics are 6907(10.85) CoC 01061 (10.44) and CoA 92081
furnished in table 1,2 and 3 respectively. (11.63).

Initial soil analysis

Sugar yield (t/ha)
Initial soil analysis was done. The
Sugar yield was calculated based on
experimental soil is neutral in pH (7.46),
CCS% and cane yield. Sugar yield in 2006A
normal in E.C (0.18 dS/m), low in organic
102 (9.7) was on par with Co 6907(9.0) CoC
carbon (056%), low in available nitrogen (241
01061 (8.8) and CoA 92081 (9.0).
kg N/ha), high in available phosphorus (66.5
kg/ha) and high in available potassium (242
Reaction to Diseases
kg K2O/ha).
Reaction of 2006A 102 along with other
Number of millable canes/ha zonal varieties and checks for red rot, wilt,
Number of millable canes at harvest smut and YLD was studied under artificially
varied significantly among different sugarcane inoculated conditions. The Clone 2006A 102
genotypes (Table 1). At harvest Co A 12322 resistant to all three pathotypes of red rot
genotype recorded significantly higher number both under natural and artificially inoculated
of millable canes of 76.66/ha as compared to conditions (cotton swab method) and under
all other zonal clones and check varieties Co plug method resistant to two pathotypes and
C 01061 (74.8 thousands/ha), Co A 92081(73.9 moderately resistant to one pathotype (cf 06).
thousands/ha) and Co 6907 (74.4 It is resistant to wilt, susceptible to smut and
thousands/ha) but found on par with Co V moderately resistant to YLD (Yellow Leaf
12356 (75.6 thousands/ha). Disease).

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Table 1: Performance of 2006A 102 clone in yield and juice quality during 20016-17
Shoot Cane Juice Sugar
Germination CCS
Treatment population at NMC/ha yield sucrose yield
(%) (%)
180 DAP (t/ha) (%) (t/ha)
CoA12321 (2006 A 64) 79.8 1,19,791 75,000 85.8 16.3 10.13 8.7
CoA12322 (2006 A 102) 77.4 1,05,902 76,667 89.8 18.0 11.1 9.7
CoA12323 (2006 A 223) 82.2 86,954 76,112 86.9 18.4 11.67 10.4
Co or 12346 89.5 1,28,093 70,833 76.9 16.2 10.43 8.0
CoV12356 75.6 1,23,031 75,556 87.1 17.1 10.43 9.0
Co 6907 86.1 1,27,546 74,800 86.1 17.2 10.85 9.3
CoC01061 76.3 1,21,643 73,890 84.1 17.7 10.44 8.8
Co A92081 82.2 96,065 70,445 77.8 16.7 11.63 9.0
SEm  4.4 5658 544.0 0.95 0.60 – –
C.D (0.05) NS 17159 1650 2.9 NS NS –
C.V(%) 9.5 8.6 5.6 5.0 5.7 7.0 –

Table 2: Reaction of promising early sugarcane genotypes against diseases

Plug Method Cotton swab Method
S.No Variety Smut Wilt YLD
CF04 CF 06 CF05 CF04 CF06 CF05
1. CoA 12322 R MR R R R R S R MR
2. Co Or 12346 HS HS HS HS HS HS R S S
3. Co 6907 HS HS HS R HS R S S S
4. CoC 01061 R R R R R R HS MR S
5. Co A 92081 R R R R R R HS MS S

Table 3: Description of morphological characters of 2006A 102 (CoA 12322)

S.No. Name of the description Descriptor status
1. Clone number : 2006A 102 (CoA12322)
2. Parentage : 88 R 13 GC
2. Stool habit : Erect
Tillering : Medium (5-7)
3. Stem colour (exposed) : Purple
4. Stem colour (undexposed) : Chrome yellow with purple tinge
5. Ivory marks : Absent
6. Weather marks (Corky patches) : Absent
7. Interned shape : Cylindrical
8. Internode alignment : Straight
9. Pithiness : Absent
10. Split on internode : Absent
11. Wax on internode : Absent

Performance of Elite Early Sugarcane Genotypes in North Coastal Zone of Andhra Pradesh
V.Gouri, A.Appalaswamy, N.Rajkumar and M.Bharathalakshmi

S.No. Name of the description Descriptor status

12. Node swelling : Present
13. Bud size : Medium
14. Bud shape : Oval
15. Bud cushion : Absent
16. Bud grove : Absent
17. Growth ring colour : Pink (exposed)
18. Leaf length : Medium
19. Leaf width : Medium
20. Lamina colour : Green
21. Leaf carriage shape : Open errect
22. Leaf sheath colour : Green
23. Leaf sheath waxiness : Absent
24. Leaf sheath spines : Absent
25. Leaf sheath clasping : Loose
26. Dewlap colour : Yellowish green
27. Presence/absence of ligular process : Present
28. Shape of the ligule : Strap

The clone CoOr 12346 highly susceptible and Co A 12323.The promising pre released
to red rot, succeptable to wilt and YLD and early sugarcane genotype 2006A 102 (CoA
resistant to smut. Check varieties CoC 01061 12322) with erect growth habit, desirable
and CoA 92081 resistant to red rot, highly morphological characters, higher cane, sugar
susceptible to smut and susceptible to YLD. yield and resistance to red rot can be
Co 6907 highly susceptible to red rot and recommended for commercial cultivation in
susceptible to smut, wilt and YLD. Andhra Pradesh under different sugar factory
operational zones.
Study on performance of new promising
early sugarcane genotypes viz., Co A 12321, 1. Meade GP and J.C.P.Chain 1971 cane hand
Co A 12322, Co A 12323, Co Or 12346, Co V book 10th edition Joh wiley and sone. New
12356 along with the check varieties Co 6907,
Co C 01061 and Co A 92081 under irrigated 2. Nair N V 2009. Current scenario of sugarcane
agriculture and sugar industry in the
conditions at Regional Agricultural Research
country.In Sugarcane production technology,
Station, Anakapalle during 2016-17 season NFCSF, New Delhi and SBI, Coimbatoore.
indicated that among the five new early pp:1-7.
genotypes under test CoA12322 proved 3. Panse VG and PV Sukhatune 1978. Statistical
superior (89.8 t/ha) as compared to other methods for Agricultural workers. ICAR
genotypes but found on par with Co V 12356 Publications, New Delhi PP:347.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


N.Sabitha*, K.R. Tagore and M. Hemanth Kumar
*Scientist (Plant Breeding) Agricultural research station,
Perumallapalle - 517505, A.P
Email: nsabitha84@gmail.com

Abstract yield potential, desirable juice sucrose and

Testing of eight pre release clones against the tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses.
three standards CoC 671, Co 85004 and Co Material and methods
94008 at Agricultural Research Station, Eight pre release clones along with three
Perumallapalle during 2016-17 resulted in standards CoC 671, Co 85004 and Co 94008
identification of three promising clones. The were tested in a RBD with three replications
clones viz Co 13003, CoN 13071 and MS at Agricultural Research Station,
13081 with higher mean values for stalk Perumallapalle during 2016-17. Each clone
diameter, stalk length, single cane weight, was planted in eight rows of six meters
moderate to higher percent juice sucrose and length. A spacing of 80 cm between two rows
NMC registered higher CCS yield and cane was adopted. Recommended agronomic
yield. Thus, these three clones may be useful practices viz., weed control, fertilizer
for commercial cultivation in farmers’ fields application, irrigation, cultural and plant
after thorough testing. protection measures were followed in raising
a healthy crop. Data were recorded on percent
Sugarcane is an important commercial juice sucrose, cane yield, number of millable
crop of the residuary state of Andhra Pradesh. canes, length of millable canes, cane diameter,
It is grown in an area of 1.20 lakh ha single cane weight at harvest. Juice sucrose
primarily in Visakhapatnam, Chittoor, West at harvest was recorded as per the standard
Godavari, Krishna, East Godavari, procedures (Meade and Chen 1956). Sugar
Vizianagaram and Srikakulam districts under yield (CCS) was estimated based on cane yield
irrigated and late planted rainfed conditions. and CCS percent. The data were analyzed
Vertical increase in cane productivity is following standard statistical procedures
important so as to make cane cultivation more (Panse and Sukhatme, 1978).
remunerative and viable. Selection and
Results and Discussion
cultivation of high yielding clones with high
Analysis of data recorded indicated the
juice sucrose coupled with tolerance to biotic
existence of significant differences among
and abiotic tolerance would help in increasing
clones for all the characters studied(Table 1).
cane productivity levels. Presently choice of
clones is very much limited for different I. CCS yield (t/ha)
farming situations. Only two clones viz., 87 A CCS yield ranged from 12.36 (Co 13004)
298 (Viswamitra) and 2003 V 46 ( Bharani ) to 18.94 (Co 13003) with a mean yield of 15.83
are under extensive cultivation. However, t/ha. Two test clones Co 13003 (18.94 t/ha),
these two clones are also susceptible to yellow CoN 13071 (18.61 t/ha), MS 13081 (17.47 t/ha)
leaf syndrome besides varietal degeneration. over the best standards Co85004 (15.59 t/ha)
Therefore, there is an urgent need for and Co 94008 (14.67 t/ha) recorded
identifications of suitable clones with high significantly higher CCS yield. However, Co

Performance of Pre-release Sugarcane Clones at Agricultural Research Station, Perumallapalle
N.Sabitha, K.R. Tagore and M. Hemanth Kumar

13002, Co 13003, CoN 13071, CoSnk 13102 Co85004. The trait ranged from 15.53 (Co
and MS 13081 recorded significantly higher 13004) to 19.40 percent (CoC 671) with a
CCS yield over CoC 671. mean of 17.51 percent.

II. Cane Yield (t/ha) IV. Number of Millable canes (000/ha)

It ranged from 97.8 (CoC 671) to 147.6
It ranged from 80.1 (CoSnk 13102) to
t/ ha (CoN 13071) with a mean of 124.50 t/ha.
108.50 (Co 13002) with a mean of 94.14. None
Among the test clones CoN 13071 (147.60
of the test clones registered significantly more
t/ha) MS 13081(145.70 t/ha) recorded
number of millable cane at harvest over Co
significantly higher cane yield over the best
85004 but Co 13002 and CoN 13071 recorded
standard Co 85004 (130.0 t/ha) while CoN
NMC at harvest on par with the best
13002, Co 13003, CoN 13071, CoN 13072 and
standard Co 85004 (107.30 thousands / ha).
MS 13081 over standard Co 94008 (108.60
t/ha) and all the clones tested except Co 13004
V. Stalk length (cm)
recorded significantly higher cane yield over
CoC 671. Stalk length ranged from 252.00 (CoC
671) to 351.2 (MS 13081) among the clones
III. Percent juice sucrose with a mean of 299.60 cm. All the clones
None of the test clones recorded recorded significantly higher stalk length
significantly higher juice sucrose over the best when compared to CoC 671 (252.00 cm).
standard (CoC 671 and Co 94008). However, However, only one clone MS 13081 (351 cm)
Co 13003, Co Snk 13102 , Co 13002, CoN was found superior to Co 94008 (311.7 cm)
13071 and CoN 13072 were found superior to and Co85004 (312.30 cm).


Juice NMC Single
Cane/ Stalk Stalk
CCS sucrose (‘000/ha) cane
S.No. Clone(s) yield length diameter
(t/ha) (%) at At weight
(t/ha) (cm) (cm)
10 month harvest (Kg)
1. Co13002 16.08 128.90 17.40 108.50 283.30 2.73 1.20
2. Co13003 18.94 138.10 18.82 88.67 299.00 2.70 1.50
3. Co13004 12.36 110.70 15.53 89.86 306.00 3.0 1.30
4. CoN 13071 18.68 147.60 17.30 104.50 297.70 2.80 1.40
5. CoN 13072 15.61 126.10 16.90 100.41 295.30 2.77 1.27
6. CoSnk 13101 16.34 116.10 19.10 97.23 283.70 2.73 1.20
7. CoSnk 13102 14.49 119.70 16.59 80.10 303.30 3.17 1.37
8. MS 13081 17.47 145.70 16.51 85.58 351.20 3.53 1.50
9. CoC671(c) 13.85 97.80 19.40 81.78 252.00 2.70 1.20
10. Co 94008 (c) 14.67 108.60 18.50 91.63 311.70 2.60 1.20
11. Co 85004 (c) 15.59 130.00 16.56 107.30 312.30 2.50 1.20
Mean 15.83 124.50 17.51 94.14 299.60 2.84 1.30
CD at 5% 1.70 13.40 0.20 8.90 16.10 0.10 0.10
CV (%) 6.50 7.40 0.80 6.30 3.30 2.40 4.40

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

VI. Stalk Diameter (cm) sucrose, cane yield and thus recorded higher
Stalk diameters ranged from 2.50 (Co CCS yield at harvest while the clone Co 13003
85004) to 3.53 (MS 13081) with a mean value with higher stalk length, stalk diameter,
of 2.84 cm. Two clones MS 13081 (3.53 cm) single cane weight, percent juice sucrose and
and CoSnk 13102 (3.17 cm) registered higher cane yield coupled with moderate NMC
cane diameters. recorded higher CCS yield. The clone MS
13081 with more stalk length, stalk
VII. Single cane weight(kg)
diameters, single cane weight and moderate
The clones Co 13003 (1.50 kg), CoN
percent juice and NMC recorded higher cane
13071 (1.40 kg) , CoSnk 13102 (1.37 kg) , MS
yield and CCS yield.
13081 (1.5 kg) recorded significantly higher
single cane weight. It varied from 1.20 (Co
13002, Co Snk 13101) to 1.50 kg (Co 13003
and MS 13081) with a mean value of 1.30 kg. 1. Meade G P and Chen J C P 1977. Cane
sugar Handbook -10th edition. John Wiley and
Conclusions Sons, New york
The clones CoN 13071 and superior for 2. Panse V G and P V Sukhatme 1978.
stalk length, stalk diameter, single cane Statistical methods for Agricultural Research
weight, NMC at harvest, Percent juice workers ICAR, New Delhi pp: 378

SNK 09211 (CoSnk 15102): AN EARLY HIGH SUGAR
Sanjay B. Patil, Priyanka P.L., Naveenkumar B.G. Devaraj R. and B.T.Nadagouda
Agricultural Research Station, Sankeshwar-591314 Karnataka State (India),

Abstract et al., 2014). Major sugarcane area in this

SNK 09211 a hybrid progeny obtained from important region is highly flower inductive
cross Co 86032 X Co 86250, is identified as leading to moderate productivity, shorter
most promising early high sugar variety with crushing season and fodder scarcity (Patil et
erect, non/late sparse flowering habbit making al., 2015 and 2016).
ideal candidate for fodder security in the Under current scenario of climate
region. The non spiny loose leaf sheath change, profuse flowering in commercial
clasping feature makes it harvester friendly. varieties is becoming major threat for
The solid and non pithy canes with early economic sustenance of sugar/jaggery industry
sugar accumulation behavior make it ideally and growers. Particularly early high sugar
suitable for both early and extended crushing. varieties viz., CoC 671, Co 94012, Co 85002,
The profuse tillering and fast growing medium
Co 92005, Co 92020 etc adopted in northern
thick, tall canes with longer internodes
Karnataka are early profuse flowerers
containing better fibre amenable for higher
limiting their potential sugar / jaggery
baggase yield leading to better cogeneration
industrial utility (Patil et al.,2011).
efficiency. The early high total sugars and
sucrose accumulation leads to better jaggery Further, with cyclic sugar crisis, industry
and sugar yields. It also recorded excellent is compelled to look for productivity
jaggery quality parameters including enhancement of other products like ethanol,
organoleptic features compared to best jaggery fibre (co-gen power and paper) etc. without
standards Co 92005 and CoC 671. Overall affecting sugar recovery levels for economic
across diverse locations and seasons, the sustenance. On the other hand cane growers
variety recorded 33%, 21%, 21%, 8% and 35% are demanding productive non spiny and non
superiority for cane, sugar, jaggery, fiber and flowering dual purpose (sugar and jaggery)
fodder yield respectively over best standards commercial varieties for their economic and
CoC 671. Further, the variety confirmed better fodder security (Patil et al., 2016 and
sugar recovery under LSD’s and small mill Guddadmath et al., 2012).
tests/lab quality tests over best standard CoC
671, across sugar factories located in diverse Hence, overall to sustain economy of
agro ecologies of northern Karnataka. sugar complexes and sugarcane cultivation,
there is a need of non spiny photothermo
Introduction insensitive multipurpose commercial varieties
Sugarcane is an important agro with better total sugars, fibre, fodder and
industrial crop of the country, wherein jaggery productivity. Concerted research
northern Karnataka contributes significantly efforts through directed breeding succeeded in
to the sugar recovery (%) and sugar development of such ideal variety SNK 09211
production with an area of 3 lakh ha having with early high total sugars combining desired
55 sugar factories spread across wide range traits of current sugar industry complexes
of agro ecological diversity (Anon, 2016, Patil (Patil et al., 2016 and Priyanka 2014).

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Material and methods for its suitability to jaggery industry wherein

The population derived from 48 crosses it recorded 21 percent superiority for jaggery
(including PCs and GCs) were assessed yield over CoC 671. The results indicate its
through systematic progeny evaluation across acceptability for jaggery production as it also
clonal stages over diverse environments, in recorded on par jaggery recovery and over all
augumented design (Federer 1956). The acceptability (OAA) index (%) compared to
advanced 20 productive clones along with 5 jaggery standards CoC 671 and Co 92005
commercial standards were evaluated (Table.1).
extensively across flower inductive The promising clone SNK 09211 can also
environments in RBD.The clones were scored be better candidate for ethanol and
for cane, sugar, jaggery, fibre and fodder cogeneration of power, as it has got better
productivity and juice/jaggery quality total sugars and fibre (%). The variety
parameters. Further, the promising clones exhibited better field keeping quality traits
were tested in large scale involving like non/late sparse flowering, non spiny leaf
progressive farmers and sugar industry to sheath with solid non pithy canes and easy
confirm their commercial acceptability. detrashability (data not presented) (Fig.1a,
b.c.d. and e). Apart from productivity traits,
Results and Discussion when the clone was looked for farmers and
The clone SNK 09211 performed better harvesters friendly traits, the clone being non
for cane and sugar yield as it recorded 33 and spiny non flowering, produced 38% higher
21 percent improvement respectively over best fodder yield, which is an additional economic
standard CoC 671. The clone was also looked advantage.

Table 1: Performance of SNK 09211 compared to best standard CoC 671 for various
productivity parameters pooled mean across locations (6) and seasons (2012-13 to
Cane CCS CCS Sucrose Brix Fodder Jaggery Jaggery Jaggery
Flow Fibre
Genotype yield Yield (%) (%) (%) yield yield recovery OAA
ering (%) (%)
(t/ha) (t/ha) 10M 10 M 10 M (t/ha) (T/ha) (%)10M (%)
SNK 09211 123.36 17.22 13.9 20.6 22.32 3.75 14.2 20.5 16.32 12.56 57.03

CoC 671 92.47 1419 14.0 21.4 22.40 64.20 13.0 14.8 13.44 12.88 65.03

Table 2: Performance of SNK 09211 under ratoon crop 2015-16 across two locations
Cane yield (t/ha) CCS yield (t/ha) CCS % Sucrose %
S % S S S
N Mean Impt. N Mean N Mean N Mean
SNK 116* 101* 108.5 18.7* 16.0* 17.35 16.2 15.8 16.0 23.0* 22.1 22.55
09 211
CoC 69 74 71.5 51.7 10.4 10.2 10.3 68.44 15.0 13.8 14.4 21.6 19.6 20.6
CD 5% 17 15 2.4 2.5 0.9 2.2
CV % 11 9 8.5 11.7 3.1 8.1 2.6 7.1

SNK 09211 (CoSnk 15102): An Early High Sugar Multipurpose Sugarcane Variety For Northern Karnataka
Sanjay B. Patil, Priyanka P.L., Naveenkumar B.G. Devaraj R. and B.T.Nadagouda

The ratoon performance of the variety is Table 3: Performance of SNK 09211 under
adoptive trials/LSD’s for Sugar Recovery (%) at
excellent interms of sugarcane productivity and
10 month during 2014-15 and 2015-16
sucrose content (%) compared to best standard
CoC 671 (Table.2). The earliness in sugar Sl.No Factory Season
671 09211
recovery of the clone was also confirmed and
1. DKSSK Sugars, 2015-16 12.1 12.3
demonstrated through large scale adoptive Chikkodi TQ
trials involving sugar industries representing 2. Ugar Sugars, 2014-15 12.5 12.1
diverse agro ecologies of northern Karnataka UgarKhurd,
wherein it exhibited significant improvement in Athani Tq
productivity and field keeping quality with 2015-16 12.0 12.5

slightly better sugar recovery than CoC 671 3. Nandi Sugars, 2015-16 9.4 9.8
(Table 3). The clone is moderately resistant to Hosur Vijaypur
major insect pests (viz., early shoot borer and
Mean 11.5 11.6
sugarcane woolly aphid) and diseases (viz.,
% 0.86
Rust, smut and redroot). Improve

(a) Clean erect canes (b) Loose clasping of leaves (c) Clean self detrashable canes

(d) Comparative jaggery lumps of CoC 671 (e) Field view with standard CoC 671 (flowered
and SNK 09211 spiny) of SNK 09211(non flowering non spiny)

Fig. 1. Field view and features of SNK 09211 compared with CoC 671

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Conclusions Karnataka sugarcane R & D workers meet

held at Belagavi.
The variety SNK 09211 is identified as
5. Patil Sanjay B., Guddadamath S.G., Govindraj
most promising early high sugared productive
P. and Naik K.S. (2011b) Breeding sugarcane
clone for multipurpose industrial utility. The for photo theromo insensitivity. Proceedings of
variety combined industry, farmer and IS -2011 held at New Delhi. pp: 556-560
harvester friendly traits for sustaining 6. Priyanka P.L., Genetic Variability for
economy of sugar complexes and growers. Flowering and yield parameters in Sugarcane
(Saccharum officinarum). (2014). Thesis
References dissertation submitted to University of
1. Anonymous (2016) Sugar India year book, Agricultural Sciences Dharwad.
Sugar statistics 163 -283 7. Sanjay B. Patil, Priyanka P.L., Naveenkumar
2. Federer, W.T. 1956. Augmented (or hoonuiaku) B.G. and Devaraj R. Breeding varieties for
designs. BU-74-M.Feb. multipurpose industrial utility to sustain
3. Guddadamath S. G.., B. Sanjay Patil and B M sugarcane agriculture in northern Karnataka.
Khadi. (2012).Genetic enhancement of Poster presented in International conferences
sugarcane for organic jaggery production. and exhibition on Sugar Value Chain – Vision
Proceedings of the International Symposium on 2025 Sugar held at VSI, Pune during Nov.
New Paradigms in Sugarcane Research 13-16, 2016.
(ISNPSR), 15-18 October 2012, pp-141. SBI, 8. Patil Sanjay B.,Varietal Pre release proposal
Coimbatore, India of SNK 09211, submitted to UAS Dharwad.
4. Patil Sanjay B., 2014 and 2016, Performance
of new sugarcane varieties. Northern

M.Charumathi, 2A. Appala Swamy, 3D.Adilakshmi, 4N.Rajkumar,
M.Bharatha lakshmi and 6N.V. Naidu
Senior Scientist (Plant Breeding), RARS, Anakapalle, Email: mmcakp@gmail.com,
Principal Scientist (Plant Breeding), RARS, Anakapalle,
Senior Scientist (Plant Breeding), RARS, Anakapalle, 4Scientist (Plant Pathology), RARS, Anakapalle,
Principal Scientist (Sugarcane), RARS, Anakapalle, 6Director of Research, ANGRAU, Guntur

Abstract and for smut moderately susceptible reaction

Station yield tirals were conducted with seven (2011A 67) and moderately resistant reaction
Midlate clones viz., 2011A 11, 2011A 67, (2011A 313) under artificially inoculated
2011A 222, 2011A 277, 2011A 294, 2011A 313, conditions.
2011A 319 along with three standards Co Introduction
7219, 83V 15 and Co 86249 during 2015-16
Testing of clones or varieties is a
to 2016-17 at RARS, Anakapalle. The data
continuous process and release of varieties
obtained from two plant and one ratoon crop
suitable for different agro-climatic region will
experiments on NMC, Cane yield, CCS yield,
definitely pay positively on the recovery point
per cent juice sucrose and yield components
of view as well as in sugarcane production .
were statistically analysed and compared. The
The Mid late varieties released from Andhra
results revealed that the clones 2011A 313 and
Pradesh viz., Co 7805, Co 7219, CoT 8201 and
2011A 67 registered significantly higher NMC,
Co 7706 combines with high cane yield and
cane yield , CCS yield and Per cent juice
resistance to red rot disease. They are not
sucrose. The per cent increase over the
quality canes in terms of sucrose content.
standards for NMC in standards Co 7219
Very few mid late clones are grown by the
(5.53, 8.14), 83V 15 (2.88 & 5.43) and Co
farmers and sugar factories and for crushing
86249 (7.41 & 10.07) for Cane yield, Co 7219
sufficient cane is not available in the late
(3.74 & 8.69), 83V 15 (3.30 & 8.22) and Co
crushing season results in low crushing
86249 (15.52 & 8.90). For CCS yield, Co 7219
capacity and sugar recovery of the factories.
(19.66 & 20.64), 83V 15 (7.82 &8.70) and Co
There is a need of midlate maturing, high
86249 (24.29 & 25.30) and for Per cent juice
sugared varieties having high tonnage, good
sucrose , Co 7219 (6.92 & 8.48) 83V15 (3.58
ratooning ability and disease resistance to
& 5.09) and Co 86249 (10.25 & 11.86) in the
meet the challenges for improving sugar
two promising clones were found to be
significantly superior over the standards in
both the plant crops and one ratoon crop Hence, the research efforts were made to
respectively. The clone 2011A 313 and 2011A identify mid late maturing clones with
67 recorded higher stalk length (304 and 289 sustained high cane and sugar yields coupled
cm), stalk diameter (3.52 and 3.67 cm) and with good ratooning ability and disease
single cane weight (1.51 and 1.29 kg) resistance to meet the challenges for
respectively. The two promising clones were improving sugar recovery at Regional
resistant to all races of red rot (Cf 04,Cf 06 Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle.
and Cf 05) under nodal method of inoculation
while moderately resistant reaction for Cf 04 Materials and Methods
and moderately susceptible reaction for Cf 06 Seven clones viz., 2011A 11, 2011A 67,
by the clones under plug method of inoculation 2011A 222, 2011A 277, 2011A 294, 2011A

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

313, 2011A 319 along with three standards,i.e. standards for NMC over two plant crops and
Co 7219, 83V15 and Co 86249 were evaluated one ratoon crop Table 2(a).
in Station Yield trials at Regional Agricultural
Data on cane yield analysed statistically
Research Station, Anakapalle during 2015-16
and presented in Table 2(b). The clones 2011A
to 2016-17 The trial was planted in RBD with
313 (99.73 t/ha) followed by 2011A 67 (95.19
three replications. Recommended dose of t/ha) recorded significantly higher cane yield
fertilizers, 112 Kg N + 100 Kg P2O5 + 120 Kg and found to be superior over three standards
K2O/ha were applied. Irrigations were viz., Co 7219 (91.76 t/ha), 83V 15 (92.15 t/ha)
accorded at weekly intervals during formative and Co 86249 (82.40 t/ha) respectively. The
phase of the crop. Weeding, earthing up, T.T per cent increase over the standards in two
propping were carried out as per the promising clones 2011A 67 and 2011A 313
recommendation. Data on number of millable was 3.74 and 8.69 (Co 7219), 3.30 and 8.22
canes, length of cane, cane diameter, single (83V 15) and 15.52 and 8.90 (Co 86249)
cane weight and cane yield per plot were respectively and found to be significantly
recorded at harvest. Juice sucrose was superior over the three standards over the
determined at harvest (12th month) following two plants and one ratoon crop.
the standard procedure (Meade and Chen,
1977). Estimated CSS yield was determined Data on CCS yield analysed statistically
based on CCS per cent and cane yield. and presented in Table 2(c). The clones 2011A
Statistical analysis was performed as per the 313 (13.62 t/ha) and 2011A 67 (13.51 t/ha) are
procedure of Panse and Sukhatme (1978). found to be significantly superior over the
Reaction to diseases viz., red rot and Smut three standards Co 7219 (11.29 t/ha), 83V 15
both under natural and artificial conditions (12.53 t/ha) and Co 86249 (10.87 t/ha). The
was recorded against the mixed inoculum of per cent increase over the standards in 2011A
three predominant patho types (Cf 419, Cf 671 67 and 2011A 313 was 19.66 and 20.64 (Co
and Cf 997) for red rot in Andhra Pradesh. 7219), 7.82 and 8.70 (83V 15) and 24.29 and
Reaction to smut under artificially inoculated 25.30 (Co 86249) and were found to be highly
conditions was evaluated. The morphological significant over the standards in both the
description of the genotypes are presented in plant crops and one ratoon crop.
Table 1. Data on per cent juice sucrose was
Results and Discussion analysed statistically and presented in Table
2(d). The clones 2011A 313 (20.85) and 2011A
Data on NMC, Cane yield and CCS yield
67 (20.55) are found to be superior over the
and Per cent juice sucrose were analysed
standards Co 7219 (19.22), 83V 15 (19.84) and
statistically and presented in table 2(a) to
Co 86249 (18.64). The per cent increase over
2(d). The pooled analysis revealed that the
the checks in 2011A 67 and 2011A 313 was
clone 2011A 313 recorded maximum NMC
6.92 and 8.48 (Co 7219) 3.58 and 5.09 (83V
(79.01 thousands/ha) followed by 2011A 67
15) and 10.25 and 11.86 (Co 86249). The
(77.10 thousands/ha) when compared to the
clones were found to be significantly superior
standards viz., Co 7219 (73.06 thousand /ha).
over the standards for per cent juice sucrose
83V 15 (74.94 thousands/ha) and Co 86249
in two plant and one ratoon crop.
(71.78 thousands/ha). The per cent increase
over the standards in 2001A 67 and 2011A Data on yield components were analysed
313 was 5.53 and 8.14 (Co 7219) 2.88 and 5.43 and presented in Table (3). The two clones
(83V 15) and 7.41 and 10.07 (Co 86249) i.e., 2011A 67 (289 cm), 2011A 313 (304 cm)
respectively and found to be superior over the recorded higher stalk length when compared

Promising Mid Late Sugarcane Clones Suitable For Andhra Pradesh
M. Charumathi, A. Appala Swamy, D. Adilakshmi, N. Rajkumar, M. Bharatha lakshmi and N.V. Naidu

Table 1: Description of morphological characters of 2011A 67 and 2011A 313

S.No Name of the Descriptor 2011A 67 2011A 313

1. Stool habit Semi erect Erect
2. Stem colour (Exposed) Deep yellowish green Greenish black with black waxy
3. Stem colour (un exposed) Greenish yellow with black Greenish with black waxy coating
waxy coating
4. Internode shape Cylindrical Cylindrical
5. Wax on internodes Black waxy coating Light waxy coating
6. Bud size Small Medium
7. Bud shape Round Oval
8. Leaf length Long Medium
9. Leaf width Broad Medium
10. Lamina colour Green Green
11. Leaf sheath clasping Loose Loose
12. Ligular process Present Absent
13. Per cent flowering Absent Absent

Table 2(a): Performance of promising midlate clones for NMC (000/ha)

I Plant II Plant Ratoon Percent increase over
Clone Mean
(2015-16) (2016-17) (2016-17) standards
2011A67 82.09 82.67 66.54 77.10 – –
2011A313 87.81 90.33 58.89 79.01 – –
Co7219 65.51 98.08 55.58 73.06 5.53 8.14
83V15 77.48 96.67 50.67 74.94 2.88 5.43
Co 86249 74.64 92.23 48.46 71.78 7.41 10.07
CD (0.05) 12.81 7.52 7.60
CV (%) 10.45 8.02 7.19

Table 2(b): Performance of promising midlate clones for Cane yield (t/ha)
Cane Yield(t/ha)
I Plant II Plant Ratoon Percent increase over
Clone Mean
(2015-16) (2016-17) (2016-17) standards
2011A67 76.83 120.752 88.00 95.19 – –
2011A313 102.41 112.41 84.36 99.73 – –
Co7219 109.31 108.33 57.63 91.76 3.74 8.69
83V15 98.77 114.00 63.67 92.15 3.30 8.22
Co 86249 93.76 100.00 53.44 82.40 15.52 8.90
CD (0.05) 27.23 10.72 8.55
CV (%) 16.50 8.77 8.03

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Table 2(c): Performance of promising midlate clones for CCS yield (t/ha)
CCS Yield(t/ha)
I Plant II Plant Ratoon Percent increase over
Clone Mean
(2015-16) (2016-17) (2016-17) standards
2011A67 11.32 16.32 12.88 13.51 – –
2011A313 14.44 16.97 9.44 13.62 – –
Co7219 10.12 14.47 9.28 11.29 19.66 20.64
83V15 13.59 15.12 8.87 12.53 7.82 8.70
Co 86249 13.28 12.05 7.28 10.87 24.29 25.30
45CD 4.12 1.60 1.11
CV (%) 18.90 6.33 6.88

Table 2(d): Performance of promising midlate clones for Per cent juice sucrose
Per cent Juice Sucrose
I Plant I Plant II Plant Ratoon Percent increase over
Clone Mean
(2015-16) (2015-16) (2016-17) (2016-17) standards
2011A67 52.08 21.16 20.18 20.32 20.55 – –
2011A313 87.81 20.24 20.81 21.50 20.85 – –
Co7219 65.51 18.85 19.00 19.80 19.22 6.92 8.48
83V15 77.48 18.23 20.08 21.20 19.84 3.58 5.09
Co 86249 74.64 19.94 17.43 18.56 18.64 10.25 11.86
CD (0.05) 12.81 6.90 0.55 0.75

CV (%) 10.45 4.90 1.65 2.18

to three standards, Co 7219 (289 cm), 83V Data on reaction to red rot and smut
15(268 cm) and Co 86249 (261 cm) and were were presented in Table 4.The clones 2011A
found to on par with the standards. For stalk 67 and 2011A 313 were found to be resistant
diameter, 2011A 67 (3.52 cm) and 2011A 313 under nodal method of inoculation but
(3.67cm) recorded maximum cane diameter moderately resistant to Cf 04 and susceptible
when compared to three standards viz., Co reaction to Cf 06 and Cf 05 under plug
7219 (2.93 cm), 83V 15 (2.74 cm) and Co method of inoculation. The clones 2011A 67
86249 (2.46 cm). Single cane weight was and 2011A 313 showed moderately resistant
maximum in 2011A 313 (1.51 kg) followed by and moderately susceptible reaction to smut
2011A 67 (1.29 kg) and found to be promising under artificially inoculated conditions.
over the three standards Co 7219 (1.11 kg),
83V 15 (1.07 kg) and Co 86249 (1.00 kg), at
harvest. All the three components were found
to be significantly superior over the three
standards when tested in the trial.

Y. kotaiah1, Pamidi Venkateswarlu2 and R Surya Rao3
1.General Manager (Agri & Admn) 2. Technical Advisor (Agriculture) 3. Chief Manager (Cane)
Nava Bharat Ventures Limited, Sugar Division, Samalkot – AP.

Abstract Egg Parasite for controlling Lepidoptera

Among the regular sugarcane pests, Early borers started during 1930-60 and later with
Shoot Borer and Internodal Borer are the Pheromone Traps, they had gained wide
major pests affecting the crop from interest in several regions, especially in South
germination to harvesting.Trichogramma Egg India from 1970 s. Still, the adoption levels
Parasites (Tricho Cards) and Pheromone traps are poor and need further refinement.
gained popularity among farmers for their
Experimented analysis
control along with sporadic adoption of
cultural and chemical control methods. There Among the regular sugarcane pests, the
is need to adjust the Tricho cards release Early Shoot BorerChiloinfuscatellus (ESB)
timing and dose according to the local is an important insect pest affecting the crop
conditions including varieties, severity and from germination to node formation (15
seasonal abundance of the borers.Further weeks)causes dead hearts, which can be
refinement and fine tuning the pheromone pulled easily and smell badly.This ESB
technologies on number of traps / ac, (Chiloinfuscatellus) completes many life
frequency of changing the traps, especially cycles during the crop duration, always
under high temperatures, low humidity and overlapping generations can be seen in the
during high velocity winds, effective dose for field during favourable field conditions to the
mass trapping and height of the trap have to insect, like moisture stress.Due to ESB
be standardized through collaborative trials. damage, loss of tiller number at initial stages
leads to less millable canes. ESB population
Introduction persist beyond 15 weeks, by which time the
Indian Sugar industry, particularly internodes form, make entry in to the stem
South Indian Sugar Industry is struggling to (internodes).This ESB rarely also damage as
sustain the cane yields in the present scenario internode borer.
of climate change and change in the farming
practices / situations. Among the biotic and The Internode Borer (INB) Chilosac
abiotic factors contributing to cane yield, the chariphagus indicus, bores in to the stem
climatic changes in temperature and humidity (internodes)from node formation (3-4 month
largely influence the pests and diseases age) till harvest (11-12 months), turns them
incidence translating to heavy reduction in thinner or shorter due to feeding from inside.
cane yields. In South India,among the Make exit holes in internodes causing dead
sugarcane pests, tissue borers are the regular heart in grownup canes. Effects of INB
pests right from the early seedling stage to damage, making holes at internodes and the
maturity and harvest. The common tissue internodes become thinner/shorter and can
borers are early shoot borer (ESB), internode break easily when heavy winds blow. Causes
borer (INB), top shoot borer and others Pink loss in cane weight/yield (field loss- about 1-3
borer & Root borer (Bhavani, 2015). Though tons/ac) and in juice quality/sugar recovery
the exploratory testing using Trichogramma (factory loss of 0.1 to 0.3 less in CCS %).

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Sugarcane ESB & INB are common and and Pheromone traps gained popularity
regular pests on sugar canesince ages and lot among farmers in amidst of the crops, more
of focus was given by researchers and so in sugarcane. Even though, the research on
recommended different biological & chemical the eco-friendly methods was initiated ages
control measures, including environmentally back and ICAR initiated projects on
friendly biological control like, parasitoids, bio-control through the promotion of
virus spray, microbials, botanical products, Trichigramma Egg Parasites by establishing
pheromone traps, cultural practices, many laboratories all over the country, the
mechanical methods, pest tolerant varieties timely availability to common farmer is
(Jhansi et al., 2013). The other chemical limited. The reasons are many which were
control and cultural practices (Trash un-attended and lost focus. The research on
Mulching, De-trashing) and mechanical
Pheromone Technology for monitoring these
methods developed were adopted by farmers
Lepidoptera Tissue Borers was initiated by
as per convenience. Even though sugarcane is
ICAR and State Universities, but, the private
being grown from ages and research on
industry monopolised the marketing of these
controlling these pests started as early as
products and further research on the
1930, still these pests are persistent, control
pheromone technology was given less priority.
is not full proof, which necessities the
Off late, thanks to the initiatives by ICAR at
continued research focus. Since, pest severity
National level and SAUs at state level for the
can differ between factory areas due to
climate, soil, variety, irrigation, manuring, importance given and focusing on this
etc., R&D at each factory level is useful for pheromone technology for monitoring, mass
fine-tuning for local optimization. trapping and for disturbing mating of the
adult moths, which may also be applicable to
Eco-Friendly Pest Control Methods sugarcane crop.
There is considerable interest and
Trichogramma Technology
demand from the farming community to be
availed with wider range of technology options Trichogrammachilonis for INB/ESB
for adopting organic and other eco-friendly and Trichogrammajaponicum for TSB are
crop protection. Biological control always recommended as egg parasites for these
needs to be adopted for pests. Whatever Lepidoptera Tissue Borers in sugarcane.
methods are chosen to control sugarcane Trichogramma egg parasites release method
pests, should also be safe for the farmer who for sugarcane borer control, kills the borer at
practices them and also avoid egg stage before it becomes a caterpillar and
disturbing/destroying the locally available hence more useful. Widely adopted in many
non-target beneficial insects like predators, countries over several decades. In India, it
parasitoids and pollinators. Further, they also was exploratory tested during 1930-60 and
can help to minimise the chemical pollution from 1970s it has gained wide interest in
of the soil, water, air environment in the several regions, especially in South India.
surrounding places. For sugarcane borers,
biocontrol with Trichogramma and use of There is lot of scope to enhance the
pheromone traps can supplement cultural impact and to demonstrate the potential
practices. by considering the issues on
Among the bio-control methods 1. Further evaluation of the Heat Tolerant
recommended for borers, release of Strains of Trichogrammasp. and
Trichogramma Egg Parasites (Tricho Cards) making them available on large scale.

Integrated Management of ESB & INB in Sugarcane Field Problems – Ground Realities – Solutions
Y. Kotaiah, Pamidi Venkateswarlu and R. Surya Rao

2. What exactly does the adult Trichotravel available online. The Indian Institute of
in the field and lay eggs for reducing the Chemical Technology (IICT), Hyderabad has
borer damage? developed the attractant (pheromone)
technology and is keen to demonstrate their
3. How many days the adults can live in
potential benefits and optimum use to be
field conditions and how many borer eggs
validated by factory level R&D. There is need
can they normally damage?
to pool the experiences & problems of Sugar
4. What precautions to be followed to avoid Factories, who are the large scale adopters of
damage to Tricho card in field? Pheromone Traps to arrive at full proof
recommendations for effective mass trapping
5. The Trichogramma spread, longevity and
of Sugarcane Tissue Borers. Collaborative
effect on further generations of insect
experiments on pheromone trap techniques
pests after the installation of the Tricho
may be planned involving R&D scientists,
Cards has to be studied by researchers
Private Companies and Factory R & D, for
in wider area.
deriving concrete solutions to the bottlenecks.
6. Whether any chemical insecticide can be
Considering all the available
sprayed soon after Tricho card release?.
technologies for the control of ESB &
If so the time gap between spraying and
INB, NBV, SD is adopting an integrated
Tricho Cards release.
approach with the following methods for
The benefit of Trichogramma releases the last five years.
had proven in research station trials so far.
1. Release of Trichograma egg parasite @
To improve the awareness and motivation for
one Cards (One CC eggs each) 4 times
adoption of this method at the factory level,
for ESB between 30 to 90 days of crop
perception scenario has to be first understood
age and 4 times for INB in Sep-Nov).
and then suitably tackled. Also there is need
to adjust the release timings and doses 2. Installation of Woto Traps @ 6 No/ac for
according to the local conditions including mass trapping of male moths.
varieties severity and seasonal abundance of
the three borers. 3. Installation of Del-Ta Traps @ 6 No/ac
for mass trapping of male moths during
Pheromone Traps summer months (April / May)
Researchers in South India have
4. Prophylactic chemical Control with
recommended environmentally friendly
Rhynaxypyr Granules (Ferterra) @
methods for pest monitoring and mass
8kg/ac at planting or at first earthingup
trapping. Pheromone traps can help in
monitoring the pest, ie. Knowing the seasonal
abundance of borer adults (moths). Also helps 5. Preventive chemical control Carbofuran
in mass-trapping of males (spent or unspent) 3G @ 12kg/ac at 2nd or 3rdearthingup
for reducing the borer infestation. The main
advantage of these Pheromone traps is The adoption of these integrated
Common traps & specific lures (Pheromone) practices by farmers is a combination of 2 to
for each borer.Though many private 4 methods and the incidence of ESB & INB
companies are marketing pheromone traps, no is minimal with the adoption of multiple
consistent and full proof field methods. But, all the methods could not
recommendations are available for mass control the pest in the moisture stressed
trapping, to match with the scientific data exposed fields.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

The adoption of different methods for the control of ESB & INB at NBV, SD, Samalkot are

S# PARTICULAR 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17 2017-18

2. TRICHO CARDS 580 1025 1920 3085 3350 2820

@ one CC/ac 4 releases (ac)

3. WOTO TRAPS @ 6/ac (ac) 955 618 540 Old traps being

4. DELTA TRAPS @ 6/ac (ac) 1500+1500

5. Ferterra Granules 332 776 1254 245 498 1019

@ 8kg/ac (ac)

6. Carbofuron 3G @ 12kg/ac (ac) 1129 1115 756

7. Trash Mulching & 560/0 964/0 1440/75 16110/21 1950/224 2026/574

Shredding (ac) 1

Based on the field experiences and pheromone evaporation is influenced by

observations made in the field and temperature (as high as 470C in this
interactions with the visiting scientists, summer) and with high wind velocity,
the following suggestions came out for the time to change the lures has to be
getting further clarity and fine tuning further examined, discussed and an
the adopting technologies. appropriate decision has to be taken.
1. Frequent irrigations to maintain But, PCI claims that their pheromone is
optimum moisture as the ESB incidence stable and active up to 60 days under
is more under water stress and in the any field temperatures.
present scorching temperatures (450C) (e) Advised to conduct at least 2 to 3
with low humidity. observational trials by each field staff, by
2. Application of Ferterra G (Rynaxypyr) not changing the lures in 1 or 2 traps in
@8kg/ac or Carbofuran 3G @ 12kg/ac each field after 3 weeks and observe the
before first earthingup (MuchaGoppu) for moth’s attraction for the next 3 weeks to
the May month sett planting take a right decision.

3. Further installation of Delta traps to the 5. Difference of opinion in the no. of traps
extent possible during the summer to be installed per acre. The
months, as it is the only method ideal to recommendation varies from 6 to 12/ac
mass trap the ESB & INB moths during and we are adopting 6/ac. It was advise
the scorching temperatures coupled with to try 6, 8, 10 & 12 traps / ac in
low humidity.. accepting farmers large fields and
observe from moth collection at weekly
4. Further suggestions were made for the
intervals during next 3 weeks to arrive
better use of the Delta Traps.
at a right decision.
(a) Periodical changing the position of the
6. The recent scientific thinking of using
traps matching to the crop height as it
different quantities of pheromone in
lures for different purposes of
(b) Change of Pheromone Lures (Rubber monitoring, mass trapping and
Septa) once in 3 weeks. (Since the disturbing mating in the process of

Integrated Management of ESB & INB in Sugarcane Field Problems – Ground Realities – Solutions
Y. Kotaiah, Pamidi Venkateswarlu and R. Surya Rao

controlling ESB & INB, came out for and fine tuning the adopting technologies on
discussion. number of traps, frequency of changing the
traps especially under high temperatures, low
(a) Lures with 3 mg are recommended from
humidity and during high velocity winds,
pest monitoring
effective dose for mass trapping and height of
(b) Lures with 10 mg are recommended for installing the trap have to be standardized
mass collection of male moths. through collaborative trials.
(c) Lures with 30 mg are recommended for Acknowledgements
disturbing moth mating.
The authors are highly thankful to the
(d) Taking the advantage of no statuary management of M/S. Nava Bharat Ventures
control over this bio-control tool, no Ltd., Sugar Division, Samalkot for providing
pheromone marketing company is infrastructural facilities for successful
indicating the concentration of the implementation of Integrated Management of
pheromone in the lures they supply. But ESB & INB in Sugarcane and to generate this
they are using around 3 mg of information. Thanks are also to the Scientists
pheromone per lure. PCI confirms the and Private Industry representatives for
recommendation of 6 traps @ 3 mg interacting on this subject and clarifying
pheromone lures per acre (18mg/ac) for doubts.
mass collection of moths.
(e) Still it is worth to examine the use of
10 mg pheromone lures for mass 1. B Bhavani, (2015) “Management of borer
complex in sugarcane”. In Training Manual,
trapping if they are available and
Training Program on Recent Advances in
commercially viable. Sugar Cane Production Technologies. Akp. pp
2. K Jhansi, K PrasadaRao and KSC Bose (2013).
Trichogramma Egg Parasites (Tricho
“Management of Shoot Borer by
Cards) and Pheromone traps gained Trichogrammachilonos”. Soubenir, Group
popularity among farmers for the control of meeting of AICRP on Sugarcane at RARS, Ajp.
sugarcane ESB & INB. Further refinement Pp 91-93.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


K. Jhansi
Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University.
Sugarcane Research Station, Vuyyuru – 521165 (A.P)

Abstract al., 1986; reported that soil application of

An experiment to evaluate different granular Gamma BHC @ 1kg a.i. /ha or sevidol 4:4 G
insecticides applied at planting for the control @ 2 kg a.i. /ha reduced the infestation of early
of early shoot borer was conducted at shoot borer. Phorate @ 25 kg /ha and
carbofuran @ 30 kg /ha when applied at the
Sugarcane Research Station, Vuyyuru .Graded
time of planting gave effective control of early
doses of three granular insecticides viz.,
shoot borer (Muzaffer et al. (2002).
chlorpyriphos (Dursban® 10 G) ,carbofuran 3G
and phorate 10G were used. Application of Materials and methods
chlorpyriphos (Dursban® 10 G) at the time of An experiment to study the effect of
planting was observed to be the most effective different granular insecticides when applied at
in reducing the infestation of early shoot borer planting for the control of early shoot borer
and given higher millable canes and cane was conducted at Sugarcane Research Station,
yield. Vuyyuru. There were seven treatments
including control replicated three times in
Keywords: Sugarcane, ESB, Chlorpyriphos
randomized block design. The plot size was
(Dursban ® 10 G)
ten rows of 10 m x 0.8 m. The application of
Out of number of insect pests infesting insecticides was done at the time of planting.
sugarcane, early shoot borer (Chilo
The details of the treatments are
infuscatellus Snell.) is an utmost damaging
pest. It attacks the crop in early stages of 1. T1- Soil application of Dursban ® 10
growth (shoot stage prior to internodes G @ 1.5 kg a. i./ha at the time planting
formation). The borer larvae enter the plants
2. T2- Soil application of Dursban ® 10
laterally by making one or more holes in the
G @ 2.0 kg a. i./ha at the time planting.
stalk and bore downwards as well as upwards
killing the growing point, there by cutting off 3. T3 – Soil application of Dursban ® 10 G
the central leaf spindle which dries up @ 2.5 kg a. i. /ha at the time planting.
forming ‘dead heart’ and after rotting it emits 4. T4 – Soil application of Dursban ® 10
an offensive odour on being pulled out. Shoot G @ 3.0 kg a. i. /ha at the time planting.
borer destroys 26 to 65 percent mother shoots
and 6.4, 27.1 and 75 percent primary, 5. T5 – Soil application of Carbofuran 3 G
secondary and tertiary tillers respectively. A @ 1.0 kg a. i. /ha at the time planting.
number of workers have estimated the loss 6. T6- Soil application of Phorate 10 G @
due to infestation of this pest in terms of yield 1.0 kg a. i. /ha at the time planting
at harvest. The loss in yield at every 5
7. T7– Untreated control.
percent is 2.5 percent. Several workers
reported that soil application of insecticides at All the agronomic practices were followed
the time of planting was effective in to harvest a good crop. The dead heart counts
controlling the early shoot borer. Hasabe et were recorded on 30, 45, 60 and 90 days after

Efficacy of Granular Insecticides Against Early Shoot Borer (Chilo Infuscaetllus Snell) In Sugarcane
K. Jhansi

planting and then cumulative percent the sugarcane yield varied significantly among
incidence of shoot borer worked. At harvest, the treatments and was significantly superior
number of millable canes, cane yield and juice to untreated check. Highest number of
quality was also recorded. millable canes of 75,001/ha were recorded in
the treatment with Dursban ® 10 G @ 3.0 kg
Results and Discussion
a.i./ha. Lowest number of millable canes of
The results presented in table-1 showed 58,073/ha was recorded in untreated control.
that the difference due to various treatments Analysis of the data revealed that there was
in respect of shoot borer infestation , number significant difference with respect to cane
of millable canes and cane yield were yield. Highest cane yield of 115.89 t/ha was
significant and non significant in case of recorded in Dursban ® 10 G @ 3.0 kg a.i./ha
percent juice sucrose.
followed by 114 69 t/ha in Dursban ® 10 G
The least cumulative percent infestation @ 2.5 kg a.i./ha and 113.54 t/ha in Dursban
of ESB (21.94) was recorded in the treatment ® 10 G @ 2.0 kg a.i./ha which were at par.
with Dursban ®10 G @ 3.0 kg a.i./ha followed Lowest cane yield of 97.36 t/ha was recorded
by 24.31 percent in Dursban® 10 G @ 2.5 kg in untreated control. Duke, 2007 also reported
a.i./ha and 24.75 percent in carbofuran 3G @ the efficacy of chlorpyriphos 10 G in reducing
1 kg a.i./ha which were at par. The lowest shoot borer incidence and increasing the
percent of 36.79 was recorded untreated number of millable canes and cane yield in
control. The difference due to various sugarcane..The percent juice sucrose was not
treatments in respect of millable canes is altered significantly due to different
significant. From the table it is evident that treatments.
Table: Efficacy of granular insecticides against early shoot borer in Sugarcane.

NMC Cane
S.no Treatment (cumulative % JS
/ha yield T/ha

1. T1 – Soil application of Dursban ® 10 G @ 28.59 73282 110.61 18.80

1.5 kg a. i. /ha at the time planting.

2. T2 – Soil application of Dursban® 10 G @ 2.0 26.35 73021 113.54 19.04

kg a. i. /ha at the time of planting.

3. T3 – Soil application of Dursban ® 10 G @ 24.31 72162 114.69 18.68

2.5 kg a. i./ ha at the time of planting.

4. T4 – Soil application of Dursban ® 10 G @ 21.94 75001 115.89 18.33

3.0 kg a. i. /ha at the time of planting.

5. T5 – Soil application of Carbofuran 3 G @ 24.75 67328 107.12 18.67

1 kg a.i./ha at the time of planting
6. T6 – Soil application of Phorate 10 G @ 27.18 71782 108.37 18.61
1.0 kg a. i. /ha at the time planting

7. T7 – Untreated control 36.79 58073 97.36 18.67

S E m 1.04 1468 2.51 0.33

C D (0.05) 3.19 4523 7.73 NS

C V% 6.60 3.60 4.00 3.00

M. Visalakshi
*Regional Agricultural Research Station (ANGRAU), Anakapalle - 531001, Andhra Pradesh, India.

Abstract Sugarcane is an important cash crop in

Field studies were conducted during 2013 and India which plays an important role in the
2014 to evaluate the efficacy of economy of the country. Among several factors
Trichogrammachilonis Ishii for management responsible for low yields, severe attack of
insect pests at early and mature stages of
of shoot borers in sugarcane in Andhra
crop are the most significant. Sugarcane shoot
Pradesh.The study showed that the timing,
borer has become a challenging pest of
frequency and rate of T. chilonis release had
sugarcane crop due to its’ habit of feeding
played a significant role in the management
inside the plant parts where sprays are
of sugarcane shoot borers. During 2013-14,
difficult to reach. Indescriminate use of
early shoot borer and internode borer recorded
pesticides kill the natural enemies resulting
significantly low with the release of T. chilonis
in flare up of pest population ( Hamburg and
@ 75,000/ha/release, 6 times from 30 days
Guest, 1997). Biological control of early shoot
after planting and 2 times at node formation
borer, Chiloinfuscatellus (Snelle) and
at weekly interval (2.54% and 1.99%) followed
internode borer, Chilosacchariphagusindicus
by release of T. chilonis @ 50,000/ha/release,
(Kapur) in sugarcane through inundative
6 times from 30 days after planting and 2
release of the egg parasitoid,
times at node formation at weekly interval ( Trichogrammachilonis Ishii is being practiced
2.89 % and 2.26 %) compared to control in sugarcane cultivated tracts in india and it
recorded high incidence of early shoot borer has also received considerable attention in
and internode borer (21.63% and 10.265). andhra pradesh. Utilization of T. chilonis
Similarly during 2014-15, early shoot borer sugarcane produces most effective results in
and internode borer recorded significantly low the management of borer complex. Narasimha
in release of T. chilonis @ 75,000/ha/release, Rao et. al., (2006) reported that T. chilonis @
50,000 ha-1 release-1 from 30 days after
6 times from 30 days after planting and 2
planting, four releases at 7-10 day interval
times at node formation at weekly interval
resulted in less incidence of early shoot borer
(1.88% and 4.58%) followed by release of T.
in sugarcane (0.16%) compared to the
chilonis @ 50,000/ha/release, 6 times from 30
untreated plots (3.33%). Studies on timing,
days after planting and 2 times at node
frequency and rate of T. chilonis release for
formation at weekly interval (1.91% and
the management of sugarcane shoot borers
5.39%) and high in control (12.89% and
are meager. Hence the present study was
8.89%). The yields recorded in plant crop,
conducted on field efficacy of egg parasitoid,
2013 and ratoon crop, 2014 revealed that high
trichogrammachilonis in sugarcane ecosystem.
rate of T.chilonis release @ 75,000/ha/release,
6 times from 30 days after planting and 2 Material and Methods
times at node formation at weekly interval
Field experiments were conducted using
resulted in highest percent increase of yield in
sugarcane variety 2009A56 during rabi season,
(40.29% and 61.11%) over control.
2013 and 2014 to evaluate the sustainability and
Keywords: Trichogrammachilonis, Efficacy, recovery of Trichogrammachilonis Ishii
Sugarcane shoot borers, Cane yield recommended for management of shoot borers

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

in sugarcane in Andhra Pradesh. The dosages and timing of T.chilonis release as

Biocontrol agent, Trichogrammachiloniswas Block 1: Release of T. chilonis@
multiplied in the Biocontrol Laboratory, 50,000/ha/week, 4 times from 30 days after
Department of Entomology, Regional planting (DAP) and two times at node
Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle, formation at 7-10 day interval; Block
Andhra Pradesh. The experiment was laid out 2:Release of T.chilonis@ 50,000/ha/week, 6
in randomized block design with four times from 30 days after planting (DAP) and
replications during rabi season, 2013 and two times at node formation at 7-10 day
2014 in Regional Agricultural Research interval; Block 3: Release of T. chilonis@
Station, Anakapalle. The Biocontrol agent, 75,000/ha/week , 4 times from 30 days after
Trichogrammachiloniswas released at two planting (DAP) and two times at node
rates of release i.e., 50,000/ha/week and formation at 7-10 day interval and Block 4:
75,000/ha/week. The number of releases were Release of T.chilonis@ 75,000/ha/week , 6
4 and 6 from 30 days after planting and two times from 30 days after planting (DAP) and
at node formation in different blocks. The two times at node formation at 7-10 day
unreleased experimental block was treated as interval with Block 5: No release of T. chilonis
control. Egg cards (10cmx2.5 cm) containing as untreated control. Data on cumulative
T.chilonis parasitized host eggs were cut into incidence of early shoot borer as % dead heart
small pieces and placed uniformly in each (DH) from 45 days to 120 days after planting.
block at 30 days after planting for adequate Percent incidence of internode borer was
dispersal of the parasitoid. The subsequent recorded from 50 randomly selected canes
releases were made at weekly interval. There from each block and cane yield (t/ha) was
were four treatments as blocks with different recorded at harvest.
Table 1: Efficacy of Trichogrammachilonis in sugarcane ecosystem during 2013
INB damage Cane yield
Treatment ESB (%DH)
(%) (t/ha)
B1: 3.77 3.74 53.42
T. chilonis release @ 50,000/ha/release, 4
times from 30 days after planting and 2 times
at node formation at weekly interval
B2: 2.89 2.26 60.9
T. chilonis release @ 50,000/ha/release, 6
times from 30 days after planting and 2 times
at node formation at weekly interval
B3: 3.18 2.25 63.26
T. chilonis release @ 75,000/ha/release, 4
times from 30 days after planting and 2 times
at node formation at weekly interval
B4: 2.54 1.99 70.51
T. chilonis release @ 75,000/ha/release, 6
times from 30 days after planting and 2 times
at node formation at weekly interval
B5: 21.63 10.26 50.26
Untreated control

ESB: Early shoot borer; INB: Internode borer; DH: Deadheart: B: Block

Field Efficacy of Egg Parasitoid, Trichogramma Chilonis In Sugarcane Ecosystem
M. Visalakshi

Results and Discussion borer damage (4.58 ) was observed in Block 4

and highest per cent in block 5 (12.89 %DH
Data on early shoot borer and internode
and 8.89%) (Table 2).
borer damage with field release of
Trichogrammachilonis recovered during 2013 Many pests proliferate in specific season
and 2014 was presented in Table 1 and Table with natural enemies showing co-occurrence.
2. Early shoot borer attacks the crop in its early
stages of growth with peak activity during
During 2013, the data on early shoot summer months. The pest infestation is
borer damage (%DH) recorded from 45 days generally high during pre- monsoon period
to 120 days after planting and internode borer i.e., april-june when high temperature prevails
damage (%) recorded at harvest revealed that and its activity decreases with the onset of
the releases of T. chilonis had played a south west monsoon. Internode borer attack
significant role in the reduction of shoot is more in the monsoon and post monsoon
borers in sugarcane (Table 1). Block 4 periods.
recorded significantly lower per cent dead
heart (2.54) and internode borer damage Effect of releasing T. chilonis on yield of
(1.99) followed by block 3 (3.18 and 2.25 sugarcane was significant between treatments
)indicating that the parasitoid establishment during 2013 and 2014. The results showed
was good with higher dosage with more that release Release of T.chilonis@
number of releases. Whereas, untreated 75,000/ha/week, 6 times from 30 days after
control block recorded the highest per cent planting (DAP) and two times at node
DH ( 21.63%) and internode borer damage formation at 7-10 day interval effectively
(10.26 %).Similarly, during 2014, the lowest reduced shoot borers and increased cane
per cent dead heart ( 1.88 ) and inter node yields by 40.29 % during 2013-14 ( 70.51 t /

Table 2: Efficacy of Trichogrammachilonis in sugarcane ecosystem during 2014

Treatment ESB (%DH) INB damage (%) Cane yield (t/ha)
B1: 2.91 6.99 51.64
T. chilonis release @ 50,000/ha/release, 4
times from 30 days after planting and 2 times
at node formation at weekly interval
B2: 2.38 5.39 59.07
T. chilonis release @ 50,000/ha/release, 6
times from 30 days after planting and 2 times
at node formation at weekly interval
B3: 2.01 5.45 61.43
T. chilonis release @ 75,000/ha/release, 4
times from 30 days after planting and 2 times
at node formation at weekly interval
B4: 1.88 4.58 68.02
T. chilonis release @ 75,000/ha/release, 6
times from 30 days after planting and 2 times
at node formation at weekly interval
B5: 12.89 8.89 42.22
Untreated control

ESB: Early shoot borer; INB: Internode borer; DH: Deadheart; B: Block

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

ha) and 61.11% during 2014-15 ( 68.02 t/ha ) population in a stable crop system like
as compared to control. sugarcane. Thus, Crop- pest- natural enemy
equilibrium should be given due consideration
Efficacy of Trichogramma in the field
in planning control measures.The stable crop
vary with the timing of release, frequency and
system and low pesticide load provide ideal
rate of release and also influenced by weather,
conditions for both natural and applied
stage of the crop and host insect. Natural control.
enemies generally closely follow the pest

M.Visalakshi1 and B.Bhavani2
Senior Scientist (Entomology), AICRP on Biological control, 2Regional Agricultural Research Station,
Anakapalle-531 001, Andhra Pradesh, INDIA.

Abstract T. chilonis was recorded in T. chilonis release

Field experiments were conducted during @ 75,000/ha/release, 6 + 2 times during
2015-16 and 2016-17 to study the effect of monsoon period i.e., last week of July, 2016
inoculative releases of Trichogramma chilonis (20.0 %) and post monsoon period i.e., third
Ishii recommended for the management of week of october, 2016 (37.59 %) compared to
early shoot borer and internode borer in pre monsoon period ( 9.27 %). The yields
sugarcane in Andhra Pradesh. The study recorded in plant crop, 2015 (47.95 t/ha) and
revealed that the timing, frequency and rate ratoon crop, 2016 ( 52.42 t/ha) revealed that
of T. chilonis release had played a significant high rate of T.chilonis release resulted in
role in the management of sugarcane shoot highest percent increase of yield in T. chilonis
borers. During 2015-16, early shoot borer and release @ 75,000/ha/release, 6 times from 30
internode borer recorded significantly low in days after planting and 2 times at node
T. chilonis release @ 75,000/ha/release, 6 formation at weekly interval ( 21.77 % and
times from 30 days after planting and 2 times 24.64 %) over untreated control.
at node formation at weekly interval ( 6.54 % Keywords: Trichogramma chilonis,
and 3.92%) followed by T. chilonis release @ inoculative releases, sugarcane shoot borers
50,000/ha/release, 6 times from 30 days after damage and field recovery.
planting and 2 times at node formation at
weekly interval (7.9% and 3.26%) whereas Introduction
untreated control recorded high incidence of Sugarcane shoot borers have become a
early shoot borer and internode borer ( 10.94% challenging pests of sugarcane crop due to
and 5.12%). Similarly during 2016-17, early its’ habit of feeding inside the plant parts
shoot borer and internode borer recorded where sprays are difficult to reach.
significantly low in T. chilonis release @ Indescriminate use of pesticides kill the
75,000/ha/release, 6 times from 30 days after natural enemies resulting in flare up of pest
planting and 2 times at node formation at population. Innundative release of the
weekly interval ( 2.27 % and 5.85%) compared bioagents for the control of lepidopterous pests
to untreated control showing severe incidence are being practiced in more than 32 million
of early shoot borer and internode borer (15.95 hectares each year around the world.
% and 18.25 %). The sustainability of Trichogramma chilonis release reduced the
inoculative releases of T.chilonis with highest damage upto 70-92% on sugarcane,corn and
per cent field recovery was recorded in T. cotton crops in china, Switzerland, Canada.
chilonis release @ 75,000/ha/release, 6 + 2 Narasimha Rao et al., (2006) reported that T.
times during monsoon period i.e., third week chilonis @ 50,000/ ha/release from 30 days
of July, 2015 (68.63%) and post monsoon after planting, four releases at 7-10 day
period i.e., last week of September, 2015 ( interval effective in sugarcane. Biological
29.55%) compared to pre monsoon period control of early shoot borer, Chilo
(12.21 %). Similarly, highest field recovery of infuscatellus (Snelle) and internode borer,

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Chilo sacchariphagus indicus (Kapur) in was released at two rates of release i.e.,
sugarcane through inundative release of the 50,000/ha/week and 75,000/ha/week. The
egg parasitoid, Trichogramma chilonis Ishii is number of releases were 4 and 6 from 30 days
being practiced in sugarcane cultivated tracts after planting and two at node formation in
in india and it has also received considerable different blocks. The unreleased experimental
attention in andhra pradesh. Many pests block was treated as control . Egg cards
proliferate in specific season with natural (10 cm  2.5 c m
enemies showing co-occurrence. Early shoot
containing T.chilonis parasitized host
borer attacks the crop in its early stages of
eggs were cut into small pieces and placed
growth with peak activity during summer
uniformly in each block at 30 days after
months. The pest infestation is generally high
planting for adequate dispersal of the
during pre- monsoon period (april - june)
parasitoid. The subsequent releases were
when high temperature prevails and its
made at weekly interval. There were four
activity decreases with the onset of south west
treatments as blocks with different dosages
monsoon. Internode borer attack is more in
and timing of T. chilonis release as Block 1:
the monsoon and post monsoon periods. Many
Release of T. chilonis @50,000/ha/week, 4
reports are available on the varied degree of
times from 30 days after planting (DAP) and
parasitism (2-95%) by Trichogramma after
two times at node formation at 7-10 day
release but very little information is available
interval; Block 2: Release of T. chilonis @
on the recovery of the parasitoid in sugarcane
50,000/ha/week, 6 times from 30 days after
ecosystem. Effective dispersal distance was
planting (DAP) and two times at node
studied based on the recovery of T. chilonis
formation at 7-10 day interval; Block3:
in sugarcane. Hence, it is highly essential to
Release of T. chilonis @ 75,000/ha/week , 4
study the feasibility of inundative release of
times from 30 days after planting (DAP) and
Trichogramma chilonis against sugarcane
two times at node formation at 7-10 day
shoot borers.
interval and Block 4 : Release of T.
Experimental Analysis chilonis @ 75,000/ha/week , 6 times from 30
Field experiments were conducted using days after planting (DAP) and two times at
sugarcane variety 2001A56 during 2015-16 node formation at 7-10 day interval with
plant crop ( 20.04.2015) and during 2016-17 Block 5 : No release of T. chilonis as
ratoon crop ( 23.04.2016) to study the effect untreated control. Data on cumulative
of inoculative releases of Trichogramma incidence of early shoot borer as % deadheart
chilonis recommended for management of (DH) was recorded from 45 days to 120 days
shoot borers in sugarcane in andhra pradesh. after planting. Percent incidence of internode
The Biocontrol agent, Trichogramma chilonis borer was recorded from 50 randomly
(National accession no.NBAII-MP-TRI-13) selected canes from each block at harvest.
supplied by NBAIR, Bangalore was multiplied The establishment of the parasitoid in
in the Biocontrol Laboratory, AICRP on sugarcane ecosystem was assessed on the
Biological control, Regional Agricultural basis of occurrence of early shoot borer
Research Station, Anakapalle, Andhra damage as deadhearts during crop growth
Pradesh. The experiment was laid out in period and internode damage at harvest in
randomized block design with four replications all blocks with T. chilonis release at different
during rabi season, 2015 and 2016 in Regional rates and frequencies. The field recovery of
Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle. the parasitoid was studied by using Corcyra
The Biocontrol agent, Trichogramma chilonis egg cards as stem borer eggs were not

Effect of Inoculative Releases of Trichogramma Chilonis On Early Shoot Borer and Internode Borer Damage in Sugarcane
M.Visalakshi and B.Bhavani

available in the field abundantly throughout in untreated control (15.95 %DH and 18.25%)
the year, so the eggs of Corcyra cephalonica, (Table 2).
the factitious (surrogate ) host of the
The highest per cent recovery of egg
parasitoid were used for studying the field
parasitoid, T. chilonis in block 4 during post
recovery of the egg parasitoid, T. chilonis .
monsoon periods (july, 2015 – 68.63% and
Similar studies conducted at Assam
september,15 – 19.83% ) and monsoon period
Agricultural University , Jorhat reported in
(june,15- 12.1%) compared to other blocks
rice against stem borer with T. japonicum and
indicated that the establishment of parasitoid
T. chilonis. Corcyra egg cards of 100 eggs as
was high in block 4 due to release of
sentinel cards were kept in the field at a
parasitoid at higher dosage and frequency.
distance of one metre from the point of
Higher recovery rate of T. embryophagum
release after a day of T. chilonis release in
recorded during october and november months
all the blocks / treatments. Recovery of field
in Taiwan corn fields controlling asian corn
populations of T. chilonis was assessed in all
borer(Bing Huei Chen and jih zu yu.,1996).
the blocks during premonsoon period (April,
Parasitoid recovery was low in block 1 during
June) , monsoon period (July) and post
monsoon period ( june, 2015 – 2.89%) and post
monsoon period (September, October) during
monsoon period (July, 15- 4.13 and
2015-16 and 2016-17. The field recovery of
September,15 – 2.07%) and was negligible in
the parasitoid and cane yield increase over
control block (0.0- 0.43 %) during monsoon
untreated control were calculated for the
and post monsoon periods. Similarly, the
establishment of T. chilonis in sugarcane
highest per cent recovery of the parasitoid in
ecosystem .
block 4 during post monsoon period
Data on early shoot borer and internode (october,16) recorded highest percent recovery
borer damage along with field recovery of (37.59%) due to better establishment of the
Trichogramma chilonis during 2015 and parasitoid compared to pre monsoon (june, 16
2016 was presented in Table 1 and Table 2. – 9.27%) and monsoon periods (june, 16 –
17.47% and july, 16 -20%) . Significantly
During 2015, the data on early shoot
higher parasite recovery during post monsoon
borer damage ( %DH) and internode borer
period of crop (Grand growth stage) in blocks
damage (%) revealed that the releases of T.
released with T. chilonis @ 75,000/ha/release
chilonis had played a significant role in the
, 6 times from 30 days after planting and 2
reduction of shoot borers in sugarcane (Table
times at node formation at weekly interval
1). Block 4 recorded significantly lower per
during both the years of study. Similar results
cent dead heart (6.54) and internode borer
reported that the variation in per cent
damage (3.92) followed by block 3 (7.62 and
recovery of parasite during the two years of
4.21) indicating that the parasitoid
study was due to combined effect of climatic
establishment was good with higher dosage
factors and plant physical factors which
and more number of releases. Whereas,
changes with the stage of the crop. The major
untreated control block recorded the highest
climatic factors that determine the activity of
per cent DH (16.6%) and internode borer
any insect are temperature, relative humidity
damage (8.62 %).
and rainfall. Somchoudhury and Dutt (1980)
Similarl results recorded during 2016 reported that mild climatic conditions were
showed that lowest per cent deadheart (2.27) most favourable for Trichogramma
and inter node borer damage (5.85) was australicum and T. perkinsi resulting in
observed in Block 4 and highest per cent significant increase in their parasitizing

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

ability (Bing Huei Chen and jih zu yu.,1996). equilibrium should be given due consideration
Similar results in paddy varieties indicated in planning control measures. The stable crop
the establishment and recovery of T. chilonis system and low pesticide load provide ideal
(Das,D. J., 2004). Effect of releasing T. conditions for both natural and applied
chilonis on yield of sugarcane was significant control.
between treatments during 2015 and 2016.
The results showed that release of T. chilonis
@ 75,000/ha/week, 6 times from 30 days after First author is thankful to Director of
planting (DAP) and two times at node Research, Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural
formation at 7-10 day interval effectively University, Andhra pradesh for financial
reduced shoot borers and increased cane assistance and also thankful to Director,
yields by 21.7 % during 2015-16 (52.42 t / ha) NBAIR, Bangalore for providing technical
and 24.64 % during 2016-17 (47.95 t/ha) as support for conducting studies .
compared to control (43.05 t/ha during 2015
and 38.47 t/ha during 2016). Similar studies
conducted at Assam Agricultural University, 1. Hamburg, H. V. and P. J. Guest. (1997). The
impact of insecticides on beneficial arthropods
Jorhat reported in rice against stem borer
in cotton agroecosystem in South Africa
with T. japanicum and T. chilonis (Das, D.J., Archives Environmental Contamination
2004). Toxicology. 8(8) : 786.
2. Narasimha Rao, Ch. V .; Venugopala Rao, N.
and Bhavani, B. (2006).Efficacy of
Inoculative releases of T. chilonis @ Trichogramma chilonis Ishii against early
75,000/ha/release, 6 times from 30 days after shoot borer,Chilo infuscatellus Snellen under
planting and 2 times at node formation at sugar factory operational areas of Coastal
Andhra pradesh .Journal of Biological Control
weekly interval followed by T. chilonis release
20 (2):225-228.
@ 50,000/ha/release, 6 times from 30 days
3. Das, D. J. (2004). Establishment and recovery
after planting and 2 times at node formation
of Trichogramma chilonis Ishii on certain rice
at weekly interval were proved effective varieties .Shashpa.11(1):45-50.
against early shoot borer and internode borer
4. Somchoudhury, A. K.and Dutt, N. (1980). Field
in sugarcane. Weather condition prevailing bioecology of Trichogramma perkinse Girault
during monsoon period and post monsoon and Trichogramma australicum Giaraut
periods are favourable for the sustainability (Hymenoptera; Trichogrammatidae) and their
of parasitoid compared to pre monsoon period. time of release for the control of Chilo
Efficacy of Trichogramma in the field vary partellus (Swinhoe) and Heliothis armigera
Hubn. J. ent. Research, 4 (1): 73-82.
with the timing of release, frequency and rate
of release and mainly influenced by weather 5. Bing Huei Chen and jih zu yu. (1996). Effect
of releasing Trichogramma embryophagu
conditions, stage of the crop and host insect .
(Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on
Natural enemies generally closely follow the controlling asian corn borer (Lepidoptera:
pest population in a stable crop system like Pyralidae) in Taiwan .Journal of Asian
sugarcane. Thus, Crop- pest- natural enemy Research. China,. 45(4):401-410.

K.P. Pandey*, A.K. Singh and B.L. Sharma**
Director, ** Senior Scientist, Division of Entomology
U.P. Council of Sugarcane Research, Shahjahanpur

Abstract use of persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons

An experiment was conducted during three such as Aldrin, Heptachlor had been banned
consecutive years (2014-15 to 2016-17) at since 1990’s (Gupta and Awasthi, 1954; Teotia
Shahjahanpur to find out the bio-efficacy of et al., 1963), yet soil application of
newer insecticides against early shoot borer, chlorpyriphos 20 EC @ 5l/ha (Singh et al.,
chilo infuscatellus Snell in eastern U.P. The 1998). Fipronil 0.3 G @ 20 kg/ha, and phorate
field trial was conducted in RBD with four @ 25 kg/ha. were recommended for the control
replications using early cultivar CoS 08272 of termite and shoot borer. Due to long
during spring season. The results revealed residual effect of insecticides these are
that the drenching of chlorantraniliprole harmful to beneficial insect and create serious
18.5SC (@75 gm ai/ha) @ 375 ml dissolve in problem to environment.
1000 lit of water reduces the cumulative
However, none of them have shown
percent incidence of early shoot borer (5.92%)
promising results may be due to development
resulting in increases in other economic
of resistance. Hence, implementation of
parameters like cane yield, millable cane
alternative options, such as new group of
height, girth of cane, sucrose (% in juice) and
insecticides which changes insect-plant-
CCS (%) as compared to untreated control.
environment interaction with specific and
Keywords: Chlorantraniliprole, chlorinated novel mode of action, is essential which will
hydrocarbon, Qualitative and quantitative be an important factor in
traits. Integrated-Pest-Management Programme.
Keeping this in view, bio-efficacy of newer
insecticides was evaluated against shoot
Sugarcane crop is attacked by a number borer.
of insect pests. Out of them nine species of
borers have been found regularly damaging Materials and methods
the sugarcane crop in India. Shoot borer, The experiment was conducted at U.P.
Chilo infuscatellus Snell. is an important Council of Sugarcane Research, Shahjahanpur
borer causing reduction of 22-30% in cane farm during three consecutive years (2014-15
yield and 1-1.5 units in sugar recovery (Patil to 2016-17). The early variety CoS 08272 was
and Hapse, 1981). It infests the crop during planted in R.B.D. with four replications. The
early stages of crop growth (i.e. shoot stage
two budded setts were planted in 6  5.4 m2
prior to internode formation).
plot size. Eight treatments; comprising of soil
In Maharastra, suru and ratoon crop application of chlorantranitiprole 0.4 G @ 22.5
suffers severely during March to June due to kg/ha at the time of planting and 60 DAP,
early shoot borer attack. During severe drenching of chlorantranitiprole 18.5 SC @
incidence, the pest also infests the internodes. 375 ml/ha, spraying of spinosad 45 SC @ 90
Although prophylactic measures through the ml/ha, spraying of flubendiamide @ 125 ml/ha

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

at 30 & 60 DAP with three standards, soil Pooled data revealed that cumulative per
application of fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg/ha, cent incidence of early shoot borer was
phorate 10 G @ 15 kg/ha and carbofuran 3G observed minimum (5.92%) for the treatment
@ 33 kg/ha at the time of planting & 60 DAP of drenching of chlorantranitiprole 18.5 SC @
and untreated control. Per cent germination 375 ml/ha at 30 & 60 DAP against (11.16%)
at 60 DAP. No. of tillers at 120 DAP, NMC in untreated control. Although the application
and cane yield t/ha were recorded. ESB of all the insecticides reduces the infestation
infestation was recorded by counting number of shoot borer as compared to control.
of “dead hearts” easily pulled out on 45, 60, Pooled data of growth and quality
90 and 120 DAP. The cumulative incidence parameters revealed that maximum millable
was worked out by taking progressive total of cane height (1.87 mt) cane girth (2.11 cm),
infested shoots formed. Growth and quality maximum sucrose (%) in juice (19.16) and
parameters were also observed. CCS (%) (13.31) was observed with drenching
of chlorantranitiprole 18.5 SC @ 375 ml/ha at
Results and discussion
30 & 60 DAP against (1.66 mt, 2.05 cm,
On the basis of pooled data (table-1) the 18.44% and 12.76%) in control.
results revealed that the per cent germination
at 60 DAP was observed maximum (45.29%) It is evident from these results that
with application of carbofuran (standard) @ 33 drenching of chlorantraniliprole 18.5SC
kg/ha at planting followed by 44.24% with soil (Rynaxypyr @ 75 ai/ha) @ 375 ml/ha dissolved
in 1000 lit of water proved most effective
application of fipronil (standard) 0.3 G @ 25
against shoot borer and increases the yield.
kg/ha at the time of planting and 42.10% with
Pandey et.al., (2016) reported that drenching
application of chlorantraniliprole 0.4 G @ 22.5
of chlorantraniliprole 18.5SC @ 375 ml/ha
kg/ha at planting against 36.51% in untreated
dissolved in 1000 lit of water during 1st week
control. The data of germination per cent was
of May reduces the top borer incidence and
not significant. The number of tillers was
increases the yield. Bhute et.al., (2009)
observed maximum 213 (000)/ha in (T1 & T7)
reported that the application of Rynaxypyr @
soil application of fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg/ha
40 g ai/ha proved most effective against all
at the time of planting and 60 DAP and soil the pod borers, H. armigera, E. atomosa and
application of carbofuran 3 G @ 33 kg/ha at M. obtusa. Rynaxypyr being a new insecticide
the time planting & 60 DAP followed by 205 from anthranilic diamide group having unique
(000)/ha with spraying of chlorantranitiprole mode of action which get a place in developing
18.5 SC @ 375 ml/ha at 30 and 60 DAP IPM against borers in sugarcane.
against 180 (000)/ha in untreated control. But
the number of millable canes and yield was References
found maximum 141 (000)/ha and144 (t/ha) 1. Gupta, B.D. and P.N. Avasthi (1954): Some
with drenching of chlorantraniliprole 18.5 SC recommendations for the control of sugarcane
@ 375 ml/ha at 30 and 60 DAP followed by pests in India. Indian Sug., 8: 387-405.
131 (000)/ha and 134(t/ha) with soil 2. Teotia, T.P.C., K.M. Gupta, V.G. Rajani and
application of fipronil 0.3 G @ 25 kg/ha at the Ganga Sagar (1963): Effective control of
termites and shoot borer through soil
time of planting and 60 DAP and 139 (000)/ha
application of heptachlor in sugarcane cop.
and 132 (t/ha) with soil application of phorate Indian J. Sug. Cane Res. Dev., 7: 203-211.
10 G @ 15 kg/ha at the time of planting and
3. Patil, A.S. and Hapse, D.G. (1981). Research
60 DAP against 110 (000)/ha and 90 (t/ha) in on sugarcane borers in Maharastra. Proc.
untreated control. Natn. Symp. Stalk borer. Karnal, P. 165-175.

Bio-efficacy of Newer Insecticides for the Control of Early Shoot Borer (Chilo Infuscatellus Snell.) in Central U.P.
K.P. Pandey, A.K. Singh and B.L. Sharma

4. Singh, G.P., Singh, Manager and Singh, R.A. 6. Singh, A.K., Singh, Ajai Kumar, Pandey, K.P.
(1998): Substitution of BHC dust for soil and Sharma, B.L. (2016). Efficacy of
treatment in sugarcane. Indian Sugar VLVII chlorantraniliprole 18.5SC against different
(10): 817-819. brood of top borer (Scirpophaga excerptalis
5. Nishantha, K.M.D., Bhosle, B.B.; Patange, walk.) in sugarcane. National Symposium on
N.R. and Bhute, N.K. (2009). Rynaxypyr, a “Challenges, opportunities and innovative
new insecticide for managing pod borer approaches in sugarcane: Agriculture,
complex in Pigeonpea. Indian J. of Entomology, Bio-energy and climate change” held at
71 (2): 179-183. Shahjahanpur on dated Dec. 21-23rd 2016 pp.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


Suresh Madugula1*, Uma Devi, G2., Rajakumar, N1.,
Bharathalakshmi, M1 and Kishore Varma, P1.
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle, ANGRAU, Andhra Pradesh, 531001. 2Department of
Plant Pathology, College of Agriculture, PJTSAU, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad -30.
* Corresponding author: Dr Suresh Madugula,
Scientist (Plant Pathology), RARS, Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam, AP – 531001
Email: sureshiari@yahoo.co.in

Abstract 1994) and many other sugarcane growing

Yellow leaf disease (YLD) of sugarcane caused countries. The disease is reported worldwide
by Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV, a in more than 30 countries (Lockhart and
Polereovirus of the Luteoviridae family) is a Cronje 2000 and Schenck, 2001). In India,
serious disease affecting the crop production Viswanathan et al. (1999) reported the disease
and productivity in India. Present study was for the first time and the associated
carried out to detect the presence of ScYLV in Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus which assumed
YLD infected samples collected from the its severity on different sugarcane varieties.
different parts of Andhra Pradesh and In India, the disease is prevalent in major
Telangana states from both stem sap and leaf sugarcane growing states like Andhra
tissue samples with both DAS-ELISA and Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamilnadu and Madhya
RT-PCR tools. Some field samples showed Pradesh (Viswanathan & Rao, 2011).
mixed infection of both SCYLV and SCMV Currently severe disease incidence is observed
(Sugarcane Mosaic Virus) confirmed by in all the sugarcane growing states in the
electron microscopy studies. RT-PCR and country. The incidence of SCYLV in
ELISA assays have been standardized to commercial fields can reach 100% in
detect the virus from the suspected sugarcane susceptible cultivars, and the disease can
varieties and tissue culture derived seedlings. cause significant yield losses in susceptible
DAS-ELISA proved to be effective in detecting cultivars even if infected plants do not exhibit
the SCYLV presence in both symptomatic and the disease symptoms. Detection of the
asymptomatic sugarcane plants which was disease is very important as this viral disease
further confirmed with RT-PCR. is majorly sett borne and planting of infected
setts results in severe reduction in yield as
Introduction well as quality (Suresh et al., 2016). Hence
the present study was directed towards the
Yellow leaf disease (YLD) is a recently
detection of ScYLV using both serological and
identified disease of sugarcane, affecting
molecular tools from leaf tissue, seedlings as
sugarcane production significantly in all
well as from stem sap.
sugarcane growing areas of the world. Yellow
leaf disease (YLD) of sugarcane was first Experimental Analysis:
reported in Hamakua (Hawaii) on variety
H65-0782 in 1989 as yellow leaf syndrome Collection of YLD infected plant samples
(Schenck, 1990) and subsequently from the YLD infection was observed in all the
United States mainland (Comstock et al. areas surveyed in Telangana and Andhra

Detection of Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) Causing Yellow Leaf Disease (YLD) of Sugarcane using Serological and Molecular Tools
Suresh Madugula, Uma Devi, G., Rajakumar, N., Bharathalakshmi, M and Kishore Varma, P

Table 1 Details of collection of YLD infected sugarcane samples

No of Average YLD
S.No. Location of the sample Varieties
samples incidence (%)
1. RARS,Anmakapalle farm. Co 997,Co 6907,Co 7219 & Co 12 20
2. Chodavaram, Visakhapatnam 2001A 63 & 81V 48 8 15
3. Munagapaka, Visakhapatnam 85V 36 & 83A 30 15 20
4. Sa,alkot, East Godavari district 91V 83, 2003V 46 6 50
5. lRARS, Anakapalle farm Co 419, CoA 13322 and 13327, 11 25
Co 7706 & 87A 298 (TCP)
6. Basantpur, Medak Co 86032 & Clone 22 5 65
7. Zaheerabad, Medak CoTL579 & 97A 401 7 80

Pradesh states during 2013-14 and 2014-15 sugarcane mosaic and YLD symptoms were
planting seasons (Table 1). Disease severity observed in the samples collected i.e., mixed
grades of 0 to 5 were recorded based on the infection (Fig. 1). The mean YLD grades
nature of leaf symptoms, bunching of leaves ranged between 0.9 (85V 36) to 4.7 (Co 95026)
in the top and overall crop growth under field in different cultivars from which the samples
conditions ((Viswanathan et al., 2016). A total are collected (Table 2) while the ratoon crop
of 64 infected leaf samples were collected from raised from the tissue culture plantlets of 87A
7 locations in 5 different varieties of 298 showed no symptoms of YLD with a mean
sugarcane. Irrespective of the variety grown grade of 0.0 on a scale of 0 to 5.
in a particular area all the varieties showed
Electronic microscopy
the symptoms of YLD in varying extents. In
some areas of Telangana state, both Sugarcane leaf samples with YLD
symptoms and mixed infection symptoms were
packed in tight containers along with dry ice
and sent for Transmission Electron
Microscopy (TEM) studies at Indian
Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), New
Delhi. The electron microscopy results also
confirmed the mixed infection of the SCMV
and SCYLV in some of the samples as evident
from the visible symptoms observed in the
field. Both the icosahedral particles of
Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) a
Polero virus and flexuous filamentous rods of
Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV) a Poty virus
are seen in the TEM photos of partially
purified leaf samples of sugarcane collected
from Telangana region (Fig. 2)
Fig. 1. Sugar are plants (Variety 2001A63)
These results confirm the incidence of
showing fixed infection of mosaic and YLD
both viral diseases at the same time leading

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Fig.2 TEM photographs of partially purified leaf sampes having mixed infection of SCMV (in rectangular
boxes as flexuous rods) and ScYLV (in circle as small spherical/icosahedral particles)

Fig. 3. Agaroseg gel electrophoresis of RT-PCR of different sugarcane genotyupes screened for iknfection;
M-100bp marker, lanes 1 to 11 - Cultivars of AP and Telangana, Lane 12 to 18 Clones from RARS farm,
Lane 19-87A 298 clone (TCP)
to increased disease severity levels. The clearly observed in varieties like 2001A 63
disease incidence levels were as high as 80% both at RARS farm and farmers’ fields.
in Medak area, from where the samples
Serological studies - DAS-ELISA
having mixed infection of both YLD and
DAS-ELISA was carried out using the
Mosaic were collected. Viswanathan (2012)
kit obtained from M/s. AC Diagnostics, USA
reported the increased severity of YLD under
(Code-V093-K1) following the standard
mixed infection with other diseases like
protocol and observations were taken visually
sugarcane mosaic. Under field conditions also
and the colour change was observed
the mixed infection of these two diseases was
photometrically at 405 nm using

Detection of Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) Causing Yellow Leaf Disease (YLD) of Sugarcane using Serological and Molecular Tools
Suresh Madugula, Uma Devi, G., Rajakumar, N., Bharathalakshmi, M and Kishore Varma, P

Table 2. Detection of ScYLV in different sugarcane genotypes based on visual grade

confirmed by RT-PCR and DAS-ELISA
(from both stem sap and leaf tissue samples)

S. symptom
Genotype YLD PCR ELISA 405
No expression
grade reaction reaction value@
1 91V 83 Bud chip raised seedling 2.4    1.254

2 2003V 46 Single node seedling – stem sap 2.9    1.248

3 2001A 63 Single node seedling – leaf tissue 3.8 +   3.299

4 81V 48 Ratoon – stem sap 1.2    1.321

5 85V 36 Ratoon – leaf tissue 0.9    1.097

6 Clone 22 Ratoon – stem sap 1.8    1.284

7 83A 30 Plant crop – stem sap 2.6    1.294

8 CoTL 579 Plant crop – leaf tissue 4.4    2.094

9 Co 86032 Plant crop –stem sap 3.1    3.131

10 97A 401 Plant - stem sap 4.6    3.128

11 Co 95026 Plant - stem sap 4.7    2.135

12 Co 997 Plant - stem sap 1.4    1.138

13 Co 6907 Plant - stem sap 1.3    2.189

14 Co 7219 Plant - stem sap 1.1    2.184

15 Co 419 I ratoon – stem sap 1.1    1.184

16 CoA 13322 II ratoon – stem sap 2.5    2.175

17 CoA 13327 II ratoon – leaf tissue 1.5    1.986

18 Co 7706 Plant – stem sap 2.6    2.313

19 87A 298 (TCP) Ratoon – leaf tissue 0.0 – – – 0.075


20 Positive control AC Diagnostics, USA NA NA NA NA  1.777

21 Negative AC Diagnostics, USA NA NA NA – 0.313

+ : Mid rib yellowing, no stunting;++ : Mid rib yellowing coupled with stunting and tip drying.
@OD 405 values more than 2 times the negative control (row 21) are considered as positive for the test
(Ref: Viswanathan 2002)

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

thermofischer scientific Multiscan- X, ELISA conducted using stem sap extracted using a
reader and the readings were documented. manual pouch piercer and the leaf samples
Visual observations on micro titre plate as extracted using extraction buffer didn’t
well as ELISA reader gave clear indication of showed any difference in detection either with
the presence or absence of the SCYLV in both colour change or with OD 405 values (Table
the varieties as well as in the tissue culture 2). Earlier Viswanathan and
plants with respect to colour change. Balamuralikrishnan (2004) established that
DAS-ELISA test results were treated as DAS-ELISA could be used to diagnose the
positive if the absorbance value (OD 405) is virus infection in sugarcane using juice of
more than 0.626 i.e., more than two times the sugarcane stalks. Thus, instead of extracting
OD 405 value of negative control (OD405 = juice from stalks, a small volume of stem sap
0.313), whereas as negative if absorbance can be used for effective indexing of the virus
value is less than that value (Viswanathan, which makes the detection quick and more
2002). economical compared to the time and cost
All the 19 samples with typical YLD driven leaf extraction.
symptoms under field conditions were tested Molecular detection through RT-PCR
positive in DAS-ELISA, with OD 405 values Total plant RNA isolation was carried
(nm) ranging between 1.097 to 3.299 (Table out following both Trizol method following the
2), thus confirming the effectiveness of this standard protocol (Vega et al. 1997) with
serological test towards detection of the virus
slight modification as per our lab conditions.
in plant samples. Further, samples tested
The RNA thus obtained was utilized for
with stem sap and leaf tissue of the varieties
further RT-PCR using Eppendorf
expressing YLD symptoms were confirmed for
Thermocycler. RT-PCR was standardized for
the presence of the virus in DAS-ELISA.
the detection of SCYLV for the local lab
Whereas the ratoon crop raised from the
conditions. Primers SCYLV 613 F and SCYLV
tissue culture plants of 87A 298 tested
613 R of coat protein region (CP) were used
negative with ELISA confirming the efficacy
for the study with expected amplicon size of
of tissue culture technique towards
elimination of the virus. SCYLV often persists
in the plants without being noticed by the All the samples were tested with
growers, in fact, this non-symptomatic stage RT-PCR and the samples showed positive
seems to be the most common epidemiological reaction for the virus in RT-PCR test with
state for this viral pathogen. A screening in presence of a band at around 613 base pair
Hawaii revealed that all plants of susceptible length confirming the presence of SCYLV in
cultivar were infected with SCYLV, but all samples (Fig.3). This confirms the earlier
disease symptoms appeared only occasionally. results (Viswanathan et al. 2009) where in the
The severity of symptom expression varied authors detected the presence of the virus
with the seasonal variations as it was more through RT-PCR in almost all the 44 varieties
pronounced during the cooler winter months. tested in the study while only 34 entries
Symptoms also often appeared as plants aged showed the typical disease symptoms at field
or when they suffered from drought stress level. So, RT-PCR is used as a confirmatory
(Schenck and Lehrer, 2000). Thus, this test is test to determine the sensitivity of ELISA.
very useful for detecting the virus even when Tissue culture plants derived ratoon crop of
the plants didn’t show any symptoms but still 87A 298 tested negative for the virus with
have the virus. Further, the DAS-ELISA RT-PCR affirming the DAS-ELISA reaction.

Detection of Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus (SCYLV) Causing Yellow Leaf Disease (YLD) of Sugarcane using Serological and Molecular Tools
Suresh Madugula, Uma Devi, G., Rajakumar, N., Bharathalakshmi, M and Kishore Varma, P

Different serological techniques such as be used for detection of the virus for
immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM), DAS-ELISA. Primers SCYLV 613 F and
ELISA and immuno blot are available for the SCYLV 613 R of coat protein region (CP) used
detection of the virus along with molecular in the present study found effective in
tools such as RT-PCR. Production of highly detecting SCYLV even under mixed infection
specific antiserum to SCYLV, following conditions.
purification of recombinant viral coat protein
from E. coli, was reported to be highly specific
and a reliable method for the detection of the Authors are greatful to the Dr K.
virus in the infected host. Schenk et al. (1997) Rajareddy, Director of Extension, ANGRAU
developed tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) and Associate Director of Research, RARS,
technique using polyclonal antisera to detect Anakapalle for providing necessary financial
SCYLV. Moutia and Saumtally (1999) and technical support during the period of
reported suitability of double antibody study.
sandwich-enzyme linked immunoassay (DAS References:
ELISA), immune specific electron microscopy
1. Comstock, J.C., Irey, M.S., Lockhart, B.E.L
(ISEM) and TBIA for the detection of the
and Wang, Z.K. 1998. Incidence of yellow leaf
virus from the suspected sugarcane clones. syndrome in CP cultivars based on polymerase
They also found the presence of the virus in chain reaction and serological techniques.
many of the asymptomatic plants through Sugar Cane. 4: 21.24.
these techniques. Korimbocus et al. (2002) 2. Comstock, J.C., Irvine, J.E and Miller, J.D.
expressed the virus coat protein and read 1994. Yellow leaf syndrome appears on the
through domain of SCYLV in a bacterial United States mainland. Sugar Journal. 33-35.
expression system and using the purified 3. Korimbocus, J., Coates, D., Barker, I and
protein they have developed monoclonal Boonham, N. 2002. Improved detection of
sugarcane yellow leaf virus using a real-time
antibodies. They have developed TBIA to
fluorescent (TaqMan) RT-PCR assay. Journal
detect SCYLV using the serum. TBIA has of Virological Methods. 103: 109–120.
been the most widely used technique to detect
4. Lockhart, B.E.L and Cronje, C.P.R. 2000.
the virus in different countries (Comstock et Yellow leaf syndrome. In: Rott P, Bailey RA,
al. 1998; Schenck et al. 1997; Victoria et al. Comstock JC, Croft BJ, Saumtally AS, Eds. A
2005). Subsequently RT-PCR was developed to Guide to Sugarcane Diseases. CIRAD,

detect the virus in sugarcane. Montpellier, France, pp 291–295.

5. Moutia, J.F.Y and Saumtally, S. 1999.
Symptomology of yellow leaf syndrome and
detection and distribution of sugarcane yellow
The present investigation confirmed the leaf virus in Mauritius. Proceedings of
mixed infection of sugarcane plants with International Society of Sugar Cane
SCMV and SCYLV as a very common Technologists. 24: 451-455.

situation in most of the sugarcane fields. 6. Schenck, S and Lehrer, A.T. 2000. Factors
affecting the transmission and spread of
Transmission Electron Microscopy studies
sugarcane yellow leaf virus. Plant Disease.
clearly showed the presence of both SCYLV
and SCMV in samples having mixed infection.
7. Schenck, S. 1990. Yellow leaf syndrome – a
DAS-ELISA proved to be effective in detecting new disease of sugarcane. Report of HSPA
the SCYLV presence in both symptomatic and Experimental Station. p98.
asymptomatic sugarcane plants which was 8. Schenck, S. 2001. Sugarcane yellow leaf
further confirmed with RT-PCR. The study syndrome: history and current concepts. In:
found that both stem sapand leaf tissue can Rao, G.P., Ford, R.E., Tosic, M and Teakle,

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

D.S., eds. Sugarcane Pathology, Vol. II: Virus Phytopathology and Plant Protection. 37:
and Phytoplasma Diseases. Enfield, NC, USA: 169–176.
Science Publishers Inc, 25–35. 14. Viswanathan, R and Rao, G. P. 2011. Disease
9. Schenck, S., Hu, J.S and Lockhart, B.E.L. scenario and management of major sugarcane
1997. Use of a tissue blot immunoassay to diseases in India. Sugar Tech.13: 336–353.
determine the distribution of sugarcane yellow
15. Viswanathan, R. 2002. Sugarcane yellow leaf
leaf virus in Hawaii. Sugar Cane.4:5-8.
syndrome in India: Incidence and effect on
10. Suresh Madugula, Uma Devi G, Adilakshmi yield parameters. Sugar Cane International.
Devi D, Raja Kumar N, Vijayalakshmi K, 20(5): 17-23.
Bharatalakshmi M and Bhaskara Reddy
16. Viswanathan, R. 2012. Sugarcane Diseases and
B.V.2016. Impact of Sett disinfection
Their Management. Sugarcane Breeding
treatments on Yield and Growth parameters in
Institute, Coimbatore. ISBN
Sugarcane and Management of Yellow Leaf
978-81-904359-1-8, p140.
Disease (YLD) caused by Sugarcane yellow leaf
virus (SCYLV). International Journal of 17. Viswanathan R., Karuppaiah, R., Malathi, P.,
Bio-resources and Stress Ganesh Kumar, V and Chinnaraja, C. 2009.
Management.7(4):862-869. Diagnosis of Sugarcane yellow leaf virus in
11. Vega, I., Scagliusi, S.M.M and Ulian, E.C. asymptomatic sugarcane by RT-PCR. Sugar
1997. Sugarcane yellow leaf disease in Brazil Tech. 11: 368-372.
: Evidence of association with a luteovirus. 18. Viswanathan, R., Chinnaraja, C., parameswari,
Plant Disease. 81: 21 - 26. B and Chhabra, M.L. 2016. Status of yellow
12. Victoria, J.I., Avellaneda, M.C., Angel, J.C and leaf resistance in sugarcane germplasm and
Guzmán, M.L. 2005. Resistance to Sugarcane parental clones at Sugarcane Breeding
yellow leaf virus in Colombia. Proceedings of Institute, India. International Sugar Journal.
International Society of Sugar Cane 118(1405):60-71.
Technologists. 25: 664.670. 19 Viswanathan, R., Padmanaban, P., Mohanraj,
13. Viswanathan, R and Balamuralikrishnan, M. D., Ramesh Sundar, A and Premachandran,
2004. Detection of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, M.N. 1999. Suspected yellow leaf syndrome in
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sugarcane by DAS-ELISA. Archives of Newsletter. 18(3), 2-3.

Sujeet Pratap Singh*, Atul Singh and B.L. Sharma1
Plant Pathology Division, Sugarcane Research Institute, UP Council of Sugarcane Research
Director, UP Council of Sugarcane Research
Shahjahanpur - 242 001, UP, India
Corresponding author: sujeetsugarcane@rediffmail.com, dirupcsr@gmail.com

Abstract sugarcane yellow leaf phytoplasma (SCYLP),

Yellow leaf disease (YLD) is becoming a a specific 16SrXII group of phytoplasma
serious concern in sugarcane worldwide. The associated with this disease and also caused
crop production and quality are going down by Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (SCYLV;
due to the infection of this disease in Luteovirus) in India. Sugarcane yellow leaf
sugarcane. An experiment was conducted to virus (SCYLV) belonging to the genus
find out the effect of YLD on yield and quality Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae, causes
of two early (Co 0238, CoS 03251) and two yellow leaf disease in sugarcane. YLD was
mid late (CoS 97261, Co 05011) sugarcane first reported in Hawaii during 1988 (Schenck,
cultivars at SRI, Shahjahanpur during the 1990) and in India during 1999 (Rao et al.
year 2015-16. The results revealed remarkable 2000). Thereafter, it was found in other
reduction in qualitative and quantitative traits sugarcane growing regions of the world.
after infection of YLD. The average losses in Sugarcane yellow leaf syndrome (SYLS)
quality and yield were found 2.40 per cent and associated with sugarcane yellows leaf
11.11 per cent, respectively. The content of phytoplasma (SCYP) was first reported in
macro nutrients (N, P, K) and micro nutrients India (Gaur et al. 2008). Most recently mix
(Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) were also reduced in infected infection of SCYLV and Candidatus
plants as compared to healthy plants. phytoplasma was reported from Egypt
Maximum incidence (30 %) of YLD was (ElSayed et al. 2016). In India, SCYLV has
observed on variety Co 05011 at been reported from U.P., Haryana,
Shahjahanpur location. It is suggested that Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu (Rao et al.
commercial cultivation of sugarcane should be 2000).
done using healthy seed material and breeding
programme be initiative for developing YLD YLD is becoming a serious concern
resistant clone of sugarcane. These approaches affecting quality and productivity significantly
would undoubtedly check the losses occurring in most sugarcane-growing regions. Yield
due to YLD and increase cane productivity as losses with the incidence of YLD have been
well as quality of sugarcane. reported up to 38% in India (Iqbal et al. 2015)
and up to 50% in Brazil (Lockhart et al.
Keywords: Yellow leaf disease (YLD), 2000). YLD is now playing a major role in
Sugarcane, Macro and micro nutrient, yield losses of sugarcane in several countries.
Qualitative and quantitative traits. Quality attributes are also significantly
influenced by this disease (Grisham et al.
Introduction 2001). Nutrition in the sugarcane plant can
Sugarcane yellow leaf disease (YLD) is be drastically altered by many pathogens viz;
one of the most prevalent disease of sugarcane fungus, bacteria, virus and phytoplasma
worldwide. This disease is caused by (Smith et al. 2000). The changes in of nutrient

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

content level may occur in sugarcane crop due Results and Discussion
to biotic and abiotic stress resulting in
nutrient deficiency or excessive nutrients Survey and surveillance
(Matsuoka and Meneghin, 1999). Present Usually the characteristic symptoms of
work illustrates a detail study on survey, YLD appear during 6–8 months crop age and
symptomology, quality traits, yield, micro and last till maturity phase of the crop. The
macro nutrients status in commercial symptoms of YLD appeared as a distinct
sugarcane cultivars affected in Uttar Pradesh yellowing of leaves spreading laterally from
(UP). the midrib into the lamina, and leaves begin
to die from the tip. The incidence of YLD
Materials and methods
varied from 1 - 30 per cent on several popular
An extensive survey of YLD was carried cultivars at SRI, Shahjahanpur followed by 10
out during 2015-16 in various sugarcane mill - 20 per cent observed at Sultanpur, Faizabad
zones of Uttar Pradesh. YLD was observed in and Balrampur districts. Variety Co 05011
AICRP trials, planted at the farm of was severely affected with the highest
Sugarcane Research Institute (SRI), severity of 30 per cent at Shahjahanpur.
Shahjahanpur. Four sub-tropical sugarcane Wider range of spreading of YLD in other
cultivars including two early (Co 0238 and part of UP was also observed with the
CoS 03251) and two mid maturing (CoS 97261 incidence of 2-20% and 10-15% at Seorahi and
and Co 05011) were grown at SRI farm. Gorakhpur, respectively in eastern Uttar
Impact of the disease on quality traits such Pradesh (Table 1). The results of disease
as brix per cent (BR) and sucrose per cent in survey indicated that YLD is spreading
juice (SUC) were analysed using standard rapidly in cane grower fields in most part of
procedures described by Meade and Chen Uttar Pradesh and most of the varieties are
(1977). Purity coefficient (PUR) and affected with YLD with incidence of 1-30%.
commercial cane sugar percent (CCS %) was The results also indicate an increasing threat
calculated using following formulae: of YLD by affecting more cultivars in Uttar
Pradesh (Table 1). The cultivars having high
PUR  SUC/BR  100 incidence of YLD infection showed disease
susceptibility. Many cultivars are being
CCS%  [SUC  BR–SUC0.4]  0.73
utilized as proven parents in hybridization
The aforesaid four varieties with YLD program. Hence, there is ardent need to
symptom were selected for qualitative and remove this disease though management
quantitative analysis. Leaf sample from programme and to generate YLD free
infected and healthy plant of above mentioned progenies for further utilization in breeding
varieties were collected for analysis of macro programmes (Comstock and Miller, 2003).
(N, P, K) and micro (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) nutrient
content. Macro nutrients such as Nitrogen Analysis of qualitative and quantitative
(N), Phosphorus (P) and Potash (K) were traits
analysed by CHNS (Carbon, hydrogen, Two early (Co 0238, CoS 03251) and two
nitrogen, and sulphur) analyser, mid maturing (CoS 97261, Co 05011) were
Vanadate-molybdate colour method and flame compared with healthy and YLD infected
photometer, respectively. Micro nutrients plants. YLD infected plant showed significant
content (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) were analysed by reduction in quality and yield parameters as
using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer compare to corresponding healthy plants.
(AAS) as per standard procedure. Commercial cane sugar per cent (CCS %)

Spreading and Influence of Yellow Leaf Disease on Economic Traits of Sugarcane in Uttar Pradesh
Sujeet Pratap Singh, Atul Singh and B.L. Sharma

varied from 11.64 to 12.56 per cent in healthy quality and yield due to YLD infection in
crop while 11.27 to 12.35 in infected plants. major sugarcane varieties (Table 2).
Reduction in CCS per cent ranged from 1.67
Reduction in quality and yield
% (Co 0238) to 3.26 % (Co 05011) in infected
parameters in YLD infected plants in the
plants due to YLD infestation. The reduction
present study, possibly occurred due to
in cane weight ranged from 5.88 (CoSe 03251)
alteration in metabolic activities of plants
to 22.22 % (CoS 97261) in the affected plant
caused by the infection of phytoplasma or
in a particular cultivar. Thus, the average
RNA virus. This finding is in agreement with
losses in quality and yield were estimated to
the earlier findings in which yield losses of
be 2.40 per cent and 11.11 per cent,
15 to 20 % have been reported due to YLD
respectively. A comparative perusal of the
in Louisiana (Grisham et al., 2002) and also
results exhibited remarkable reduction in
losses in sugar yield (Grisham et al. 2001).

Table 1. Incidence of YLD on various sugarcane varieties at different locations of UP

Sl.No. Commercial cultivars Incidence % Locations

1 Co 05011, CoS 08279, CoS 08272, CoSe 01434, Co 0118, Co 0238, 1-30% SRI Farm,
UP 05125, CoS 8436 Shahjahanpur
2 CoS 767, CoH 10262, CoS 8436, Co 10221, CoPb 10181, Co 10035, 10-20% AICRP Trials,
CoS 10231, CoPant 84211, CoLk 11201, CoLk 11203, Co 0238, CoH SRI Farm
11262, CoS 11232, Co 11027, CoLk 11206, CoH 11263, CoLk 11204
3 CoSe 01434, CoS 08272, Co 0118, Co 0238, CoS 08279 10-20% Sultanpur,
4 Co 0238, Co 0118, CoS 08272, CoS 08279, CoSe 08452 2-20 Seorahi
5 Co 0238, Co 0118, CoS 08272, CoSe 08452 10-15 Gorakhpur

Table 2. Qualitative and quantitative traits in leaf of healthy and YLD infected
plants of sugarcane cultivars.
Qualitative traits Quantitative trait
Cultivars Variable Sucrose % in Purity
Brix % CCS % Cane weight (Kg)
juice %
Healthy 20.6 18.4 89 12.56 12.56
Co 0238 Infected 20 17.86 88.41 12.35 11.68
Reduction % 2.91 2.93 0.66 1.67 7.00
Healthy 20 17.6 88 12.14 6.80
CoS 03251 Infected 19.05 17.1 87.71 11.78 6.40
Reduction % 4.75 2.84 0.33 2.96 5.88
Healthy 19.2 16.88 87.94 11.64 9.0
CoS 97261 Infected 19.76 16.84 85.22 11.44 7.0
Reduction % - 0.24 3.03 1.72 22.0
Healthy 19.26 16.9 87.72 11.65 9.6
Co 05011 Infected 19.49 16.3 85.19 11.27 8.68
Reduction % - 3.55 2.88 3.26 9.58

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Earlier, up to 50 % yield losses in Brazil, up The overall results revealed that the
to 14 % losses in sugar yield, 11 % losses in qualitative and quantitative traits reduced
stalk weight and sugar yield have also been due to incidence of YLD in most of the
reported due to YLD infestation. Qualitative commercial cultivars. Reduction in the macro
and quantitative traits were also reduced by 11 and micro nutrients status in infected plant
% and 28 %, respectively in Reunion (ElSaye as compare to respective healthy plants was
et al. 2015). Viswanathan et al. (2014) reported also found remarkable. YLD and phytoplasma
a reduction in plant growth by 39-43% and juice diseases are transmitted by several vectors
yield by 30-34% at harvest in India. Reduction with broad host range due to climate change
in cane yield due to the infection of YLD in (ElSayed et al. 2015). There is a need to
combination with phytoplasma, has been explore the detailed genetic diversity of
reported by earlier workers (Aljanabi et al., SCYLV and phytoplasma also, to gather more
2001; Iqbal et al., 2015). information on its vector, its variable host
Macro and micro nutrients analysis with actual causal agent so that effective
The effect of YLD on macro nutrient (N, management strategies could be formulated.
P, K) and micro nutrients (Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn,) Screening and evolution of YLD resistant
were studied. Results revealed that the cultivars is also necessary. The effective
reduction in leaf macro nutrient N content management of YLD by removing virus and
ranged from 27.45% (CoS 97261) to 52.20% phytoplasma from cane stalk through
(Co 0238). Leaf P and K contents were chemotherapy is a tough task. Hot water
decreased from 26.67 to 41.67 and 5.64 to treatment of seed materials is more successful
25.75% in the cultivars, respectively. method to remove phytoplasma. Use of fresh
Maximum reduction in leaf micro nutrient Zn virus-free cane plants generated through
was observed to be 47.17 % (CoS 97261) and meristem tip culture from virus infected seed
Fe contents was recorded 25.69% (Co 05011). of commercial sugarcane may be successful
Maximum reduction in leaf Cu and Mn approach for proliferation of that cultivar
contents was observed in CoSe 03251(55.63%) under seed programme. YLD free plant could
and CoS 97261 (41.89%), respectively (Table3). also be screened through molecular tools
Table 3. Macro and micro nutrient contents in healthy and YLD infected plants of
sugarcane cultivars.
Macro nutrients (%) Micro nutrients (ppm)
Cultivars Variable
N P K Zn Fe Cu Mn
Co 0238 Healthy 1.59 0.24 1.67 38.8 508 1.67 1.67
Infected 0.76 0.14 1.24 20.8 453 1.24 1.24
Reduction % 52.20 41.67 25.75 46.39 10.83 35.0 31.94
CoS 03251 Healthy 1.38 0.17 2.43 30 503 2.43 2.43
Infected 0.97 0.1 2.05 27 378 2.05 2.05
Reduction % 29.71 41.41 5.64 10.0 24.85 55.63 27.91
CoS 97261 Healthy 1.53 0.15 1.53 53 336 1.53 1.53
Infected 1.11 0.11 1.43 28 378 1.43 1.43
Reduction % 27.45 26.67 6.54 47.17 17.86 29.63 41.89
Co 05011 Healthy 2.03 0.18 1.3 58 676 1.30 1.3
Infected 1.45 0.12 1.12 37 503 1.12 1.12
Reduction % 29.56 33.33 13.85 36.21 25.69 32.86 24.42

Spreading and Influence of Yellow Leaf Disease on Economic Traits of Sugarcane in Uttar Pradesh
Sujeet Pratap Singh, Atul Singh and B.L. Sharma

using marker assisted selection. Subsequently, sugarcane yield and juice quality. Proc. Intern.
commercial cultivation of sugarcane cultivars Soc. Sugar Cane Technologists 24: 434–438.
should be initiated using healthy seed 7. Iqbal A., Tiwari A.K., Kavita and Rao G.P.
material for sustainability of sugarcane (2015). Detection of mixed infection of
phytoplasmas and yellow leaf virus in
commercial sugarcane cultivars and their
Acknowledgement impact on yield and quality parameters.
Phytopathogenic Mollicutes, 5 (1-Suppl.): S95-
Authors are thankful to Dr Aneg Singh, S96.
Sr. Scientific Officer and Dr Priyanka Singh,
8. Lockhart B.E.L. and Cronje C.P.R. (2000).
Scientific Officer, for their support in the Yellow leaf syndrome. In: Rott P, Bailey RA,
analysis of samples for nutrient and quality, Comstock JC, Croft BJ, Saumtally AS (eds) A
respectively. guide to sugarcane diseases. CIRAD-ISSCT,
Montpellier, pp 291–295.
9. Matsuoka S. and Meneghin S.P. (1999). Yellow
1. Aljanabi S.M., Parmessur Y., Moutia Y., leaf syndrome and alleged pathogens: Causal,
Saumtally S. and Dookun A. (2001) Further not causal relationship. Proc Int Soc Sugar
evidence of the association of a phytoplasma Cane Technol Congress 23:382–389.
and a virus with yellow leaf syndrome in
sugarcane. Plant Pathol 50:628–636. 10. Meade G.P. and Chen J.C.P. (197). “Cane
Sugar Hand Book (10th) Wiley Inter Science,”
2. Comstock J.C. and Miller J. D. (2003).
John Wiley and Sons, New York, 1977, p. 947.
Incidence and spread of sugarcane yellow leaf
virus in sugarcane clones in the cp-cultivar 11. Rao G.P. , Gaur R.K. , Singh M. , Srivastava
development program at canal point. Journal A.K. , Virk K.S. , Singh N. , Viswanathan R. ,
American Society of Sugarcane Technologists, Patil A.S. and Jain R.K. (2017). Occurrence
Vol. 23. of sugarcane yellow leaf virus in India. Sugar
Tech (2000) 2 (7): 37-38.
3. ElSayed A.I.., Soufi Z., Wahdan K.M. and
Komor E. (2016). Detection and 12. Schenck S. (1990). Yellow leaf syndrome a new
Characterization of Phytoplasma and sugarcane disease. Annual Report, Hawaiian
Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus Associated with Sugar Planters Association, pp 38–39.
Leaf Yellowing of Sugarcane. Journal of
13. Smith G.R., Borg Z., Lockhart B.E.L.,
Phytopathology, 164 (4): 217–225.
Braithwaite K.S. and Gibbs M.J. (2000).
4. ElSayed A.I., Komor E., Boulila M., Sugarcane yellow leaf virus: a novel member
Viswanathan R. and Odero D.C. (2015). of the Luteoviridae that probably arose by
Biology and management of sugarcane yellow interspecies recombination. J Gen Virol,
leaf virus: An historical overview. Arch Virol. 81:1865–1869.
DOI 10.1007/s00705-015-2618-5.
14. Viswanathan R., Chinnaraja C., Malathi P.
5. Gaur R.K., Raizada R. and Rao G.P. (2008). Gomathi R. , Rakkiyappan P. , Neelamathi
Sugarcane yellow leaf phytoplasma associated D. and Ravichandran V. (2014). Impact of
for the first time with sugarcane yellow leaf Sugarcane yellow leaf virus (ScYLV) infection
syndrome in India. Plant Pathol. 57:772. on physiological efficiency and growth
6. Grisham M.P., Pan Y.B., Legendre B.L., parameters of sugarcane under tropical
Godshall M.A. and Eggleston G. (2001). Effect climatic conditions in India. Acta Physiol
of sugarcane yellow leaf syndrome on Plant, 36:1805–1822

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


N. Raja Kumar, K. Vijay Krishna Kumar, P. Kishore Varma, M. Suresh, M.
Charumathi, V. Gouri and M. Bharatha Lakshmi
Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University, Regional Agricultural Research Station,
Anakapalle-531001, Andhra Pradesh, India

Abstract KeyWords: Sugarcane, red rot, smut, sett

Oflate, viral diseases of sugarcane such as borne diseases, Pseudomonas fluorescens
mosaic (sugarcane mosaic virus, ScMV) and
yellow leaf disease (YLD by Sugarcane yellow
leaf virus (ScYLV) are becoming major Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is
bottlenecks in sugarcane cultivation. Both these a major cash crop of India. The country ranks
diseases are sett-borne. Being sett borne and second in area and sixth in production
vector transmitted, these viral diseases are worldwide, and thus earning a lot of revenue
assuming more severe form especially in Coastal and supporting rural employment by various
Andhra Pradesh, where monoculture, ratooning means. Biotic stresses are a major constraint
and poor agronomic practices are in vogue. Our to sugarcane production and of these, fungal
Present study is focused on understanding the and viral diseases are causing economically
prevalence of these viral diseases, varietal significant losses worldwide (Viswanathan,
and Rao 2011). Of various viral diseases
susceptibility and molecular confirmation of
causing major havoc, sugarcane mosaic and
viral infections in Coastal Andhra Pradesh,
yellow leaf diseases are major ones, causing
India. Cane growing districts such as
devastating losses (Viswanathan, and
Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam,
Balamuralikrishnan, 2005). These viral
East and West Godavari districts were surveyed
diseases are more prevalent than before and
during 2010-’16 to assess the incidence of Mosaic
are assuming as bottlenecks to sugarcane
and YLD. Further, through Polymerase Chain
production in Coastal Andhra Pradesh. A
Reaction assays, the viral infections in
general increase in severity of these viral
sugarcane was confirmed. Our survey resutls
diseases along the transect of cane growing
indicatd that YLD incidence steadily increased
districts of Coastal Andhra Pradesh is
up to 2013-’14 (highest 78%) and declined attributed to monocultivation, increased
thereafter (to 62%). There was a steady increase rationing, poor agronomic and vector
in mosaic disease from 2010-’11 (%) to 2016-’17 management strategies, besides farmers
(41%). In general, at research fields of RARS, ignorance on the imminent losses due to virus
Anakapalle, cultivars such as 87A298, 2003V46 infection in endemic areas. Since, both mosaic
and Co86032 were found to be susceptible to and YLD are transmitted through setts and
both the viral diseases. Our molecular studies aphids (Melanaphis sacchari and
have confirmed the presence of ScMV and Rhophalosiphum maydis), the disease is more
ScYLV in infected samples along with mixed problematic in areas with poor vector
infections. Our results give an idea on the management. Coupled with, both these viral
prevalence of viral diseases in Coastal Andhra diseases are settborne and thus so, selection
Pradesh. Our future studies are directed in of setts from healthy canes is a pre-requisite
ascertaining the economic losses due to these for producing viral free canes under field
viral diseases on cane yield and juice quality. conditions.

Prevalence and Distribution of Major Viral Diseases of Sugarcane in Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India
N. Raja Kumar, K. Vijay Krishna Kumar, P. Kishore Varma, M. Suresh, M. Charumathi, V. Gouri and M. Bharatha Lakshmi

In Coastal Andhra Pradesh, sugarcane is taken up with an objective of assessing the

being cultivated to an extent of 1.065 lakh ha prevalence of mosaic and YLD in sugarcane
with an annual production of 73.14 lakh tones crop grown in Coastal Andhra Pradesh and
annually. Among different districts, molecular confirmation through PCR assays.
Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam,
Materials and Methods:
Krishna, East and West Godavari are the
major areas with significant cane production Survey for incidence of Sugarcane
annually. Recently, there has been a drastic Mosaic and Yellow Leaf Diseases
decline in the production statistics of sugarcane A survey was undertaken in Coastal
including quality due to incidence of viral Andhra Pradesh in selected districts such as
diseases (Raja Kumar et al., 2015, 2016a). Of Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Srikakulam,
both Mosaic and YLD, mosaic disease incidence and East Godavari districts from 2010-’11 to
was once a minor disease and is now assuming 2016-’17. Surveys were conducted thrice in a
a major form. The other viral disease, YLD is crop year in the selected districts. A total of
first reported in Andhra Pradesh during 2006 10 mandals were selected in each district and
at sugarcane research fields of Regional three villages from each mandal. Mosaic
Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle, and incidence was recorded from 10 selected plots
is now spreading at alarming levels to all cane in each village and the data were pooled to
growing areas of Coastal Andhra Pradesh (Raja arrive at a mean Mosaic disease incidence.
Kumar and Prasada Rao 2012). Unfortunately, Same villages were visited every year and
no reasonably resistant sources of germplasm proper care was ensured to visit the same
among cultivars are available against these farmers’ fields every year from 2010-’11
viral diseases. through to 2016-’17. The per cent mosaic
incidence was calculated and the mandals
For successful management of these viral
were categorized as mosaic incidence per cents
diseases, understanding the prevalence and
as %; 11-16%; 17-23%; 24-37%; and 38-65%
distribution of these viral diseases is a
and above. Areas with mosaic incidence of
pre-requisite. For this, a comprehensive
38-65% and above were categorized as High
survey in the cane growing areas is
risk and sensitive areas and these areas were
mandatory. A critical insight on these aspects mapped using Global Positioning Systems
will enable to draw valid conclusions on the duly recording the coordinates.
nature of spread of these diseases. This is
because, oflate, mixed infections of both YLD Cultivar susceptibility to Sugarcane
and Mosaic diseases are noticed across all the Mosaic Virus and Yellow Leaf Disease
cane growing district and irrespective of the In screening trials for incidence of viral
cultivar grown, that too both in plant as well diseases at Regional Agricultural Research
as ratoon crop. In this context, understanding Station, Anakapalle, the mean disease
the cultivar susceptibility to each of the incidence (%) of Sugarcane Mosaic Disease
diseases assumes significance. Statistics in was enumerated based on visual observations
these areas are handy for plant virologists to annually. The cultivars that were selected for
come up with comprehensive management the present study were 87A298, 2003V46 and
strategies for each of the diseases individually Co86032, and these cultivars are the
as well as combined through application of popularly grown cultivars in Coastal Andhra
IDM strategies by incorporating field Pradesh. Data on % Mosaic incidence on these
resistant/tolerant cultivars as a component. cultivars were recorded from 2010-’11 to
Against this backdrop, the present study was 2016-’17.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Primer Code Primer Sequence Location Expected Amplicon Size

SCMV-F3 (24 mer) 5’-TTT YCA CCA AGC TGG AA-3’ CP 0.98 kbp

SCMV-R3 (24 mer) 5’-AGC TGT GTG TCT GTC TGT ATT CTC-3’ CP 0.98 kbp



Molecular Studies (RT-PCR)

For RT-PCR, the protocols adopted by
Chatenet et al (2005) were used with slight
modifications. Total RNA from sugarcane
leaves showing mosaic symptoms by using
standard protocols. Total RNA was eluted in
a final volume of 40 %L of diethyl Fig. 1. Incidence of yellow leaf disease (YLD)
pyrocarbonate-treated (DEPC) water and and Mosaic diseases of sugarcane in Coastal
stored at -20C. RT-PCR assays to detect Andhra Pradesh, India during 2010 to 2017.
SCMV with primer pairs as detailed below Our survey results indicated that the
were used according the protocol suggested by incidence of mosaic disease steadily increased
Alegria et al (2003). RT-PCR assays to amplify over years (2010-’11 through to 2016-’17) in
fragments specific to potyviruses of Poaceae the surveyed areas. The incidence was least
with primer pair oligo 1 n-oligo2n were during 2010-’11 (2%) and progressed steadily
performed according to Marie-Jeanne et al and reached peak during 2016-’17 (41%). In
(2000). The RT-PCR program was 50C for 30 general, the higher incidence of mosaic
min, 95C for 15 min, 30 cycles at 94C for 1 disease was observed since 2013-’14 (20%)
min, 50C for 1 min and 72C for 1 min with (Fig 1). Higher incidence of sugarcane mosaic
a final 72C extension for 5 min. A 10 %L disease in Coastal AP is attributed to
aliquot of each amplified product was increased susceptibility of all cultivars.
analyzed by electrophoresis through a 1.2%
Risk & Sensitive Areas with respect to
agarose gel.
Sugarcane Diseases

Results Our 6 years survey results indicated the

prevalence and severity of redrot, smut,
Our survey results on incidence of Yellow
mosaic, and YLD in Visakhapatnam,
leaf disease (YLD) from 2010 to 2016
Vizianagaram, Srikakulam and East Godavari
indicated that the disease increased steadily
districts of Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India.
up to 2013-’14 (highest, 78%) from 2010-’11
(22%), and thereafter declined up to 2015-’16 Mosaic
(62%). Further, during 2016-’17, the disease is In the surveyed mandals, mosaic disease
on the rise up to 69%. Sugarcane mosaic incidence was least (11-16%) in Narsipatnam,
disease has shown a steady increase in Etikoppaka, Devarapally mandals
incidence over years from 2010-’11 (2%) to (Visakhapatnam); Rajam, Salur, Jami,
2016-’17 (41%). Higher levels of YLD and Ramabhadrapuram, Terlam, Bobbili,
sugarcane mosaic disease in Coastal AP is Merakamudi, Gajapathinagaram,
attributed to increased susceptibility of all Parvathipuram and Nemalam mandals
cultivars in the surveyed areas. (Vizianagaram); Sankili, Santhakaviti and

Prevalence and Distribution of Major Viral Diseases of Sugarcane in Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India
N. Raja Kumar, K. Vijay Krishna Kumar, P. Kishore Varma, M. Suresh, M. Charumathi, V. Gouri and M. Bharatha Lakshmi

Mandasa mandals (Srikakulam). High risk Kasimkota, Anakapalli mandals

and sensitive areas (38-65%) in these districts (Visakhapatnam district); Kapileswarapuram,
include Munagapaka, Atchutapuram, Chelluru, Kadiyam, Korukonda mandals (East
Kasimkota and Anakapalli mandals Godavari district). For rest of the mandals in
(Visakhapatnam) (Fig 2). each of the surveyed districts, the YLD
incidence ranged from 29-54% (Fig 3).
3.2 Cultivar Susceptibility to Sugarcane
Mosaic Disease
Further, our studies at experimental
fields of Regional Agricultural Research
Station, Anakapalle indicated that all the
popularly grown sugarcane cultivars such as
87A298, 2003V46 and Co86032 have shown
increased susceptibility in general over years
Fig 2. Mean Mosaic incidence in different from 2010-’11 through to 2016-‘’17. As a slight
mandals of Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, exception to this, marginal decrease in mosaic
Srikakulam, East Godavari districts of Andhra incidence was noticed on the cultivar, 87A298
Pradesh, India during 2010-’16.
in 2012-’13 (10%) when compared to during
2011-’12 (12%) (Fig 3). Highest incidence of
Yellow Leaf Disease (YLD)
mosaic disease (36% in 87A298; 38% in
In the surveyed areas, YLD was less 2003V46; and 46% in Co86032) was recorded
(0-28%) in Chodavaram, Rolugunta, on all the three cultivars during 2016-’17.
Devarapalli, Kotavuratla, Nakkapalli and Overall, our results suggest that all the three
Payakaraopeta mandals (Visakhapatnam sugarcane cultivars under study were found
district); Rajam, Salur, Terlam, susceptible to mosaic disease over due course
Gajapathinagaram, Kothavalasa, Ranasthalam (Fig 4).
and Nemalam (Vizianagaram district);
On the other hand, irrespective of
Sankili, Santhakaviti and Mandasa
cultivars, YLD has shown no preference in
(Srikakulam district); Tondangi mandal of
cultivars and is rampant as years progressed.
East Godavari district. High risk and
sensitive areas (55-85%) with respect to YLD
in these surveyed districts include
Munagapaka, Etikoppaka, Atchutapuram,

Fig. 4. Mean per cent Mosaic disease incidence in

popularly grown sugarcane cultivars of Coastal
Andhra Pradesh, India during 2010 to 2017.

Fig. 3. Mean Yellow Leaf Disease (YLD)

incidence in different mandals of Visakhapatnam,
Vizianagaram, Srikakulam, East Godavari districts
of Andhra Pradesh, India during 2010-’16.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

3.3 Confirmation of Viral Diseases using increased number of rationing and poor vector
molecular studies RT- PCR management (Raja Kumar et al 2016b). In
The samples collected during survey particular, aphids play a significant role in
were tested for the presence or absence of the spread of virus diseases of sugarcane, thereby
virus using RT-PCR. Even though two of the causing huge economic losses (Singh et al.,
samples didn’t show any symptoms at field 2005). Proper care hence must be taken to
level, all the samples showed positive reaction educate the farmers on disease progression
for the virus in RT-PCR test with presence of through various factors and on the ambient
a band at around 0.98kbp length confirming climatic conditions that prevail for taking up
the presence of ScMV in all samples (Fig 5). the prophylactic measures to overcome the

4. Discussion and conclusions: In our studies, all the popularly grown

cultivars have shown susceptibility over time
Our studies indicated the prevalence of
from 2010-’11 to 2016-’17 to mosaic incidence
Sugarcane Mosaic and Yellow Leaf Diseases
(Fig 3). Increased susceptibility of CVs:
in Coastal Andhra Pradesh. Further,
87A298, 2003V46 and Co86032 over time to
popularly grown cultivars of Coastal Andhra
mosaic disease is also majorly attributed to
Pradesh are being prone over time to these
viral diseases, thus indicating the need to act increased number of rationings, use of
swiftly in devising plant protection tactics diseased seed material and poor vector
comprehensively to viral diseases. In the management. Our vector transmission studies
surveyed districts, there was an increase in have established the presence of virus
both YLD and Mosaic over time. Significant particles in aphids collected from diseased
number of hot spot areas in each of the plants/fields. Previously, researchers have
surveyed districts are of concern (Fig 2). established that proper vector management in
Steady increase in these disease from 2010-’11 conjunction with other virus management
to 2016-’17 over years (Fig 3) is majorly strategies can significantly bring down mosaic
attributed to poor vector management and and other viral disease incidences in
rationing of mosaic diseased crop. Earlier sugarcane (Singh et al., 2005). It is precisely
reports also established the relationship at this juncture, the role of Integrated Disease
between high mosaic disease with use of Management of viral diseases assumes
diseased seed material, monocropping, and significance.

Fig. 5. Agarose gel 1.2% showing the RT-PCR amplification product obtained from using the sugarcane
mosaic specific primers (SCMV- F3 and SCMV- R3) Lane showing positive PCR amplification.

Prevalence and Distribution of Major Viral Diseases of Sugarcane in Coastal Andhra Pradesh, India
N. Raja Kumar, K. Vijay Krishna Kumar, P. Kishore Varma, M. Suresh, M. Charumathi, V. Gouri and M. Bharatha Lakshmi

Farmers’ awareness on these viral Poaceae potyviruses by reverse

diseases is however poor and is of major transcription-polymerase chain reaction and
restriction analysis. Journal of Phytopathol.,
concern. In particular, majority of farmers are
148: 141-151.
ignorant of these viral infections in their
3. Raja Kumar N and Prasada Rao K. 2012. Yellow
sugarcane fields. They largely attributed the
leaf disease – An emerging disease- Major threat
symptomatology of these viral diseases as to sugarcane cultivation in Andhra Pradesh.
manifestation of sugarcane decline due to Proceedings of 25th Meeting of Sugarcane
unknown reasons. However, few farmers (%) research and development workers of Andhra
opined and attributed that unhealthy seed as Pradesh, held at Visakhapatnam on 20th to 21st
source of these viral diseases. Majority of July 2012.PP: 94-96.

farmers are also not aware of vector 4. Raja Kumar. N, Kishore Varma. P, Suresh. M
transmission of these two viral diseases. In and Veerabhadra Rao. K. 2015. Survey for
sugarcane YLD in some coastal districts of
our surveyed areas, over time, there has been
Andhra Pradesh. Proceedings of International
combined infections of both Mosaic and YLD Academic and Research Conference, India 2015
during earlier years (2011-’12). As years from October 9-10th at Vijayawada: 44.
progressed, the mixed infections of both these 5. Raja Kumar N., Suresh, M., Vijaya Krishna
viral diseases are prominent on a single plant. Kumar, K. , Kishore Varma, P and
This is also true with individual leaves, Veerabhadra Rao, K. 2016a. Sugarcane Mosaic
wherein leaves have mixed infections of both Disease- A minor disease becoming a major
threat to Sugarcane Cultivation in Andhra
these viral diseases in particular during
Pradesh. Plant Disease Research. 31 (2): 213.
2016-’17 (Viswanathan,et a.,l 2007).
6. Raja Kumar, N. Suresh, M. Vijayakrishna
Our future studies are therefore directed Kumar, K,. Kishore Varma. P and
to devise comprehensive Integrated Veerabhadra Rao K. 2016b. Distribution and
Characterization of Sugarcane Mosaic Disease
Management strategies for viral diseases of
in Andhra Pradesh. International Conference
sugarcane in general and mosaic disease in
and Exhibition on Sugarcane Value
particular, through application of antiviral Chain-Vision 2025 Sugar, held at VSI, Pune
compounds such as IAA and GA; proper and from November 11-16th 2016. Pp. 33.
timely vector management, along with 7. Singh M, Singh A, Upadhyaya, P.P and Rao,
bringing up awareness to farmers on the G.P. 2005. Transmission studies on an Indian
precise use of healthy seed, avoiding isolate of sugarcane mosaic poty virus. Sugar
mono-cropping and more rationing. tech 5 (2&3): 32-38.
8. Viswanathan, R., and Balamuralikrishnan, M.
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Chatenet, M., Peterschmitt, M., Girard, J-C. 9. Viswanathan, R., Balamuralikrishnan, M, and
and Rott, P. 2003. Genetic diversity in the coat Karuppaiah, R. 2007. Association of sugarcane
protein coding region of eighty-six sugarcane mosaic virus and sugarcane streak mosaic
mosaic virus isolates from eight countries, virus with sugarcane mosaic in India. Sugar
particularly from Cameroon and Congo. Arch. Cane International 25(2): 10–18.
Virol., 148: 357-372. 10. Viswanathan, R and Rao, G.P. 2011. Disease
2. Marie-Jeanne, V., Loos, R., Peyre, J., Alliot, B. scenario and management of major sugarcane
and Signoret, P. (2000). Differentiation of diseases in India. Sugar Tech 13 (4): 336-353.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


Sujatha T and Jhansi K
Sugarcane Research Station, Vuyyuru

Abstract reduced juice extraction, there will be problem

Seven promising prerelease sugarcane clones of clarification and filtration. The rate of
2007 V 43, 127, 131, 2008 V 109, 216, 240 deterioration and loss in sucrose percent is
and 312 were studied for juice quality very high when the time lag exceeds ‘48’
parameters upto 72 hours after harvesting hours after harvest. The deterioration of the
with 24 hours interval at Sugarcane Research juice quality is much faster when the canes
Station, Vuyyuru. Decline in percent juice are cut into number of bits (Soloman et al
sucrose from 0.516 per cent to 7.500 percent 2000).
depending upon the clone. Less reduction was Sugarcane varieties play a vital role in
recorded in 2007 V 127, (0.516 %) followed by retaining recoverable sugar due to their
2008 V 109 (0.613 %). As the time advances differences in susceptibility to post harvest
after harvesting to crushing the brix was deterioration (Uppal et al., 2000 and Singh &
increased in all the clones, maximum increase Solomon, 2003 and Mukund Rao et al., 2010).
was recorded in 2007 V 131 (9.04 %). Less 4 Therefore, identification of clones tolerant to
cane weight reduction was recorded in 2007 post harvest deterioration is needed to devise
V127 (1.90%) followed by 2008 V 109 (2.18%). scientific supply and crushing schedule with
Titrable acidity index was less in 2007 V 127 minimal loss of recoverable sugar.
(15.21) followed by 2008 V 109 (15.98) at 72
hours after harvesting. Dextan content was Materials and Methods:
also less in 2007 V 127, 2008 V 240 and 2008 Seven sugarcane clones were studied in
V109. By observing all these parameters it post harvest deterioration experiment with
was concluded that the clones 2007 V 127 three replications in randomized block design.
and 2008 V 109 were found tolerant to post Each clone was planted in six rows in eight
harvest deterioration. meters length with a spacing 80 cm between
rows. Fertilizer dose of 168 kg N + 75 KgP2O5
Keywords: Deterioration, TAI (Titrable + 100 kg K2O / ha was applied. Juice quality
acidity index), Dextran, Sucrose per cent . parameters were recoded farm 0 hours to 72
hours after harvesting for every 24 hours.
Loss in 4 cane weight was recorded from 0 to
Post harvest deterioration of canes 72 hours after harvesting before each crushing.
occurs mainly due to delay in crushing of the Juice sucrose per cent and Brix were recorded
harvested canes. The delay could be either in with sucroyzer cum Refractometer. Dextran
transporting or may even be in the yard. Post content in juice was estimated by Haze method.
harvest deterioration is highly influenced by TAI was calculated with 0.1 N . NaOH titration
several factors viz., variety, moisture content method. This experiment was conducted in
of cane, condition of the cane, time lag 2015-2016 and 2016-2017.
between harvesting to milling, maturity status
of the crop and weather conditions Results and Discussions:
(temperature, humidity and rainfall). Apart Variation among the clones were
from losses in cane weight and sucrose recorded for pre cent juice sucrose to each
percent in juice, deteriorated cane adds to interval of crushing after harvest of cane to

Studies on Post Harvest Deterioration in Promising Pre-release Sugarcane Clones
Sujatha T and Jhansi K

Table 1.Post harvest deterioration in popular sugarcane clones

4 cane weight (kg) Brix

S.No Clones 0 hrs 72 hrs % reduction 0 hrs 72hrs % increase
1 2007 V 43 5.00 4.700 6.00 20.48 20.58 0.48
2 2007 V 127 4.730 4.640 1.90 21.43 21.73 1.39
3 2007 V 131 4.380 4.160 5.02 21.00 22.90 9.04
4 2008 V 109 4.866 4.760 2.18 21.79 23.07 5.87
5 2008 V 216 4.300 3.50 18.60 21.24 21.90 3.10
6 2008 V 240 4.450 3.950 11.23 21.63 21.90 1.24
7 2008 V 312 5.100 4.700 7.84 21.41 21.88 2.19

Table 2: Post harvest deterioration in popular sugarcane clones

% Juice Sucrose TAI

72 hrs after Dextran 72 hrs after
S.No Clones 0 hrs 72 hrs %Reduction
harvesting harvesting. OD
1 2007 V 43 18.56 18.19 1.99 16.11 0.063
2 2007 V 127 19.35 19.25 0.516 15.21 0.041
3 2007 V 131 21.85 21.20 2.974 16.19 0.144
4 2008 V 109 21.20 21.07 0.613 15.98 0.046
5 2008 V 216 22.11 20.45 7.500 18.83 0.193
6 2008 V 240 20.89 19.33 7.460 20.65 0.043
7 2008 V 312 19.60 19.21 1.980 16.08 0.101

72 hours after harvesting. Four cane weight, dextran formation followed by 2008 V 240 and
Brix, TAI and Dextran content were also 2008 V 109 indicated their tolerance to post
differed for each crushing among the clones – harvest deterioration Terrible acidity index
tested. The data was presented in Table 1 was less in 2007 V 127 (15.21) followed by
and Table 2. 2008 V 109 (15.98) Lesser the TAI more is
Sugarcane clones 2007 V 127, 131, 2008 the tolerance to post harvest deterioration.
V 109, 2008 V 216 and 2008 V 240 were Loss in cane weight was recorded in all
recorded higher per cent juice sucrose at each the clones as crushing delayed. At 72 hours
crushing. The sucrose declined in all the after harvesting less reduction in cane
clones from 0 to 72 hours after harvesting weight was recorded in 2007 V 127 (1.90%)
But the less decline was recorded in 2007 V
followed by 2008 V 109 (2.18 %) indicating
127 (0.516 %) followed by 2008 V 109 (0.613%)
tolerance of these clones for delayed crushing.
when compared to other clones. Whereas the
Brix value i.e total stubble solids were Conclusions:
increased as crushing time advances. More By observing per cent juice sucrose
increase was recorded in 2008 V 131(9.04 %). reduction, cane weight loss, TAI, Dextran
Dextran content in juice was increased formation at each interval of crushing the
progressively in all the sugarcane clones clones 2007 V 127 and 2008 V 109 were found
tested for each crushing. At 72 hours after tolerant to post harvest deterioration over
harvesting the clone 2007 V 127 recorded less other clones tested.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

References sub-tropical climate. Deterioration of whole

stalk and bullets. Sugar Tech 5 (4): 850288.
1. Mukunda Rao.Ch, Raja Rajeswari V, Naidu
4. Uppal S.K; Sharma S. and Sidhu G.S 2000
N.V; and Ramakrishna Rao S. 2010. Study on
Response of sugarcane genotypes to post
post harvest deterioration in sugarcane. Paper
harvest deterioration under natural field
presented in proceedings of 24th R&D
conditions exposed to sun vs shade. Crop
sugarcane workers meet held at Acharya N. G. Research 199(1): 13-1.
Ranga Agricultural University Hyderabad on
17-18th July, 2010 PP: 61-64. 5. Mukunda Rao Ch, Prasada Rao K and
Ankaiah R 2015 study on post harvest cane
2. Solomon S; Sahi. H.N; Suman A ; Gaur A; Deb quality deterioration in sugarcane published in
S. and Sing I 2001. A survey of post harvest SISSTA- Sugar Journal 2015 45th Annual
biological losses in Indian Sugar Factories; and Convention on 24-25th July 2015 held at
emerging challenge Proc 24th ISSCT.PP: Bengaluru PP 84-86..
3. Singh I and Solomon S 2003. Pot harvest
quality loss of sugarcane genotypes under

T.M.Hemalatha, M.Hemanth kumar, N.Sabitha, M.S.Balaji and M.Subba rao
Agricultural Research Station, Perumallapalle.
Corresponding author E-mail ID: hema_agri@yahoo.com

Abstract: Inadequate availability of quality seed of new

sugarcane varieties and poor seed replacement
Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Disease (SCYLD) is
rate adversely affect the realization of genetic
posing a serious problem in sugarcane
potential of varieties. Availability of disease
growing areas drastically affecting sugarcane
yields and sugar recovery all over the world. and pest-free, true to type planting material
The disease is caused by Sugarcane Yellow is an important prerequisite for achieving the
Leaf Virus, a Polerovirus of the luteoviridae desired yield improvement in sugarcane.
family inhabiting in phloem tissues. The virus Diseases are one of the major constraints in
was isolated from infected samples of the the profitable cultivation of sugarcane. Among
commercially grown sugarcane varieties from the viral diseases of sugarcane, Sugarcane
farmer’s fields of Chittoor and Nellore Yellow Leaf Disease (SCYLD) is among the
districts. Using SCYLV specific primers world’s most important sugarcane diseases
(SCYLV-F, SCYLV-R and 613-F, 613-R), causing remarkable epidemics and losses of
SCYLV was detected by RT-PCR in the major proportions. Sugarcane is vegetatively
commercially grown sugarcane varieties viz., propagated and it favors accumulation of
2003 V46, 86V96, Co 86032, 87A298 with pathogens especially the virus titre in further
amplification of 1,110 bp (ORF 1 & 2) generations. Hence along with seed canes,
replicase protein and 613 bp (ORF-3 & 4) coat disease causing pathogens are also introduced
protein. Seedlings were raised using meristem into new areas. Slow accumulation of different
tip culture and young leaf rolls from infected pathogens over a period of time makes minor
sugarcane plants of the commercial varieties; diseases into major one. Affected planting
2003V46, 86V96, Co 86032, 87A298 and these material poses a major problem in
seedlings were verified for the presence or propagation and exchange of germplasm, and
absence of the disease using RT-PCR. The eventually in breeding and distribution of
seedlings showing negative amplification for superior genotypes.
the coat protein of the virus was confirmed to
SCYLV causes yellowing of the leaf
be disease free and was preceded to field
midrib, leaf necrosis, an imbalance in the
metabolism of carbohydrate and the
accumulation of sucrose in the leaf midrib
Introduction: (Fitch et al., 2001). The virus is transmitted
Sugarcane is globally an important by the aphid Melanaphis sacchari (Shenck
source of commercial sugar accounting for and Lehrer, 2000), and is phloem-specific. Due
nearly 70 per cent of the world sugar to this specificity the virus cannot be
production. Sugarcane yields are deteriorating transmitted mechanically, through surface
day by day because of lack of good quality injury to foliage or by short test probes made
seed. Recovery of sugar has also come down by aphids into epidermal cells (Gildhow,
because absence of good quality canes. 1999).

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

The Luteovirus genome consists of a collected from popular varieties viz., 2003V46,
single, linear, positive sense single stranded 86 V 96, 87 A 298, Co 7219, Co 86032. The
RNA of 5.6 kb. ScYLV is an emerging virus total RNA was isolated using TRI reagent
evolved from recombination of the ancestors (Sigma) & total RNA was reverse transcribed
in the three genera; Luteovirus, Polerovirus with revert aid cDNA synthesis kit
and Enamovirus. SCYLV has a positive sense (Fermentas, USA) in 20  l of reaction
ss RNA genome consisting of 5.8 kb nt. mixture prepared by using 4.5  l of DEPC
Complete genome sequencing and
treated Water, 6.0  l of Total RNA-infected
characterization of ScYLV has revealed six
sample, 2.0  l of Reverse primer of the coat
open reading frames (ORFs 0-5). P0 (ORF0)
codes for a suppressor of RNA silencing (Abu
YTACC 3’), & and reverse primer of replicase
Ahmad et al 2006). ORF1 overlaps ORF0 and
ORF2 in the 5’ and 3’ termini, respectively. protein, ScYLV- 613F (5’GTGTTGGGGRAGCG
An ORF1/2fusion protein is translated via a TCCCYTACC 3’), 4  l of Buffer, 1  l of
frame shift, producing the RNA dependent RT-Enzyme, 2  l of dNTPs, 0.5  l of Ribolock
RNA polymerase (RdRp) ORF4, which encodes / RNase inhibitor. The reaction was carried
the movement protein is located within ORF3 out First strand cDNA was carried out in a
which codes for coat protein. ORF5 is thermo cycler (Master Cycle gradient,
expressed as read through protein with ORF3 Eppendroff, Germany) at 65C for 5 min
and it codes for an aphid transmission factor. followed by addition of RT-enzyme at for 60
min followed by 70C for 5 min extension.
Among the methods employed for
elimination of viruses in sugarcane crop for Using the cDNA synthesized, RT- PCR was
developing good quality seed are performed in 25  l reaction mixture
thermotherapy and meristem-tip culture containing 2  l of cDNA, 2.5  l of 10x buffer
technology. Apical meristem culture was used along with 15mM MgCl2 , 0.5 ml of 10mM of
by Coleman (1970) and Hendre et al. (1975) 2 dNTPs mix, 1 ìl of ScYLV613F forward
to obtain sugarcane mosaic virus free plants. primer–5’ ATGAATACGGGCGCTAACCGYY
This procedure takes into account that viruses CAC 3’and reverse primer ScYLV- 613F
fail to invade the meristamatic region. (5’GTGTTGGGGRA GCGTCCCYTACC 3’),
Another reason is that the SCYLV spreads (10 pico mole), 0.2  l of Taq polymerase and
through vascular system and as the final volume with sterile Milli-Q water
meristamatic region is not vascularized, the (Viswanathan et al., 2008). The PCR reaction
virus cannot invade the meristamatic tissue. was performed with initial 94C for 4 min
Micro propagation raised plants should be
followed by 30 cycles of 94C for 30 Sec,
indexed for confirmation of free from viruses
65C for 1 min and 72C for 45 sec and a
and virus-like diseases through ELISA, and
final extension of 72C for 15 min. 2  l of
molecular methods like RT-PCR. The objective
of the study is to produce virus free seedlings amplification product was analyzed in 1.0%
through micro propagation and indexing the agarose gel electrophoresis in 1x TBE buffer
seedlings for Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Disease stained in ethidium bromide. The genes
using RT-PCR with an aim to produce quality coding for ORF1&2 (Replicase Protein) and
seed. ORF3&4 (Coat protein) were amplified from
the infected samples of the varieties 2003V46,
Materials and methods: 86V96, Co 86032 and 87A298 by using the
The infected leaf samples showing the specific primers for (ORF1&2) and (ORF3&4)
symptoms of Yellow Leaf Disease were respectively.

Molecular Detection of Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus in Commercially Grown Sugarcane Varieties and Indexing of Micro Propagated...
T.M.Hemalatha, M.Hemanth kumar, N.Sabitha, M.S.Balaji and M.Subba rao

Shoot apical meristems (SAMs) and midrib on the abaxial surface of mature leaves
young leaf rolls (YLRs) from infected sources (Fig. 1a). Older leaves show a red coloration
were used for production of virus free of the midrib on the adaxial surface (Fig. 1b).
seedlings using the standardized protocols. Afterwards the leaf blade becomes yellow, dry
The shoot apical meristems and leaf rolls and bleached, proceeding from the tip toward
were washed with Tween 20 for 5 minutes the base of the leaf, and tissue necrosis can
and with Streptomycin for 10 minutes eventually take place.
followed by washing in 70 % ethanol for 1
minute. These were again washed with
autoclaved distilled water and surface
sterilized with 1% sodium hypochlorite for 5
minutes. The sterilized SAMs and leaf rolls
were inoculated on shoot multiplication media
(full strength MS medium +IAA+ cytokinins.
The multiple shoots obtained were sub
cultured on same shoot multiplication media.
The multiple shoots obtained from sub
cultured shoots were inoculated on root
initiation media (half strength MS medium +
IBA 1-3 mg/l) for rooting. The rooted plantlets
were transferred to plastic cups in shade net Fig. 1b. Pinkish discoloration on leaf lamina
house for hardening. The infected leaf samples from these
varieties were collected and subjected to
Results and Discussion:
RT-PCR using the specific primers for the
The commercially grown varieties in coat protein 613F and 613R (Viswanathan et
Andhra Pradesh viz., 2003 V46, Co 86032, 86 al., 2008). The coat protein and replicase
V96, 87A298 are infected with the disease protein gene of Sugarcane Yellow Leaf virus
resulting in heavy yield losses. Symptoms of was amplified in all the suspected samples
SCYLV infection in susceptible varieties are (Fig.2 shown for 2003V46 and 86V96). The
characterized by intense yellowing of the

Fig 2. Amplification of coat protein and

movement protein of the Sugarcane yellow leaf
Fig. 1a. Symptoms of YLD on 2003V46 virus from infected samples of the

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Lane1: Amplification of replicase protein of the virus

from 2003V46.

Lane2: Amplification of replicase protein of the virus

from 86V96.

Lane3: Amplification of coat protein of the virus from

Lane4: Amplification of coat protein of the virus from

infected YLD samples from sugarcane varieties

viz., 2003 V 46,86V96, Co 86032, 87A298 were
used for standardizing the protocols for
production of virus-free seedlings through
meristem tip culture and young leaf roll
methods. Multiple shoot lets developed from the Fig. 4: Amplification of Sugarcane yellow leaf
virus (SCYLV) with 613-F and SCYLV-613R
apical meristem portion and from leaf rolls were primers from tissue culture derived plantlets.
separated and further sub cultured for another
cycle of shoot multiplication on full strength MS Lane1, 2, 3: Negative amplification for the coat protein
medium and high concentration of cytokinins. of the virus from tissue culture developed seedlings of
2003V46 (Lane.1) Co 86032 (Lane 2), 86 V96 (Lane 3).
Later elongated micro shoots about 5-6 cm in
Lane 4, 5, 6: Positive amplification for the coat protein
length were excised from culture bottles and
of the virus from infected samples of 2003V46.
transferred to half-strength MS medium + IBA/
NAA/IAA (1.0-3.0 mg/l). Profuse rooting was Conclusion:
observed from in vitro shoot lets when
inoculated on to half strength MS basal media Sugarcane seedlings developed through
tissue culture techniques are free from
supplemented with 3 mg/l IBA. These micro
Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus which are
propagated seedlings were confirmed to be
further confirmed by RT-PCR. Hence, using
virus-free using RT – PCR method and were
the tissue culture and molecular methods,
transferred to green house for hardening and
virus free seedlings of commercial varieties
then preceded to field cultivation. Lal et.al,
were produced and extended to field
(2015) used micro propagation technique for
cultivation for multiplication of seed material
rapid multiplication of newly developed
for large extent.
sugarcane varieties and for rejuvenation of old
deteriorated varieties.
1. Abu Ahmad, Y., Rassably, L., Royer, M., Borg,
Z., Braithwaite, K S., Mirkov, T E., Irey, MS.,
Perrier, X., Smith, GR. and Rott, P. 2006.
Yellow leaf of sugarcane is caused by at least
three different genotypes of sugarcane yellow
leaf virus, one of which predominates on the
Island of Réunion. Archive of Virology 151:
2. Fitch, M.M.M., Lehrer, A.T., Komor. E., Moore,
P.H. 2001. Elimination of Sugarcane yellow
leaf virus from infected sugarcane plants by
Fig. 3. Production of tissue culture seedlings meristem tip culture visualized by tissue blot
through meristem tip culture. immunoassay. Plant Pathology 50, 676-680.

Molecular Detection of Sugarcane Yellow Leaf Virus in Commercially Grown Sugarcane Varieties and Indexing of Micro Propagated...
T.M.Hemalatha, M.Hemanth kumar, N.Sabitha, M.S.Balaji and M.Subba rao

3. Gildow, F.E. 1999. Luteovirus transmission 6. Schenck, S. and Lehrer, A.T. 2000. Factors
and mechanisms regulating vector specificity. affecting the transmission and spread of
p 89 In: HG Smith and H Barker (Eds) The sugarcane yellow leaf virus. Plant Disease. 84,
Luteoviridae. CABI Publishing, New York, 1085-1088.
USA. 7. Viswanathan, R., Balamuralikrishnan, M. and
4. Coleman, R.E. 1970. New plants produced Karuppaiah, R. 2008. Identification of three
from callus tissue culture. In Sugarcane genotypes of sugarcane yellow leaf virus
research. 1970 report, 38. U.S. Dept. Agric. causing yellow leaf disease from India and
Res. Serv. Pl. Sci. Res. Division. their molecular characterization. Virus Genes.
5. Hendre, R.R., Mascarenhas, A.F., Nadgir, A.L., 37, 368–379.
Pathak, M. and Jagannathan, V. 1975. 8. Lal, M., Tiwari.,A.K.,Gupta, G.N and Kavita.
Growth of sugarcane mosaic virus free 2015. Commercial Scale Micropropagation of
sugarcane plants from apical meristems. Sugarcane: Constraints and Remedies. Sugar
Indian Phytopathology 28, 1975, 175-178. Tech. 17: 339.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


CA K.Marimuthu
Executive Vice President, Gem Sugars Ltd

Sugar, the second largest agro based consumption would result in an incremental
industry in India, is a sector of immense demand of over 1 million tons per annum.
importance to the Indian economy. This
industry impacts livelihoods of about 50 Per Capita consumption 2016
million farmers and their families and Per Capita
provides direct employment to over 5 lakh Country Consumption
skilled and semi-skilled persons in sugar mills per Kg
Cuba 61 Cane
and related industries.
Australia 60 Cane
India and China are the top two sugar Brazil 56 Cane
consumers in the world consuming 18% of the Mexico 50 Cane
total production. However, the Asian giants European Union 48 Beet
have the lowest per capital consumption Canada 43 Beet
among the developing countries; India’s per Russia 43 Beet
capita consumption is only 18 kgs. as South Africa 36 Cane
compared to the world average of 24 kg. USA 34 Beet / Cane
However, globally, consumption increases with Egypt 34 Beet / Cane
increasing income as people shift away from Thailand 30 Cane
traditional sweeteners. With income expected Korea 27 Cane/Beet
to grow in both India and China, sugar World 21 Beet
consumption should increase in the coming Rest of world 19 Beet

years at higher than historical growth rates Japan 18 Beet

India 17 Cane
providing sustained market demand. In fact
China 07 Cane
even a 1 kg. increase in India’s per capita

Fig. As income increases, sugar consumption also increases

Harnessing The Growth Potential - Indian Sugar Sector
CA K.Marimuthu

Sugar cycle Sugarcane prices

The sugar industry is typically cyclical Premium for
Sugar RFP Recovery
and given its fragmented nature in India, every 0.1%
Season (Rs) %
scale, efficiencies and integrated revenue
model will clearly determine the winners in 2010-11 139.12 9.50 1.46
the long run. 2011-12 145.00 9.50 1.53

Domestic sugar consumption (mn tons) 2012-13 170.00 9.50 1.79

2013-14 210.00 9.50 2.21
2014-15 220.00 9.50 2.32
2015-16 230.00 9.50 2.42
2016-17 230.00 9.50 2.42


While cane prices have more than
doubled in the last several years, sugar prices
have increased by only 30% as indicated
Industry and Government Policies below:
As sugar has been classified as ‘essential (Amount in Rs.)
commodity’ in India, the Government
Sugar and cane prices
continues to control the industry. Under the
sugar control order, 1966, the Central
Government is empowered to:

 Regulate sugar production

 Regulate the movement of sugar

 Regulate the quality of sugar

 Regulate sugar trade

The sugar control order also empowers

the Government to exercise control over the
industry’s raw material; sugarcane.
Improving Balance sheets
Setting the Fair and Remunerative Price
Given the all-round improvement in the
(FRP) payable to farmers is linked to the
industry, sugar companies’ balance sheets
average recovery rate. However, this is only
have shown tremendous improvement. Sugar
a minimum, and individual states advise mills
is a working capital intensive industry. Sugar
to pay State Advisory Prices (SAP) that is
is mainly produced between November and
generally at a premium over FRP.
May, but is sold throughout the year and
Regulate the movement and distribution hence mills are forced to carry large
of sugarcane. inventories for lengthy periods of time. A high
debt-equity ratio makes the sugar mills highly
Regulate and provide licenses to power vulnerable to business shocks during periods
crushers and khandasari units.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

of downturn. Most of the companies have Area and production

paid off the dues for the sugarcane to the
Production Sugarcane
farmers. This helps in building a long-term Area
(Millon Tonnes) yield
relationship with the cane suppliers. Besides, Year
(Lakh (Tonnes/Hect
sugar mills have also worked out on Sugarcane Sugar
Ha) ares)
restructuring the debt on their balance sheets.
2005-06 42.0 281.17 19.32 66.92
Cane acreage & production 2006-07 51.5 355.52 28.20 69.02
Sugarcane occupies about 2.7% of the
2007-08 50.6 348.19 26.30 68.88
total cultivated area and it is one of the most
2008-09 44.2 285.03 14.68 64.55
important cash crops in the country. The area
undersugarcane has gradually increased over 2009-10 41.7 292.30 18.80 70.02
the years mainly because of much large 2010-11 48.8 342.38 24.35 70.09
diversion of land from other crops to
2011-12 50.4 361.04 26.34 71.67
sugarcane by farmers for economic reasons.
2012-13 50.0 341.20 25.85 68.25
Sugarcane movement
2013-14 50.1 352.14 24.55 69.84
% cane utilization for
Seed, feed & chewing 2014-15 50.7 362.38 25.05 70.86

White sugar Gur & 2015-16 49.6 352.16 25.20 70.07

Year (%)
(%) Khandasari
Increasing diversification of revenues
2010-11 70.0 11.9 18.1
Due to visibility on the revenues from the
2011-12 71.2 12.0 16.8
downstream products there is an increase in the
2012-13 73.4 11.3 15.3 revenues of the sugar mills. This not only
reduces the dependence on a single source but
2013-14 67.7 11.5 20.8
also provide non-cyclical revenue in case of a
2014-15 75.4 11.5 13.1 decline in sugar realizations. Unlike Brazil,
2015-16 67.2 11.5 21.3 Indian manufacturers do not have the flexibility
to switch from sugar to ethanol to take the
advantage of price arbitrage. Overall, a better
revenue mix will provide improved valuations
for the sugar stocks.
India’s Domestic demand-supply Scenario
Particulars 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017P
Opening Stock 7.1 7.6 8.2 6.5 8.8 7.7
Production 26.3 25.1 24.3 28.3 25.1 20.3
Increase in Production 7.79% -4.56% -3.19% 16.46% -11.31% -6.77%
Internal consumption 22.4 23.0 24.0 24.8 24.6 24.2
Growth Y-O-Y 7.69% 2.68% 4.35% 3.33% -0.81% 2.41%
Exports 3.4 1.5 2.0 1.2 1.6 -
Imports - - - - -
Closing Stock 7.6 8.2 6.5 8.8 7.7 3.8
Months of consumption 4.1 4.3 3.3 4.2 3.8 3.0

Harnessing The Growth Potential - Indian Sugar Sector
CA K.Marimuthu

Ethanol – strong revenue visibility South Asian electricity generation, still facing
To provide price stability and serious power problems with current
remunerative prices to ethanol suppliers, the generation being about 30 per cent below the
government approved a new pricing demand. Overall, Indian power demand is
mechanism for ethanol supply to public sector projected to increase to 1,192
oil marketing companies (OMCs) to carry out billion-kilowatt-hours (BkWh) by 2020, which
the ethanol blended petrol (EBP) programme, is more than three times, 378 BkWh
which has increased the scope of ethanol consumed in 1996 (Report; Ministry of
industry in India. Agriculture and Natural Resources). One of
the major commercially grown agricultural
Ethanol Demand Forecast (Bln liters)
crops in India is Sugarcane. The plant has
Demand at 5% Demand at
the highest bio conversion efficiency through
blendig 10% blending
photosynthesis and is able to fix around 55
2017-18 1495 2991 tons of dry matter per hectare of land under
2018-19 1621 3241 this crop on annual renewable basis. India
2019-20 1757 3513 produces nearly 40 million metric tons (MMT)
of bagasse and it is being minorly used as
2020-21 1904 3808
raw material in the paper industry. Through
Ethanol Addition in Gasoline programme this source cheaper electricity can be produced
and the greenhouse gases can be minimized
Upto 5% Up to 10% Over 10%
in terms of the usage of biomass as fuel.
EU USA Brazil Therefore, Bagasse, can play a major role in
India Canada USA (FFVs) substituting fossil fuels for the future power
Japan China Canada (FFVs) generation.

Thailand Sweden (FFVs) The current availability of biomass in

India is estimated at about 500 million metric
South Africa
tons per year. Studies sponsored by the
Recent developments in the global ethanol Ministry have estimated surplus biomass
market suggest the emergence of ethanol as an availability at about 120 – 150 million metric
internationally traded commodity. Demand tons per annum covering agricultural and
growth is robust, and for the first time, strongly forestry residues corresponding to a potential
supported not only by higher oil prices and of about 18,000 MW. This apart, about
greater need for energy security, but perhaps 7000 MW additional power could be generated
more importantly, by global environmental and through bagasse based cogeneration in the
sustainability concerns. Bio-fuels, such as
country’s 550 Sugar mills, if these sugar mills
ethanol, are central to worldwide efforts to
adopt technically and economically optimal
abate greenhouse gases and mitigate climate
levels of cogeneration for extracting power
from the bagasse produced by them. Though
Co-generation there had been problems in the past mainly
Conventional fuels such as coal, related to acceptance and continuation of
petroleum etc are limited in the nature power rates as per the Government Policy,
therefore; alternate sources are needed to further investment can be expected because of
fulfill the demand of energy in future. India, growing demand for power in the country and
which accounts for around 85 per cent of the importance of renewal energy sources,

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Conclusion 20-25 per cent of total motor-fuel

Slowly, sugar - power cogeneration - requirements of India. It could therefore
ethanol distillery would emerge as a key become a substantial collaborator in reducing
source to fulfill ever increasing sugar-energy the petroleum import bills and save foreign
requirement of India. The green power exchange and to become environmentally
cogeneration and bio-ethanol production, as friendly.
the renewable green energy sources have huge Indian sugar industry and sugarcane
potential of converting economic sick sugar cultivation is passing through a critical phase
mills into sugar-energy complexes to achieve of restructuring. Hence, sugar industry
the future targets. The contribution of these should also harness the potential of sugarcane
by-products based utilization activities has led production and diversification for power,
to industry turnover of Rs.10-12 thousand bio-ethanol, other bi-products of bio-compost
crores. However, in long term, the sugar for sustainable development of industry and
industry has the future potential to meet economic prosperity of sugarcane growers.

I.V.Y.Rama Rao 1, H.Srinivasa Rao 2, Ch.S.Vani 3
and M.Bharatha Lakshmi 4
Scientist (Agricultural Economics), Dept. of Agricultural Economics,
Scientist (Agricultural Economics), Cost of Cultivation Scheme,
Scientist (Agricultural Extension), Dept. of Agricultural Extension,
Principal Scientist (Sugarcane),
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Anakapalle, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh-531 001

Abstract Introduction
An attempt was made in the present study to As per the latest statistics of FAO (Food
estimate the growth, instability in sugarcane and Agriculture Organisation), during 2014,
production in southern states of India, by sugarcane is cultivated in 27.18 Million
estimating the patterns of growth and hectares (Mha) of area in the world and
magnitude of instability and determining the production and yield of 1,810.0 Million tonnes
(Mt) and 69.9 Tonnes per hectare (t/ha)
factors which caused change in production.
respectively. Among the countries, Brazil with
The time series data for the period 1990-91 to
10.44 Mha of area and 737.16 Mt of
2015-16 on area, production and productivity
production lead in the world, but in
were collected from website of Directorate of
productivity it was in 36th position with 70.63
Economics and Statistics, Government of
t/ha, in which Peru recorded highest with
India. Analytical tools like Compound growth
126.05 t/ha. India ranks second in both area
rate (CGR), Coppock’s Instability Index (C.I.I) and production, with an area of 5.01 Mha
and Decomposition of Change in average (19.76 % of world’s area) and with an average
production (Hazell, 1984) were employed. production of 352.14 Mt (19.61% in world’s
production), whereas, with 70.26 t/ha in yield
The results revealed that impact of area on
it is in 37th position (FAOSTAT, 2016).
production was marginally higher than
productivity in both period I and II in country As per the advance estimates for the
as a whole, as well as in southern states also. year 2015-16, among the states in India,
But, it was accompanied with high degree of Uttar Pradesh (U.P) leads with 21.60 Lakh
instability. Area effect was higher than the hectares (Lha), followed by Maharashtra (9.87
productivity effect on the production Lha), Karnataka (4.0 Lha), Tamil Nadu (2.63
differential in country as a whole, and in all Lha) etc (Sugar Statistics, 2016). Production
wise, U.P. leads with 133.20 Mt, followed by
southern states except in Karnataka, where
Maharashtra (75.09 Mt), Karnataka (34.20
vice versa was noticed. So, growth in
Mt),Tamil Nadu (27.62 Mt), Bihar (14.24 Mt).
production came from area attributing factors
Yield wise West Bengal leads with 115.0 t/ha,
like area expansion owing to provision of
followed by Tamil Nadu (105 t/ha), Kerala
remunerative prices and assured supply of
(91.5 t/ha), Karnataka (85.5 t/ha), Andhra
farm in-puts etc. Pradesh (79.4 t/ha).

Keywords: Sugarcane, Area, Production, Studies by Hazell (1984) and Jayadevan

Productivity, Growth, Instability, decomposition, (1991) revealed that the growth in crop
Southern states, India, Andhra Pradesh, production during the post-green revolution
Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala period has been accompanied with increased

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

instability and yield fluctuation turned out to r  Compound Growth Rate

be the major source of production instability. = t  Time variable in years (1,2,3n)
Rao et al. (2011) revealed that mean
The value of antilog of ‘b’ was estimated
productivity effect (55.92%) was higher than the
by using LOGEST function in MS-Excel.
mean area effect (25.70%) on the production Then, the percent Compound Growth Rate is
differential between the Pre- WTO (1985-86 calculated as below;
to1994-95) and Post WTO period (2000-2001 to
CGR %  [LOGEST Y1 : Yn  1]  100
2009-10) in North Coastal districts of Andhra
Pradesh. To compare and scaling –up the (ii) Estimation of extent of instability:For
results present study was conducted with the the calculation of extent of instability,
following specific objectives: Coppock’s Instability Index (CII) was
1. To estimate the magnitude of growth in employed. CII is a close approximation of the
area, production and productivity average year-to-year percentage variation
adjusted for trend. In algebraic form:
2. To calculate the extent of instability in
area, production and productivity C.I.I  [Antilog 
log V  1]  100
3. To assess the factors causing change in
[Log Xt1/Xt  m]2
average production between periods [Log V 
Materials and Methods
The study pertains to India (Country as
a whole) and four southern states viz., Andhra Xt  Area/ production/ Productivity in the
Pradesh Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. year ‘t’
The time series data for the a period of last 26
N  Number of years
years i.e. 1990-91 to 2015-16 was collected on
V = log V  Logarithmic variance
area, production and productivity from various
publications of the Bureau of Economics and m  Arithmetic mean of difference
Statistics, Government of India etc. Total time between the logs of Xt1 etc.,
period was divided into two equal parts viz., (iii) Decomposition of Change in average
Period-I (1990-91 to 2002-03) and Period II production: Change in average production
(2003-04 to 2015-16) and analysis was between the periods arises from changes in
conducted separately for each period. mean area and mean yield (productivity),
interaction between changes in mean yield
Analytical Tools:
and mean area and change in yield-area
(i) Estimation of growth rates:Compound covariance (Hazell, 1984).
growth rates were employed to estimate the
growth, by fitting an Exponential function of The change in average production
the following form.  E P between the periods can be obtained
as follows:
   
Y  A.bt  E P  A1,  Y  Y1   A   A   Y   Cov A, Y

Log Y  Log A  t.log  b  Where,  

A1   Y, Y1   A,  A   Y and  Cov A, Y
are change in mean yield, change in mean
Y  Area/Production/Productivity
area, changes in mean area & mean yield and
A  Constant changes in area & yield covariance
b  (1+r) respectively.

Production Performance of Sugarcane in India: Growth, Instability And Decomposition Analysis in Southern States
I.V.Y.Rama Rao, H.Srinivasa Rao, Ch.S.Vani and M.Bharatha Lakshmi

Results and Discussion with the period - I trend. Similar trend was
noticed in Southern states also. Among the
(i) Magnitude of growth: states, growth rates in area varied between –
During the period - I, in country as a 2.49 per cent (Andhra Pradesh) and 8.29 per
whole, impact of growth in area (1.84%) was cent (Kerala), in production varied from – 7.42
more than impact of growth in productivity per cent (Kerala) to 11.64 per cent
(0.24%) on growth in production (2.09%) (Karnataka) and in productivity varied
(Table1). Similar trend was recorded in between – 12.62 per cent (Kerala) and 6.43
southern states also. Among the states, ranges per cent (Karnataka). Growth in area
of growth rates in area varied between – 6.00 contributed more towards growth in
per cent (Kerala) and 3.51 per cent production than growth in productivity in
(Karnataka), in production they were from – Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh,
4.31 per cent (Kerala) to 4.52 per cent whereas, vice versa was noticed in Kerala. So,
(Karnataka) and in productivity varied during period - II, in comparison with period
between – 0.31per cent (Tamil Nadu) and 1.80 - I, productivity impact on production was
per cent (Kerala). higher in Kerala, and area impact on
production was higher in Karnataka, Tamil
During the period - II, in country as a Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.
whole, growth in area (2.07%) had higher
influence on growth in production (1.48%)
than growth in productivity (0.40%) in similar
Table 1: Compound Growth Rate (%) of area, production and productivity of
Sugarcane in India and Southern states during period I and II

Period - I Period - II
States and Country (1990-91 to 2001-02) (2002-03 to 2013-14)
Area Production Productivity Area Production Productivity
Karnataka 3.51 4.52 0.97 6.88 6.43 0.48
Tamil Nadu 2.30 1.98  0.31 1.06  3.07  0.59
Andhra Pradesh 1.98 2.51 0.52  2.49  3.74  0.17
Kerala  6.00  4.31 1.80 8.29  12.62  18.59
Southern States 2.66 3.08 0.40 2.38 0.23  0.29
India 1.84 2.09 0.24 2.07 1.48 0.40

Table 2: Coefficient of Variation (%) of area, production and productivity of

Sugarcane in India and Southern states during period I and II
Period - I Period - II
States and
(1990-91 to 2001-02) (2002-03 to 2013-14)
Area Production Productivity Area Production Productivity
Karnataka 15.7 22.4 10.0 26.6 31.4 8.1
Tamil Nadu 14.2 16.4 4.8 18.2 21.3 5.4
Andhra Pradesh 9.6 13.0 6.5 15.4 17.9 4.3
Kerala 26.1 23.9 12.4 36.3 66.5 64.5
Southern States 12.3 16.4 6.5 14.3 17.8 5.4
India 8.2 9.3 4.0 11.0 14.5 4.9

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Table 3: Components of change in average production (%) in Sugarcane in India and

Southern States between period I and II

Sources of Change
States and Changes in Changes in Area
Change in mean Change in mean
Country mean Area & & Yield
Yield Area
mean Yield covariance
Karnataka 1274.97  1037.88 44.00  181.10
Tamil Nadu  22.24 118.67  1.96 5.54
Andhra Pradesh 130.56  33.33  1.27 4.04
Kerala 80.41  14.59 3.93 30.25
Southern States  35.52 131.80  1.47 5.22
India 1.67 95.77 0.27 2.30

yield covariance (2.3%), mean area and yield

(ii) Extent of Instability:
(1.67%) and mean yield (1.67%) (Table 3).
Among the states, during the period - I,
Thus, change in mean area has higher
the lowest instability in area (9.6%),
destabilizing effect on average production
production (13%) were recorded in Andhra
differential between the period I and II.
Pradesh, whereas, in productivity (4.8%) was
recorded in Tamil Nadu. Highest instability Similar trend was noticed in all states
in area (26.1%), productivity (12.4%) were from period – I to period – II, where change
recorded in Kerala and in production (23.9%) in mean yield has higher effect on production
was recorded in Karnataka (Table 2). Impacts differential than other components of change
of area were more on variability in production in all states except Tamil Nadu. When
was observed in all states. During the period compared about magnitude, it was highest in
- II, the lowest instability in area (15.4%), Karnataka (1274.97%) followed by Andhra
production (17.9%) and productivity (4.3%)
Pradesh (130.36%), Kerala (80.41%). Thus,
were noticed in Andhra Pradesh. Highest
area had higher effect on sugarcane
instability in area (36.3%), production (66.5%)
production in Tamil Nadu (118.67%) and in
and productivity (64.5%) were noticed in
rest of the states yield factors had higher
Kerala. Magnitude of instability was higher in
period – II than in period – I in all variables influence on change in production.
in all states. That the higher fluctuation in
sugarcane production in recent periods. References
1. FAOSTAT (2016), available at faostat.fao.org/
Country as a whole, during the period -
I, impact of area variability (8.2%) was more accessed on 01/12/2016.
than productivity variability (4.0%) on
2. Government of India (2016). Agricultural
production fluctuations (9.3%). Similar trend
statistics at a glance 2015 available at
was noticed during the period – II also. This
trend was similar in southern states in toto. atistics_At_Glance-2015.pdf accessed on
(iii) Whether change in production
3. Hazell P. B. R. (1984) Sources of increased
caused by productivity or area factors:
instability in India and US cereal production,
Country as a whole, effect of change in American Journal of Agricultural Economics,
mean area (95.77%) was higher than area and 66: 302-311.

Production Performance of Sugarcane in India: Growth, Instability And Decomposition Analysis in Southern States
I.V.Y.Rama Rao, H.Srinivasa Rao, Ch.S.Vani and M.Bharatha Lakshmi

4. Jayadevan C. M. (1991) Instability in wheat 6. Rao, I.V.Y. Rama, Vasudev, N. and Babu.
production in M.P., Agricultural Situation in G.S.K (2011) Impact of WTO on Sugarcane
India, 46(4): 219-223. performance in Andhra Pradesh. Cooperative
Sugars. 42(7):37-40
5. Rao, I.V.Y. Rama, Babu. G.S.K, Rao K.P and
R.Ankaiah (2013) Sugarcane production in Statistics (2016) Indian Sugar LXVII(6):59-76
India: Is it technology led? or Policy led? - Sugar statistics (2016) Cooperative Sugar
An economic insight into Southern States of 48(1):41-80
India, Sugar journal, SISSTA, 233-36

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


Routu Saritha
Regional Agricultural Research Station, Acharya N.G. Ranga Agricultural University, Anakapalle,

Abstract further manifested by registering high benefit

Climate change impacts on agriculture are cost ratio (1.49:1) compared to farmers
being witnessed all over the world, but practice (1.34:1). All these factors together
countries like India are more vulnerable in prove that adoption of improved management
view of the huge population dependent on practices designed for rainfed sugarcane would
agriculture, excessive pressure on natural contribute towards higher climate resilience,
as well as achieving more remunerative
resources and poor coping mechanisms.
Management practices that increase
agricultural production under adverse climatic Keywords: climate resilience, sugarcane,
conditions also tend to support climate change rainfed
adaptation because they increase resilience
Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is
and reduce yield variability under variable
one of the most important cash crops in India
climate and extreme events. Sugarcane
and plays pivotal role in both agricultural and
occupies a pivotal position in the agricultural
industrial economy of our country. In the
economy and industry of India. Though India
world, India ranks second in the world in
is the second largest producer of sugar in the
sugarcane cultivation after Brazil with
world, it lags much behind in the productivity,
average production of 273.93 million tonnes,
owing to many factors. Cultivation under which amounts to 22 per cent in world’s
rainfed conditions is the major contributing sugarcane production. Sugarcane occupies a
factor and the difference in productivity is as pivotal position in the agricultural economy of
wide as 62 percent between irrigated and India. Sugarcane is a tool towards agrarian
rainfed sugarcane. In an attempt to popularise reform and economic liberation. This is so
adoption of climate resilient strategies for because it is a labour intensive crop and
increased yields in rainfed sugarcane, provides livelihood to millions through an
demonstrations were taken up in the farmers’ organized industry that it carries with it in
fields. Results indicated higher yield the rural India. In India, it is cultivated on
realization (20-36 per cent) in plots adopting an area of 4.94 million hectares in 2011 with
improved management practices compared to a production of 339.17 million tonnes with an
the farmers’ practice which served as control. average productivity of 68.6 tonnes /ha,
The improved package also resulted in higher though, there is a wide variation with
sucrose percent (18.5) compared to farmers productivity across different regions.
practice (17.1). Upon analysis through paired Sugarcane is mainly grown in the states of
T-test, higher Tcal value (4.03) than the Ttab Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu,
value (2.13) proved the results to be Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Gujarat,
statistically significant. The Karl Pearsons which together command an area of 3.7
coefficient for correlation was 0.8 which million hectares, 89% of the total area under
indicated that the improved practices had sugarcane in India. Andhra Pradesh with its
direct and positive impact on yields in rainfed area of 1.92 lakh ha, ranks fifth in sugarcane
sugarcane. Adoption of improved practices was area of the country with an average

Climate Resilient Management Strategies for Improved Yields in Sugarcane
Routu Saritha

production of 14.96 M tonnes and productivity whereas it was 29.0 to 43.0 tons per ha in
of 77.9 tons per ha (Anon., 2011). However, farmers practice. The percent sucrose recorded
the productivity is much lower in was 18.5 percent in improved practice which
Visakhapatnam district owing to nearly 60 was considerably higher compared to 17.1
per cent of crop being cultivated under rainfed percent sucrose in farmers practice. The
situation (Rama Rao, 2012). In this backdrop, results were further reinforced upon observing
the present study was undertaken to the benefit cost ratio, which was 1.49:1 in
demonstrate climate resilient management improved practice compared to 1.34:1 in
strategies for improved yields in sugarcane farmers practice.
under rainfed situation over conventional Bakshi Ram et.al, (2011) recommended
practices adopted by farmers. the sett treatment with lime to improve
Demonstrations were carried out at six germination and enhance the capacity to
locations in Ravikamatam, Munagapaka, withstand drought. According to
Yelamanchili, Chodavaram and Kotauratla Rahman(2012), trash mulching resulted in
mandals of Visakhapatnam district over a better crop stand and moisture conservation
period of three years by District Agro and thus contributed to higher cane yield and
Advisory and Transfer of Technology (DAATT) sucrose percent. The role of trash mulching in
centre, ANGRAU, Visakhapatnam. The micro moisture conservation was also stressed upon
farming situation was red loam with clay by Shrivatsava, et.al,(2011).
base-rainfed-small and marginal farmers. Two
Studies conducted by Yadav (2006)
treatments, T-1 being improved management
revealed that application of K increases juice
and T-2 being conventional farmers practice. extraction and induces drought tolerance in
Each treatment was laid out in 2000 m2 and sugarcane. Further, the B:C ratio was also
the total experiment was laid out in 4000m2 high upon balanced nutrient application, as
at each location. The variety was 87A298 at done in the present study.
all the locations. The improved management
for rainfed sugarcane included, sett treatment Table: Yield, percent sucrose and B:C
with 10% lime solution for 1hour, formation ratio of improved package for rainfed
of furrows 60cms apart, trash mulching sugarcane compared to farmer practice
@3t/ha immediately after planting and Average yield (t/ha) Percent Sucrose
application of 75Kg N + 50kg P2O5 + 50kg Year Improved Farmers Improved Farmers
K2O/ha (N was applied in two equal splits on package practice package practice
30 and 60 DAP, half of K2O and entire P2o5 I 58.5 43.0 18.7 17.7
was applied as basal and remaining half of II 35.5 29.0 18.3 16.4
K2 O in October (after cessation of rains). III 39.0 32.5 18.5 17.2
Data on yield and sucrose percent was Mean 44.3 34.8 18.5 17.1
collected and also the benefit cost ratios were Tcal 4.03 4.02
calculated. The data was subjected to paired Ttab  2.13

T-test and also the Karl Pearson’s coefficient R xy 0.8 0.8

for correlation was calculated. Mean B:C 1.49:1 (Improved package)

Ratio 1.34:1 (Farmers practice)
Consistently higher yields were recorded
in plots with improved practices compared to References:
farmers practice. The average yield at 1. Anonymous (2011) Area, production and
different locations and seasons varied between productivity of sugarcane in India, Cooperative
35.5 and 58.5 ton per ha in improved practice Sugar, 43(4): 1112-14. B

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

2. Ashok K. Shrivastava, Arun K. Srivastava and 5. RamaRao, IVY(2012), Efficiency, Yield Gap
Sushil Solomon (2011), Sustaining sugarcane and Constraints Analysis in Irrigated vis-a-vis
productivity under depleting water resources Rainfed Sugarcane in North Coastal Zone of
Current Science, Vol. 101, No. 6 Andhra Pradesh, Agricultural Economics
Research Review. pp 167-171
3. Bakshi Ram, Karuppaiyan R and Pandey S
K(2011), Sugarcane cultivation in subtropical 6. Yadav DV (2006) Potassium Nutrition of
India, SBI,Karnal, pp.17 Sugarcane, Proceedings of the International
Symposium held at Punjab Agricultural
4. Rahman Md. S(2012) Ph.D thesis, Growth, University, Ludhiana, India, 22-25 November
yield and quality of plant and ratoon crops of 2006
sugarcane as affected by plant material and
management practices, University of
Rajashahi, Bangladesh.pp.259

G. Venkateswara Rao1, V.V. Punna Rao2, and R.J. Chandra Babu3
Chief Operating Officer, 2General Manager, 3D.G.M (cane)
KCP Sugar & Industries Corp Ltd, Vuyyuru

Introduction acreage of 111038.24 suitable for sugarcane

KCP Sugars and Industries Corporation cultivation to KCP Sugars.
Limited is one among the leading sugar In 2015 Amaravathi was announced as
manufacturing companies in India, and it was new capital for newly formed state of Andhra
established in the year 1941 near to Vijayawada Pradesh which lies in the commanded area of
in Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh. This the factory. After announcement of the capital
organisation had recently celebrated Platinum city a many more changes were happened
Jubilee. The crushing capacity of the mill is surrounding to the capital region and significant
7,500 TCD and this is having 15 M.W Co-Gen, cultivable area was converted to
50 KLPD Distillery, and Calcium lactate commercialization like Real Estate, Housing,
production unit of capacity 500 TPA. Roads formation and commercial complexes etc.
Government of Andhra Pradesh has allotted 24 The detailed mandal wise diverted area for
mandals covering 338 villages with a total commercialization was mentioned here under.


1 Pamarru 4200.00 84.00 4284.00 455.00 0.00 455.00
2 Pamidimukkala 11636.11 1187.01 12823.12 169.00 0.00 169.00
3 Thotlavalluru 4113.52 5894.89 10008.41 536.25 46.80 583.05
4 Vuyyuru 7396.20 986.40 8382.60 1354.60 117.00 1471.60
5 Movva 2447.53 75.00 2522.53 7.80 0.00 7.80
6 Pedaparapudi 3093.60 109.20 3202.80 0.00 0.00 0.00
7 Gudivada 240.00 0.00 240.00 65.00 0.00 65.00
8 Unguturu 4833.64 654.00 5487.64 62.70 26.00 88.70
9 Kankipadu 10723.66 1364.80 12088.46 2714.09 786.50 3500.59
10 Gannavaram 720.00 600.00 1320.00 800.00 1300.00 2100.00
11 Penamaluru 3423.48 5200.77 8624.25 2224.53 4866.97 7091.50
12 Vja Rural 6559.12 7543.80 14102.92 397.40 5242.90 5640.30
13 Vja Urban 349.80 1263.20 1613.00 0.00 1938.44 1938.44
14 Ibrahimpatnam 4219.20 5502.80 9722.00 156.00 6571.64 6727.64
15 G.Konduru 2031.48 11645.00 13676.48 63.14 183.30 246.44
16 Mylavaram 225.00 435.04 660.04 0.00 0.00
17 Kanchincharla 1620.00 660.00 2280.00 130.00 130.00
Total 67832.35 43205.90 111038.24 9005.51 21209.55 30215.06

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Year wise cane area and Cane Crushed from 2010-11 to 2017-18
S.No Year Cane area in Acers Cane Crushed in M.T’s
1 2010-11 24,643 7,86,392
2 2011-12 23,276 8,71,574
3 2012-13 20,984 7,69,209
4 2013-14 21,477 8,03,318
5 2014-15 24,216 8,33,277
6 2015-16 22,638 8,98,654
7 2016-17 15,202 5,06,540
8 2017-18 (exp) 16,000 6,08,000

The major changes after announcement and due course of time it might lose its
of the Capital identity. This situation is very special and no
1. Commercial activity is increased in the factory is facing problem like this.
factory vicinity, so the new generations
Action plan to overcome from these
are getting good opportunities and jobs.
As a result, there is likely wood of
younger generation leaving the 1. Less scope for the horizontal growth, so
profession of cultivation. we are focusing on the vertical growth.

2. Establishment of small scale industries 2. 70% of the cane growing farmers are
in the proximity of the command area. lease land holders, so we are supporting
them by extending lease land advance
3. Some of the sugarcane cultivated lands
amount through bank tie up loans.
are diverted to vegetable cultivation as
the demand for the vegetables is very 3. Labour became very costly and
high. availability also became difficult, so we
4. With the formation of the capital, the are introducing the mechanization in
land cost is increased 10 to 100 folds, as every aspect of cane cultivation.
a result the land owners are leaving the
4. Efforts to explore the river beds for the
farming and diverting their lands into
sugarcane cultivation are in progress.
commercial plots.
5. Extending support to the roads laying for
5. With formation of shipyard at
interior plots and converting them into
Machilipatnam, the avenues for new
sugarcane cultivation.
development are bright.

6. 33000 acers of land was acquired by 6. Giving technical support to the growers
Government of Andhra Pradesh and total with the help of strong technical team as
agricultural activity in this area has well as with the support of Regional
become zero. Sugar cane Research Station, Vuyyuru.

All the above conditions forced the 7. Timely supply of inputs like fertilizers,
growers to leave the sugarcane cultivation. If pesticides and bio fertilizers through
this situation continues, the survival of this factory on credit basis and same will be
factory might become a difficult proposition recovered from their cane proceedings.

Urbanisation - A Major Threat to Sugarcane Cultivation in the Area of KCP Sugars Vuyyuru. Measures taken to Overcome Urbanisation
G. Venkateswara Rao, V.V. Punna Rao, and R.J. Chandra Babu

8. By encouraging the small and marginal Steps Taken for the Vertical growth of
farmers through creating extra income in Sugarcane Yield
the form of dairy and poultry etc allied 1. Soil Testing, Soil Mapping: We have
activities. established our own soil testing lab and have
been collecting the soil samples in every
9. Implementing cost of cultivation village. We are doing soil analysis and
reduction techniques like single bud preparing soil maps of every village and these
plantation, single seedlings plantation maps were displayed in panchayat offices of
and usage of bio fertilizer etc. every village.

10. Supply of inputs like fertilizer, We are recommending the fertilizer

dosage based on the soil test analysis and the
pesticides, weedicides, PVC pipes, bio
number of samples analysed year wise are
fertilizer and bio compost to the growers
furnished here under.
with low cost by avoiding the dealers

Support required from the Research

1. High yielding, early maturing,
Self-stripping, spineless and non-lodging
varieties are required.

2. Sugarcane is a wonder crop as it is

having year around moisture content in
soil and it also produce year around bio
mass production. It is best suitable crop
to apply bio fertilizer as well as organic
manure, so scientists should standardize
the fertilizer schedules combined with
the bio fertilizer and bio compost usage.
This will decrease the cost of cultivation
Fig. Soil Testing Lab
as well as it also develops organic carbon
content in the soil. 2. Organic Manure: Irma Bio Wonder is
enriched bio compost manufactured in KCP
3. ESB and INB are the major pests in Sugars. This will add organic matter as well
sugarcane, so standardization of dosage as useful microbes to the soil. We are giving
of chemicals to be used, cultural control 5 bags of bio wonder per acre to every
measures to be followed to control these sugarcane farmer. We are supplying
pests. decomposing culture to the growers on cost
free basis.
4. Lot of researches should be done in
 We have supplied to the cane growers
single bud plantation as well as single
Irma Bio wonder consisting of Nitrogen
seedling plantation and we have to fixing bacteria viz. Azospirillum and
popularise number of seedlings required phosphorus solubulizing bateria –
per acre of land based on the soil type.

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

No of
S.No Parameters 2011-12 2012-13 2013-14 2014-15 2015-16 2016-17

1 Available Nitrogen as ‘N’ 1000 104 133 96 96 93 112.18


2 Available Phosphorus as P2O5 1150 56 83 46 45 39 52


3 Available Potash ‘K2O’ (Kg/Ac.) 1133 260 121 253 315 294 308.3

4 Electrical Conductivity 1210 0.689 0.579 0.506 0.608 0.689 0.66


5 pH 1100 7.81 7.79 7.60 7.68 7.91 7.86

6 Zinc (ppm) or (mg/kg) 1310 0.86 1.07 0.79 0.78 0.73 0.74

7 Copper (ppm) or (mg/kg) 1150 5.15 5.30 4.84 4.63 4.00 3.96

8 Manganese (ppm) or (mg/kg) 1290 25.07 25.78 23.17 19.65 17 17.54

9 Iron (ppm) or (mg/kg) 1320 16.91 15.73 13.47 12.44 11 10.45

S.No Parameters Low Medium High

1 Available Nitrogen as ‘N’ (Kg/Ac) <100 100-200 >200
2 Available Phosphorus as P2O5 (Kg/Ac.) <8 8-20 >20
3 Available Potash ‘K2O’ (Kg/Ac.) <60 60-120 >120
4 Electrical Conductivity (m.mhos/cm) <1 1-2 >2
(Normal) (Moderate) (Unfit)
5 pH <6.5 6.5 - 7.5 >7.5
(Acidic) (Neutral) (Alkaline)
6 Zinc (ppm) or (mg/kg) <0.5 0.5-1 >1.0
7 Copper (ppm) or (mg/kg) <0.2 – >0.2
8 Manganese (ppm) or (mg/kg) <2 – >2
9 Iron (ppm) or (mg/kg) <4.5 – >4.5

Phosphobacator, Trichoderma viridi, Bio

Micorrhiza (VAM) and a growth promoting Net Percentage
S.No Wonder
Year Area of
hormone N-tricontinol (Harita). Utilized
in A.c Utilization
in A.c
 The importance of Irma Bio-wonder was
1 2011-12 23,276 11638.00 50.00
well understood by the sugarcane growers
as it has yielded positive results during 2 2012-13 20,984 11960.88 57.00
last seven seasons. This season, the 3 2013-14 21,477 13315.74 62.00
application of Bio wonder was covered 4 2014-15 24,216 18162.00 75.00
over 80% of the total area. 5 2015-16 22,638 16525.74 73.00
6 2016-17 15,202 11857.56 78.00
7 2017-18 16,000 13600.00 85.00

Urbanisation - A Major Threat to Sugarcane Cultivation in the Area of KCP Sugars Vuyyuru. Measures taken to Overcome Urbanisation
G. Venkateswara Rao, V.V. Punna Rao, and R.J. Chandra Babu

Trichogramma cards to the cane growers. We

have our own bio control lab and same is
being supplying to the cane growers.
We are also producing Trichoderma
Viridi and Pseudomonas Fluorecence to
control the fungal pathogens.
Tricho Percen
Net Cards tage Of
S.No Year
Area utilized Utilization
in A.C
1 2011-12 23,276 10000 42.96
2 2012-13 20,984 10000 47.66
3 2013-14 21,477 9000 41.91
4 2014-15 24,216 8500 35.10
5 2015-16 22,638 7800 34.46
6 2016-17 15,202 7200 47.36
7 2017-18 16,000 8500 53.13

Irma Bio Wonder

Installing Tricho Cards in Sugar cane Fields

Fig. Green Manure Incorporation

We are supplying all types of seeds like

millets, legumes and spices on subsidy basis
to growers to encourage the Dabolkar method
of green manuring.
3. Biological control of ESB and INB: In
this area, Early Shoot Borer and Inter Nodal
Borer are the predominant pests and to
control them we have been supplying

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

4. Mechanization of Sugarcane Man Hours /acres in sugarcane cultivation

Cultivation: As labour availability is acute, Man
to overcome this situation we introduced Sl.No Operation %
mechanical implements for every activity
1 Planting 300 24
starting from planting to harvesting. This will
2 Inter Cultivation
reduce the cost of cane cultivation as well as
labour problem in sugarcane cultivation. Weeding 100 9
Inter Culture 50 3
Earthing up 125 10
Sub Total 275 22
1. Traditional Labour shifting to other
segments of employment. 3 Fertilizer application 50 3
4 Irrigation 100 8
2. Acute shortage of trained labor in sugar
5 Propping 125 10
cane cultivation.
6 Harvesting 400 30
3. Young generation of labor preferring 7 Miscellaneous 50 3
other avenues of employment leaving
Total 1300 100
especially employment related to sugar
cane operations. With a view to decrease number of man
hours in sugarcane cultivation, we are
4. Under the compelling circumstances, it is
introduced different types of machines from
inevitable to resort to mechanization in
seed planting to harvesting and photographs
sugar cane cultivation and harvesting.
depicting of their actual usage in the fields
NEED FOR THE MECHANIZATION are furnished here under.

1. Labour availability for farm operations is

declining year after year because of fast
changing socio-economic conditions.

2. Due to shortage of labor, wages are ever

increasing resulting in higher cost of

3. Farmers are being exploited by the

laborers for various seasonal sugar cane
related operations.

4. Continuous supply of cane to the mills is

frequently interrupted because of
diversification of labor to other segments.

5. Due to the non availability of adequate

local and migrating labor, there is an
urgent need for large scale Cane Planting with Planter
mechanization in sugar cane cultivation
and harvesting.

Urbanisation - A Major Threat to Sugarcane Cultivation in the Area of KCP Sugars Vuyyuru. Measures taken to Overcome Urbanisation
G. Venkateswara Rao, V.V. Punna Rao, and R.J. Chandra Babu

Chloropyrifos Drenching with Tractor

Inter cultivation with Tractor

Inter Cultivation with Big Tractor in

Sugarcane Crop

Inter cultivation with Tractor

Special Designed Tractor Tyres for Inter


Conclusion: As urbanization is inevitable

and to sustain sugarcane cultivation in the
command area, we have to resort cost saving
technologies like, Single bud planting, Inter
cultivation and harvesting (Mechanization in
Power Tiller every activity). Through the implementation of

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

INM and IPM we have to improve the

average yields or productivity and making the
sugarcane cultivation more profitable than the
other competitive crops, otherwise it is very
difficult to sustain the sugar industry in this

Mechanical Sugarcane Harvesting

S.Thangavelu and K. Chiranjivi Rao
Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore – 641 007

Abstract iron in plant metabolism. It interacts with

manganese and silicon. In calcium deficient
In a replicated field trial, 30 sugarcane clones
were studied for the uptake of calcium by dry soils its addition assists in better uptake of
leaves, green tops, stem and total above potassium (Kakde, 1985). Higher Mg: Ca ratio
ground parts at 10 and 12 months. Differences also affects the uptake of and translocation of
among clones were observed in calcium uptake calcium due to its antagonistic effect or
in dry leaves, green tops, stem, total competition for adsorption sites. Also
above-ground parts and kg calcium per tonne magnesium ion rich waters induced higher
of cane; dry leaves, total above ground parts, uptake of P which may further reduce the
kg calcium per tonne of cane showed translocation of calcium ions in plants [Gupta
significant difference between stages. et al., 2000]. The higher concentration of
Interaction between clones and stages was sodium and chloride in susceptible, genotypes
significant in dry leaves, green tops, total associated with the poor selectivity uptake of
above-ground parts and kg calcium per tonne potassium and calcium which led in reduction
of cane. The calcium uptake in above-ground in K/Na and Ca/Na ratio in growing leaves
parts ranged from 18.1 kg /ha as the lowest and stem [Kwon et al., 1999]. The functions
in Co 7712 at 10 months to 90.7 kg / ha in may become seriously impaired by reduced
Co 7508 at 12 months. Clones recording high calcium availability and uptake as well loss
total calcium uptake in above ground parts of potassium selectivity or increases the
were Co 7201, Co 7508, B 37172, Co 997, Co chloride uptake due to increased membrane
678, Co 7204, Co 62101, Co 62175, Co 775 permeability. Sodium induced inhibition of
and Co 975. The range of uptake of calcium calcium uptake and transport appears to be
in kg to produce a tonne of cane was 0.24 in more limiting to shoot growth than sodium
Co 617 at 10 months to 0.60 in Co 62101 at toxicity [Gomathi and Thandapani, 2005].
12 months. Juice purity was highly influenced by more
major and micro nutrients uptake and
Introduction partitioning of the essential nutrients viz., N,
Calcium is an essential nutrient involved P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe and Mn were
in certain enzyme activities and eliminates significantly affected due to salt stress
excess of organic acids through precipitation. [Sundara, 1998]. A nutrient imbalance in the
Calcium is also important in counteracting soil causes Ca and Mg to be in excess of those
magnesium toxicity (Clements, 1980). Calcium required by the plant at the expense of K.
as calcium pectate aids in cell development Excessive uptake of calcium limited the
and middle lamella and it favours hydrolysis absorption of potassium and reduced the
of starch and depresses respiration and thus mobility of certain micronutrients (Humbert,
causes accumulation of sugars when in 1968). It is essential for cell wall production,
adequate quantity (Mohan Naidu, 1987). It is formation of new roots, proteins of nucleus,
related to boron, magnesium, potassium and protoplasm and plastids (Manohar Rao, 1977;

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Singh, 1978). Major and micro nutrients Early

Origin Late maturing Origin
uptake and partitioning of the essential maturing
nutrients viz., N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, Mn Co 775 India Co 419 India
were significantly affected due to salt stress, Co 997 India Co 617 India
while salt induced accumulation of toxic Co 62174 India Co 678 India
elements viz., Na, Cl, Al, Mo and Cu was
Co 6806 India Co 740 India
enhanced particularly in Si 94050 and Co
Co 7201 India Co 853 India
85036 [susceptible genotypes] [Gomathi and
Co 7204 India Co 975 India
Thandapani, 2005]. According to Chatterjee et
al (1991), low calcium reduced cane weight. Co 7304 India Co 1148 India

Kumar et al (1989) reported that calcium had Co 7508 India Co 62101 India
accumulated in smutted cane clones. Cordero Co 7704 India Co 62175 India
et al (1977) showed that the availability of Co 7712 India Co 62399 India
calcium to cane increased as a function of Co J 64 India Co 6304 India
increasing levels of potassium fertilization. Co C 671 India Co 7717 India
But according to Sinha and Singh (1977) due
Co A 7601 India B 37172 West Indies
to potassium deficiency, calcium uptake was
CP 44-101 U.S.A.
increased. Dang et al (1998) reported that a
H 50-7209 Hawaii, U.S.A.
significant positive relationship between
relative calcium concentration in sodic versus N Co 310 Natal,
normal soil indicated the importance of
calcium nutrition in sugarcane growth on POJ 2878 Java
sodic soil. The Na: Ca ratios in the index
leaves of sugarcane in sodic soil were Normal cultural practices seed rate:
negatively correlated with relative cane and 37,500 three budded setts/ha, 75 kg P2O5/ha
sugar yields. Nasir et al (2000) reported that as basal and 250 kg N/ha and 120 kg K2O/ha
the growth rate by sugarcane was mainly due in two splits as top dressings at 45 and 90
to the enhanced uptake of nitrogen, days) in vogue at this Institute were followed
phosphorus, potassium and calcium. An for raising the crop in red sandy loam soil of
attempt was made to determine the calcium the Institute Farm at Coimbatore. One row
uptake of 30 sugarcane clones at 10 and 12 cane was harvested at 10 and 12 months and
months and its association with uptake of simultaneously from six harvested canes,
other nutrients, yield of cane and sugar and subsamples for dry leaves, green tops and
the results are presented below. stem were collected, dried at 80oC and
Experimental analysis powdered. The powdered material was
digested with H2SO4 and H2O2. Digested
Materials and Methods solution was analysed for calcium using
In a replicated field trial 13 early and mureide indicator and EDTA(disodium
17 late maturing clones widely used in dihydrogen ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid)
breeding programme at Sugarcane Breeding (Jackson, 1967). Nitrogen, phosphorus,
Institute, Coimbatore were planted in a potassium, magnesium, sodium were
simple rectangular 5 x 6 simple lattice design determined following standard procedures
in two replications with a plot design of 8 (Jackson, 1967). Sulphate was determined by
rows of 6 metres length at 90 cm apart. The colorimetric method(Blanchar, et al 1965).
clones are as follows: Chloride was determined by titration with

Calcium Uptake of Certain Genetic Stocks of Sugarcane Clones and its Association with Uptake of Other Nutrients, Yield of Cane and Sugar
S.Thangavelu and K. Chiranjivi Rao

silver nitrate solution (Saffiqua et al., 1977). Co 997 and the lowest (4.5 kg) in CP 44101
Silicon was estimated by molybdenum blue at 10 months; likewise the highest in Co 7508
method (Hesse, 1971). (55.9 kg) and the lowest in Co 7712 (13.5 kg)
at 12 months. The highest difference between
Results and Discussion stages of a clone was observed in Co 7508
Mean values of calcium uptake in dry while NCo 310, Co 7712, Co 62174 and POJ
leaves, green tops, stem, total above ground 2878 had showed least differences between
parts in kg per ha and Ca in kg per tonne of clones.
cane are presented in Table I. Differences
Uptake of calcium by green tops
between clones were observed in calcium
uptake in dry leaves, green tops, stem, total Mean calcium concentration over stages
above-ground parts and kg ca per tonne of in green tops had a variation from 0.090 in
cane. (Significant clonal differences in calcium Co J 64 to 0.122 per cent in Co 6304. In the
per cent were observed only in stem). case of green tops, Co 7201 recorded the
Gandana and Martoyo (1990) also reported highest value of 22.8 kg Ca /ha while the
that there were differences between cultivars lowest value of 6.2 kg was observed in CP
in calcium uptake. Dry leaves, total 44101 (as per clone mean). A perusal of Table
above-ground parts and kg calcium per tonne I reveals the range of calcium uptake in kg/ha
of cane showed significant difference between by green tops was 4.9 in CP 44101 to 24.2 in
stages. According to Yang (1993) there were Co 7201 at 12 months. Clones showing high
significant differences in calcium uptake calcium uptake by green tops were Co 7201,
among genotypes as well as between stages. B 37172, NCo 310, Co 310, Co 419, Co 6304,
Interaction between clones and stages was Co 997, Co 678, Co 7508, Co 775, Co 7204
significant in dry leaves, green tops, total and Co 975. Though differences between
above-ground parts and kg calcium per tonne stages was not significant in case of green
of cane. tops the interaction between stage and variety
was significant and the difference between
Uptake of calcium by dry leaves stages of a clone showed the highest
difference in H 50-7209 and Co 62175 and
Clonal means over the stages calcium
least difference in Co 7712, Co 62399, Co 853
concentration in dry leaves ranged from 0.160
and Co J 64. In the same way clonal
per cent in Co 617 to 0.227 in Co 7304. Clonal
difference of a stage indicated the range
means over the stages revealed that in dry
between 6.3 in Co J 64 to 21.4 in Co 7201 at
leaves uptake of calcium in kg per ha ranged
10 months and 4.9 in CP 44101 to 24.2 in
from 12.4 in POJ 2878 to 38.1 in Co 7201.
Co 7201 at 12 months.
From table 1, it was observed that CP 44101
had recorded the lowest calcium uptake of 4.5
Uptake of calcium by stem
kg /ha in dry leaves at 10 months and the
highest was 55.9 kg /ha at 12 months in Co The range of calcium concentration in
7508. Clones showing high calcium uptake in stem over stages were 0.027 per cent in Co
dry leaves were Co 7201, Co 62101, Co 7508, 617 to 0.039 in Co 62101 and Co 62175. With
Co 7204, B 37172, Co 997, Co 62175, Co 775 regard to stem, the highest uptake of calcium
and Co 975. Clone mean of 30 genetic stocks was 20.8 kg/ha in Co 678 and the lowest
indicated higher calcium uptake of 34.5 at 12 was 4.3 in Co 7712 as per the clone mean.
months by dry leaves than 13.0 kg /ha at 10 Table 1 showed the range of calcium uptake
months. Differences between clones in a stage in kg/ha in stem as 4.3 in Co 7712 at 10 and
revealed the highest uptake was 24.5 kg in 12 months to 22.7 at 10 months. The following

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

clones recorded higher calcium uptake in stem Co 62101 while the lowest differences were
viz., Co 678, Co 7717, Co 62174, Co 7508, B shown in Co 7712, Co 62174, POJ 2878 and
37172, Co 7201, Co 62175, Co 997, Co 775 Co 740. Coale et al (1993) reported that 25 %
and H 50-7209. Statistical analysis disclosed of total accumulated calcium was removed
that the difference between stages and from the field as millable cane as was
interaction between stages and clones were observed in the present study.
not significant.
Uptake of calcium in kg per tonne of
Total uptake of calcium by above-ground cane
As per clone mean the lowest uptake of
Total above ground parts put together calcium in kg per tonne of cane was 0.26 in
revealed that the highest calcium uptake in Co 678 and the highest was 0.52 in Co 62101.
kg/ha was 75.2 in Co 7201 and the lowest was From the table 1, the range of uptake of
22.1 in calcium in kg per tonne of cane was 0.24 in
Co 617 at 10 months to 0.60 in Co 62101 at
Co 7712. As per Table 1 the calcium
12 months. Van Dillewijn (1952) reported the
uptake in above-ground parts ranged from
range of calcium uptake to produce a tonne
18.1 kg/ha in Co 7712 at 10 months to 90.7
of cane was 0.15 to 0.40 kg. It is of interest
kg/ha in Co 7508 at 12 months. It was
to note that the uptake of calcium in kg to
reported that 27 to 55 kg calcium per ha was
produce a tonne of sugarbeet was 1.7 kg
removed by above-ground parts of sugarcane
(Draycott, 1972). The varieties recording low
(Anonymous, 1981). It was also reported that
amount of calcium in kg per tonne of cane
calcium uptake by above-ground parts in
were Co 678, Co 6304, Co 7717, CoA 7601,
kg/ha was 80 in plant crop and 84 in 1st
Co 62174, Co 419, Co 617, H 50-7209, Co
ratoon in the clone N 14 (Anonymous, 1988).
7704 and CoC 671.
Sinha and Ghosh (1981) reported the
accumulation of calcium to be more in the late Stage mean of 30 clones indicated that
maturing clone Co 419 than in the early calcium uptake per tonne of cane was lower
maturing clone CoJ 64 and was found to be at 10 months (0.34 kg) than at 12 months
so in the present study also. According to (0.44 kg). Difference between clones in a stage
Sinha and Singh (1977) due to potassium revealed that 0.24 kg in Co 617 was the
deficiency calcium uptake was increased and lowest Ca uptake and 0.47 kg in Co 7712 was
70 % total calcium was taken up by 90 days. the highest to produce a tonne of cane at 10
Clones recording high uptake of calcium were months. Likewise at 12 months, the lowest Ca
Co 7201, Co 7508, B 37172, Co 997, Co 678, uptake being 0.27 kg in Co 678 and 0.60 kg
Co 7204, Co 62101, Co 62175, Co 775 and Co in Co 62101 was the highest Ca uptake per
975. Stage mean of 30 genetic stocks indicated tonne of cane. According to stage difference of
higher uptake of calcium by total a clone Co 7304, Co 7508, Co 853, Co 62101
above-ground parts at 12 months (60.5 kg/ha) showed wide variations between 10 and 12
than at 10 months (38.4 kg/ha). Differences months whereas least differences were
between clones in a stage revealed that the observed in Co 775, Co 997, Co 6304, Co
highest total uptake was 63.2 kg/ha in Co 62174 and Co 678.
7201 and the lowest 18.1 in Co 7712 at 10
months and at 12 months it varied from 26.2 Correlations coefficients (r) of uptake of
kg in Co 7712 to 90.7 in Co 7508. Highest calcium by above ground parts with uptake of
difference between stages of a variety was nutrients and yield of cane and sugar are
recorded by Co 7508, B 37172, Co 7717 and presented in Table 2. Uptake of calcium by

Calcium Uptake of Certain Genetic Stocks of Sugarcane Clones and its Association with Uptake of Other Nutrients, Yield of Cane and Sugar
S.Thangavelu and K. Chiranjivi Rao

Table 1 Uptake of calcium by dry leaves, green tops and stem in kg/ha
Dry leaves Green tops Stem
S.No Clones
10 m 12 m Mean 10 m 12 m Mean 10 m 12 m Mean
Early clones
1 Co 775 23.3 36.5 29.9 14.9 17.7 16.3 11.2 14.9 13.1
2 Co 997 24.5 38.0 31.3 20.0 16.0 18.0 12.3 15.2 13.8
3 Co 62174 18.0 27.5 22.8 14.5 14.9 14.7 15.3 15.8 15.6
4 Co 6806 14.0 34.8 24.4 15.8 13.0 14.4 11.7 16.0 13.9
5 Co 7201 29.2 46.9 38.1 21.4 24.2 22.8 12.6 16.1 14.4
6 Co 7204 21.8 46.6 34.2 15.2 17.1 16.2 11.3 13.3 12.3
7 Co 7304 8.5 32.1 20.3 9.7 13.8 11.8 9.6 10.1 9.9
8 Co 7704 9.5 30.2 19.9 12.8 10.7 11.8 11.0 11.1 11.1
9 Co 7508 14.3 55.9 35.1 17.2 17.7 17.5 15.5 17.1 16.3
10 Co 7712 5.7 13.5 9.6 8.1 8.2 8.2 4.3 4.3 4.3
11 Co J 64 7.0 23.0 15.0 6.3 7.5 6.9 4.9 5.1 5.0
12 Co C 671 5.6 25.4 15.5 15.1 17.2 16.2 9.6 9.9 9.8
13 CoA 7601 7.2 31.2 19.2 15.5 13.1 14.3 13.2 11.8 12.5
Late clones
14 Co 419 10.1 29.4 19.8 16.4 21.0 18.7 8.1 10.8 9.5
15 Co 617 7.3 29.7 18.5 11.6 18.0 14.8 8.5 9.1 8.8
16 Co 678 12.4 36.2 24.3 20.4 14.8 17.6 22.7 18.9 20.8
17 Co 740 16.4 33.7 25.1 16.4 11.5 14.0 10.8 10.7 10.8
18 Co 853 10.9 36.7 23.8 10.9 9.9 10.4 8.6 9.4 9.0
19 Co 975 14.4 44.6 29.5 17.2 14.9 16.1 9.8 12.2 11.0
20 Co 1148 10.3 30.9 20.6 11.6 14.1 12.9 9.9 11.3 10.6
21 Co 62101 19.3 51.9 35.6 14.3 12.1 13.2 10.2 12.9 11.6
22 Co 62175 16.2 44.5 30.4 18.8 10.8 14.8 13.4 15.2 14.3
23 Co 62399 10.8 26.9 18.9 8.8 8.2 8.5 6.5 8.4 7.5
24 Co 6304 10.0 34.6 22.3 19.6 16.9 18.3 13.5 13.8 13.7
25 Co 7717 13.5 38.2 25.9 13.1 10.3 11.7 16.3 23.3 19.8
26 B37172 17.8 47.4 32.6 19.7 18.8 19.3 13.5 16.2 14.9
27 CP 44101 4.5 22.2 13.4 7.5 4.9 6.2 5.4 6.1 5.8
28 H50-7209 11.9 37.2 24.6 18.3 10.2 14.2 13.3 12.8 13.1
29 N Co 310 10.4 20.5 15.5 19.0 18.9 19.0 6.8 10.8 8.8
30 POJ 2878 6.5 18.3 12.4 7.3 5.7 6.5 5.0 6.8 5.9
Mean 13.0 34.5 14.6 13.7 10.8 12.3

S.Em C.D S.Em C.D S.Em C.D

Varieties (V) 2.2 11.2*** 1.4 7.3*** 1.4 7.3***
Stages(S) 0.3 4.8* N.S N.S.
V/S 2.9 15.0*** 1.7 8.7*** N.S
S/V 2.7 14.0*** 1.3 6.7*** N.S
significant at 0.1% level * significant at 5.0% N. S – non- significant

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Table 2. Uptake of calcium by total above ground parts (kg/ha)

and kg Ca / tonne of cane
Total above ground parts kg/ha Kg Ca / tonne of cane
S.No Clones
10 m 12 m v. mean 10 m 12 m v. mean
Early clones
1 Co 775 49.4 68.7 59.1 0.40 0.40 0.40
2 Co 997 56.8 69.2 63.0 0.43 0.41 0.42
3 Co 62174 47.8 58.2 53.0 0.31 0.34 0.33
4 Co 6806 41.5 63.8 52.7 0.33 0.42 0.38
5 Co 7201 63.2 87.2 75.2 0.38 0.43 0.41
6 Co 7204 48.3 77.0 62.7 0.42 0.56 0.49
7 Co 7304 27.8 56.0 42.1 0.31 0.53 0.42
8 Co 7508 47.0 90.7 68.9 0.30 0.47 0.39
9 Co 7704 33.3 52.0 42.7 0.29 0.38 0.34
10 Co 7712 18.1 26.0 22.1 0.47 0.51 0.49
11 CoJ 64 18.2 35.6 26.9 0.36 0.48 0.42
12 CoC 671 30.3 52.2 41.3 0.29 0.42 0.36
13 CoA 7601 35.9 56.1 46.0 0.28 0.36 0.32
Late clones
14 Co 419 34.6 61.2 47.9 0.29 0.36 0.33
15 Co 617 27.4 56.8 42.1 0.24 0.42 0.33
16 Co 678 55.5 69.9 62.7 0.25 0.27 0.26
17 Co 740 43.6 55.9 49.8 0.37 0.43 0.40
18 Co 853 30.4 55.9 43.2 0.32 0.50 0.41
19 Co 975 41.4 71.7 56.6 0.39 0.54 0.47
20 Co 1148 31.8 56.3 44.1 0.33 0.7 0.40
21 Co 62101 43.8 76.9 60.4 0.44 0.60 0.52
22 Co 62175 48.4 70.5 59.3 0.36 0.44 0.40
23 Co 62399 26.1 43.5 34.8 0.39 0.49 0.44
24 Co 6304 43.1 65.3 54.2 0.27 0.30 0.29
25 Co 7717 42.9 71.8 57.4 0.26 0.34 0.30
26 B 37172 51.0 82.4 66.7 0.34 0.46 0.40
27 CP 44101 17.4 33.2 25.3 0.29 0.49 0.39
28 H 50-7209 43.5 60.2 51.9 0.31 0.35 0.33
29 N Co 310 36.2 50.2 43.2 0.42 0.49 0.46
30 POJ 2878 18.8 30.8 24.8 0.38 0.44 0.41
Mean 38.4 60.5 0.34 0.44

S.Em C.D S.Em C.D

Varieties (V) 0.3 1.5*** 0.02 0.11***
Stages (S) 0.8 14.7*** 0.003 0.05*
V / S 0.4 1.2* 0.03 0.14***
S / V 0.4 1.2* 0.02 0.12***

*** significant at 0.1% level * significant at 5.0% level N.S – non-significant

Calcium Uptake of Certain Genetic Stocks of Sugarcane Clones and its Association with Uptake of Other Nutrients, Yield of Cane and Sugar
S.Thangavelu and K. Chiranjivi Rao

dry leaves, green tops, stem and total sodic versus normal soil indicated the
above-ground parts had significant positive importance of calcium nutrition in sugarcane
association with uptake of all the nutrients growth on sodic soil. Geolingo et al (1999)
viz., nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, noted that correlations between calcium
magnesium, sulphur, chloride, silicon, and uptake and biomass varied between cultivars.
sodium by dry leaves, green tops, stem and However, calcium uptake in kg to produce a
total above-group parts and yield of cane and tonne of cane was associated significantly and
sugar at 10 and 12 months. It is confirmed positively with uptake of nitrogen,
that Nasir et al (2000) reported that the phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, sulphur,
growth rate by sugarcane was mainly due to chloride, silicon and sodium to produce a
the enhanced uptake of N, P, K and Ca as tonne of cane and negatively with yield of
was seen in this present study. Dang et al cane and sugar at 10 and 12 months.
(1998) reported that a positive relationship
between relative calcium concentration in

Table: 3 Correlation coefficients (r) of calcium uptake by above ground parts with
other nutrients and yield of cane and sugar
Dry Green Total above Kg Ca / t
S.No characters Stem
leaves tops ground parts of cane
1 Nitrogen 10 m 0.886*** 0.620*** 0.880*** 0.905*** 0.647***
2 Nitrogen 12 m 0.819*** 0.726*** 0.844*** 0.838*** 0.572***
3 Phosphorus 10 m 0.894*** 0.681*** 0.856*** 0.914*** 0.667***
4 Phosphorus 12 m 0.791*** 0.877*** 0.746*** 0.849*** 0.467**
5 Potassium 10 m 0.928*** 0.619*** 0.904*** 0.944*** 0.661***
6 Potassium 12 m 0.835*** 0.927*** 0.876*** 0.844*** 0.659***
7 Magnesium 10 m 0.884*** 0.668*** 0.958*** 0.978*** 0.841***
8 Magnesium 12 m 0.835*** 0.927*** 0.876*** 0.844*** 0.659***
9 Sulphur 10 m 0.879*** 0.625*** 0.857*** 0.836*** 0.556***
10 Sulphur 12 m 0.758*** 0.860*** 0.730*** 0.800*** 0.514**
11 Chloride 10 m 0.954*** 0.575** -0.801*** 0.829*** 0.548**
12 Chloride 12 m 0.720*** 0.879*** 0.537** 0.712*** 0.504**
13 Sodium 10 m 0.937*** 0.643*** 0.925*** 0.968*** 0.898***
14 Sodium 12 m 0.800*** 0.956*** 0.865*** 0.529** 0.613***
15 Silicon 10 m 0.971*** 0.662*** 0.917*** 0.972*** 0.901***
16 Silicon 12 m 0.592*** 0.923*** 0.873*** 0.906*** 0.721***
17 10th month cane yield 10 m 0.499** 0.680*** 0.957*** 0.846*** 0.532**
18 10th month cane yield 12 m 0.466** 0.544** 0.914*** 0.829*** 0.460*
19 12th month cane yield 10 m 0.503** 0.651*** 0.865*** 0.756*** 0.638***
20 12th month cane yield 12 m 0.416* 0.576*** 0.815*** 0.778*** 0.640***
21 10 month sugar yield 10 m 0.575*** 0.626*** 0.898*** 0.855*** 0.415*
22 10 month sugar yield 12 m 0.405* 0.596*** 0.892*** 0.845*** 0.394*
23 12th month sugar yield 10 m 0.552** 0.697*** 0.859*** 0.759*** -0.550**
24 12th month sugar yield 12 m 0.425* 0.623*** 0.857*** 0.804*** 0.582***

*** least significant r at 0.1% level ** least significant r at 1.0% level

* least significant r at 5.0% level

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Conclusions removal by sugarcane grown on Evergrade

histosols. Agron. J. 85 (2): 310 – 315
Significant differences between clones
7. Cordero, D.A., Batista, L.F., Gurgel, M.N. and
were observed in calcium uptake by dry
Bittencourt, V.C. 1977. Study by means of
leaves, green tops, stem, total above ground labeling techniques on K – liming relation in
parts, kg calcium to produce a tonne of cane. soils cultivated with sugarcane. Proc. Int. Sco.
The range of uptake of calcium in kg to Sugarcane Tech. 16: 1011 - 1025
produce a tonne of cane was 0.24 in Co 617 8. Dang, Y.P., Mehla, A.S., Chhalora, R. and
at 10 months to 0.60 in Co 62101 at 12 Kumar, S. 1998. Sodicity induced losses and
months. The clones recording low amount of changes in minerals concentration of sugarcane
calcium in kg per tonne of cane were Co 678, genotypes. Proc. Ann. Conv. Sug. Tech. Assoc.
of India. 60: A 123 – A 135
Co 6304, Co 7717, CoA 7601, Co 62174, Co
419, Co 617, H 50-7209, Co 7704 and CoC 9. Draycott, A.P. 1972. Sugarbeet nutrition.
671. Uptake of calcium by dry leaves, green Applied Science Publishers Ltd. London
tops, stem and total above ground parts had 10. Gandana, S.G. and Martoyo. 1990. Fibre, juice
significant positive association with the and chemical composition of sugarcane.
Berita-Pusat Penolitian Pe-Kebunan Gula
uptake of all the nutrients viz., N, P, K, Mg,
Indonesia. No.3: 33 – 37
S, Cl, Si and Na by dry leaves, green tops,
stem and total above ground parts and 11. Geolingo, R.C. Gotera, E.P. Bombio, R.M.,
Santos, D.A. and De Los. 1999. Biomass
calcium uptake to produce a tonne of cane
production of sugarcane varieties related to
had negative association with cane and sugar nutrients uptake. Proc. PHILSU TECH 36: 177
yield and positive association with N, P, K, - 184
Mg, S, Cl, Si and Na in kg per tonne of cane.
12. Gomathi, R. and Thandapani, T.V. 2005. Sug.
Acknowledgement Tech. 7 (1): 39-47
13. Gupta, S.K., Minhas, P.S., Sondhi, S.K., Tyagi,
Authors are thankful to Director,
N.K. and Yadav, J.S.P. 2000. resource
Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore-641
management. [Ed. Yadav, J.S. and Singh, G.B.
007 for encouragement and affording all Natural resource management for agricultural
facilities. production in India]. International Conference
on managing natural Resources for sustainable
References Agricultural production in the 21st Century.
1. Anonymous, 1981. Cane plant nutrition. February 14-18, 2000, New Delhi, India p 231
Australian Cane grower, 3(6):13-14 14. Hesse, P.R. 1971. A text book of soil chemical
2. Anonymous, 1988. Nutrient uptake by above analysis. John Murray Ltd., London.
ground parts of N 14. Ann. Rpt. South Afri.
15. Humbert, R.P. 1968. The growing of
Sug. Assoc. Exp. Station, 1987-88. 21
sugarcane. Elsevier publishing Company,
3. Chatterjee, Radha Jain, Dube, B.K. and Amsterdam.
Agarwala, S.C. 1991. Variation in growth and
16. Jackson, M.L. 1967. Soil Chemical Analysis.
metabolism of sugarcane with B and Ca
Asia Publishing House, Madras.
availability. Sugarcane (1) Jan/Feb.15-19
4. Blancher, R.W., Rehm, G. and Galdwell, A.C. 17. Kakde, J.R. 1985. Sugarcane production.
1965. Sulphur in plant materials by digestion Metropolitan Book Co (P) Ltd. New Delhi. pp
with nitric and perchloric acid. Soil Sci. Amer. 384
Proc. 29: 71-72 18. Kwon, T.R., Harris, P.J.C. and Bourne, W.F.
5. Clements, H.F. 1980. Sugarcane crop logging 1999. Hort. Sci. 40 [4]: 425-430
and crop control. Principles and Practices. The 19. Kumar, S., Kumar, D. and Sinha, R. N. 1989.
University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu. Change in juice attributes, juice quality and
6. Coale, F.J., Sanchez, C.A., Izuno, F.T. and mineral nutrients in cane juice due to smut
Boltcher, A.B. 1993. Nutrienaccumulation and infection. Ind. Sug. 39; 233 - 237

Calcium Uptake of Certain Genetic Stocks of Sugarcane Clones and its Association with Uptake of Other Nutrients, Yield of Cane and Sugar
S.Thangavelu and K. Chiranjivi Rao

20. Manohar Rao, P. J. 1977. Soil and foliar 24. Singh, U. S. 1978. Role of nutrients in
diagnosis in sugar factory lab for Determining sugarcane and signs of their hunger. Ind. Sug.
macro and micro nutrients required for 28: 19 - 26
sugarcane growth. Ind. Sug. 27: 671 - 685 25. Sinha, A. K. and Ghosh, A. K. 1981. Uptake
21. Mohan Naidu, K. 1987. (Ed: Mohan Naidu, K. and accumulation of nutrients in some
and Arulraj, S.). Sugarcane Technologies. sugarcane varieties. J. of Nuclear Agri. And
Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore – Bio. 10: 53 – 65
641 007
26. Sinha, N. C. and Singh, J. N. 1977. Dry matter
22. Nasir, N. M, Qureshi, R. H., Aslam, M. and accumulation and mineral Composition of
Javaid Akhtar. 2000. Screening of sugarcane sugarcane as affected by potassium deficiency.
lines selected through hydronic studies in Potash Review. No. 3, subject 27, 77th suite, 1
naturally salt affected field. Pak. Sug. J. 15(4):
27. Sundara, B. 1998. Sugarcane Cultivation.
2 - 10
Vikas publications, Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi.
23. Saffiqua, P. G., Keeney, D. R. and Tanner, C.
B. 1977. Nitrogen, chloride and water b 28. Van Dillewijn, 1952. Botany of sugarcane. The
balance with irrigated Resset Burbank Chronica Botanica Waltham Mass. U.S.A.
Potatoes in a sandy soil. Agron. J. 69: 251-257 29. Yang, R. 1993. The contents of ten nutritional
elements in leaves of 9 sugarcane genotypes.
Sugarcane November/December : No. 6. 10 –

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention


Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore – 641 007

Abstract total N, colloids, amino acids, titratable

acidity, protein N, pH, ash, electrical
Differences of sucrose/amino acids ratio in
conductivity, potassium, calcium, magnesium,
juice between varieties and between stages and
sulphate, chloride, sodium, silicon, reducing
interaction between varieties and stages were
sugars, organic non-sugars, total non-sugars
significant at 0.1% level. CoA 7601 registered
and fibre density. The juice sucrose/amino
the highest sucrose/amino acids ratio of 981
acids had no significant associations with
and the lowest juice sucrose/amino acids ratio
juice sucrose/starch ratio, juice phenols and
was 339 in Co 678 with the mean of 678. The
cane yield - 6, 8, 10 & 12 months.
higher juice sucrose/amino acids ratio was
recorded in CoA 7601, CoC 671, Co 6806, Co
775, Co 7204 and Co 7712 and lower juice
sucrose/amino acids were showed in Co 678, Juice of high sucrose and lower content
Co 853, H 50-7209, Co 975, Co 6304, Co 740 of invert sugars, free amino acids, colloids and
and Co 62399. Juice sucrose/amino acids ash were conducive for superior quality gur
increased from 235 at 6 months to 296 at 7 [Thangavelu, 2006]. High quality juice
months; 379 at 8 months to 561 at 9 months; contains higher amount of sucrose and purity
803 at 10 months to 1005 at 11 months; and percent and lesser amount of non-sugars like
decreased from 1145 at 12 months to 1137 at reducing sugars, phenols, starch, colloids,
13 months. gums and amino acids and total nitrogen etc.
Higher amount of non-sugars will interfere
Sucrose/amino acids ratio in cane juice were with clarification, settling and further
associated significantly and positively with juice processing in sugar manufacture and result in
sucrose/colloids ratio, sucrose/phenols ratio, poor recovery [Thangavelu, 1980]. A perfectly
sucrose/protein N ratio, sucrose/titratable ripe cane contains on average of 0.05% N.
acidity, sucrose/total N ratio, sucrose/pH ratio, Greater part of total N is in the form of
sucrose/ash ratio, sucrose/electrical conductivity uncombined amino acids and nitrogenous
ratio, sucrose/phosphorus ratio, sucrose/ constituents other than protein. 32 free amino
potassium ratio, sucrose/calcium ratio, sucrose/ acids in leaves and 23 in cane juice are
magnesium ratio, sucrose/sulphate ratio, present. Amino acids interfere with the
sucrose/chloride ratio, sucrose/sodium ratio, manufacturing process in a variety of ways.
sucrose/silicon ratio, sucrose/reducing sugars These amino acids combine with reducing
ratio, sucrose/organic non-sugars ratio, sugars present in juice forming dark coloured
sucrose/total non-sugars ratio, sucrose/fibre melanoidins which affects the quality of
weight ratio, sucrose/fibre volume ratio, sugar. Age, variety of cane, fertilization and
sucrose/fibre density ratio, sucrose/sugar-fibre cultivation practices have considerable effect
ratio, starch, phosphorus, fibre weight, fibre on the quantity of amino acids present in cane
volume, sucrose-6, 8, 10 & 12 months, sugar juice]. Juice sucrose was 70-88% and amino
yield-6 months, CCS %-6, 8, 10 & 12 months. acids 0.5-2.0% of soluble solids [Thuljaram
The juice sucrose/amino acids ratio had Rao et al., 1985]. Thangavelu (2005) reviews
significant negative associations with juice that in addition to sugars, juice contains salts,

Juice Sucrose / Amino Acids in Sugarcane Genetic Stocks and its Association With Other Ratios in Juice and Cane and Sugar Yield

nitrogenous substances, lipids, gums, wax, constituent of protein of protoplasm and

pectins, organic acids and phenols. Ash, EC, essential amino acids Cystine, Cysteine and
K2O, Na2O, CaO, MgO, Fe2O3 Al2O3, Cl, SO4, Methionine (Mohan Naidu, 1987). S increases
P2O5, SiO2, Cu, Mn and Pb etc are the the synthesis of amino acids, proteins,
inorganic non-sugars present in juice. Khanna chlorophyll and starch in plants and improves
and Chacravarthi (1953) reported that the quality of sugarcane juice (Tandon, 1985).
sugarcane variety should have high juice Asokan and Raj (1982) found that with
content apart from juice with high brix, different levels of N revealed that the leaf
sucrose, purity, phosphorus and low nitrogen, blade N status at early growth period of the
ash, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, cane determined the final cane yield and juice
phenols, and amino acid content and total quality; most of non-sugars constituents of
non-sugars. Absorbed nitrates are reduced to juice, excepting N fractions, calcium, phenol
nitrites, amides, amino acids and then to and amino acids decreased with increase in
peptides and polypeptides, simple proteins leaf blade N content. Heavy doses of N
and nucleo-proteins (Clements, 1980). More without P delay the maturity of cane, whereas
accumulation of other nitrogen containing P enhances the maturity. It also helps in
fractions viz., proline, glycine, betaine, total efficient utilization of N and reduces the
soluble proteins, free amino acids and soluble N content in juice (Rakkiyappan,
polyamines under salinity condition leads in 1993). In cane juice sucrose should have high
reduction of nitrate concentration in leaf and nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium,
(Munns and Termatt, 1986). Phosphorus sodium, chloride and iron minerals and
deficiency interferes with protein synthesis phenol, amino acids, glucose and fructose
and increases accumulation of soluble should have low. These characteristics are
nitrogen in the stem (Lakshmikantham, present in cane varieties Co 6205, CoC 671,
1983). An accumulation of amino N with a Co 6806, Co 8021 and Co 86032 [Asokan,
decrease in protein N indicated that the K 2003]. During froth fermentation, pH drop
deficient plants were unable to synthesize provokes sucrose hydrolysis to reducing
protein as usual. Synthesis of simple sugars sugars, which in turn react with amino acids
and starch, translocation of carbohydrates, to produce browner melanoidin and eventually
reduction of NO3s and synthesis of proteins humic acid [Arulappan et al., 2016]. Colour of
was affected by K (Ricaud, 1965). K deficiency syrup obtained depends up on the amount and
disturbs protein formation and causes type of amino acids present in cane juice.
accumulation of soluble N-forms which impair Presence of amino acids in cane juice affects
the quality of the juice. K also influences the the crystallization of sucrose due to their
relation between hydrolysable (sucrose) sugars reaction with reducing sugars and formation
and reducing (glucose) sugars, thus of melassigenic substances. Amino acids
contributing to the improvement of the combine with reducing sugars to form dark
sucrose content in the cane (Husz, 1972). colored compounds known as melanoidines
Amino acid cystine forms protein, thiamine, which remain in syrup and affect color of
biotine and hormones need sulphur nutrition sugar crystals. Unionized compounds are
(Manohar Rao, 1977; Singh, 1978). formed by calcium or magnesium with
Phosphorus has a role in sugar accumulation, hydroxy acids and amino acids which
protein synthesis and low accumulation of complicate the crystallization of sucrose
soluble nitrogen [Mohan Naidu, 1987]. [Asokan, 1985]. Shepherd [1981] emphasized
Sulphur plays an important part in that none of the phosphate calcium, organic
determining the optimum N:S ratio. It is a acids, sulphate, magnesium, and starch was

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

responsible for the refractory behavior of Experimental analysis

certain juice observed from time to time.
Thangavelu and Chiranjivi Rao (2001) that Materials and Methods
juice magnesium recorded significant negative
Thirty sugarcane genetic stocks
associations with brix, sucrose, purity, CCS
comprising 22 Co canes, three state releases
per cent, starch and sugar yield and positive
and five foreign hybrids being utilized in
associations with reducing sugars, colloids,
breeding programme were planted in a simple
titratable acidity, potassium, calcium,
rectangular five x six lattice designs in two
sulphate, chloride, sodium, ash, electrical
replications with a plot size of eight rows of
conductivity, pH, amino acids, total nitrogen
six metres length at 90 cm apart. Among
and colour. Thangavelu and Chiranjivi Rao
these 13 clones are early maturing and 17
(2005) reported that significant associations of
clones are mid late/late maturing. The clones
sulphate in juice were negative with, sucrose,
are as follows:
purity, starch, CCS percent, sugar yield and
positive with reducing sugars, colloids, Mid
titratable acidity, potassium, calcium, Origin Late/Late Origin
magnesium, chloride, ash, electrical maturing

conductivity, amino acids, sodium and colour Co 775 India Co 419 India
of juice. Thangavelu (1984) reported that Co 997 " Co 617 "
chloride in juice had significant negative
Co 62174 " Co 678 "
association with brix, sucrose, purity and
Co 6806 " Co 740 "
C.C.S per cent and positive association with
reducing sugars. Chloride had no relationship Co 7201 " Co 853 "
with starch, amino acids, phenols, and Co 7204 " Co 975 "
phosphorus. Thangavelu et al., (2003) reported Co 7304 " Co 1148 "
that juice sodium had significant positive
Co 7508 " Co 62101 "
association with potassium, calcium,
magnesium, sulphate, chloride, ash, electrical Co 7704 " Co 62175 "

conductivity, total nitrogen, colloids, reducing Co 7712 " Co 62399 "

sugars and negative association with sucrose, Co J 64 " Co 6304 "
purity, and CCS%. However, sodium in juice Co C 671 " Co 7717 "
had no influence on brix, cane and sugar
Co A 7601 " B 37172 Barbados
yield, fibre%, starch, phenols, pH, titratable
acidity, amino acids, phosphorus, silicon CP44-101 Canal Point.
colour, mud volume and settling time of the H 50-7209 Hawaii. U.S.A.
juice. Thangavelu and Chiranjivi Rao (2002) N Co 310 Natal, Coimbatore
reported that juice silicon content had
POJ 2878 Java (Indonesia)
significant negative association with chloride
and purity and positive association with
Normal cultural practices (seed rate:
amino acids, phosphorus and mud volume.
37.500 three budded setts/ha, 75 kg P2O5/ha
But silicon in juice had no influence on brix,
as basal and 250 kg N/ha and 120 kg K2O/ha
sucrose, C.C.S percent and reducing sugars.
in two splits as top dressings at 45 and 90
days) adopted at this Institute were followed
for raising the crops in red sandy loam soil
of the Institute Farm, Coimbatore during late
season. For juice analysis six canes were cut

Juice Sucrose / Amino Acids in Sugarcane Genetic Stocks and its Association With Other Ratios in Juice and Cane and Sugar Yield

for each sample and juice obtained in small at 7 months; 379 at 8 months to 561 at 9
power crusher was analyzed for its sucrose months; 803 at 10 months to 1005 at 11
and amino acids contents by following months; and decreased from 1145 at 12
standard procedures (Chen, 1985). Juice months to 1137 at 13 months. Significant
sucrose/amino acids ratio was determined. interaction between sugarcane clones of a
The data were fed in Hindustan stage showed the range of juice sucrose/amino
Microcomputer and analyzed for statistical acids from 138 in Co 853 to 435 in CoC 671
significance, following statistical methods like at 6 months; 171 in Co 678 to 527 in Co 7712
analysis of variance and simple correlations. at 7 months; 200 in Co 678 to 817 in CoA
7601 at 8 months; 300 in Co 678 to 957 in
Results and Discussion
CoA 7601 at 9 months; 416 in Co 678 to 1469
Mean values of juice sucrose/amino acids in CoA 7601 at 10 months; 575 in Co 853 to
ratio from the 30 sugarcane clones at 8 stages 1849 in CoC 671 at 11 months; 627 in Co 853
viz, 6 to 13 months after planting are to 2464 in CoA 7601 at 12 months and 594
presented in table I. Differences of in Co 853 to 3398 in Co 7204 at 13 months.
sucrose/amino acids ratio in juice between
varieties and between stages and interaction Correlation coefficients (r) of juice
between varieties and stages were significant sucrose/amino acids N ratio in sugarcane
at 0.1% level. Varietal mean over 8 stages Correlation coefficients (r) of
showed that CoA 7601 registered the highest sucrose/amino acids ratio with other quality
sucrose/amino acids ratio of 981 and the components and their ratios in juice are
lowest juice sucrose/amino acids ratio was 339 presented in table 2. Correlation coefficients
in Co 678 with the mean of 678. The wide (r) of sucrose/amino acids ratio in cane juice
juice sucrose/amino acids ratio was 138 in Co were associated significantly and positively
853 at 6 months to 3398 in Co 7204 at 13 with juice sucrose/colloids ratio (r = 0.437 to
months. The higher juice sucrose/amino acids 0.715); with juice sucrose/phenols ratio (r =
ratio was recorded in CoA 7601 (981), CoC 0.362 to 0.491); with juice sucrose/protein N
671 (971), Co 6806 (899), Co 775 (879), Co ratio (r = 0.580 to 0.747); with juice
7204 and Co 7712 (752) and lower juice sucrose/titratable acidity (r = 0.574 to 0.773);
sucrose/amino acids were showed in Co 678 with juice sucrose/total N ratio (r = 0.865 to
(339), Co 853 (369), H 50-7209 (386), Co 975 0.921); with juice sucrose/pH ratio (r = 0.516
(414), Co 6304 (420), Co 740 (455) and Co to 0.757); with juice sucrose/ash (r = 0.362 to
62399 (484). Significant interaction between 0.734); with juice sucrose/electrical
stages of sugarcane clone showed a wide conductivity ratio (r = 0.403 to 0.723); with
variation of juice sucrose/amino acids was juice sucrose/phosphorus ratio (r = 0.384);
noted in Co 7204, CoA 7601, Co 6806, Co 997, with juice sucrose/potassium ratio (r = 0.460
Co 775, Co 62101, CoC 671, Co 617 and Co to 0.753); with juice sucrose/calcium ratio (r =
1148 and low variation of juice sucrose/amino 0.411 to 0.740); with juice sucrose/magnesium
acids was observed in Co 740, Co 853, Co 678, ratio (r = 0.402 to 0.806); with juice
CoJ 64, H 50-7209, Co 62175, Co 975 and Co sucrose/sulphate (r = 0.525 to 0.779); with
7508. With the advancement in age of the juice sucrose/chloride (r = 0.362 to 0.781); with
crop juice sucrose/amino acids increased from juice sucrose/sodium ratio ( r = 0.448 to
6 to 11 months and then decreased from 12 0.682); with juice sucrose/silicon ratio (r =
months to 13 months at monthly intervals. 0.501 to 0.767); with juice sucrose/reducing
Stage mean of 30 clones of juice sucrose/amino sugars ratio(r = 0.614 to 0.754), juice
acids increased from 235 at 6 months to 296 sucrose/organic non-sugars ratio (r = 0.377 to

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Table : 1. Sucrose/amino acids ratio in cane juice at different stages

Clones Age in months
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 mean
1 Co 775 381 470 562 859 1460 1635 1397 1871 879
2 Co 997 243 306 357 723 1218 1639 1997 1807 693
3 Co 62174 256 325 358 700 1082 1327 1448 1403 673
4 Co 6806 398 475 513 860 1073 1410 1999 2237 899
5 Co 7201 240 284 325 456 854 951 991 929 524
6 Co 7204 313 393 465 790 1092 1606 2051 2398 1165
7 Co 7304 217 250 290 657 966 1681 1159 1362 629
8 Co 7508 238 272 396 515 766 879 988 996 620
9 Co 7704 232 266 377 593 939 1151 1387 1443 827
10 Co 7712 392 527 633 790 909 1053 1111 1054 822
11 Co J 64 243 324 510 653 984 1172 783 838 723
12 Co C 671 435 556 653 882 1334 1849 1868 1865 1236
13 Co A 7601 328 583 817 957 1469 1702 2464 2080 1311
14 Co 419 234 282 340 435 966 1296 1421 1357 846
15 Co 617 182 213 341 506 819 1093 1566 1650 866
16 Co 678 141 171 200 300 416 648 737 730 439
17 Co 740 228 257 318 474 616 642 670 689 455
18 Co 853 138 201 274 439 513 575 627 594 439
19 Co 975 165 213 244 427 648 731 815 811 514
20 Co 1148 212 325 413 596 1081 1387 1551 1547 929
21 Co 62101 198 231 389 591 1001 1201 1470 1780 880
22 Co 62175 206 277 369 458 631 750 830 841 504
23 Co 62399 205 274 314 406 610 727 1177 1398 668
24 Co 6304 159 174 237 361 617 777 925 855 520
25 Co 7717 244 277 497 631 893 1079 1176 1088 767
26 B 37172 225 362 471 532 615 938 1068 1079 658
27 CP 44-101 231 336 398 477 628 1000 1164 1383 739
28 H 50-7209 182 226 296 392 493 604 836 876 486
29 N Co 310 208 272 324 628 801 842 994 997 649
30 POJ 2878 182 218 414 495 697 872 1055 1139 624
Stage mean 235 296 379 561 803 1005 1145 1137 812
S.Em 13.8 4.6 6.5 3.5
C.D. 72.3*** 35.8*** 30.8*** 16.2***
*** significant at 0.1% level

Juice Sucrose / Amino Acids in Sugarcane Genetic Stocks and its Association With Other Ratios in Juice and Cane and Sugar Yield

Table: 2 Correlation Coefficients [r] of sucrose/amino acids ratio in juice with other
Characters Age in months
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
1. sucrose/nitrogen 0.865 0.890 0.921 0.919 0.913 0.892 0.867 0.852
2. sucrose/starch 0.126 0.146 0.160 0.152 0.140 0.153 0.164 0.181
3. sucrose/colloids 0.715 0.602 0.506 0.527 0.550 0.519 0.468 0.437
4. Sucrose/phenols 0.484 0.438 0.371 0.445 0.491 0.362 0.185 0.168
5. sucrose/protein nitrogen 0.702 0.699 0.689 0.725 0.747 0.678 0.592 0.580
6. sucrose/titratable acidity 0.632 0.651 0.675 0.719 0.773 0.696 0.615 0.574
7. sucrose/pH 0.757 0.713 0.666 0.677 0.686 0.608 0.530 0.516
8. sucrose/silicon 0.767 0.758 0.734 0.706 0.668 0.594 0.529 0.501
9. sucrose/EC 0.723 0.717 0.698 0.690 0.689 0.550 0.424 0.403
10. sucrose/potassium 0.758 0.680 0.633 0.665 0.709 0.595 0.474 0.460
11. sucrose/ash 0.728 0.732 0.734 0.706 0.677 0.519 0.379 0.362
12. sucrose/phosphorus 0.125 0.088 0.042 0.214 0.384 0.306 0.245 0.228
13. sucrose/calcium 0.740 0.666 0.603 0.618 0.630 0.411 0.683 0.447
14. sucrose/magnesium 0.806 0.779 0.732 0.683 0.617 0.402 0.187 0.154
15. sucrose/sulphate 0.779 0.742 0.696 0.679 0.663 0.607 0.558 0.525
16. sucrose/chloride 0.709 0.755 0.781 0.747 0.684 0.536 0.536 0.367
17. sucrose/sodium 0.682 0.653 0.598 0.570 0.555 0.448 0.063 0.078
18. sucrose/reducing sugars 0.754 0.741 0.735 0.668 0.614 0.619 0.635 0.654
19. sucrose/organic nonsugars 0.685 0.580 0.454 0.591 0.675 0.428 0.394 0.377
20. sucrose/total nonsugars 0.770 0.654 0.542 0.650 0.736 0.581 0.453 0.423
21. sucrose/fibre weight 0.533 0.530 0.537 0.599 0.640 0.532 0.397 0.364
22. sucrose/fibre volume 0.251 0.316 0.374 0.492 0.595 0.445 0.282 0.262
23. sucrose/fibre density 0.724 0.687 0.621 0.638 0.661 0.590 0.449 0.460
24. sucrose/sucrose-fibre ratio 0.619 0.574 0.549 0.604 0.656 0.413 0.390 0.376
25. total nitrogen 0.692 0.729 0.743 0.612 0.475 0.647 0.805 0.728
26. starch 0.346 0.378 0.398 0.373 0.340 0.306 0.266 0.239
27. colloids 0.470 0.311 0.140 0.126 0.106 0.225 0.375 0.395
28. phenols 0.209 0.215 0.227 0.255 0.296 0.172 0.080 0.066
29. amino acids 0.850 0.822 0.823 0.662 0.381 0.644 0.889 0.872
30. titratable acidity 0.250 0.291 0.335 0.221 0.094 0.362 0.572 0.448
31. protein nitrogen 0.385 0.428 0.457 0.442 0.430 0.517 0.577 0.557
32. pH 0.186 0.126 0.069 0.274 0.480 0.398 0.327 0.293
33. ash 0.484 0.488 0.492 0.362 0.197 0.182 0.168 0.144
34. electrical conductivity 0.419 0.422 0.417 0.364 0.264 0.215 0.162 0.107
35. phosphorus 0.319 0.342 0.354 0.369 0.378 0.272 0.130 0.118
36. potassium 0.523 0.419 0.307 0.168 0.015 0.132 0.228 0.251
37. calcium 0.652 0.524 0.435 0.246 0.044 0.082 0.076 0.055
38. magnesium 0.650 0.572 0.471 0.310 0.162 0.119 0.074 0.050
39. sulphate 0.647 0.534 0.420 0.237 0.043 0.194 0.328 0.342
40. chloride 0.516 0.538 0.546 0.362 0.077 0.100 0.140 0.156

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Characters Age in months

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
41. sodium 0.369 0.247 0.188 0.194 0.186 0.175 0.192 0.207
42. silicon 0.190 0.286 0.353 0.398 0.449 0.280 0.145 0.134
43. reducing sugars 0.652 0.675 0.690 0.469 0.253 0.381 0.506 0.529
44. organic non-sugars 0.651 0.430 0.185 0.105 0.027 0.168 0.280 0.298
45. total non-sugars 0.677 0.499 0.283 0.166 0.026 0.182 0.310 0.321
46. fibre weight 0.346 0.293 0.229 0.372 0.505 0.394 0.273 0.240
47. fibre volume 0.339 0.282 0.216 0.481 0.488 0.389 0.252 0.232
48. fibre density 0.329 0.274 0.210 0.358 0.462 0.361 0.239 0.206
49. sucrose – 6 months 0.749 0.737 0.683 0.699 0.681 0.574 0.495 0.484
50. sucrose - 8 months 0.481 0.584 0.660 0.625 0.577 0.487 0.355 0.333
51. sucrose - 10 months 0.531 0.528 0.518 0.591 0.679 0.583 0.465 0.449
52. sucrose - 12 months 0.566 0.580 0.591 0.637 0.652 0.595 0.510 0.488
53. sugar yield – 6 months 0.367 0.344 0.339 0.400 0.465 0.388 0.319 0.307
54. sugar yield - 8 months 0.005 0.011 0.009 0.116 0.234 0.153 0.115 0.105
55. sugar yield - 10 months 0.058 0.079 0.094 0.213 0.305 0.231 0.145 0.122
56. sugar yield - 12 months 0.029 0.143 0.106 0.248 0.325 0.246 0.137 0.100
57. cane yield - 6 months 0.037 0.057 0.066 0.154 0.237 0.278 0.013 0.069
58. cane yield - 8 months 0.163 0.235 0.277 0.215 0.140 0.112 0.065 0.046
59. cane yield - 10 months 0.137 0.218 0.273 0.222 0.141 0.107 0.046 0.034
60. cane yield - 12 months 0.129 0.199 0.267 0.246 0.194 0.135 0.034 0.028
61. CCS% - 6 months 0.745 0.724 0.680 0.671 0.674 0.598 0.467 0.433
62. CCS% - 8 months 0.472 0.566 0.647 0.609 0.558 0.483 0.370 0.365
63. CSS% - 10 months 0.550 0.541 0.523 0.627 0.693 0.576 0.473 0.441
64. CSS% - 12 months 0.565 0.570 0.588 0.618 0.655 0.591 0.516 0.500
Correlation coefficients r = 0.572*** significant at 0.1 % level;

Correlation coefficients r = 0.463** significant at 1.0 % level

Correlation coefficient r = 0.361* significant at 5.0 % level

0.685); with juice sucrose/total non-sugars (r sugar yield-6 months (r = 0.367 to 0.465); with
= 0.423 to 0.770); with juice sucrose/fibre CCS %-6 months (r = 0.433 to 0.745); CCS
weight ratio (r = 0.364 to 0.640); with juice %-8 months (r = 0.365 to 0.647); CCS %-10
sucrose/fibre volume ratio (r = 0.374 to 0.595), months (r = 0.441 to 0.693); CCS %-12 months
with juice sucrose/fibre density ratio (r = (r = 0.500 to 0.655).
0.460 to 0.724); with juice sucrose/sugar-fibre
The juice sucrose/amino acids ratio had
ratio (r = 0.376 to 0.656); with starch (r =
significant negative associations with juice
0.373 to 0.398); with phosphorus (r = 0.369 to
total N (r = 0.475 to 0.729); with juice
0.378); with fibre weight (r = 0.372 to 0.505);
colloids (r = 0.375 to 0.470); with juice
with fibre volume (r = 0.364 to 0.488); with
amino acids (r = 0.381 to 0.889), with juice
sucrose-6 months (r = 0.484 to 0.749); with
sucrose-8 months (r = 0.481 to 0.660); with titratable acidity (r = 0.362 to 0.572); with
sucrose-10 months (r = 0.449 to 0.679); with protein N (r = 0.385 to 0.577); with pH (r
sucrose-12 months (r = 0.488 to 0.652); with = 0.398 to 0.480); with juice ash (r = 0.362

Juice Sucrose / Amino Acids in Sugarcane Genetic Stocks and its Association With Other Ratios in Juice and Cane and Sugar Yield

to 0.488); with juice electrical conducitivity sucrose/total non-sugars ratio, sucrose/fibre

(r = 0.364 to 0.422); with juice potassium r weight ratio, sucrose/fibre volume ratio,
= 0.419 to 0.523); with juice calcium (r = sucrose/fibre density ratio, sucrose/sugar-fibre
0.435 to 0.652); with juice magnesium (r = ratio, starch, phosphorus, fibre weight, fibre
0.421 to 0.650); with juice sulphate (r = volume, sucrose-6, 8, 10 & 12 months, sugar
0.420 to 0.647); with juice chloride (r = yield-6 months, CCS %-6, 8, 10 & 12 months.
0.362 to 0.546); with juice sodium (r = The juice sucrose/amino acids ratio had
significant negative associations with juice
0.369); with juice silicon (r = 0.398 to
total N, colloids, amino acids, titratable
0.449); with juice reducing sugars (r = 0.381
acidity, protein N, pH, ash, electrical
to 0.690); with juice organic non-sugars (r =
conductivity, potassium, calcium, magnesium,
0.430 to 0.651); with juice total non-sugars
sulphate, chloride, sodium, silicon, reducing
(r = 0.499 to 0.677); with fibre density (r =
sugars, organic non-sugars, total non-sugars
0.361 to 0.462). The juice sucrose/amino
and fibre density. The juice sucrose/amino
acids had no significant associations with
acids had no significant associations with
juice sucrose/starch ratio, juice phenols and
juice sucrose/starch ratio, juice phenols and
cane yield-6, 8, 10 & 12 months.
cane yield-6, 8, 10 & 12 months.
CoA 7601 registered the highest
Authors are thankful to Director
sucrose/amino acids ratio of 981 and the
Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore-641
lowest juice sucrose/amino acids ratio was 339
007 for encouragement and affording facilities.
in Co 678 with the mean of 678. The higher
juice sucrose/amino acids ratio was recorded
in CoA 7601, CoC 671, Co 6806, Co 775, Co
7204 and Co 7712 and lower juice
sucrose/amino acids were showed in Co 678, 1. Arulappan, A., Subbareddy, A. and
Umashankar, P. 2016. Production of quality
Co 853, H 50-7209, Co 975, Co 6304, Co 740
molasses and preventive measures to be taken
and Co 62399. Juice sucrose/amino acids
during storage to keep TRS intact. 46th Annual
increased from 235 at 6 months to 296 at 7 Convention of SISSTA Sugar Journal, 373-377
months; 379 at 8 months to 561 at 9 months;
803 at 10 months to 1005 at 11 months; and 2. Asokan, S. 1985. Importance of non-sugar
decreased from 1145 at 12 months to 1137 at constituents of cane juice in sugar recovery
13 months. Sucrose/amino acids ratio in cane and the factors influencing their content in
juice were associated significantly and cane juice. Paper presented at Advance course
positively with juice sucrose/colloids ratio, of sugar production–Organized by Federation
of crops sugars – Tamil Nadu
sucrose/phenols ratio, sucrose/protein N ratio,
sucrose/titratable acidity, sucrose/total N 3. Asokan, S. 2003. Jaggery preparation (In
ratio, sucrose/pH ratio, sucrose/ash ratio, Sugarcane [Tamil] Ed. Thiagarajan,
Veluswamy, R. Jawahar, N. and
sucrose/electrical conductivity ratio,
Balasundaram, N., 2003). Sugarcane Breeding
sucrose/phosphorus ratio, sucrose/potassium Institute, Coimbatore. Extension Publication
ratio, sucrose/calcium ratio, No.75. 32–35
sucrose/magnesium ratio, sucrose/sulphate
4. Asokan, S. and Raj, D. 1982. The leaf blade N
ratio, sucrose/chloride ratio, sucrose/sodium status and its relationship with the yield of
ratio, sucrose/silicon ratio, sucrose/reducing sugarcane and juice quality. Ann. Conv. Sug.
sugars ratio, sucrose/organic non-sugars ratio, Tech, Assoc. 46: 69-70

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

5. Chen, J.C.P. 1985. Meade - Chen Cane sugar 17. Tandon, H.L.S. 1985. Sulphur in Indian
Hand book. 11th Edition, John Wiley & Sons. Agriculture – An overview. Proc. National
New York Seminar on Sulphur held at T.N.A.U.
Coimbatore, (Oct, 18 and 19, 1985). 9-29
6. Clements, H.F. 1980. Sugarcane crop logging
and crop control. Principles and Practices. The 18. Thangavelu, S. 1980. Factors affecting
University press of Hawaii, Honolulu. 520 pp sugarcane juice quality and methods of
improvement. Seminar Bulletin for Ph.D
7. Husz, G.S. 1972. Sugarcane Cultivation and
Thesis of Madras University, Chennai. pp1-96
fertilization. Ruhr – Stickstoff. A.G., Bochum,
West Germany. 19. Thangavelu, 1984. Chemical examination of
some genetic stocks of Saccharum cultivars for
8. Khanna, K.L. and Chacravarti, A.S. 1953. Res.
yield of cane and sugar with special reference
On Tech. Aspects relating to improvements of
to nutrient uptake, juice quality and
gur Industry in Bihar. Chap. I: 7 - 9 and 18
technological characteristics. Ph.D. Thesis.
- 27
Madras University, Chennai. Tamil Nadu.
9. Lakshmikantham, M. 1983. Technology in 20. Thangavelu, S. 2005. Cooperative Sug. 36 (10)
sugarcane growing. A.P. Agri. Univ. June,: 813 - 826 Thangavelu, S. 2006.
Hyderabad. Second Edi. 259 p Cooperative Sug. 37 (9) May: 29-33
10. Manohar Rao, P.J. 1977. Soil and foliar 21. Thangavelu, S. and Chiranjivi Rao, K. 2001.
diagnosis in sugar factory lab for determining Magnesium content in juice of Saccharum
macro and micronutrients required for cultivars and its relationship with other
sugarcane growth. Indian Sug. 27: 671-685. parameters at different stages of maturity.
11. Mohan Naidu, K. 1987. Macro and micro Indian Sug. 51(9): 621 - 625
nutrients. In (Eds: Mohan Naidu, K. and 22. Thangavelu, S. and Chiranjivi Rao, K. 2002.
Arulraj, S. Sugarcane Technologies, Sugarcane Silicon content in juice of Sugarcane Clones
Breeding Institute, Coimbatore. and its Association with other Characters of
12. Munns, R. and Termaat, A. 1986. Whole-plant Different stages of Maturity. Sug. Tech.
responses to salinity. Aust. J. Plant physiol. 4(1&2): 57 - 60
13: 143 - 160 23. Thangavelu, S., Chiranjivi Rao, K. and
Rakkiyappan. P. 2003. Sodium content in juice
13. Rakkiyappan, P. 1993. P utilization in
of sugarcane clones and its relationship with
sugarcane. 26th Meeting of Sugarcane Res. and
other traits at different stages of maturity.
Dev. Wkrs. of Tamil Nadu held at
Sug. Tech. 5 (1&2): 85 - 88
Rajapalayam during August, 5-6, 1993.
24. Thangavelu, S. and Chiranjivi Rao, K. 2005.
14. Ricaud, R. 1965. Soil K and response of
Sulphate content in juice of sugarcane genetic
sugarcane to fertilizer K in Louisiana. La state
stocks and its relationship with other traits at
University and Agr. Exp. Sta. Bulletin No. 594
different stages of maturity. . Bharatiya Sug.
March – April, 29 (2) 27 - 31
15. Shephard, G.S. 1981. The influence of raw
25. Thuljaram Rao, J., Chiranjivi Rao, K. and
cane juice constituents on juice clarification.
Narasimham, R. 1985. Non-sugar constituents
Int. Sug. J. 83: 330 - 334
in sugarcane juice and varietal selection. Paper
16. Singh, U.S. 1978. Role of nutrients in presented at Advance course of sugar
sugarcane and signs of their hunger. Indian production–Organized by Federation of crops
Sug. 28:19 – 24 sugars – Tamil Nadu

S. Thangavelu
Sugarcane Breeding Institute, Coimbatore-641 007

Abstract is present in juice in soluble silica and it

Brown soils have developed under conditions reacts with calcium forming calcium silicate.
of intense silicate weathering with restricted 1000–1500 ppm was the tolerable limit of K
leaching. Adsorption and desorption and silicates, colloidal silica interfered with
characteristics of both silicate and phosphate settling. Ash mainly silica as organic silicate
may undergo changes during reclamation and increases viscosity in juice and lower the ash
in turn effect the availability of both anions. better will be taste and texture of gur and
organic silica is inversely proportional to juice
Apparent preference for Cd was increased with
clarity. Inorganic non-sugars are made up of
removal of MnO, AFeO and CFeO and
phosphates, chloride, sulphate, silicate, nitrate,
decreased with removal of organic matter of
Na, K, Ca, Mg, Al and Fe chiefly. Sodium
the soil and the exchange sites liberated on
meta silicate could increase the recovery of
removal of coatings of oxides of Fe and Mn
sugar by about 8 to 10%.
from silicate clays were more selective for Cd
than those present in whole soil. Frequent Introduction
spraying of solution containing potassium Clay fraction consists of minerals in clay
permanganate [0.1%], sodium metasilicate size [<2 um], which are crystalline. X-ray
[0.1%] on harvested stored cane was found to diffraction studies and electron microscopic
be much effective in minimizing invertase investigations indicate that such minerals are
activity and retaining juice quality. Significant composed of sheets of hydrated alumina and
increase in plant growth, cane and CCS yield silica linked by oxygen atoms. Due to small
due to the calcium silicate slag application of size they are highly reactive and form the
6 t/ha on vertisol and inceptisol. Si in cane seat of ion exchange in soil and thus control
leaf blade found to be increased where bagasse and regulate adsorption, retention, and
ash, fly ash, pond and calcium silicate was release of many plant nutrients such as
applied. Below 1.50% Si in 3-5 leaf sheaths potassium, calcium, magnesium and
growth response to silicate might be expected. phosphorus. The nature of clay properties
Application of silicates in soils of low P depends on the type of minerals. The
resulted in high P in green top and enhanced dominant among these clay fractions is the
P mobility in plant tissue. Significant increase layer silicate minerals which are formed by
in cane yield was due to silicon @ 400 kg/ha the silica [tetrahedral] and alumina or
through bagasse ash [98.90 t/ha], fly ash magnesia [octahedral] sheets. Cholite mineral
[106.06 t/ha], pond ash [111.79 t/ha] and Ca structure consists of typical 2:1 silicate layers
silicate [106.65 t/ha] over control [89.20 t/ha]. alternated with a magnesium/aluminium
Only grassy shoot disease was recorded upto dominated trioctahedral sheet depending on
3.33% in foliar spray of 2.5% potassium the acidity/alkalinity of soils. Some minerals
silicate. Minerals present in cane juice are consist of one sheet of silica and one sheet of
phosphates, chlorides, sulphates, silicates, alumina. The two sheets are held together by
nitrates and silica. Sodium metasilicate at 20 hydrogen bonding resulting in a fixed
to 80 moles/ml added to juice was shown to structure. Some minerals consist of 2 sheets
inhibit inversion till 48 hours. Sodium meta of silica and 1 sheet of alumina [Velayutham
silicate was helpful in reducing juice N. Silica and Bhattacharyya, 2000].

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Experimental analysis with different forms of P, characteristics of

silica and phosphate sorption and solubility of
Soil silicate
Si [Mongia and Chhabra, 2000].
Brown soils
Soluble silicate and Toxic levels of Mn,
Brown soils: These soils have developed
Al and Fe
under conditions of intense silicate weathering
with restricted leaching. Aluminium is also Although Si is not assigned the role of
mobile and the residual soil is rich in oxides an essential element for plant growth,
of iron. Organic carbon is stable in the surface sugarcane has been shown to give significant
horizon and mechanical translocation of finer and economic response to Si applications.
particles absent. C/N ratio is variable, being Application of soluble silicate has been
generally on the low side. Nitrogen reserve is credited with the ability to depress toxic levels
poor and available phosphates very low of Mn, Al and Fe in the soil solution before
[Khanna et al., 1956]. they can enter the plant or to prevent the
localized accumulation of Mn (freckling) in the
Soil properties and Nutrient availability leaf (Parish, 1964).
Soil application of any source of silicon
did not affect soil reaction. There was slight Soil silicon, Iron and Aluminium
decrease in electrical conductivity in bagasse
The inorganic constituents which form
ash and calcium silicate applied soil.
the bulk of the solid phase of soil consist of
Significant increase in phosphate availability
silicates, both of primary and secondary
was observed under calcium silicate, fly ash,
origin, having a definite chemical composition
pond ash and bagasse ash [Phonde et al.,
and a well defined crystalline structure. A soil
may also contain a certain proportion of
Solubilization of soil phosphorus carbonates, soluble salts, and free oxides of
Comparing different chemicals and green iron, aluminium and silicon in addition to
manuring, it was found that soil-P was some amorphous silicates. Under conditions of
solublized in the order, EDTA berseen [green weathering the primary minerals are broken
manuring] MgCO3 sodium silicate. These down to small fragments and even to
reduced substantially the transformation of molecular species such as silica, alumina, iron
fertilizer P into Al-P and Fe-P rather oxide etc. The latter are capable of being
increased water soluble P and Ca-P [Jafri, synthesized into structurally different silicates
1973]. which are called the secondary minerals. They
constitute the most active ingredient of soils
Adsorption & Desorption of soluble with respect to most of the chemical, physical
silicate and Phosphate in soil and mineralogical properties. The fraction
Reclamation of sodic soil essentially with particles less than 2 microns [0.002 mm]
involves lowering of pH and ESP. It is likely is called the clay fraction which colloidal
to bring changes in soluble silica and properties. The soil clay fraction may be
phosphorus content of the soil. Likewise, composed of, in addition to secondary
adsorption and desorption characteristics of minerals, clay minerals, hydrated iron and
both silicate and phosphate may undergo aluminium oxide minerals, and amorphous
changes during reclamation and in turn effect materials, the secondary minerals are
the availability of both anions. There was dominated in the majority of soil clays. The
effects of different degrees of reclamation of clay minerals are aluminosilicates in chemical
sodic soil in water soluble Si and its relation composition and have crystalline structure.

Silicate and Sugarcane – A Review
S. Thangavelu

The oxide and hydroxide minerals constitute Phosphorus and Silicate fertilizers in Hawaii
a sizable fraction of soils of humid subtropical Phosphorus is applied in various forms
and tropical regions and probably account for in amounts according to soil analysis. It has
variable proportions of iron and aluminium in achieved success with silicate fertilizers
those soils. The principle forms of amorphous producing response similar to that obtained
minerals in soils are oxides and hydroxides of from phosphorus [Husz, 1972].
iron, aluminium and silicon and do not
Silicate fertilizers and Soil mobile phosphate
constitute significant proportions of soil clays
It was determined that various silicate
except higher weathered soils [Velayutham
fertilizers increase the quantity of mobile
and Bhattacharyya, 2000]. phosphate in soil [Gladkova, 1982;
Absorption and Desorption of cadmium Matichenkov and Ammosova, 1996].

Apparent preference for Cd was Calcium silicate slag

increased with removal of MnO, AFeO and There are higher sugar yields by
CFeO and decreased with removal of organic application of calcium silicate slag more than
matter of the soil and the exchange sites lime. This increased soil P availability and
liberated on removal of coatings of oxides of ameliorated aluminium toxicity [Moberly and
Fe and Mn from silicate clays were more Meyer, 1975]. Jadhav et al., (2000) reported
selective for Cd than those present in whole increase in the cane yield of by 25 to 30
soil. Sequence of adsorption maximum [part I tonnes/ha under application of 4 to 6 t of
& II] for Cd was –AFeO -MnO CFeO whole calcium silicate slag to suru or pre-seasonal
sugarcane in Maharashtra.
soil organic matter. The difference in Cd
adsorption behaviour in these soils in relation Must concentrate from alcohol residues
to removal of soil components may be ascribed Must concentrate from alcohol residues is
to differential role of Fe and Mn coating on a viscous product with a dark caramel colour.
silicate clays and organic colloids. In the At high temperatures and concentrations it is
highly acidic Hapludult, removal of these highly corrosive and thus transportation and
components liberated large number of C storage is difficult. At 60 Brix it has a
specific sites than the Dystrochrept. The density of approximately 1,000 kg/m3
values of B [part I & II] for Cd adsorption in
the Dystrochrept as affected by removal of
different components were in the order: whole 1 Brix 60 Bx

soil > organic matter > -CFeO > -AFeO > 2 Insoluble ashes 9.17

-MnO. In both the soil % desorption of added 3 Soluble ashes 14.47

Cd was higher at levels of added / adsorbed 4 Total ashes 24.64

Cd. Greater retention of Cd in Dystrochrept 5 Total nitrogen 0.79
[i.e. less desorption] was mainly due to its 6 Alkalinity CO3 0.68
higher pH. Desorption behaviour of Cd in both 7 Chloride Cl 3.2
the soils showed that major part of apparently 8 Sulphates SO4 4.38
absorbed Cd was mainly non-specific. The 9 Phosphates PO4 0.01
fraction of adsorbed Cd occupying soil 10 Potassium K2O 7.82
components viz., organic matter, MnO, AFeO
11 Sodium Na2O 1.18
and CFeO in adsorption and desorption of Cd
12 Silicates SiO2 0.12
were secondary to pH [Battacharryya and
Poonia, 2000]. [Ramirez, 1988].

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Sugarcane plant silicate HMoO4  [for Mo], and Cl [for Cl]
If a complete analysis of plants is made, [Velayutham and Bhattacharyya, 2000].
large of number of elements are detected. But
Retard post harvest loss
only those which provide nourishment to the
plant and take part in the plant metabolism Spraying of harvested cane with benzoic
are essential. An element is said to be acid [100 ppm] and formaldehyde [100 ppm]
essential if the plant cannot complete its life significantly retarded post harvest losses.
cycle without it, if the element is specific in Frequent spraying of solution containing
its physiological function in plants, and if the potassium permanganate [0.1%], sodium
malady that develops in plants in its absence metasilicate [0.1%] on harvested stored cane
can be remedied only by that element. In was found to be much effective in minimizing
invertase activity and retaining the juice
practice, sometimes, it becomes difficult for all
quality. The efficacy of this method further
the criteria to be fulfilled so as establish
enhance if cane heaps are covered with trash
essentiality. This is particularly so for all
[Desai et al., 1985].
those elements that is required in very small
amounts. To overcome this difficulty, the term
Cane storage and Deterioration
functional or metabolism nutrients include
mineral nutrient elements that function in Cane stored after harvest showed an
plant metabolism whether their action is increase in starch and gum contents initially
specific or not. Earlier, 16 elements considered but after 48 hours the % of two components
essential for the growth of green plants were decreased; pH and purity decreased and
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, titratable acidity, gum RS contents increased.
phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, Deterioration on storage was greater in
sulphur, iron, manganese, zinc, copper, boron, chopped cane than in whole stalk cane [% of
molybdenum and chlorine. Sodium, cobalt, wax, PO4 and SiO2 however remained
vanadium, silicon, selenium, gallium, constant [Bose et al., 1970].
aluminium and iodine are added to the above
list recently. One or the other of these Plant growth, cane and CCS yield
elements has been found to be essential for a Significant increase in plant growth,
particular group or species of plants. Carbon sugarcane and CCS yield due to the calcium
dioxide, water, and molecular oxygen, are the silicate slag application of 6 t/ha on vertisol
forms in which carbon, hydrogen and oxygen and inceptisol [Talashilkar et al., 2001].
are assimilated by plants. Nutrient uptake by
plants accounts for about 10 % of total dry Leaf Silicon
weight of crops, the remaining percentage
The P and Si content in 4th leaf blade
being water. Of the total dry weight only a
were found to be increased in Si treated plots
small percentage is mineral matter which
compared to the control while N and K
comes from soil. The ionic forms in which the
contents did not show any significant
essential elements are absorbed by plants are
differences. The Si content in sugarcane leaf
NO3  , NH4  [for N], H2PO4  , HPO4   , [for blade found to be increased where bagasse
P], K [for K], Ca2  [for Ca], Mg2  [for Mg], ash, fly ash, pond and calcium silicate was
applied. Leaf Si content was observed higher
SO24  [for S], Mn2  [for Mn], Fe2  [for Fe],
at harvest stage compared to grand growth
Bo33  [for B], Zn2  [for Zn], Cu2  [for Cu], period [Phonde et al., 2010].

Silicate and Sugarcane – A Review
S. Thangavelu

Critical level of leaf sheath silicate Table: Silicon content in varieties % on

Critical level for silicate is not less than oven dry basis
1.5% of 3 to 6 leaf sheath dry matter Co Co Co Co
[Lakshmikantham, 1977]. 419 997 62175 975
1 3-6 leaf sheaths 2.94 3.08 3.31 3.13
2 3-6 leaf blades 4.28 3.74 5.50 4.89
According to Clements (1959) it would
appear that below 1.50% silicon in 3-5 leaf In Hawaii the leaf sheath silicon content
sheaths growth response to silicate might be was to be higher than in leaf blades. Below
expected. Leaf freckle and ring spot disease about 1.50% [silicon in 3.5 leaf sheaths]
was markedly reduced by the application of growth response to silicate might be expected.
Si to Si deficient plants. Leaf freckle and ring spot disease are
markedly reduced by the application of silica
Leaf blade & Sheath silicon and
to silica deficient plants. Approximate
averages of silicon associated with each metric
Response to application of SiO2 in terms ton of millable cane would be millable
of increase in the silicon content and decrease cane-2.24 kg; green tops-1.8 kg and trash
in the manganese content of cane tissues was about 7.16 kg [entire above ground plant 11.2
observed. Application of basic slag to low kg] [Lakshmikantham, 1975].
silicon soils has resulted in significant
P in green tops and Plant tissue
increase in cane and sugar yields. Silicon
uptake has increased and the instances of leaf Application of silicates in soils of low P
freckle have been greatly reduced with the resulted in high P in green top and enhanced
application of slag. Although silicon is not P mobility in plant tissue [Silva, 1971].
assigned the role of an essential element for
Calcium silicate and Si Deficiency
plant growth, sugarcane has been shown to
give significant and economic response to Janaki and Chitra (2002) reported vital
silicon applications. Application of soluble role of silica in sugarcane and stated
silicate has been credited with the ability to application rate of calcium silicate 120 – 200
depress toxic levels of Mn, Al and Fe in the kg/ha to correct the Si deficiency more
soil solution before they cane enter the plant rapidly.
or to prevent the localized accumulation of Mn
Silicate fertilizers
[freckling] in the leaf. Apart from this, silicon
has been assigned roles as an enzyme Silicon is present in sugarcane in widely
regulator in sugar synthesis, storage and varying quantities and uptake is mostly
retention in the plant. Si deficiency decreased excessive. While silicon is usually abundant,
the rate of photosynthesis in symptom free some soils are acutely deficient. Yield can be
leaf tissue of cane whose older leaves were increased by silicon fertilization in soils with
showing Si deficiency symptoms. This effect low mobile silicilic acid content; examinations
was also obtained in completely symptom less of soils poor in Si (e.g. humic ferrogenous
Si deficient cane growing under a Perspex latosols) show positive relationships between
roof. plant available Si and the Si content in
sugarcane; basic slag, calcium silicate and
Si content of 3-6 leaf sheath and leaves steel slag. Si fertilization caused a marked
at 90 days at Anakapalle was as under (on reduction of manganese; one of the effects on
dry weight basis): silicate can be found in the reduction of toxic

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

effects of Mn, Cu and Fe. Calcium silicate and [Phonde et al., 2010]. In Mauritius Ross et al.,
Calcium carbonate fertilization are (1974) observed marked increase in sugarcane
comparable; however, the desired effect may yield with calcium silicate application.
fail if only lime is applied, because this fixes
Potassium & Calcium silicate and Cane
silicon even more firmly in the soil. Silicon is
an essential plant nutrient with specific effect.
Silicate fertilizers are applied in quantities of Significant increase in cane yield was
up to 7000 kg/ha (Husz, 1972). due to silicon @ 400 kg/ha through bagasse
ash [98.90 t/ha], fly ash [106.06 t/ha], pond
Silicate fertilization and Toxic effects of ash [111.79 t/ha] and calcium silicate [106.65
iron t/ha] over control [89.20 t/ha]. Foliar
Iron is essential to normal plant growth application of 2.5 potassium silicate alone and
and the formation of chlorophyll. Iron soil application of bagasse ash along with
deficiency results in chlorosis and causes foliar application of 2.5% potassium silicate
diminished growth. Iron deficiency can be significantly increased cane yield to the tune
caused by excessive by excessive CaCO3 of 105.44 t/ha and 102.07 t/ha. Pond ash
content in the soil which prevent iron uptake. found to be superior over bagasse ash and on
However, Fe-deficiency is found even in red par with fly ash and calcium silicate.
tropical soils where high iron and manganese Equivalent quantity of silicon [@ 400 kg/ha]
contents adjacently occur; iron deficiency is applied through bagasse ash from sugar
found in the Fe:Mn ratio 1:1 and a ratio of factory, fly ash and pond ash from thermal
15:1 are desired. Trace elements–Zinc, Copper power station and their residual effect in next
and Cobalt are antagonistic to iron. Iron two successive ratoon crops were equally
toxicity can occur through excessive supply, beneficial as due to calcium silicate [Phonde
especially if large amounts of plant available et al., 2010].
Fe occur together with potassium deficiency.
The toxic effects of iron can be eliminated or Calcium silicate and Borer
reduced by liming and by potash and silicate There was significant reduction in borer
fertilization (Husz, 1972). performance and borer damage in sugarcane
due to calcium silicate application [Keeping
Silicate and Cane yield and Meyer, 1999].
Clements (1980) reported that
application of silicate might have better on Bagasse ash or Calcium slicate and Cane
yield. and Sugar yields
In medium black soil, only one
Calcium silicate and Cane yield application of silicon @ 400 kg/ha through
Significant increase in cane yield [142.8 bagasse ash, or calcium silicate by mixing
t/ha] was recorded at 400 kg/ha Si applied with farmyard manures as a basal dose was
plots over the control plot [124.5 t/ha]. The beneficial and economical for increasing
cane yields beyond 400 kg/ha level increased sugarcane and sugar yield of plant cane and
with increased levels of Si but differences its two successive ratoon crops [Phonde et al.,
were not significant except the cane yield 2010].
[158.9 t/ha] at 1000 kg/ha. Application of Si
@ 1000 kg/ha was not found cost effective. Pest and Diseases incidence
Optimum level of silicon @ 400 kg/ha through Early shoot borer incidence in silicon
calcium silicate as a basal dose found applied plots was below 30%, while it was
beneficial to increase cane yield by 18.3 t/ha 40% in control. The internode borer intensity

Silicate and Sugarcane – A Review
S. Thangavelu

was recorded minimum 0.71 and 0.72%, in pokkali bong, eyespot, ringspot and leaf spot
pond ash and calcium silicate applied plots were not observed so far [Phonde et al., 2010].
respectively, where as it was 3.88 in control.
Cane juice silicate
Only grassy shoot disease was recorded upto
Many chemicals have been identified
3.33% in treatment of foliar spray of 2.5%
potassium silicate. Foliar diseases like rust, which can force the ripening of cane, thus

Table I: Chemical constituents of juice

Juice constituents % of soluble solids

1 Sugars Sucrose 70 - 88

2 Glucose 2 – 4

3 Fructose 2 – 4

4 Salts of inorganic acids 1.5 – 4.5

5 of organic acids 1.0 – 3.0

6 Free organic acids Carboxylic acids 0.1 – 0.5

7 Amino acids 0.5 – 2.0

8 Other organic non-sugars Proteins 0.5 – 0.6

9 Starch 0.001 – 0.5

10 Gums 0.3 – 0.6

11 Wax, Fats etc. 0.05 – 0.15

12 Unidentified non-sugars 3.0 – 5.0

[Chiranjivi Rao, 1977].

Table II: Composition of non-sugars

Constituents % of non-sugars
A. Carbohydrates Hemicellulose & Pentosans [xylan] 8.5
[other than sugars] Pectins 1.5 10.0
B. Organic N compounds Higher proteins [albumin] 7.0
Simple proteins [albuminoses & peptoses] 2.0
Amino acids [Glycine, Aspartic etc.] 9.5
Acid amides [Aspargine, Glutamine] 15.5 34.0
C. Organic acids [other than amino Aconitic, Oxalic, Succinic, Glycolic, Malic etc. 13.0
D. Colouring matter Clorophyll, Anthocyanin, Saccharetin, Tannin etc. 17.0
E. Waxes, fats etc. Cane wax 17.0
F. Inorganic salts PO4s, Cl, SO4, NO3, silicates of Na, K, 7.0
Ca, Mg, Al & Fe chiefly
G. Silica 2.0
Total 100

[Chiranjivi Rao, 1977].

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

countering the negative effects of the climate. Non-nitrogenaceus products  tinting

Polaris, Sodium meta silicate and Embark are matter  fatty matter aromatics  organic
some of the chemical ripeners enhance the acids;
ripening of cane. Polaris was found to be most
effective as sugarcane ripener with economic Tinting matter  carotene, anthocyanin,
advantage. tannins, chlorophyll;

Fatty matter aromatics – wax;

Juice chemical constituents
Commercial value of sugarcane derives Organic acids – aconotic, malic, oxalic
from the preponderance of sucrose [cane [Dantas, 1989]
sugar] as a constituent of the mature plant. Calcium silicate and Sesquioxides
Knowledge of the composition of juice and an
A reaction not related with the milk of
understanding of the chemical properties and
lime but which may cause an increase in the
reactions of its constituents are essential for
lime content respectively an alkalination of
effective control and improvement of the
the mud juice is the decomposition of calcium
processes of recovery and refining cane sugar.
silicate by reacting with sesquioxides
Range of chemical constituents of juice is
according to the equation:
given in Table I while composition of
non-sugars is shown in Table II. Raw juice n CaSiO3  m Fe2O3  [SiO] n [Fe2O3] m  n CaO
extracted from sugarcane contains sugar and
some other dissolved and suspended [Honig, 1956].
impurities in solution. Dissolved impurities
Chemical ripeners
are reducing sugars [R.S] and other mineral
matter present in cane as normal Use of chemical ripeners like polaris,
constituents. Suspended impurities include sodium meta silicate etc. for improving the
particles of soil, waxes, fats, gums, pectins, juice quality and recovery, especially in areas
starch, colouring matter etc. which are where natural ripening conditions are not
compounds of high molecular weight and conducive was suggested (Thangavelu and
dispersed as colloids in juice which can not Chiranjivi Rao, 1981). Chemical ripeners of
be removed by simple filtration. sugarcane have improved juice quality and
yield of sugar. Polaris has been found to be
Cane juice composition performing well, showing an improvement of
about 10-15% in recoverable sugar and
Cane juice  water  dry matter;
without any effect on yield of cane when
Dry matter - sugars  non sugars; sprayed about eight weeks before harvest @ 5
Sugars  sucrose  reducing sugars; kg/ha. The response for sodium meta silicate
was comparatively low 8-10% [over control].
Non-sugars  minerals  organic products;
Depending upon the variety, time of
Minerals  phosphates, chlorides, sulphates, application and prevailing weather conditions,
silicates, nitrates and silica; the response varies [Chiranjivi Rao, 1995].
Organic products  non-nitrogenaceus
Sodium meta silicate and Juice quality
products  nitrogenaceus products;
Foliar application of chemical ripeners
Nitrogenaceus products  protein matter like Polaris, Ethrel, Sodium meta silicate
 [albumine, peptones]  amino acids – about 8 weeks before the scheduled harvest
[aspartic acid]  amides – [asparagin]  of the varieties was found to be effective and
ammonia salts; economical in improving the juice quality and

Silicate and Sugarcane – A Review
S. Thangavelu

recovery without affecting the yields. The on cane and sugar yield was found significant
response of the chemicals would be high in ratoon cane [Phonde et al., 2010].
(about 10 – 15% over control) during the
Juice nitrogen
incline phase of maturity and low (about 5 –
8%) during the decline phase of maturity. In Srinivasan and Morachan (1978)
areas, where natural ripening conditions were reported that total nitrogen content in juice
not congenial (e.g. coastral Andhra, Tamil was significantly influenced by the season of
Nadu, etc.), the chemical ripeners would be planting. September planted crop recorded the
lowest amount of nitrogen (329 ppm) and May
useful for improving the juice quality and
planted crop recorded the highest amount
recovery (Chiranjivi Rao, 1980).
(388 ppm). Frequent irrigation and late
Sodium meta silicate application of nitrogen increased juice
nitrogen significantly. Higher dose of
Sodium metasilicate at 20 to 80 moles/ml
application of P and K reduced the nitrogen
added to juice was shown to inhibit inversion
content. Sodium meta silicate was helpful in
till 48 hours. Polycide, a wide spectrum
reducing juice nitrogen.
bactericide/fungicide at 2 ml/L and
bactrinol-100 at 100 ppm were found to be Juice silicon
effective in arresting the growth of
Silicon is present in dissolved state as
“Leuconostoc” bacteria and preservation of
SiO2 and in colloidal or suspended states as
juice till 48 hours. Gur could also be prepared
silicate [SiO3] in cane [Asokan, 1983]. Cane
from the juice preserved with the above
biocides. There was no residual effect of with roots, trash is bound to carry silica.
bactrinol while it was very low (less than 1 When the cane is maturing with sufficient
rainfall, the juice that cane contains has
ppm) in the case of polycide. The keeping
silica. Silica is present in juice in soluble
quality of gur from polycide preserved juice
silica. It reacts with calcium forming calcium
was comparatively poor as it absorbed
silicate [Sivasankaran and Jayaraman, 2003].
moisture to a greater extent while it was
satisfactory in the case of bactrinol treatment Juice clarification and K2O, Na2O, CaO ,
[Chiranjivi Rao, 1995; Chiranjivi Rao, 1989].
MgO , Fe 2O3, Al 2O3, Cl, SO3, P2O5 and

Juice quality and CCS yield SIO 2

Cane juice brix, sucrose, purity and CCS Clarification not only aids to remove the
percent were not affected by silicon. Due to non-sugars and impurities but also changes
increase in cane yield the CCS yield increased the physical properties of cane juice as a
significantly. Increase of CCS yield of 19.8 result of which flocculation of certain colloids
t/ha was obtained under 400 kg/ha Si over may be brought about by change of pH or
control [17.0 t/ha], while CCS yields were application of heat or both.
found on par at all levels of Si beyond 400 The form of occurrence of silicic acid in
kg/ha. CCS yield was significantly higher cane juice is largely an unsolved problem.
16.44 t/ha in pond ash followed by 16.20 t/ha Object of clarification is to achieve the
in calcium silicate, 16.15 t/ha in bagasse ash maximum removal of non-sugars in the juice
along with 2.5% potassium silicate foliar which [non-sugars] aid molasses production.
application and 15.79 t/ha in fly ash compared Inorganic non-sugars like potassium, sodium,
to control [13.26 t/ha]. Pond ash was superior calcium, magnesium, iron and aluminium
to CCS yield. Residual effect of bagasse ash obtained during the process in the form of

SISSTA Proceedings 2017 - 47th Annual Convention

Extracted with