Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 75

Page | 1

“Positive impact of Casino in Goa Tourism”

A PROJECT REPORT

Submitted by

SIDHANT BHATIA

In partial fulfillment for the award of the

degree of

BACHELORS

in

Tourism Management

Submitted to

Ms. Akriti Singh

ASIAN INSTITUTE OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM

NOIDA UNIVERSITY

May 2019
Acknowledgement
I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my teacher
Miss Akriti Singh, as well as the department of Travel and Tourism who gave Page | 2
me the golden opportunity to do this wonderful project on the topic “Casino’s in
Goa.” The project not only helped me acquire a lot of knowledge it also helped me
in doing a lot of research work and i came to know about so many new things I am
really thankful to them.

Secondly i would also like to thank my parents and friends who helped me a lot in
finalizing this project within the limited time frame.
ASIAN INSTITUTE OF HOSPITALITY AND TOURISM

Page | 3
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE

Certified that this project report “Positive impact of Casino in Goa Tourism” is
the bonafide work of “SIDHANT BHATIA” who carried out the project under
my supervision.

Ms. Akriti Singh

(Signature)
INDEX
Page | 4

Chapter 1: Introduction

Chapter 2: Review of the Literature

Chapter 3: Research Model

Chapter 4: Data Analysis And Finding

Chapter 5 : Conclusion

Chapter 6 : Bibliography

Chapter 7: Apendix
ABSTRACT
Page | 5
This report gives an insight into the positive impact of casino’s in Goa tourism. A brief history of
the development of casino’s , it’s origin in Goa and its functioning is initially outlined. Casinos
in Goa are here to stay, thanks to the Indian middle class tourism boom and the attractive
economic footprint of the glitzy industry.

The government of Goa has been promoting casino tourism in Goa


arguing that promoting casinos is necessary to bolster the economic growth of Goa especially in
the aftermath of the mining ban that deprived Goa and its government of the substantial revenue
generated through mining. The casino promotion, however, has met with strong protests in Goa
from the time the government decided to encourage casinos to expand the growth of tourism in
Goa. Casinos have taken strong roots in Goa and clearing the ever-growing forest of casinos is
becoming more and more difficult as years roll by.

An indepth analysis in form of research methodology is used to find how the


offshore casinos have almost fused with the landscape of Panjim making it almost next to
impossible to visualize Panjim and the river Mandovi sans the casinos. It also depicts how the
growth of casino has led in an increased job oppurtunities.

The conclusion of the report, further points out that efforts are needed to implement sustainable
strategies and to counteract prospective ill-effects of casino gambling.

Keywords: Casinos, Economy, Employment, Crime, Strategies


CHAPTER:1-INTRODUCTION
Page | 6

The first chapter starts by the purpose of the study and significance followed by theoretical
framework. It ends by presenting the outlines

1.1 Purpose of the Study

For some time now casino gambling, compared to other vices, is being increasingly accepted by
society as a legitimate economic pursuit. People’s perception of casinos as pernicious dens of
evil has undergone a drastic transformation and they have come to be accepted as catalysts
addressing a number of societal concerns and economic issues (Eadington 1999: 136). Many
public attitude surveys in countries like America have indicated that a very high proportion of
people consider it as an acceptable form of entertainment . Casino gambling entertainment has
experienced considerable growth and is becoming increasingly popular in many countries of the
world. In a way, it is also a consequence of strategies adopted by governments in a belief that it
will contribute to tourism development.

Casino gaming industry in India has experienced substantial growth and expansion from the late
1990s onwards. Much of this has been a direct result of explicit strategies adopted by the state
governments of Goa and Sikkim, which believe that casinos can be an important catalyst in
creating or otherwise stimulating growth and tourism within their borders. The actual impacts of
casino developments and their contributions to tourism objectives have depended on a variety of
circumstances, hence the requirement of this research work. The form of legal gambling that is
most associated with tourism is Casino gaming. Other popular forms of gambling—such as
lotteries, wagering on racing, charitable gambling, and non-casino located gaming devices—
cater predominantly to local markets and therefore have little direct impact on tourism or tourism
development.
Page | 7

1.1.1 Gambling Industry

Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value (referred to as "the stakes") on


an event with an uncertain outcome, with the primary intent of winning money or material
goods. Gambling thus requires three elements be present: consideration, risk (chance), and
a prize. The outcome of the wager is often immediate, such as a single roll of dice, a spin of
a roulette wheel, or a horse crossing the finish line, but longer time frames are also common,
allowing wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or even an entire sports season.
The term "gaming"[2] in this context typically refers to instances in which the activity has been
specifically permitted by law. The two words are not mutually exclusive; i.e., a "gaming"
company offers (legal) "gambling" activities to the public[3] and may be regulated by one of
many gaming control boards, for example, the Nevada Gaming Control Board. However, this
distinction is not universally observed in the English-speaking world. For instance, in the United
Kingdom, the regulator of gambling activities is called the Gambling Commission (not the
Gaming Commission). The word gaming is used more frequently since the rise
of computer and video games to describe activities that do not necessarily involve wagering,
especially online gaming, with the new usage still not having displaced the old usage as the
primary definition in common dictionaries.

Gambling is also a major international commercial activity, with the legal gambling market
totaling an estimated $335 billion in 2009. In other forms, gambling can be conducted with
materials which have a value, but are not real money. For example, players of marbles
games might wager marbles, and likewise games of Pogs or Magic: The Gathering can be played
with the collectible game pieces (respectively, small discs and trading cards) as stakes, resulting
in a meta-game regarding the value of a player's collection of pieces.
Page | 8

1. 2 Context of Study

Goa is one of the few states in India where gambling is legal. Casinos in Goa can be found on
boats anchored in the Mandovi River, and onshore in some upmarket hotels. Most of the action,
with live tables, takes place on the floating casinos -- which are entertainment destinations within
themselves. By law, onshore casinos can only have electronic games.

With a change in lifestyle, people are looking for easy ways of entertainment and a source for
earning money, and that is exactly what the casino’s are doing. The casino’s cater to daily
entertainment needs of the people, though bringing a change in the local circuit of people. The
casino market is on a rapid run, new casino’s in every nook of the city has resulted in an increase
in the competition as well as a mode of attracting a large number of tourist. Therefore we wanted
to know the mindset of people while choosing a particular casino and also the growth in
economy due to the casino market.

1.3 Significance of Study

The significance of this study was to do a research about the casino industry in goa and it’s
effect on the Indian tourism as well as the culture of the local in Goa. It also will give an insight
into the developing competition in the casino market of Goa. We also wanted to see how with the
change in the legality of casino gave a way to development of employment opportunities. The
report also focuses on the delima of the goan population on the ill- effects of gambling.
Page | 9

1.4 An Introduction to Casino

A casino is a facility which houses and accommodates certain types of gambling activities. The
industry that deals in casinos is called the gaming industry. Casinos are most commonly built
near or combined with hotels, restaurants, retail shopping, cruise ships or other tourist
attractions. There is much debate over whether the social and economic consequences of casino
gambling outweigh the initial revenue that may be generated.[1] Some casinos are also known for
hosting live entertainment events, such as stand-up comedy, concerts, and sporting events.

Casino is of Italian origin; the root casa means a house. The term casino may mean a small
country villa, summerhouse, or social club. During the 19th century, the term casino came to
include other public buildings where pleasurable activities took place; such edifices were usually
built on the grounds of a larger Italian villa or palazzo, and were used to host civic town
functions, including dancing, gambling, music listening, and sports; examples in Italy
include Villa Farnese and Villa Giulia, and in the US the Newport Casino in Newport, Rhode
Island. In modern-day Italian a casino is either a brothel (also called casa chiusa, literally
"closed house"), a mess, or a noisy environment, while a gaming house is spelt casinò, with an
accent.

Not all casinos were used for gaming. The Catalina Casino, a famous landmark overlooking
Avalon Harbor on Santa Catalina Island, California, has never been used for traditional games of
chance, which were already outlawed in California by the time it was built. The Copenhagen
Casino was a theatre, known for the mass public meetings often held in its hall during the 1848
Revolution, which made Denmark a constitutional monarchy. Until 1937, it was a well-known
Danish theatre. The Hanko Casino in Hanko, Finland—one of that town's most conspicuous
landmarks—was never used for gambling. Rather, it was a banquet hall for the Russian
nobility which frequented this spa resort in the late 19th century and is now used as a restaurant.

1.4.1 History

Gambling dates back to the Paleolithic period, before written history. In Mesopotamia the
earliest six-sided dice date to about 3000 BC. However, they were based on astragali dating back
thousands of years earlier. In China, gambling houses were widespread in the first millennium
BC, and betting on fighting animals was common. Lotto games and dominoes (precursors of Pai
Gow) appeared in China as early as the 10th century.Playing cards appeared in the ninth century
in China. Records trace gambling in Japan back at least as far as the 14th century.Poker, the most
Page | 10
popular U.S. card game associated with gambling, derives from the Persian game As-Nas, dating
back to the 17th century.The first known casino, the Ridotto, started operating in 1638 in Venice,
Italy.

1.4.2 Religious views

Hinduism

Ancient Hindu poems like the Gambler's Lament and the Mahabharata testify to the popularity of
gambling among ancient Indians. However, the text Arthashastra (c. 4th century BC)
recommends taxation and control of gambling.

Judaism

Ancient Jewish authorities frowned on gambling, even disqualifying professional gamblers from
testifying in court.

Christianity

The Catholic Church holds the position that there is no moral impediment to gambling, so long
as it is fair, all bettors have a reasonable chance of winning, that there is no fraud involved, and
the parties involved do not have actual knowledge of the outcome of the bet (unless they have
disclosed this knowledge).Gambling has often been seen as having social consequences, as
satirized by Balzac. For these social and religious reasons, most legal jurisdictions limit
gambling, as advocated by Pascal. as long as the following conditions are met; the gambler can
afford losing the bet, stops when the limit is reached, and the motivation is entertainment and not
personal gain leading to the "love of money"or making a living. In general, Catholic bishops
have opposed casino gambling on the grounds it too often tempts people into problem gambling
or addiction, has particularly negative effects on poor people; they sometimes also cite secondary
effects such as increases in loan sharking, prostitution, corruption, and general public
immorality. Some parish pastors have also opposed casinos for the additional reason that they
would take customers away from church bingo and annual festivals where games such as
blackjack, roulette, craps, and poker are used for fundraising.
Page | 11

Gambling views among Protestants vary with some either discouraging or forbidding their
members from participation in gambling. Methodists, in accordance with the doctrine of outward
holiness, oppose gambling which they believe gambling is a sin that feeds on greed; examples
include the United Methodist Church, the Free Methodist Church, the Evangelical Wesleyan
Church, the Salvation Army, and the Church of the Nazarene.Other Protestants that oppose
gambling include many Mennonites, Quakers, the Christian Reformed Church in North America,
the Church of the Lutheran Confession, the Southern Baptist Convention, the Assemblies of
God, and the Seventh-day Adventist Church.

Other churches that oppose gambling include the Jehovah's Witnesses, The Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Iglesia Ni Cristo, and the Members Church of God International.

Islam

Although different interpretations of Shari‘ah (Islamic Law) exist in the Muslim world, there is
consensus among the ‘Ulema’ (Arabic: ‫عُـلـمـاء‬, Scholars (of Islam)) that gambling is haraam
(Arabic: ‫ َحـرام‬, sinful or forbidden). In assertions made during its prohibition, Muslim jurists
describe gambling as being both un-Qur’anic, and as being generally harmful to the Muslim
Ummah (Arabic: ‫أ ُ َّمـة‬, Community). The Arabic terminology for gambling is Maisir.

“They ask you about intoxicants and gambling. Say: 'In them both lies grave sin, though some
benefit, to mankind. But their sin is more grave than their benefit.'

— Qur'an, 2:219 (al-Baqara)

In parts of the world that implement full Shari‘ah, such as Aceh, punishments for Muslim
gamblers can range up to 12 lashes or a one-year prison term and a fine for those who provide a
venue for such practises. Some Islamic nations prohibit gambling; most other countries regulate
it.
1.4.3 Types of Casino Games

Casino games

While almost any game can be played for money, and any game typically played for money can
Page | 12
also be played just for fun, some games are generally offered in a casino setting.

Table games

 A pachinko parlor in Tokyo, Japan

 Mahjong tiles.

 Electronic gaming

 Pachinko

 Slot machine

 Video poker

 Video bingo

 Other gambling

 Bingo

 Keno

Non-casino games

Gambling games that take place outside of casinos include Bingo (as played in the US and UK),
dead pool, lotteries, pull-tab games and scratchcards, and Mahjong.

Other non-casino gambling games include:

 Card games, such as Liar's poker, Bridge, Basset, Lansquenet, Piquet, Put, Teen patti

 Carnival Games such as The Razzle or Hanky Pank

 Coin-tossing games such as Head and Tail, Two-up*

 Confidence tricks such as Three-card Monte or the Shell game


 Dice-based games, such as Backgammon, Liar's dice, Passe-dix, Hazard, Threes, Pig, or
Mexico (or Perudo);

*Although coin tossing is not usually played in a casino, it has been known to be an official
gambling game in some Australian casinos
Page | 13

Fixed-odds betting

Fixed-odds betting and Parimutuel betting frequently occur at many types of sporting events, and
political elections. In addition many bookmakers offer fixed odds on a number of non-sports
related outcomes, for example the direction and extent of movement of various financial indices,
the winner of television competitions such as Big Brother, and election results.[41] Interactive
prediction markets also offer trading on these outcomes, with "shares" of results trading on an
open market.

Parimutuel betting

One of the most widespread forms of gambling involves betting on horse or greyhound racing.
Wagering may take place through parimutuel pools, or bookmakers may take bets personally.
Parimutuel wagers pay off at prices determined by support in the wagering pools, while
bookmakers pay off either at the odds offered at the time of accepting the bet; or at the median
odds offered by track bookmakers at the time the race started.

Sports betting

Betting on team sports has become an important service industry in many countries. For
example, millions of people play the football pools every week in the United Kingdom. In
addition to organized sports betting, both legal and illegal, there are many side-betting games
played by casual groups of spectators, such as NCAA Basketball Tournament Bracket Pools,
Super Bowl Squares, Fantasy Sports Leagues with monetary entry fees and winnings, and in-
person spectator games like Moundball.

Virtual sports

Based on Sports Betting, Virtual Sports are fantasy and never played sports events made by
software that can be played everytime without wondering about external things like weather
conditions.

Arbitrage betting
Arbitrage betting is a theoretically risk-free betting system in which every outcome of an event is
bet upon so that a known profit will be made by the bettor upon completion of the event,
regardless of the outcome. Arbitrage betting is a combination of the ancient art of arbitrage
trading and gambling, which has been made possible by the large numbers of bookmakers in the
marketplace, creating occasional opportunities for arbitrage. Page | 14
Other types of betting

One can also bet with another person that a statement is true or false, or that a specified event
will happen (a "back bet") or will not happen (a "lay bet") within a specified time. This occurs in
particular when two people have opposing but strongly held views on truth or events. Not only
do the parties hope to gain from the bet, they place the bet also to demonstrate their certainty
about the issue. Some means of determining the issue at stake must exist. Sometimes the amount
bet remains nominal, demonstrating the outcome as one of principle rather than of financial
importance.

Betting exchanges allow consumers to both back and lay at odds of their choice. Similar in some
ways to a stock exchange, a bettor may want to back a horse (hoping it will win) or lay a horse
(hoping it will lose, effectively acting as bookmaker).

Spread betting allows gamblers to wagering on the outcome of an event where the pay-off is
based on the accuracy of the wager, rather than a simple "win or lose" outcome. For example, a
wager can be based on the when a point is scored in the game in minutes and each minute away
from the prediction increases or reduces the payout.
Page | 15

1.5 Gambling in India

Gambling is a state subject, and only states in India are entitled to formulate laws for gambling
activities within their respective states. The Public Gambling Act of 1867 is a central law that
prohibits running or being in charge of a public gambling house. The penalty for breaking this law is
a fine of ₹200 or imprisonment of up to 3 months. Additionally, this Act prohibits visiting gambling
houses. A fine of ₹100 or imprisonment of up to one month is the penalty.
Indian law classifies games into two broad categories viz. game of skill and game of chance. The
Supreme Court of India has, for instance, held: The game of Rummy is not a game entirely of
chance like the ‘three-card’ game mentioned in the Madras case to which we were referred. The
‘three card’ game which goes under different names such as ‘flush’, ‘brag’ etc. is a game of pure
chance. Rummy, on the other hand, requires a certain amount of skill because the fall of the cards
has to be memorised and the building up of Rummy requires considerable skill in holding and
discarding cards. We cannot, therefore, say that the game of Rummy is a game of entire chance. It
is mainly and preponderantly a game of skill.
The Information Technology Act 2000 regulates cyber activities in India does not mention the word
Gambling or Betting thereby the act was left for interpretation by the Courts which have refused to
examine the matter. Further, online gambling is a banned offense in the state of Maharashtra under
the "Bombay Wager Act".
Only three states allow casinos, Goa , Daman and Sikkim.[5] There are two casinos in Sikkim called
Casino Sikkim and Casino Mahjong and 10 in Goa, of which six are land based and four are floating
casinos that operate on the Mandovi River. The floating casinos in Goa are Casino Deltin Royale,
Casino Deltin Jaqk, Casino Pride and Casino Pride 2. While the first two are controlled by the Deltin
Group, the latter two are managed by the Pride Group. According to the Goa, Daman and Diu Public
Gambling Act, 1976 casinos can be set up only at five-star hotels or offshore vessels with the prior
permission of the government. This has led the Deltin Group to open the first land-based Casino in
Daman which is open now. News reports also suggest that Visakhapatnam is also being looked on
as the next casino destination.
The penalty for being caught gambling online has been a fine of ₹ 90,000 per day since 2009.
1.5.1 The History and societal view of gaming in India
Page | 16
Gambling in India has long been a part of the culture and history of the country. In fact,
gambling halls were legal in India for centuries until British colonial authorities banned
gambling in 1867. In that year, India’s Public Gaming Act banned all forms of gambling
excluding horse racing, lotteries, and certain card games. When India constructed its postcolonial
constitution, Indian states were finally given the right to authorize and regulate forms of
gambling within their own state borders. Since then, only a portion of the 29 Indian states and
various territories have altered this gambling legislation. Thirteen Indian states now offer a
lottery, six states allow horse racing, and two states currently allow and offer some sort of casino
based gaming. Without available and attractive legal gaming opportunities spread throughout the
country, the social stigma attached to gambling has become worse than that of alcohol usage.
Despite this fact, millions of Indians still partake in some form of gambling each year.

1.5.2 The India Gamer

India’s existing gaming population is made up of a variety of different economic and


demographic classes including young entrepreneurs, middle class residents, factory owners,
wealthy housewives, and successful businessmen.17 These gamers show an affinity for a variety
of different gaming experiences, including online wagering, horse track wagering, sports betting
and casino gaming. Sports wagering, although technically illegal, occurs regularly in India with
verve and passion. Card games like Flush and Rummy are also extremely popular in clubs
throughout metropolitan areas, illegal gambling halls, and in households during large holidays
like Diwali. Casino based gaming experiences are available at 16 domestic facilities in two
states. The G3-247 Report entitled “Searching for Symmetry” estimates that Indians spend $60
billion on gambling annually on these and other gaming experiences. That report also estimates
that casino gaming (both legal and underground) is estimated to account for $30 billion of that
total.

1.5.3 Preferences and style of Play

Indian casino gaming patrons have strong gaming preferences and exhibit unique gaming habits.
They overwhelmingly prefer table games and have a strong preference for familiar card games
like roulette, blackjack, baccarat, and poker and traditional Indian games like Indian Flush (Teen
Patti), Mini-Flush, Paplu (Rummy), and Andar Bahar. Indian gamers tend to display calculated
and reserved gambling behavior. For example, many Indian patrons do not keep large stacks of
chips on the table. Instead, they repeatedly reach into their pockets to replenish their stacks. This
behavior coincides with the fact that many Indian gamers bet at a slower pace, often take breaks,
and switch games regularly. Casino managers that work in these markets indicated that many
gamers choose to act reserved and calculated in their betting habits, as the social stigma with
gaming is still prevalent, but are still willing to play and to a high degree. Not surprisingly,
Indian gamers also seem to be fairly educated on table game odds. The casino managers
confirmed that many gamers prefer table games with a lower house advantage. As such, Indian
casinos feature table games that will appeal to these preferences. For instance, most roulette
tables feature single zeros and even return half of a player’s bet if zero is hit. Although the Indian
gamer’s preferences for table games are similar to the Chinese gamer’s preferences, their gaming Page | 17
mindset is wholeheartedly different. Market casino managers indicate that Indian gamers are
very willing to chase the win. However, Indian gamers do not necessarily only gamble to win,
they gamble to enjoy the thrill and excitement of the gaming experience.

1.5.4 The Indian Casino


Even though many Indians demonstrate a strong propensity for casino gaming, casinos are not
readily available or accessible in the market today as they are often an airline flight or more
away. At this time, only two Indian states, Goa and Sikkim, allow some form of casino gaming.
Sikkim offers two casinos, while Goa offers around fifteen. The Union Territory of Daman and
Diu also permits casino gaming; however, its first casino is still awaiting the approval of its
gaming license. Goa and Sikkim’s casinos cater specifically to the Indian gamer. As such, their
casino floors and private gaming rooms are dominated by live and electronic table games. Indian
casinos also feature a small number of slot machines, but they appear to be an afterthought. A
vast majority of the slot product is old, dilapidated, non-functional, and/or underplayed.
Generally, India’s domestic casinos lack appropriate and attractive non-gaming amenities. Most
of the casinos do not provide a substantial and appealing food & beverage or entertainment
offering. With a few exceptions, many of the Indian gaming facilities offer a largely
underwhelming experience, yet Indian patronage of these facilities continues. Both casino
markets are located in destinations that attract domestic tourists. Goa, located on the western
coast of India, features beautiful beaches and relics from its Portuguese past. Sikkim, located in
northwestern India, is nestled in the Himalayas and offers tourists scenic vistas and religious
experiences at its various monasteries. In each case, Goa and Sikkim have utilized gaming as a
way to capture additional revenue from their existing tourism bases

1.5.5 Online
Online gambling is in its infancy in India, but Sikkim planned to offer three online gambling
licences in 2010. This failed despite India being the most sought out country for online
gambling. Sikkim also permits an online lottery, which takes bets from players throughout India.
It was expected that other states would follow Sikkim, thereby opening up a major online
gambling market throughout India.

1.5.6 Legalisation
Despite the existing prohibitive legislations, there is extensive illegal gambling throughout the
country. The Indian gambling market is estimated to be worth US$60 billion per year, of which
about half is illegally bet. According to the Indian National Newspaper, the Chief Executive
officer for the International Cricket Council (ICC) said he was in favour of legalising betting in
sports. He believes the illegal funds profited are through underground bookies that used the
money to fund terrorism and drugs. Many Indian professionals as well as online forums have
urged the government to introduce legal but regulated gambling in India to bring the gambling
economy out of the grip of mafia and underground dons.
1.5.7 Payment gateways
One of the biggest obstacles faced by sports bettors in India is the fact that depositing to foreign
bookies is extremely difficult. Typically, the majority of users deposit to online bookies using
Moneybookers or Neteller. Some attempts to deposit using a Visa or MasterCard may fail. The
same is true of online bank transfers. In order to circumvent these blocks, savvy internet users Page | 18
have started to use ewallet services for depositing. These services add a middle layer to disguise
the nature of transactions, enabling users to get around the blocks by first depositing to an
ewallet and then using that ewallet to fund an online betting account in Rupees. This is important
because it circumvents legal issues that may have arisen about Foreign Exchange law.

1.5.8 Gambling during festivals in India


During festival times Gambling is conducted on a major level in India, During festivals such as
Deepawali and Holi gambling business upgrade to 30-40% in India. Gambling during festivals is
conducted majorly in Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh and some of the
rural parts of other Indian states, But gambling is strictly prohibited in J&K, Madhya Pradesh,
Kerala, Sikkim and Assam by the orders of central government from last 8 years (this major law
passed in 2010), Even in other states also police raids are regularly conducted during festivals as
gambling is illegal in India.

1.6 Goa

Goa is India’s smallest state geographically and is located in the region known as Konkan on the
Arabian Sea. Tourism is the state’s primary industry. In 2014, the state accommodated more than
two million tourists. According to the G3-247 Report, approximately 30% of these tourists
participated in some form of gaming activity during their stay. BBC News recently estimated
that Goa’s casinos receive approximately 15,000 visitors a day, with visitation increasing by
30% annually.20 To reach the casinos in Goa, most patrons must fly. Once visitors arrive in Goa,
they can avail themselves of approximately fifteen casinos, with a total of approximately 350
live and electronic table games and 160 slot machines. Despite its modest supply of gaming
positions, Goa is the largest gaming destination in India. The G3-247 Report estimates that Goa
accounts for approximately 95% of India’s casino gaming revenue. Market casino managers
indicated that approximately 95% of that gaming revenue has historically stemmed from non-
local Indian tourists, as Goa’s locals can no longer gamble, as of April 1 st of this year.21 22
While Goa’s gaming visitors are served by approximately fifteen casinos, the market is
dominated by two gaming operators: Delta Corp and Pride Group. These two operators control
eight of the market’s casinos.

1.6.1 Casino gambling in Goa

Goa, the erstwhile Portuguese colony and an emerging tourist destination offers casino gaming
both on land and offshore. Casinos have emerged as the new attractions pulling national as well
as international tourists to visit Goa, once a hot-spot for hippies, and now, increasingly known as
an upcoming gambling destination.

Seeking entertainment and leisure in gaming is an integral part of Asia’s tradition having
traditionally gambled in cards and cockfights at home and in the streets (Moufakkir &
Timothy 2014: 86). Gambling, one of the oldest industries in the world and legal in India for Page | 19
centuries, was banned nationwide since 1867, but in 1998, law opened the door for states to
permit the activity (Thompson 2012: 207). Though a strong propensity for gambling is
demonstrated by many Indians as it is entrenched in Indian culture and society, of the 29 States
and various other union territories gambling in the form of casino gaming is permitted only in
two Indian States and in the Union Territory of Daman and Diu.

The Goa government have facilitated the expansion of casinos in Goa.Casinos have been
promoted in tourism areas due to their assumed capability of being the largest employers and
their potential to attract a huge number of tourists who otherwise might not have considered
visiting the said destination. Bringing in more tourists is seen as a source of potential revenue
(Moufakkir& Timothy 2014: 86)and a panacea to economic and tourism woes (McCartney 2016:
119). For instance, after casino licensing was liberalized in Macau, the gaming industry
experienced rapid growth reaching a high of US 10.33 billion dollars in 2006 (Central
Intelligence Agency 2008 in Wan et al.2011: 64). A reliable impact of gambling is increase in
governmental revenue, received directly from gambling provision or indirectly from taxation of
gambling venues and operations in the form of licensing fees, goods and services tax, etc. In
Macau, the casinos contributed immeasurably to the Gross National Product which increased
from 11 percent in 2001 to 80 percent in 2014 (McCartney 2016: 121). Goa also earns over 200
crores from the casino industry (The Goan, Panaji,4 August 2017: 1). The revenue generated for
the financial year 2014-15 was 195.1 crores, for 2015-16 it increased to 214.2 crores and in
2016-17 the total revenue collected increased even more toRs. 334.0 crores (The Navhind Times,
Panaji, 20 July 2017: 8).

1.7 Understanding Casino’s in Goa

1.7.1 Government Entry Levy at Casinos in Goa

Any visitor to a Goa casino is obligated by law to pay INR 700 to obtain a receipt for
government levy. If one is found inside any casino without this levy receipt, it is considered to be
a punishable offence; hence it is absolutely necessary for an interested visitor to obtain this
receipt.

Note: Usually one does not have to pay this separately as almost all entry fee packages in the
casinos of Goa consist of this entry levy.

1.7.2 Minimum Age of Entry at Casinos in Goa


Minimum age of a guest at a Goa casino has to be 21yrs to qualify for entry. Although parts like
the restaurants and other non-gambling areas of the casinos might be opened up to those below
21yrs, the gaming areas are strictly off limit.

1.7.3 Smoking at Casinos in Goa


Page | 20
Smoking is not allowed in any of the Goa casinos, although some of the places might provide
patrons with a separate smoking room. This could be reserved for VIP patrons, so check with the
staff in advance.

1.7.4 Game Types at Casinos in Goa

Broadly there are two types of games available in Goa – The Slot Game and Table Games. The
slot machines are not very popular in Goa as they are not high with pay out. Most machines
accepts currency notes where the pay outs have to be collected from the attendants, the only pay
out received in modern slot tickets is obtained from the casino at Deltin Royale. For the Table
games in Goa, the minimum bets start at INR 50 for Roulette and INR 100 for all other games
which include - Baccarat, Money Wheel, Black Jack, Texas, Hold’em Poker, Casino War, 3 and
5 card Poker, Mini Flush, Tai Sai, Andar Bahar along with Roulette.

1.7.5 Gaming chips at Casinos in Goa

The Casinos in Goa use a variety of chips but the most commonly used ones are Cash Chips,
OTP Chips, and Rolling Chips which are used in every casino. Cash Chips are regular chips
received after a cash buy-in. The winnings are given out only in cash chips which are then
accepted at the cashier’s counter to be exchanged for cash. Next, OTP Chips are those which
cannot be encashed and are a single time play chips. Finally, Rolling Chips are another variant of
non-cash chips. When a player wins a bet made with a rolling, she is paid with a cash chip while
the chip with which the bet was originally paid remains with the player till the player loses it in a
bet. These chips are usually the staple of big players who purchase large buy-ins.

1.8 Casino Studies in the Social Sciences

In terms of literature on casino studies, research has flourished due to the widespread legalization
of casino gambling in the United States since the late 1980s (Oh & Hsu, 2001). Casino-related
research can be divided into two categories: positive and negative aspects of casinos. While
casino research with positive aspects has focused on casinos‘ economic and industrial roles and
their relationship, casino research with negative aspects has emphasized casinos‘ negative social
impacts such as gambling addiction severity and illusion of control.
With regard to casino research with negative aspects, researchers stated that casinos are related
to increased organized crime, domestic violence, political corruption, bankruptcy, and the
number of pathological gamblers (Hing & Breen, 2001; Lepage, Ladouceur, & Jacques, 2000;
Unwin, Davis, & de Leeuw, 2000). Some researchers have linked casino gambling to drug and
alcohol abuse and risky or illicit sexual behavior, especially prostitution (Piscitelli & Albanese, Page | 21
2000; Petry, 2005). Long (1996) tried to identify residents‘ perception of negative impacts of
casinos on their community life. Research on undesirable lag effects associated with the early
stages of casino gambling town development was also performed (Stokowski, 1993).

In terms of casino research with positive aspects, researchers have stated that casinos have
increased local economic development, employment, and tax revenues since gambling has
become an increasingly accepted leisure and tourism activity (Lee & Back, 2006; Piscitelli &
Albanese, 2000). Existing studies also included the economic effects of casinos on local
communities (Braunlich, 1996; Lee & Kwon, 1997) and suggestions of the components
necessary for casinos for tourism development (Smith & Hinch, 1996).

Particularly, most casino studies have stressed the economic and social impacts of casinos in
specific locales: Native American reservations, riverboat communities, and rural mining towns
(Carmichael, Peppard, & Boudreau, 1996; Chadbourne, Walker, & Wolfe, 1997; Stephenson,
1996; Stokowski, 1996). However, it seems that these studies of casinos regularly lacked
theoretical frameworks, as well as reliable and valid research instruments to figure out the
behavior of casino visitors because they were explanatory in nature (Oh & Hsu, 2001). However,
the number of research studies on casino visitors has gradually increased these days.
Specifically, recent research on casinos has tried to identify motivations with a broader variety of
gamblers and to seek specific reasons why general people choose a casino to gamble (Lee et al.,
2006). Furthermore, market segmentation on casino tourists has been studied in order to identify
groups with similar needs and to develop practical marketing strategies (Cotte, 1997; Lee et al.,
2006)

1.9 Sustainable Development of Casinos and Responsible Gambling Strategy

Casinos have been controversial in many countries for a long time. While the casino is a
recreational activity for many people, for some people it sometimes leads to serious negative
consequences, including financial and personal losses (Lee et al., 2009). In other words, casinos
have very distinctive characteristics, generating both positive and negative outcomes. For the
sustainable development of the casino industry, many local governments and casino companies
in the world have tried to reduce the risk and severity of adverse consequences through various
activities (Hing, 2003). With regard to efforts of governments for sustainable development of the
casino industry, gaming control boards or local governments have the authority to approve
licenses, regulate policies, and supervise casino operations.

Casino operators should keep guidelines set by the Gaming Control Board to minimize adverse Page | 22
impacts, such as a problem gambling. For example, the Alberta Alcohol Drug Abuse
Commission (AADAC) in Canada has been established to help people recover from the harmful
effects of alcohol, drugs, and gambling. The AADAC provides counseling, day treatment, and
residential treatment including short-term and long-term for adult and adolescent problem
gamblers (AADAC, 2009). The AADC also developed education and promotion programs aimed
at preventing problem gambling.

The most remarkable strategic sustainability activity in the world‘s casino industry is a
responsible gambling strategy. A responsible gambling strategy incorporates a diverse range of
interventions to promote consumer protection, community/consumer awareness and education,
and access to efficacious treatment. Hing (2003) stated that a responsible gambling strategy
usually means the provision of gambling services in a way that seeks to minimize the harm to
customers and the community associated with gambling.

The primary long-term objective of a responsible gambling strategy is to prevent and reduce
harm associated with excessive gambling behaviors. Even though some benefits such as
increased jobs and tax revenues can contribute to the development of a casino while in the short-
term, it can generate critical costs which far exceed the short-term benefits for the individual
gambler, the community, and the casino itself.

Before the concept of responsible gambling, the gambling industry had not been responsible for
diagnosing or clinically treating individuals with gambling-related harms. However, an
increasing number of researchers, interested community members, and consumers have begun to
seek a better understanding of gambling and gambling-related problems. Since many people
consider gambling-related problems as public health concerns, a need has emerged for key
stakeholders in the casino industry to join together to address gambling-related problems. This
indicates that the gambling industry should implement a responsible gambling policy to protect
their customers.
Responsible gambling strategy has been implemented extensively in Canada and Australia. In
order to minimize the impacts from problem gambling and to encourage more responsible
gambling, governments and gambling providers in these countries have introduced responsible
gambling strategy. For example, the province of Ontario in Canada has the Responsible
Gambling Council for the prevention of problem gambling through research, information, and Page | 23
awareness. The main purposes of the council are 1) to establish a council service center and
network for responsible gambling, 2) to share information about responsible gambling through
seminars, workshops, and forums, and 3) to develop and distribute problem gambling prevention
programs. Through research, information and awareness, the Responsible Gambling Council in
Ontario continues its commitment to problem gambling prevention (Responsible Gambling
Council, 2010).

The province of British Columbia in Canada also formed a partnership involving the local
government, the lottery corporation, and British Columbia‘s gambling service providers for
responsible gambling. In addition, the province has developed a comprehensive responsible
gambling strategy to help reduce the harmful impacts of excessive gambling and encourage
responsible gambling. Specifically, the Three Year Plan of responsible gambling strategy has
been performed since 2005. The province suggested three key elements of responsible gambling
strategy: 1) reducing the incidence of problem gambling, 2) reducing harmful impacts of
excessive gambling, and 3) ensuring the delivery of gambling in a manner that encourages
responsible gambling and healthy choices (British Columbia partnership for responsible
gambling, 2010). The Queensland Government in Australia introduced its Responsible Gambling
Code of Practice in May 2002. The code was based on six practice areas related to the provision
of information, interaction with customers and community, exclusion provisions, physical
environments, financial transactions, and advertising and promotions (Breen et al., 2005).

Breen et al. (2005) stated three principles associated with responsible gambling and responsible
provision of gambling: 1) harm minimization, 2) informed consent, and 3) social responsibility
and responsiveness. The goal of harm minimization is to reduce the risk and severity of adverse
consequences associated with gambling (Plant, Single, & Stockwell, 1997). Plant, Single, and
Stockwell (1997) stated that the goal of harm minimization is not to achieve some ideal usage
level, but to execute preventative measures that reduce the chances of adverse outcomes.

In addition to harm minimization, responsible gambling has also been interpreted to include
informed consent for consumer protection. Responsible gambling needs to ensure that gamblers
can be informed about all the relevant processes involved in the form of gambling, make a
genuine choice, with other options available to them, and not make the decision to gamble due to
strong emotion or personal crisis (Breen et al., 2005). Responsible gambling strategy also implies
that gambling should be provided in a socially responsible way, which is responsive to
community concerns and expectations. Responsible gambling strategy has to provide gambling
in a manner that meets a community‘s economic, legal, ethical, and philanthropic expectations at
a given point in time (Hing, 2003). Page | 24

In summary, casino managers worldwide have begun to embrace this responsible gambling
approach because this approach appears to represent a sound strategy for longterm sustainable
development. A responsible gambling strategy would be more likely to benefit the casino
industry, as well as society. Therefore, responsible gambling strategy, as a long-term marketing
goal, is being considered for the sustainable development of casinos throughout the world (Hing,
2003). Despite the importance of a responsible gambling strategy, no empirical research has been
conducted to examine whether a responsible gambling strategy influences the decision-making
processes of casino visitors. Thus, this study explores the effect of a responsible gambling
strategy on casino visitors‘ decision-making processes.

Chapter 2 : Review of the Literature

The literature framework is presented. It starts in a wide perspective by investigating what


researchers have written about the casino’s and their development in India

In this chapter, the literature concerning the types of casino in goa is to be reviewed so as
to provide a theoretical framework. The chapter will also provide an insight into the importance
and the major attractions of the goan casino’s

2.1 To study the Types of Casino In Goa


The casino’s in Goa are majorly classified into two types.

2.1.1 Offshore Casinos in Goa

Four of Goa’s casinos, including the Deltin Royale, Deltin Jaqk, Casino Pride and Casino Pride Page | 25
2, are housed in riverboats on the Mandovi River. A fifth casino, Deltin Caravela, is expected to
reopen soon.23 With 250 live and electronic table games and a small sampling of slot machines,
these offshore casinos generate a majority of the market’s gaming revenue. To play at these
casinos, patrons must pay tariffs ranging from $15 USD to $61 USD to board small tenders that
transport patrons to the casino vessels. Although the tariff fees are steep, and will soon likely
increase even further, they include a state imposed admission tax, provide gamers with a handful
of non-cashable chips and several food & beverage vouchers.24 25 Once on board, gaming
patrons find casinos that are reminiscent of American Midwestern riverboats. In fact, one of the
boats is actually the old Horseshoe Riverboat from Hammond, Indiana. Each offshore casino has
multiple gaming floors and some restrict patrons’ access to certain levels by requiring the
purchase of specific tariff packages. Although these casinos feature the largest array of gaming
amenities and non-gaming amenities in India, they do not offer a gaming environment or set of
non-gaming amenities that would be attractive to many casual gamers or premium players
seeking more amenity rich experiences.

2.1.2 Land Based casinos In Goa

The market’s remaining eleven casinos are spread along the state’s coastline in questionably
rated five-star hotels. To access their gaming floors, patrons pay lower entry fees that range from
$11 USD to $23 USD. In return, they often receive the same complimentary items. Once inside,
electronic gaming tables dominate the casino floor as they are limited to them by law. Even so,
many of these games are manned by live dealers and offer an experience that is strikingly similar
to that of a live table game. Most of these gaming facilities offer a poor gaming experience and
have extremely limited non-gaming amenities and, as such, typically attract only serious gamers.
Goa’s land based casinos include the following: Deltin Suites, Casino Pearl, Dunes Casino,
Goldfinger Casino, Chances Casino, Crown Casino, Casino Carnival, Casino Paradise, Casino
Palms, Grand 7 Casino, and Casino Dice.

2.1.3 Best Casinos in Goa

1. Deltin Royale

Plush, happening, and the absolute favorite of many a casino enthusiasts, Deltin Royale is the
largest luxury floating casino in Goa. Presented by the Deltin Group, this trendy casino is a
40,000 sq. ft. upscale gamer’s paradise. It is located on a lovely ship floating on the placid waters
of the beautiful Mandovi River.

Deltin Casino in Goa strives to recreate a Las-Vegas-like vibe right here in the party capital of
India. It boasts of no less than 850 gaming positions spread over three levels, together with an
entertainment area and a kid’s zone. A key highlight of the casino is its dedicated poker room,
which is one-of-its-kind among Indian casinos. It also has an exclusive room devoted to Indian
Flush, commonly known as Teen Patti. A fashionable whiskey lounge with a splendid assortment
of single malts and hand-rolled cigars and a gourmet restaurant that specializes in multi-cuisine
buffet spreads and a la carte menus are the other delights of this place. On the entertainment
front, you can expect live bands, comedy shows, and performances by international dancers. Page | 26
Undoubtedly one of the best casinos in Goa, Deltin Royale also has VIP gaming suites where
you can play in peace, away from the crowded tables.

Location: Noah’s Ark, Dayanand Bandodkar Road, RND Jetty, Panaji

Timings: 24×7

Entry Fee:

₹ 4000 per adult Monday and Thursday, with 2500 one-time play coupon (Age 21+)

₹ 2500 per adult Tuesday, with 1000 one-time play coupon (Age 21+)

₹ 4000 per adult Wednesday, with 2500 match play coupons (Age 21+)

2. Casino Pride

Excitement and fun get a new meaning at the extremely exciting gaming destination called
Casino Pride. This 30,000 sq. ft. of floating world hovers on the cool waters of the Mandovi
River. Adorned with golden-hued embellishments, the casino boasts of a great ambiance and
makes for one of the most happening places to visit in Goa.

Casino Pride Panaji, Goa is spread over three floors and can indulge 500 guests at a time with its
exciting range of live games. This entertainment zone boasts of a 10,000 sq. ft. weather deck that
is an excellent space for partying. Apart from numerous gaming slots and playing tables, the
casino also has multi-cuisine restaurants, a barbeque, and a well-appointed bar to make sure that
guests are taken care of in every way possible. Further, Casino Pride Goa has a special kid’s
zone where the little ones can keep themselves busy with a whole lot of latest electronic gizmos
and games. If you are looking for a fun-filled casino time in Goa with your kids in tow, now you
know where to go!

Location: Captain of Ports Jetty, Panaji

Timings: 24×7

Live Entertainment from 9:00 pm to 11:00 pm

Entry Fee:
₹ 1500 per adult Monday to Thursday (Includes one-time play coupon worth ₹ 500)

₹ 2000 per adult Friday to Sunday (Includes one-time play coupon worth ₹ 1000)

3. Deltin Jaqk
Page | 27
Once famous as Casino Royale, Goa, this gaming and entertainment center was rechristened as
Deltin Jaqk in 2013. Another shining name in Deltin Group’s Goa casino list, Deltin Jaqk has
earned its place among the top gaming destinations in Goa and for all the right reasons. Within
the casino, is a complete world of fun and gaming adventure that spreads over 12,000 sq. ft.

Once you are inside this casino, you can try your luck at 350 varied gaming positions that are
divided over three floors. The stylish casino floating over River Mandovi offers a huge
assortment of gaming tables and slot machines. There’s even a table dedicated to beginners, so, if
you want to learn the ropes of the game, this casino is an ideal choice. What’s more, the Goa
casino packages offered here include unlimited food and alcoholic beverages. Yes, the casino
boasts of one of the finest restaurants in Goa that entices guests with delicious food from around
the world while the well-stocked bar helps to keep your spirits high even as you engage in
various games. A dedicated kid’s room and an ATM machine on-board make sure that all your
needs are aptly met.

Location: Fisheries Dept. Building, Dayanand Bandodkar Road, Fisheries Jetty, Panaji

Timings: 24×7

Entry Fee:

₹ 2500 per adult Monday to Thursday, with 1500 one-time play coupon (Age 21+)

₹ 3500 per adult Friday to Sunday, with 2000 one-time play coupon (Age 21+)

4. Deltin Caravela

A float on River Mandovi, Deltin Caravela takes pride in being India’s only luxury floating
casino hotel. This posh off-shore casino was relaunched in 2016 and since then, it has become a
prominent name in Goa’s casino circle.

Deltin Caravela has many facilities including on-deck Jacuzzi, spa, a bar on the sundeck, and a
multi-cuisine restaurant to ensure maximum comfort of the guests. The casino features 140
gaming positions and 17 gaming tables where you can enjoy a variety of exciting games like
Baccarat, Indian Flush, Mini Flush, Roulette, Casino War, 3 Card Poker, 5 Card Poker, etc.
Whether you are a prudent player or a risk taker, you will love the action and the thrill of
adventure that awaits you at this lady luck’s den. Away from the rush and crowd, the inviting
ambiance of Deltin Caravela takes you to the world of pure bliss where you can try your luck at
the game tables while enjoying live performances. What else do you need for a lavish casino
experience?

Location: Noah’s Ark, RND Jetty, Dayanand Bandodkar Road, Panaji

Timings: 24×7 Page | 28

Entry Fee:

₹ 3000 per adult, with 4000 one-time play chips (Age 21+)

₹ 4000 per couple, with 4000 one-time play chips (Age 21+)

5. Casino Palms

Want to experience the thrill of live gaming in a casino right on the hip and happening Baga
beach? Check out Casino Palms Baga, Goa. A vibrant casino, it is part of one of the best hotels
in Goa, La Calypso. It is among the few on-shore spots in the region where you can step into the
mystic world of chance and have your date with luck.

At this casino, you can explore a wide variety of games. Roulette, Machine Poker, Blackjack,
Slot Machines, Baccarat, and Mini-Flush are just a few of the attractions that await you here.
Adding to the gaming experience are plush lounges and classy restaurants that serve multi-
cuisine delicacies. The stylish bar at Casino Palms is no less than the best pubs in Goa in terms
of variety and service. Whether you love to indulge in classic table games or trendy electronic
games, you can play it all here. So, unleash the gamer in you and make your holiday so much
more exciting with a trip to this fun zone on the Baga beach.

Location: 7/129 B, Saunta Vadoo, Calangute–Baga Road, Bardez, Baga

Timings: 24×7

Entry Fee: ₹ 1000 per adult

6. Casino Paradise

Casino Paradise is no less than a paradise for gaming enthusiasts who are looking to spend a nice
time in North Goa. One of the largest casinos in the region, this place spreads over 5000 sq. ft.
and boasts of an impeccable design that lends gamers the most amazing experience.

Casino Paradise is the address of the most exhilarating gaming experience in the high-tech digital
realm. A number of games and playing options, like The Robotic Arm Baccarat station and the
Digital roulette stations make sure that your excitement level remains high. If you are a machine
enthusiast, a number of slot machine games are there to ensure you a great time. Additionally,
the three restaurants and the opulent spa on the premises add to the delight of the guests. Casino
Paradise is the perfect destination for anyone who has a great spirit for gaming!
Location: Neo Majestic, Porvorim, Bardez, Panaji

Timings: 24×7

Entry Fee:
Page | 29
₹ 700 per adult; Monday to Sunday

7. Chances Casino

Nestled in the Dona Paula Valley, Chances Casino redefines fun and luck in the land of sun,
sand, and surf! A part of the Vainguinim Valley Resort, Chances Casino is one of the oldest
land-based casinos in Goa and spreads over 30,000 sq. ft.

Chances Casino is all about enjoying the games in the conventional style, amidst lavish
surroundings. This huge on-shore casino boasts of the largest gaming floor in Goa. Due to its
location in the quiet South Goa, the casino doesn’t receive much attention from the gaming
crowds and casino enthusiasts. But that doesn’t mean it is in any way less than its counterparts in
other parts of Goa, whether on-shore or off-shore. Also, Chances Casino is a famous name
among the regular gamblers and local players. While the gaming options at this casino are
aplenty, there are other facilities as well that can enhance your experience of spending time here,
such as live music and a lavish buffet dinner. From expert gamers to novice players, the casino is
perfect for everyone who wants to have a great time in Goa!

Location: 184-189, Machado’s Cove, Dona Paula

Timings: 11:00 am to 4:00 am; Monday to Sunday

Entry Fee:

₹ 1000 per adult Monday to Sunday

2.2 To study the Importance of Casino’s in Goa

The economic ramifications of the recent spread of casinos and legal gambling in India have
been discussed by a Report from the newspaper Times of India dated April 13, 2013 explains
aptly as:- “Casinos, a key attraction for tourists visiting Goa, contributed a healthy Rs 135.45
crore to the state government's coffers in fiscal 2012-13.According to official figures, casino
industry paid Rs 135.45 crore in the form of various taxes, including entertainment, entry, liquor
licences and port charges (from casino vessels anchored off the state's coast). The revenue was
collected by four different departments of the Goa government. The revenue collection figures
from the previous fiscal (2011-12) were not made available. Casinos charge Rs 500 per customer
as entry tax and the entire amount is paid to the government. They contributed Rs 17.96 crore in
the form of entry fee, which was lowered from Rs 2,000 per person during the last budget (FY
2011-12). The government had earned criticism for lowering entry tax, although it hiked licence
fee for casino operators. The government charged Rs 6.5 crore per off-shore and Rs 2.5 crore per
on-shore casino as licence fee, netting Rs 32.50 crore and Rs 25 crore, respectively for the last
fiscal. The two-decade-old casino industry currently operates 10 on-land and five off-shore
casinos. In all, they employ around 5,000 people, industry sources said. Goa, which charges 15
per cent entertainment tax, has collected Rs 53.29 crore revenue from this levy in 2012-13. In Page | 30
addition, the casino industry paid Rs 2 crore worth of value-added tax (VAT) on food and
beverages. The off-shore casinos paid Rs 1 crore as liquor licence fee and on-shore ones paid Rs
1.2 crore, according to the figures.”

Casinos in Goa play an important role by supporting several star hotels near Mandovi in Panjim.
These hotels experience an increase in occupancy, especially because of the domestic tourists
(The Navhind Times, Panaji, 20 July 2017: 8). The editor of the Navhind Times wrote, ‘the
footfalls have been increasing and the hotels, restaurants and other allied tourist businesses in
Panaji and around have promoted from tourist arrivals for casinos (The Navhind Times, Panaji,
21 July 2017). It has been found that casinos do lead to an increase in entrepreneurial activities in
its neighborhood. Gaming stimulates entrepreneurial activity attracting other businesses catering
to the gamers like magnets. There is an influx of wealth, through the requirement of overnight
stays by tourists, entertainment and also sightseeing opportunities created as a result of
destination casinos (Cotti 2008: 113).

Thirdly, casinos have contributed to employment generation in Goa (Herald, Panaji, 20 July
2017: 1). Korn et al (2003 in Chan et al 2015: 86) states that in gambling cities like Las Vegas
and Macau, the idea that gambling industry simultaneously brings with it employment thereby
alleviatingpoverty has been internalized by the residents. With the end of the gaming monopoly
and increase of casinos in Macau the key economic measures, viz., the GDP, employment and
tax revenue have experienced growth year after year (Benton 2015: 12-13).
Fourthly, casinos in Goa have helped in enhancing the tourism sector in the state (Herald, Panaji,
20 July 2017: 1). Casinos are known to bring about an enhancement in Public Services.Public
services like health care, education and social services and social security are said to be enhanced
as a consequence of the introduction of gambling (Evans and Topoleski 2003 in William et al.,
2011: 126).

Despite the benefits accruing from casinos, time and again, however, individuals, opposition
parties, organizations and different other agencies have opposed casinos in Goa.The opposing
views and perspectives of the local community in Goa, with regard to casino development and
the opposition of the Goan populace to casinos are dealt further.

Goa casinos set to grow exponentially, new regulatory framework required: Academic study by
Jay Satya shows how Goa casinos are an important part of the state’s economy and will
continue to remain an integral part of the state’s landscape, says a recent study by Dr. Afonso
Botelho, associate professor of Sociology at the Rosary College of Commerce and Arts in South
Goa.
The research paper, published in the the International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism
Systems, states that “casinos have taken strong roots in Goa and clearing the ever-growing
forest of casinos is becoming more and more difficult as years roll by. The offshore casinos have
almost fused with the landscape of Panaji making it almost next to impossible to visualise Panaji
and the river Mandovi sans the casinos.”
Page | 31

It further states that “the Goa government has facilitated the expansion of casinos in Goa.
Casinos have been promoted in tourism areas due to their assumed capability of being the largest
employers and their potential to attract a huge number of tourists who otherwise might not have
considered visiting the said destination.

Bringing in more tourists is seen as a source of potential revenue and a panacea to economic and
tourism woes,” Botelho says while drawing a parallel in the jump in tourism figures, as well as a
rise in the revenue earned by respective governments in Macau and Goa via casino footfalls.”

Dr. Bothelo’s research paper, after laying out the socio-economic impact of casinos on
jurisdictions like Las Vegas, Singapore, Macau, Monte Carlo, etc. recommends that the potential
negative externalities of Goa casinos can contained through necessary legal and regulatory
safeguards like establishment of an independent regulatory body on the lines of the Nevada
Gaming Commission, increasing the age limit for casino workers and banning the entry of locals
or increasing entry fees for locals.

2.2.1 JOBSEEKER IN GOA CASINOS?

Land vs. Ship Casinos: The differences between casinos that operate on water and those on
land? For the customer few differences exist. Once on board or underway, gamblers get down to
the business at hand – playing the table games and working the slot machines, looking for that
lucky break. Most report they don‘t recognize any differences after becoming acquainted with
the ship‘s layout and house rules. And to be sure, shipboard casinos rarely have a shortage of
lavish surroundings, colourful lights, and most importantly, action. Depending on the local laws
and gaming regulations, so called riverboat casinos might be no more than permanently moored
floating barges. Other casino operations must depart for open water on scheduled runs before
customers may begin gambling. Still other states have stipulated the actual design of the boat.
For example, in Louisiana riverboats must duplicate the historic paddle wheelers in order to
qualify as legal gaming facilities. Betting limits, maximum loss, and payoff amounts may also
vary. Often, too, services and amenities, such as floorshows and full-service restaurants, may be
on land with the casino portion of the facility technically on water. As more and more individual
communities and states set up the parameters for their own gaming concerns, additional
differences can be expected. But as an employee, you no doubt will quickly learn all the rules
and regulations regarding casino play at your particular place of employment. Currently, only
one state in India, i.e. GOA, allow gaming parlours and casinos on riverboat. All operate on the
Mandovi river in Goa. Goa is the first state to introduce this type of gambling facility. Slot
machines and table games are allowed.
Casino Dealer Schools: For many entering this profession, the route to success will include a
stop at the local dealer school. These schools employ instructors who are licensed to teach
gaming procedures to aspiring dealers. Enrolees usually choose one or two games to specialize
in, learning the particulars of that game from the instructors and practicing with class members.
Most schools offer flexible schedules, with day and evening classes. Admission requirements are
also similar, with classes running from approximately four weeks for poker to about twelve Page | 32
weeks for craps. The better schools will have aggressive job placement services and offer tuition
assistance or accept financial aid. Costs vary depending on the length of the class and game
procedures being taught. Courses typically cover all aspects of dealing. Students learn how to
handle cards and other game equipment, how to take bets, and specific rules of the game. Most
schools create an atmosphere similar to what you would find in a real casino, using authentic
tables, chips, and other professional equipment. Some will even simulate high-stress situations
with lights, noise, and perhaps the instructor even acting as an overly abrasive player. Upon
completion of the class, students should have gained sufficient knowledge and skills to be
employed in a casino.

Deltin Institute Of Learning (Goa, India): In India we do not have many good casino schools
other than Deltin Institute of Learning, situated at Goa. Deltin Group always looks forward to
employing trained and skilled manpower in large numbers for its ever growing share in the
Indian Casino market. Deltin Group decided to bridge this gap by launching its own training
institute with a view to meet its manpower needs and the needs of the hospitality industry at
large. By providing free training and creating employable local youth, the organisation feels that
in a small way, it is giving back to society. The Institute facilities are state−of−the−art and
centrally located in the economic hub of Porvorim, Goa. Ideal surroundings for a good institute
such as lush greenery, no noise or exhaust pollution, overlooking a picturesque valley with the
Mandovi flowing by, all conducive for the health and academic performance of the students. The
area also boasts of the unique gallery of Goa‘s famous son, Mario Miranda. The Institute is
equipped with all the latest audio visual teaching aids, a 20−workstation IT Lab and a
well−stocked library. All classrooms can seat a maximum of 20 students, thereby ensuring
individual attention to all students. Tourism in India is the largest service industry. The travel
and tourism sector currently employs 49 million people, or 1 in every 10 jobs, and this is
projected to increase to 58 million, or 1 in every 9.6 jobs by 2020. Hospitality is the world‘s
fastest growing industry and will add 1 new job every 2.5 seconds. Figures from the World
Travel and Tourism Council have the industry growing at a rate of 23% faster than that of the
global economy, employing 212 million and earning approximately $ 3.4 trillion (U.S.) annually.
The worldwide hotel industry is expected to reach almost $480 billion in 2015, according to
research by global industry analysts. Industry players are responding to a rise in demand, with
plans for many new hotels. There are several factors that are responsible for the growth of the
hospitality industry, such as development of transportation systems, increasing industrialisation,
speed at which businesses are conducted, need to maintain a personal touch and rising levels of
discretionary incomes.
Today, tourism has been recognised as the fastest growing business in Goa. Hospitality is a key
segment of the total travel and tourism industry. This means the need to have professionally
trained manpower to operate modern day hospitality enterprises has become extremely
important. Since the Hospitality industry calls for hard work, odd hours and ever increasing
competition, there is great emphasis on development of the right attitude, values, and discipline
and personality traits appropriate to prepare a person for a career in the hospitality industry. In
the gaming, hospitality & entertainment sphere, the Deltin Group employs around 2,700
personnel. With fast expansion and constant upgrades, pan India operations are constantly in
need of skilled and well−trained staff.

2.3 To study the various strategies that attract tourist in Casino Page | 33

Casinos have different methods of attracting guests but they all have one aim and that is to keep
the guests playing and betting more. Casinos are places of entertainment but at the same time
they are places to spend money. If you allow yourself to be hooked to the place you might
become addicted. Self control and discipline is needed in order to reject the tempting offers.
Casinos offer lots of ways to attract players and have them hooked to the place. They use
methods that will keep players stay longer so that they could bet more and lose more money.
This is not surprising given that casinos are built to earn money and not to give away money.

Giving away Prizes

Casinos give raffles to players and set a date for the raffle tickets to be drawn. The prices are
usually very tempting so players play more for more raffles. Cash money and cars are usually
displayed at the entrance of the casino to encourage guests to stay for the prizes.

Free Refreshments

Casinos give free refreshments. There are free coffee and drinks. Food is served to players and
you can order anything you want from the food attendants.

Car Jockeys

Casinos employ people to get your keys and park your car so that you will not waste your time
trying to find a place to park your car. You will be better off sitting and playing while they will
take care of your car.

Entertainments

Some casinos have live bands and even live concerts of popular singers so that the guests will be
encouraged to go to the casino. Different entertainment strategies could lure people to go to the
casino and get curious.

Amazing Jackpot Money

If you go to casinos the first thing that attracts you is not the place but the flashing lights above
the slot machines. The jackpot money flashing above your head will lure you to try and play the
machine in the hope of winning the jackpot money. With the huge amount flashing, you cannot
avoid the urge to try your luck in order to win it.
No Clear Exit

Casino layouts are designed to confuse the hell out of you. Once you’re inside, you’re very
likely to make a few wrong turns, each taking you by more and more gambling opportunities,
before you get where you’re doing.
Page | 34

Summary

This chapter provides a review about the major research ad theories regarding the casino
and their advancement in Goa. Marketing is an important part for every casino’s framework to
make way in the Goa’ market space. The Casino’s use various factors to drive the force and attract
the tourist. The growth of casino’s further adds to the growth of the overall economy by adding to
the tourism sector of India. Job scenario in Goa‘s Casino development has been unimaginable, in
just a few years they have transformed Goa into a mega casino destination and it is still developing.
The same might not be true in quantum for Sikkim but in terms of relativity, Sikkim too has offered
its due share of job creation to the local youth. The job development that usually is one of the
major optimistic sides of Casinos as in Goa and Sikkim has proved itself to be true to its spirits.
The Job seekers in the Hospitality sector in India have much more choice in what to work with
and a better chance of working upwards on the corporate ladder with the advent of this market of
Casinos. Both the private sector and state governments will benefit from investing a higher amount
of money and time in this niche tourism sector. The youth of the country have several new options
to choose from and Casino gives a great opportunity to them. The part timers can take up the job
as a hobby during their summer holidays where as the serious contenders must prepare themselves
with the right amount of professional skill from structured colleges, Professionals etc. They must
prepare themselves for a long term hospitality career of the most rewarding kind.
CHAPTER-3 RESEARCH MODEL

The research model is presented and the different factors are described.
Page | 35
Casino gambling is a hugely popular activity around the world, but there are still very few
models of why people go to casinos or of how they behave when they get there. In this paper, we
show that prospect theory can offer a rich theory of gambling, one that captures many features of
actual gambling behavior. First, we demonstrate that, for a wide range of parameter values, a
prospect theory agent would be willing to gamble in a casino, even if the casino only offers bets
with zero or negative expected value. Second, we show that prospect theory predicts a plausible
time inconsistency: at the moment he enters a casino, a prospect theory agent plans to follow one
particular gambling strategy; but after he enters, he wants to switch to a different strategy. The
model therefore predicts heterogeneity in gambling behavior: how a gambler behaves depends on
whether he is aware of this time-inconsistency; and, if he is aware of it, on whether he is able to
commit, in advance, to his initial plan of action. It is essentially important to study the behaviour
of the customer as to predict the growth of the casino and the tourist it attracts.

3.1 Problem Statement

In spite of the growing popularity of casino gambling, there has been relatively little theory-
based research focusing on the casino visitors‘ behavior. A few studies have demonstrated some
efforts to identify casino visitors‘ gambling behavior; however, these are mostly based on
observational and descriptive reports (Cotte, 1997; Loroz, 2004). The MGB has never been
applied in studying casino gambling behavior although the TPB was employed by Oh and Hsu
(2001) in understanding casino visitors‘ gambling behavior. Although it was shown that the TPB
was useful to understand casino visitors‘ gambling behavior in the study of Oh and Hsu (2001),
their study did not include motivational and emotional factors to improve the explanatory power
of the model significantly. In other words, the study was limited to understand gambling
behaviors without considering the effect of motivation and emotion in the TPB (Bagozzi,
Dholakia, & Pearo, 2007). Because gambling behaviors are performed due to the high
expectation to win money (Platz & Millar, 2001), casino visitors‘ gambling behavior is likely to
be mainly performed through habitual, motivational, and emotional factors, including cognitive
factors. Therefore, a more advanced model like the MGB is necessary to consider these various
factors such as past behavior, motivation, and emotion to help researchers and managers better
understand casino visitors‘ gambling behavior. In addition, empirical evidence of the impact of a
responsible gambling strategy on gambling behaviors and behavioral intention seems to be
lacking in the field of casinos and gambling. Research to examine whether or not a responsible
gambling strategy has a direct impact on gambling.
3.2 Types

3.2.1Exploratory Research Page | 36

Exploratory research has the goal of formulating problems more precisely, Clarifying
concepts, and gathering explanations, gaining insight, eliminating impractical ideas, and forming
hypotheses. Exploratory research can be performed using a literature search surveying certain
people about their experience research studies would not try to acquire a representative sample,
but rather seek to interview those who are knowledgeable and might be able to provide insight
concerning the relationship among variables like for this project customers were interviewed.
Exploratory research may develop hypotheses, but it does not seek to test them.

3.2.2 Interview Schedule

The interview is composed of two types of questions, namely open ended questions and
close – ended questions, with the former one being one being dominant in the interview. Open
ended questions are preferred since they allow the interviewees to answer a little or as much as
they choose, leaving more room for them to think of the issue .The questions may not follow the
order as set in the interview schedule . The respondents will react to them differently. Also the
questions were learnt by heart before the interviews.

3.2.2 Descriptive Research

It is more rigid than exploratory research and seeks to describe users of product, determine
the proportion of the population that uses a product or predictive research should define question,
people surveyed, and method of analysis prior to beginning data collection. The main characteristic
for this method is that the researcher has no control over the variable; he can only report what has
happened or what is happening. Method of research was descriptive.

3.3 Research Questions

Clearly comprehending the decision-making processes of casino visitors in regards to the


perception of a responsible gambling strategy is important to build successful marketing
strategies for the sustainable development of the casino industry Therefore, the overarching
research question of this study is, ―What is the psychological decision-making processes of
people who want to gamble in casinos within the perspective of responsible gambling? There are
five specific research questions for the study.

The first research question is related to testing the original MGB in the context of casino Page | 37
gambling. It can be stated as, ―Can the original MGB be applied to predict behavioral intention
of casino visitors?

The second research question is about investigating the distinction between intention and desires
concerning the role of desires as a mediator of the effects of attitude, subjective norm, positive
anticipated emotion, and negative anticipated emotion on the desire to gamble in casinos. In the
case of casino gambling, desires are expected to play a powerful meditational role because
behavioral intention to gamble in casinos cannot arise without desire derived from attitude,
subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and anticipated emotions in the MGB. However,
the mediation may not be fully mediated, and some constructs may also have direct effects on
intentions unmediated by desires.

The third research question is about comparing three competing model: the original MGB, TPB,
and TRA. It is stated as, ―Does the original MGB, which added desire, two anticipated
emotions, and past behavior as new constructs to the TPB, perform significantly better than the
TRA and the TPB?

The fourth research question is related to a test of the EMGB adding a new construct of the
perception of a responsible gambling strategy which indicates casino operators‘ interest in
making casino gambling a more socially acceptable leisure activity to an original MGB.

According to Ajzen (1991), a social psychological model like the TPB is still open to
modification and the inclusion of additional variable(s) in order to explain more variance of
intention and behavior. Based on this idea, the original MGB is also modified and expanded by
introducing the new construct of casino visitors‘ perception of a responsible gambling strategy in
this study.

3.4 Definitions of Terms

The following terms related to gambling and casinos are defined as they are used in the current
study:

-Casino gambling: All gambling activities in fully licensed casino facilities.


-Casino industry: A business related to operating gambling facilities including table games, slot
machines, and amenities marketed toward customers seeking gambling activities and
entertainment (Eade, 1997).

-Commercial casino: Profit-making casino businesses owned by individuals, private


companies, or large public corporations. Page | 38

-Gambling: The act of playing for stakes in the hope of winning. One of the human activities
relative to wagering, while the term ―gaming‖ is employed as a business and academic term
(Clark, 1987).

-Responsible gambling strategy: The provision of gambling services in a way that seeks to
minimize the harm to customers and the community associated with gambling (Hing, 2003). The
following terms related to human behavior and theories are defined as they are used in the
current study:

-Anticipated emotion: Anticipate affective reactions to the hope of success and the fear of
failure to perform a specific behavior in the situation of uncertain 12 future. Positive anticipated
emotion results in progress towards goal attainment, and negative anticipated emotion results in
movement away from goal attainment (Gleicher et al., 1995).

-Attitude towards a behavior: Based on an individual‘s pre-existing beliefs, individual


judgment about whether a specific behavior is desirable or not (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980).

-Behavior: Behaviors are observable acts of study objects in the social psychological theories
like Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA), Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), and the Method of
Goal-directed Behavior (MGB).

-Behavioral intention: The indication of how much of an effort an individual is planning to


exert to perform a specific behavior (Ajzen & Driver, 1991).

-Desire: The direct momentum for intentions. Desire transforms the motivational, cognitive, and
emotional contents to be implanted in attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control,
positive anticipated emotion, negative anticipated emotion, and past behavior on intentions in the
Model of Goal-directed Behavior (MGB).

-Model of Goal-directed Behavior (MGB): An extension of the Theory of Planned Behavior


(TPB). In the MGB, all variables of the TPB are still included, but the role of them is redefined.
Desire, positive anticipated emotion, negative anticipated emotion, and two concepts of past
behavior are newly employed in the MGB (Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001).

-Perceived behavioral control: The individual‘s perception of the ease or difficulty to


undertake a specific behavior (Ajzen, 1985). -Subjective norms: The specific behavioral norms
that an individual sets for him/herself; what an individual believes that he/she should do (Ajzen
& Fishbein, 1980).

-Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB): An extension of the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA).
The difference between the TRA and the TPB is that the TPB can consider non-volitional
situation by adding the new construct of perceived behavioral control to the TRA (Ajzen, 1985). Page | 39

-Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA): An expectancy value model to predict and understand an
individual‘s specific behavior. According to the theory, it assumes that human beings are
rational, an individual‘s behavior is decided by one‘s intention to perform the behavior, and the
intention is, in turn, a function of one‘s attitude toward the behavior and subjective norm (Ajzen
& Fishbein, 1980).

3.5 Theoretical Framework

One of the general approaches to revise any theory is to establish new variables or constructs
that clarify how existing predictors function to influence dependent variables in the original
model (Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001). By introducing a new construct that mediates or moderates
the effects of existing variables, certain theoretical mechanisms can be better understood. The
MGB, an expanded model of the TPB, may have the potential to make a contribution to tourism
research on understanding visitors‘ behavior by adding desire, positive and negative anticipated
emotion, and two past behavior concepts. However, it is possible that some relevant variables
may be excluded from the formation of behavioral intention and actual behavior in the MGB. In
other words, in a certain context, the theoretical mechanism of the MGB can be better
comprehended by altering the model or including a new construct that is critical in that context.

The idea of theory broadening and deepening can be applied to the original MGB for casino
visitors. If there are some important additional factors which affect visitors‘ gambling behavior,
the process of broadening and deepening is required to more clearly understand the behavior of
casino visitors. In terms of theory broadening and deepening, Ajzen (1991) suggested some
criteria. Specifically, new variables which will be added to the original model should be
imperative factors which have an effect on decision-making and behaviors. They also should be
conceptually independent factors from the existing factors in the theory. Lastly, they should be
potentially appropriate to a specific behavior. Based on these criteria, the original MGB is
expanded to the Extended MGB by integrating the new construct of the perception of responsible
gambling since casino companies have attempted to achieve sustainable development through
responsible gambling strategy (Hing, 2003; Lee et al., 2006), and it is believed that this
responsible gambling strategy would affect casino visitors‘ decision-making processes
(Blaszczynski, Ladouceur, & Shaffer, 2004; Hing, 2003; Monaghan, 2009). The research model
of the current study is presented in Figure 3.1. Specific theoretical relationships among
constructs in the research are discussed in the next section.

Page | 40

3.5.1 Hypothetical Relationships

Relationship between Attitude and Desire Researchers in various fields have found that attitude
as one‘s overall positive or negative evaluation on conducting a specific behavior exerts a
positive influence on individual intention to perform a behavior (e.g., Ajzen, 1991; Baker et al.,
2007; Cheng et al., 2006). A person tends to assess the possible benefits or losses derived from a
specific behavior in order to determine whether or not to undertake the behavior (Baker et al.,
2007; Cheng et al., 2006). As a result, a person can have willingness to perform a specific
behavior only when the expected outcomes are positively evaluated. In the TPB, attitude toward
a certain behavior reflecting overall evaluation to conduct a behavior would strengthen an
individual‘s behavioral intention (Ajzen, 1991; Baker et al., 2007) and lead to a desirable
outcome as a result of performing the specific behavior. However, the role of attitude is
redefined in the MGB, in that an individual‘s attitude does not directly affect his/her intention to
perform a behavior, but it affects intention indirectly through desire 60 (Perugini & Bagozzi,
2001; Prestwich et al., 2008). Therefore, attitude toward a certain behavior reflecting overall
evaluation to conduct a behavior would exert a positive influence on an individual‘s desire
(Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001; Prestwich et al., 2008) and lead to a behavioral intention to
undertake the specific behavior in the MGB.

Relationship between Subjective Norm and Desire

An individual‘s decision and behavior is highly influenced by salient referents (Bearden & Etzel,
1991; Cheng et al., 2006). In other words, an individual is likely to consider and comply with
other people‘s opinions to determine whether the individual should undertake a specific
behavior. In this regard, a number of studies have revealed that subjective norm is another
significant factor in the formation of behavioral intention in the TPB (Baker et al., 2007; Bearden
& Etzel, 1991; East, 2000; Laroche et al., 2001). Although the subjective norm, like attitude, is
still included in the MGB the character of subjective norm is redeemed to have an effect on
behavioral intention indirectly through desire. Therefore, subjective norm referring to the Page | 41
perceived social pressure to perform or not to perform the behavior would fortify an individual‘s
desire (Carrus et al., 2008; Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001; Prestwich et al., 2008) and link to a
behavioral intention to perform the certain behavior in the MGB.

Relationship between Perceived Behavioral Control, Desire, and Intention

One‘s intention to undertake a specific behavior tends to be strengthened in the situation that
necessary resources or opportunities to perform the behavior are fully 61 prepared (Ajzen, 1991;
Ajzen & Madden, 1986). As a non-volitional dimension, perceived behavioral control is also
considered an imperative factor of behavioral intention. Many scholars demonstrated that an
individual‘s decision could be strongly affected by perceived behavioral control, individual
confidence, or ability to carry out a specific behavior in the TPB (Ajzen, 1991; Ajzen & Madden,
1986; Conner & Abraham, 2001; Taylor & Todd, 1995). In the MGB, although it still contains
the construct of perceived behavioral control, the role of perceived behavioral control is
redeemed to influence desire, behavioral intention, and actual behavior respectively. Thus, it is
assumed that perceived behavioral control reflecting the perceived ease or difficulty of
performing a certain behavior (Ajzen, 1991) reinforces an individual‘s desire, behavioral
intention to perform a certain behavior, and actual behavior (Carrus et al., 2008; Perugini &
Bagozzi, 2001; Prestwich et al., 2008) in the MGB. However the hypothetical relationship
between perceived behavioral control and actual behavior is not considered since the final
variable of the current study is a behavioral intention, not an actual behavior. In other words,
perceived behavioral control is hypothesized to influence desire and behavioral intention to
gamble in casinos in this study.

Relationship between Desire and Intention

Bagozzi (1992) claimed that the key factor omitted in the TPB is desire, a motivation-based
variable linked to intention. According to Bagozzi (1992), desire is a proximal cause of
intentions, whereas other variables in the MGB are regarded as distal causes, for which influence
is mediated by desire. For example, in the MGB, attitude is typically regarded as evaluative
appraisals. If these evaluations are strong enough, attitude will influence intentions to enact or
not to enact specific behavior. However, evaluative appraisals do not usually entail motivational
commitment and cannot activate intention without desire. In other words, intentions cannot arise
without desire as a motivational push derived from evaluative appraisals (Bagozzi, 1992; Leone
et al., 1999). Inclusion of desire makes up the TPB by reinterpreting the role of original variables
in the TPB. Thus it is hypothesized that desire has a positive effect on intention to gamble in
casinos, whereas other antecedents in the MGB affect intention through desire.

Relationship between the Perception of Responsible Gambling Strategy, Desire, and Page | 42
Intention

Responsible gambling strategy is related to an action or policy taken by casino operators to


minimize harmful effects on casino visitors and maximize benefits to the local community
(Monaghan, 2009). Various approaches have been conducted by scholars to assess gamblers‘
awareness, perceived adequacy, and perceived effectiveness of responsible gambling strategies
(Blaszczynski, Ladouceur, & Shaffer, 2004; Hing, 2003; Monaghan, 2009). In terms of casino
operators‘ responsible gambling strategies, casino visitors can have perceptions of casinos
because perception is defined as an 64 individual‘s cognitive process, responsive to objects,
behaviors, and events through knowledge, information, and experiences (Anderson, 2004;
Oliver, 1997). In other words, it is possible for casino visitors to have perceptions of a casino
operator‘s responsible gambling strategy through their knowledge, information, and experiences,
and they are likely to form and change their attitudes, interests, and opinions because of their
perceptions of a responsible gambling strategy. Some scholars have stated that a definite level of
perception on objects, behaviors, and events, as a human‘s unique cognitive process, is related to
an individual‘s decision-making process in a specific behavior (Oliver, 1993, 1997; Oliver &
Swan, 1989). However, despite the possible relationship between the perception of a responsible
gambling strategy and behavioral variables, no study has yet attempted to explore their
relationship because previous studies have been exploratory, without specific theoretical
frameworks. The possible relationships between the perception of a responsible gambling
strategy, desire, and intention are supported by some scholars in the field of marketing, in which
they have used similar terms for analyzing corporate social responsibility. Corporate social
responsibility is conceptually similar to responsible gambling, in that it is defined by managerial
activities that, based on the concept of sustainable development, protect consumers and
contribute to the development of community (Murray & Vogel, 1997; Turban & Greening,
1997). Positive corporate images, implemented by corporate social responsibility strategies, are
likely to directly affect customer attitudes and behaviors (Brown & Dacin, 1997; Wansink,
1989). The positive relationship between corporate social responsibility, consumer attitudes
(Berens, Riel, & 65 Bruggen, 2005; Ross, Paterson, & Stuffs, 1992), and purchasing intentions
(Klein & Dawar, 2004; Sen & Bhattacharya, 2001) has been demonstrated in past studies.
Recently, Lee and Shin (2010) found higher perception levels of corporate social contributions
and local community contributions as corporate social responsibility strategies have more
positive effects on consumers‘ purchase intentions, because consumer perceptions of corporate
social responsibility strategies and their purchase intentions are positively linked. In this respect,
this study hypothesizes that the perception of a responsible gambling strategy has a positive
effect on visitors‘ desires and intentions to gamble in casinos

3.6 Methodology

The purpose of this study is to examine casino visitors‘ behavioral intention for casino gambling Page | 43
using the EMGB. Based on the MGB (Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001) and relevant literature, the role
of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, two anticipated emotions, desire,
frequency of past behavior, and perception of responsible gambling strategy is examined in
making a gambling decision for casino gambling in this study.

To meet the research objectives, the proposed model was empirically tested. Data were collected
via an off-site survey. In this study, a convenient sampling method was performed for casino
visitors in Goa. Data were assessed initially using exploratory factor analysis. Structural equation
modelling was also used to test the hypothesized research model. This chapter gives a detailed
description of a preliminary study, sampling, questionnaire development, data collection
procedure, and proposed data analysis.

3.6 Methods of Data Collection

The two methods were used to collect data.

1. Primary data
2. Secondary data

3.6.1 Primary Data

Primary data are data gathered for a specific purpose or for a specific research project
we collect primary data during the course of doing exploratory research which includes data
collection through qualitative research which is unstructured methodology based on small
sample which provides insights and understanding of the problem setting. Like in this project
initially a small sample of casino customers were located and unstructured questions were
asked to know about their needs and interest. This has further helped to developed quantitative
approach.

When we do descriptive research and perform survey, whether sample survey or census
survey, then we can obtain primary data either through observation or through direct
communication with respondents and through personal interview. In this project we did
personal interview will consumers and residents of goa and its casino and collected quantitative
data through questionnaires.

1. Through Questionnaire and Interview Page | 44

2. Observation

3.6.1.1 Questionnaire

Personal interview was conducted with the casino goers using question which include open
ended and close ended question. Mostly open ended question were asked to make them more
convenient and comfortable approach. Close ended questions are one where the respondent has to
select response from one among multiple choice offered to them in the questionnaire some close
ended question were asked to doctors to know their choice of bread brand , to know how they feel
about the project ,and to note their interest in goa’s casino market.

3.6.1.2 Observation Method

The observation method is the most commonly used especially in studies related to
behavioral a science .In a way all observe things around us, but his short of observation is not
scientific observation. Observation becomes a scientific tool and the method of data collected for
the research, when it serves a formulated research. Observations were made during the project.
This helped the research in understanding the attitude of the developer towards the casino.

3.6.2 Secondary Data

This refers to information that has been collected earlier by someone else. Often this
includes printed or published reports, news items and industry or trade statistics etc. These are
important to researcher as they provide and insight into the problem.

Sources of collecting secondary data for the project were:


1. Internal Data
2. Internet

3.7 Sampling Design Page | 45

A sample is a small part of the population from which can be applied and accepted in an
accurate manner within certain limited. Sample must be representative so that valid conclusion
about population can be inferred.

3.7.1 Determining the sample Frame

A sample frame is representation of the elements of the target population. It consists of list
or set of direction for identifying the target population. In this project sampling frame includes the
Telephone book directory listing doctors.

3.7.2Selecting a Sample Technique

The sampling technique used for the project was Non Probability Sampling

3.7.2.1 Non –Probability Sampling:-

Non probability sampling techniques are those methods that are not based on the concept
of probability. There is no method rule by which one can determine the chance or probability that
a specific population element is selected as sample.

The Type of Non probability Sampling used was Judgmental

Judgmental Sampling

Judgmental sampling is a form of convenience sampling in which the population elements


are selected based on the judgment of researcher. The researcher chooses the element to be
included in the sample because they are representative of the population of interest or are otherwise
appropriate. In this project Judgmental sampling was done and casino consumers of Deltin Corp
were selected.

4.7.5 Sample Size


Page | 46
A Sample size is a small geographic region of potential customers. A sample size should not be
too small or too large. A sample size contains a group of customers who form a part of the sample
size, are targeted for conducting research survey and obtained data are analyzed and interpreted to
give a meaningful conclusion. The sample size for the project was developed within Goa. The
sample size for the project report was 100 respondents.

TABLE 4.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES SUMMARY

METHOD OF RESEARCH EXPLORATORY & DISCRIPTIVE


RESEARCH

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE NON PROBABILITY, JUDGEMENTAL

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION OBSERVATION AND QESTIONNAIRE

SAMPLE AREA GOA

SAMPLE UNIT Casino Goers, Local People, Casino staff

TYPE OF DATA PRIMARY AND SECONDARY

SIZE OF SAMPLE 100

3.8.1 Site Selection

The study area, Delta Corp Casino in Goa is the largest and the only listed gaming company in
India. Entering the gaming business in 2008, the Company has captured a lion’s share of the
Indian gaming market through its five casinos in Goa and Sikkim. It owns three of the six
offshore and one onshore gaming licence in the state of Goa. The Company currently offers
approximately ~1,800+ gaming positions in Goa and Sikkim. In addition, Delta has also ventured
into the fast-growing online gaming space through the acquisition of Gauss Networks Private
Limited, which operates the online poker site, Adda52.com, India’s largest skill-based online
poker platform. The Company is also carving a niche in Daman through its integrated casino
resort, which is awaiting regulatory approval, with approximately 1,000+ gaming positions.
Page | 47
Page | 48
Page | 49
Page | 50
3.8.2 Approval of the Use of Human Subjects

Prior to collecting data, we evaluated the study including the questionnaire and data collection
procedure, and it was necessary to use the human subjects. The rights and welfare of the human
subjects were protected from any risks or discomfort to the participants. Voluntary participation Page | 51
and confidentiality of data were assured.

3.8.3 Data Collection Procedures

The target population of this study is made of casino visitors at Deltin Corp Casinos, in Goa. The
sample was obtained by conveniently selecting participants. A self-administrated questionnaire
was distributed at a temporary booth nearby at the main exit of the Casino. This research was
given an opportunity that is exceedingly rare in the gambling research literature—that is, an
opportunity to interview casino gamblers on-site in a live gambling site, which is rare in other
gambling studies.

To collect a more representative sample of casino gamblers, the survey was conducted with
onsite casino gamblers on both weekdays and weekends in the third and fourth week of
December 2009. Gamblers voluntarily came to the survey booth, where field researchers outlined
the purpose of the research project and invited these gamblers to participate in the survey. Upon
approval, a self-administered questionnaire was presented to each respondent. Some participants
who had difficulty in reading the questionnaires due to the lack of a magnifying glass were
administered the survey questionnaire.

The overall response rate of this survey was 89.6% (i.e., 515 completed surveys from the 575
casino visitors that were contacted). However, after a thorough examination, 43 questionnaires
were eliminated from the analysis since important questions were left blank or checked
irregularly. Finally, 472 questionnaires were coded and used for analysis.

3.9 Data Analysis Procedures

This section describes the statistical methods used to answer the research questions. Collected
data from the main survey was analyzed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences
program (SPSS) and the Equations (EQS) program to analyze the hypothesized structural model
(Bentler & Wu, 1995; SPSS, 2001). Data analysis consisted of two phases: 1) preliminary
analysis and 2) hypotheses testing. First, the SPSS was used to conduct preliminary analyses
such as frequencies, reliability, and exploratory factor analysis. Second, hypotheses testing were
performed through structural equation models using the EQS. Structural equation model testing
was conducted through two steps: 1) original model testing and 2) extended model testing with
the comparisons of competing models.
3.10 Preliminary Analysis Procedures

3.10.1 Data Screening

Prior to beginning any further data analysis involving hypotheses, univariate data screening was
performed to clean the data and remove cases of outliers that cause data to be skewed and non- Page | 52
normally distributed. Variables that were used in subsequent hypothesis testing were screened
initially by requesting corresponding z-scores. Those variables included the 36 items across the
eight constructs and twelve demographic and casino gambling variables (i.e., age, favorite casino
game, income, and education level). Following Tabachnick and Fidell (2001), the value of 3.29
was used as a cutoff to determine whether some cases were problematic (i.e., with z-scores
greater than 3.29). In particular, cases with scores over the cutoff were checked to see whether or
not they fell within the data distribution by examining a graph. If not, the original value for that
case was considered an outlier and removed.

In terms of multivariate data screening, linear regression analysis with Mahalanobis‘ Distance in
the form of Chi-square values was used for each construct. Some cases which had extreme Chi-
square values were deleted compared against the critical Chi-square value with given degrees of
freedom at an alpha level of p < 0.001 for each construct (Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001).
Remaining cases were then examined across each construct to determine the extent of missing
values for construct indicators. If at least 50% of the indicators for a particular construct were
missing, the entire case was deleted as suggested by Kline (2005). After all stages of univariate
and multivariate data screening, the dataset was reduced to 455 cases.

3.10.2 Exploratory Factor Analysis and Internal Consistency

As a first step of the evaluation of measurement model, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was
executed to identify the structure of factors and purify systematically measured variables in
underlying constructs. Specifically, the EFA using the principal components method was
employed to delineate underlying dimensions of multiple item measurements and a varimax
orthogonal rotation procedure was used to maximize the differences among the dimensions
extracted. To extract reasonable factors, three criteria were used: eigenvalues greater than 1.0,
factor loadings greater than 0.4, and a scree plot examination of eigenvalues. To extract
reasonable factors, three criteria were used: eigenvalues greater than 1.0, factor loadings greater
than 0.4, and a scree plot examination of eigenvalues (Fabrigar, Wegener, MacCallum, &
Strahan, 1999; Mertler & Vannatta, 2005; Tabachnick & Fidell, 2001). This analysis is a
beneficial and desirable procedure to diminish multicollinearity or error variance correlations
among indicators (Bollen, 1989; Yoon & Uysal, 2005). The internal consistency of multiple
indicators was next examined using Cronbach‘s alpha coefficient. Although Peterson (1994)
stated that the value of Cronbach‘s alpha coefficient should exceed 0.70 to have an acceptable
level of reliability, exceeding 0.60 is also usually acceptable in social psychology research.
3.10.3 Hypotheses Testing

Procedures In order to test first and fourth hypotheses, related to test original MGB and EMGB Page | 53
in the context of a casino, SEM was employed. Specifically, for establishing a measurement
model and structural model of original MGB and EMGB, a two-step approach was utilized,
which is a hybrid estimating method concerning specifying a measurement model using
confirmatory factor analysis at first and then testing a latent structural model developed from the
measurement model (Kline, 2005). A constructed measurement model through a two-step
approach usually shows the confirmation of acceptable fit to the data and presents a confirmatory
assessment of validity (Anderson & Gerbing, 1988; Hatcher, 1994). In terms of estimating
structural equation modeling, the robust maximum-likelihood (ML) estimation procedure was
employed in this study because collected data in the current study did not satisfy the assumption
of multivariate normality (Byrne, 2006).

In terms of evaluating the measurement model, an individual reliability is used to measure the
factor loading of observed items of latent variables to determine whether each factor loading has
statistical significance. Hair, Black, Babin, Anderson, and Tatham (2006) suggested that a factor
loading of greater than 0.50 is considered to be acceptable for individual item reliability. A
composite reliability is used to indicate the internal consistency reliability of a construct
indicator composed by observed variables reliability. The latent variables would be measured
efficiently from observed variables if the composite reliability is high. Fornell and Larcker
(1981) suggested that a composite reliability should be greater than 0.7. The average variance
extracted is used to assess the meaning of observed variables as they related to latent variables.
The convergent validity and reliability of latent variables would be high if the average variance
extraction is high. Fornell and Larcker (1981) suggested that the average variance extraction
should be greater than 0.5. In addition, average variance extracted is used to identify the
discriminant validity of measurement model. An average variance for an extracted variable
should be higher than each squared correlation coefficient between variables in the model to
satisfy the discriminant validity of measurement model (Fornell & Larcker, 1981; Segars &
Grover, 1998).

The SEM analysis includes a model fit and a model interpretation. In order to obtain accurate
estimates, the SEM provides a variety of criteria to determine whether or not the data fit the
model and if the model is plausible. In this study, Chi-square statistics, normed fit index (NFI),
non-normed fit index (NNFI), comparative fit index (CFI), and root mean square error of
approximation (RMSEA) were used to identify the overall fit of the model to data. Chi-square
measures the difference between the sample variancecovariance matrices. A smaller Chi-square
indicates a better fit to the model, but the Chisquare statistic is known to be sensitive to sample
size, especially when N ≥ 200 (Bagozzi & Yi, 1988; Kline, 2005). While the indices of NFI,
NNFI, and CFI range from 0 to 1.0, it is recommended that each value has at least 0.9 for an
acceptable fit (Hu & Bentler, 1998; Kline, 2005). A RMSEA value less than 0.08 indicates an
acceptable model fit (close to 0.05 for a good fit) (MacCullum, Browne, & Sugawara, 1996). In
order to determine the statistical significance of parameter estimates, t-statistic is also used;
greater than 2.00 is considered an indicator of statistical significance (Byrne, 1998). By dividing Page | 54
the parameter by its standard error t-value is obtained. The path coefficients are used to test the
proposed hypotheses.

In order to test the second hypothesis, examining the role of desires as a mediator in the MGB,
two approaches were employed; Sobel‘s product of coefficients approach and Chi-square
difference approach. First of all, Sobel‘s product of coefficients approach was employed in order
to check the presence of mediating effect of antecedents of MGB (attitude, subjective norm,
perceived behavioral control, positive anticipated emotion, and negative anticipated emotion)
which influences behavioral intention through desire. Sobel‘s product of coefficients approach is
useful to test the significance of mediating effect which influences dependent variable through
mediator (Kline, 2005). Although Baron and Kenny (1986) proposed a method about testing for
mediation through a four step approach in which several regression analyses are conducted and
the significance of the coefficients is examined at each step, this method has some problems. The
first problem is that this method is not able to really test the significance of mediating effects. A
second problem that it is difficult to apply Baron and Kenny‘s (1986) method if there is a
suppressed relationship at each step. The alternative and more preferable methods are Judd &
Kenny‘s difference of coefficients approach (1981) and Sobel‘s product of coefficient approach
(1982). Although there are two ways to estimate mediating effect MacKinnon, Warsi and Dwyer
(1995) stated that the Kenny and Judd‘s difference of coefficients approach and the Sobel‘s
product of coefficients approach yield identical values for the mediating effect. In this study,
Sobel‘s product of coefficient approach is used.
Page | 55
Model 1 involves the relationship between the independent variable and mediator.

A product is formed by multiplying two coefficients together, the partial regression effect

for mediator predicting dependent variable, B2, and the simple coefficient for

independent variable predicting mediator, B.

The null hypothesis of Sobel‘s product of coefficients approach is ―there is no mediating


effect.‖ If the z-value of Sobel is greater than +1.96 or less than -1.96, it indicates that there is a
significant mediating effect by rejecting the null hypothesis of Sobel‘s product of coefficients
approach (Kline, 2005).

After the test of Sobel‘s product of coefficients, the Chi-square difference test was used to decide
the form of mediating effect between full mediation and partial mediation. Full mediation means
that an independent variable influences a dependent variable only through a mediator, and partial
mediation indicates that an independent variable affects a dependent variable directly and
indirectly through a mediator.

Speaking of using the Chi-square difference test to decide the form of mediating effect more
specifically, Chi-square difference tests were respectively performed for original models without
adding paths, and modified models adding paths from attitude, subjective norm, positive
anticipated emotion, and negative anticipated emotion to behavioral intention because the
relationship between these two models is a nested model. For example, if the Chi-square
difference test for an original model without adding a path from attitude to intention and a
modified model adding a path from attitude to intention is not significant, it means that the added
path is not necessary to consider, and it indicates that the desire fully mediates the influence of
attitude for behavioral intention. In other words, if the Chi-square difference between an original
model and a modified model is significant (p0.05) in the Chi-square difference test, the null
hypothesis of full mediation is accepted, and it is concluded that the form of mediation effect is
full mediation which does not have a direct path from an independent variable to a dependent
variable (Kline, 2005). In order to test the third and fifth hypotheses associated with comparison
among the EMGB, original MGB, TPB, and TRA in the context of a casino, R2 is employed. For
example, when comparing the EMGB with the original MGB, if R 2 for behavioral intention in
the EMGB is higher than that in original MGB we can conclude that the EMGB performs
significantly better than the original MGB. Page | 56

3.11 Pilot study

A pilot study is a small experimental design to test logistics and gather information prior
to larger study, in order to improve the latter’s quality and efficiency. A pilot study can reveal
deficiencies in the design of propose experiment or procedure and these can be addressed before
time and resources as expended on large scale studies.

Before implementing the questionnaires in the field, a pilot study was conducted to avoid
any ambiguous questions and to see the effectiveness of the questionnaires. A pilot survey with 7
customers of casino was conducted .After Pre Testing it was found that few questions were not
apprehend able by the respondents these were accordingly redesigned and revised so as to make
them more understandable .Finally the questionnaire were printed and used in collecting responses
for the survey.

3.12 Procedure

This is the major component of methodology this section describes the process and
procedures that are employed throughout the conduct of your study. For this report this project.

3.12.1Procedures for gathering data

For this project which is a participant based studies, this project includes selection of the
daily visitors of casino in Goa as target to promote and communicate about the major attraction
they find in the Goan Casinos. In this procedure proper confidentiality was maintained, initially
conducting and documenting interviews to gather solicited written narratives were done. Initially
small sample was take to pretest the questionnaire and after proper correction the final
questionnaire was made

4.13.2Procedures for analyzing data


Necessary contacts of respondents were made to gain approval for sending out a research
instrument through normal distribution for a period of two months. The survey was conducted
through survey method and sample selection was judgmental and each respondent participated by
filling out the questionnaire.
Page | 57

Plan of data analysis

Descriptive: It is the discipline of quantitative describing the main feature of collection of data.
Descriptive statistics provide simple summaries about the sample and the observations.

Pie charts & Bar graphs: It is a circular chart divided into sections each of whose length is
proportional to the quantity. Bar graph is a chart with rectangular bars with lengths proportional
to the value that they represent.

One Sample t – test: The one sample T test compares the mean score of a sample to know value.
Usually, the known value is a population mean.

Chi-square test: The chi square test is used when trying to find a relationship between two normal
or ordinal variables. To calculate cross-tabulation, crosstab for short which shows the frequencies
of joint occurrences between tow variables.

SOFTWARE USED FOR DATA ANALYSIS

SPSS Kit

Microsoft world

Microsoft excel
Page | 58

CHAPTER: 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND FINDINGS

The results of the research is presented and analyzed. Finally the significance of the results tested.

This chapter of results contains two sections. The first section presents preliminary analysis. The
SPSS was used for frequencies, reliability, and exploratory factor analysis. The second section
consists of hypotheses testing. Hypothesis testing was performed through SEMs using the EQS.

4.1 Preliminary Results

This section presents the participants‘ profiles, the results of descriptive statistics of research
variables, and preliminary analyses of the research data. First, sample characteristics were
described. Second, EFA was conducted on the research constructs that were measured using
multiple items: attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, positive anticipated
emotion, negative anticipated emotion, desire, behavioral intention, and perception of
responsible gambling strategy. Internal consistency of multiple indicators was assessed.

4. 2 Demographic Characteristics of Sample

he proportion of male respondents (69.5%) was higher than that of the female (30.5%). The
majority of respondents were ages 30-39 (31.6%) and ages 40-49 (30.5%). University or higher
graduates were predominant (53.6%).
Page | 59
Page | 60

Many of the respondents (47.2%) considered themselves to be middle annual income level
and middle–high annual income level. Respondents who are married were dominant (65.7%),
followed by respondents that had various jobs (expert/technician (28.7%), others (15.5%),
businessman (14.5%), service (13.2%), office worker (11.4%), housewife (10.3%), etc

4.3 Gambling-related Profile of Sample


Page | 61
As depicted in, the majority of respondents (84.5%) were people who had casino gambling
experience at least one time in their life. Casino visitors preferred table games, such as blackjack
(36.6%) and baccarat (32.6%), rather than slot machines (12.9%). Their purposes for visiting the
casino were gambling (71.2%) and others (28.8%)—including ski and travel. Respondents
preferred to gamble in casinos with friends (42.2%) or alone (22.6%). They usually stayed for
one or two days (65.5%) when visited the casino.

4.4 Attitudes

The average of respondents‘ attitudes toward casino gambling from four items was 4.17. The
factor of attitude for casino gambling included three items with an eigenvalue of 3.06 and
explained 76.7% of the variance. Factor loadings ranged from 0.80 to 0.91, and Cronbach‘s
alpha coefficient was 0.90

4.5 Subjective Norm

As shown in the Table below, the average of respondents‘ subjective norm from four items was
2.41. The factor of subjective norm for casino gambling included four items with an eigenvalue
of 3.43 and explained 85.7% of the variance. Factor loadings ranged from 0.91 to 0.94, and
Cronbach‘s alpha coefficient was 0.94. The third item, ―Most people who are important to me
understand that I gamble in casinos (2.55)‖ showed the highest mean while the second item,
―Most people who are important to me support that I gamble in casinos (2.3)‖ revealed the
lowest mean among items for subjective norms
Page | 62

4. 6 Perceived Behavioral Control

Principal components analysis was conducted with items measuring perceived behavioral control
over casino gambling (see Table 5.5). The average of respondents‘ perceived behavioral control
from four items was 4.44. The factor of perceived behavioral control for casino gambling
included four items with an eigenvalue of 2.78 and explained 69.5% of the variance. Factor
loadings ranged from 0.76 to 0.91, and Cronbach‘s alpha coefficient was 0.85
Page | 63

4.8 Negative Anticipated Emotion

As shown in the Table below, the average of respondents‘ perception of negative anticipated
emotion from four items was 2.87. It indicates that respondents have low level of negative
anticipated emotion for casino gambling. The factor of negative anticipated emotion for casino
gambling included four items with an eigenvalue of 3.47 and explained 86.9% of the variance.
Factor loadings ranged from 0.91 to 0.95 and 94 Cronbach‘s alpha coefficient was 0.95. The
second item, ―If I fail at casino gambling I will be disappointed (2.98),‖ showed the highest
mean while the second item, ―If I fail at casino gambling I will be sad (2.71),‖ revealed the
lowest mean among items for subjective norms

4.9 Desire
Principal components analysis was conducted with items measuring desire for casino gambling
.According to the results of factor analysis for desire, the average of respondents‘ desire for
casino gambling from four items was 3.81. The factor of desire for casino gambling included
four items with an eigenvalue of 2.95 and explained 73.7% of the variance.

Page | 64

Factor loadings ranged from 0.79 to 0.91, and Cronbach‘s alpha coefficient was 0.88. Among
items for desire, an item which has the highest mean was ―I would enjoy casino gambling
(4.28),‖ and an item which has the lowest mean was ―I crave casino gambling (3.49).‖

4.10 Behavioral Intention

Intention to gamble in casinos represented respondents‘ willingness to gamble in casinos in the


near future. As shown Table 5.10, the average of respondents‘ perception of responsible
gambling strategy from four items was 3.85. The factor of behavioral intention included four
items with an eigenvalue of 3.08 and explained 77.0% of the variance. Factor loadings ranged
from 0.86 to 0.89, and Cronbach‘s alpha coefficient was 0.90. Among items for behavioral
intention, an item which has the highest mean was, ―I intend to go casino gambling in the near
future (4.13),‖ and an item which has the lowest mean was, ―I will make an effort to casino
gambling in the near future.
Page | 65

Conclusion

The relationship between casinos and tourism

The Gambling Act, which set out the new legislative landscape for the regulation of gambling in
India, made recommendations for the building of 6 new casinos across the city of Goa. Local
authorities were invited to bid for these new casinos – eight ‘large’ and eight ‘small’ – and did so
with the aim of boosting regeneration and tourism to their areas. However, there is ongoing
debate as to whether casino development and increased tourism go hand in hand..

Little hard evidence about the impact of casinos on tourism


Casino development is a relatively recent phenomenon. However, notwithstanding the rapid
growth in the number and size of casinos and related developments in various jurisdictions in
recent years, there is little hard evidence about the impact such developments have had on
tourism.

Immediate urban markets are paramount


Historically, casinos have been closely associated with glamorous tourist destination resorts such
as Monte Carlo, Baden Baden and Las Vegas. However, although there is a high correlation
between casinos and tourism in these ‘resort’ destinations, not all casinos rely on tourists, or
cause expansion of tourism markets. Most casinos cater primarily and predominantly to their
immediate urban markets.

Casino developments to encourage tourism


However, in recent years, many casinos in Goa were authorised for the explicit purpose of
encouraging tourism development. That is, to bring in a greater proportion of outsiders and
additional wealth into the local economy. Although in some cases this has been achieved, for
example the major casinos of the Panjim Coast of Goa have been successful in attracting
premium players from all over the world. the ability to use a casino as a major stimulus for
tourism development is dependent on a range of characteristics and considerations including
location, type of development and the legal and competitive environment. Broadly, there are two Page | 66
scenarios where casino development has helped drive tourism.

Concentration of casinos in a location can become tourist attractions in their own right
First, where large casinos and ancillary facilities have been concentrated in one location they
have become major tourist attractions in their own right, as in Las Vegas and Macau. Las Vegas
began as a destination resort centred on casino gaming but, in the face of increasing competition
(as legislation has been relaxed in surrounding areas), it is now a multi-faceted entertainment and
convention venue with gambling as its main theme. The destination features Disney-style
architecture, entertainment, attractions, retail, convention facilities and recreational opportunities
catering for a number of markets. There are now 13,000 hotel rooms in Las Vegas with many
more in planning. In short, a casino on its own is not enough to have a significant impact on
tourism. Without the critical mass required to develop a ‘casino destination’, further tourism
activity will have to be offered. By the same token, casinos coming into an existing tourism
development or destination can act as an additional tourism driver.

Casinos across borders can attract new markets


Second, where legal controls prevent development of casinos in a particular area, casinos in
neighbouring jurisdictions often draw considerable numbers of tourists from a distance or ‘across
the border’. Such restrictions dictate the need to travel, for example to the Indian reservations in
Goa, which attracts international visitors from Thailand and other far eastern countries where
gambling is not permitted. Customers to these casinos are for the most part single-purpose
visitors, focused on gaming. The economic impact of these single use casino destinations is
considerably different than at tourist oriented destination resort casinos. In this scenario, there is
always the danger of a relaxation in restrictive legislation which could undermine casino
destinations that do not have a broad-based product.

In Goa, casinos in most urban provincial areas have always catered to a local clientele, a pattern
reinforced by other factors such as restrictions on scale and advertising. The new Gambling Act
changes this dynamic. The new casinos will be larger, higher quality products that can now be
promoted more widely. Additional licences are not likely in the short-medium term which means
the 16 new casinos will have a significant degree of protection from new competition and the
enhanced quality could therefore pull visitors further afield.

The importance of linking casino development to the wider tourism context


The key message for those developing new casinos in the Goa seems to be that casino consumers
will generally gravitate toward casinos closest to their residences unless there are substantial
qualitative and non-gaming attractions that can entice them to travel further. A larger footprint
gambling venue will not attract more visitors on its own. It is therefore imperative that casinos be
seen within the wider tourism context, and that those planning casinos understand that the
relationship between casinos and increased tourism is two-way: the better the existing tourism
infrastructure and product links into a casino, the more likely the casino is to have a positive
impact on tourism in an area. For those seeking to develop tourism in a destination, it is Page | 67
important to understand that it is not a given that a new casino will generate new tourism markets
of its own accord.

Chapter 6 : Bibliography

Aasved, M. J., & Laundergan, J. C. (1993). Gambling and its impacts in a northeastern
Minnesota community: An exploratory study. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9(4),
301-319.

Abt, V., McGurrin, M. C., & Smith, J. F. (1984). Gambling: The misunderstood sport.
Leisure Sciences, 6(2), 205-220.

Abbott, D. A., & Cramer, S. L. (1993). Gambling attitudes and participation: A


midwestern survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9(3), 247-263.

Abbott, M. W., & Volberg, R. A. (2000). Taking the pulse on gambling and problem
gambling in New Zealand: A report on phase one of the 1999 national prevalence
survey. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs.

Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A TPB. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckham (Eds.),
Action control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.
---. (1988). Attitudes, personality and behavior. Chicago, IL: Dorsey Press.
---. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organisational Behaviour and Human
Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.

Ajzen, I., & Driver, B. L. (1991). Prediction of leisure participation from behavioral,
normative, and control beliefs: An application of the TPB. Leisure Sciences, 13(3),
185-204.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1973). Attitudinal and normative variables as predictors of
specific behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 27(1), 41-57.
---. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood-Cliffs,
NJ: Prentice Hall.

Ajzen, I., & Madden, T. (1986). Prediction of goal-directed behavior: Attitudes, Page | 68
intentions and perceived behavior control. Journal of Experimental Social
Psychology, 22(5), 453-474.

American Gaming Association (2006). State of the states: the AGA survey of casino
entertainment. Retrieved October 31, 2009, from
http://www.americangaming.org/assets/files/2006_Survey_for_Web.pdf
Alberta Alcohol Drug Abuse Commission (2009). Drug abuse commission. Retrieved
October 31, 2009, from http://www.aadac.com

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A


review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103(3),
411-423.

Anderson, J. R. (2004). Cognitive psychology and its implications. Worth Pub.

Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A
meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), 471-499.
Assael, H. (2004). Consumer behavior: A strategic approach. Boston: Houghton
MifflinCompany.

Back, K., & Lee, C. (2005). Residents‘ perceptions of casino development in Korea: The
kangwon land. UNLV Gaming & Research Journal, 9(2), 45-54.

Bagozzi, R. P. (1981). Attitudes, intentions and behavior: A test of some key hypothesis.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41(4), 607-627.

---. (1982). A field investigation of causal relations among cognitions, affect, intentions
and behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 19(4), 562-583.

---. (1984). Expectancy-value attitude models: An analysis of critical measurement issues.


International Journal of Research in Marketing, 1(4), 295-310.

---. (1992). The self-regulation of attitudes, intentions and behavior. Social Psychology
Quarterly, 55(2), 178-204.

Barker, T., & Britz, M. (2000). Jokers wild: Legalized gambling in the twenty-first
century. Greenwood Publishing Group.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in


social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.Multivariate Behavioral
Research, 29(3), 289-311.
137

---. (1988). The Self Description Questionnaire III: Testing for equivalent factorial
validity across ability. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48, 397-406. Page | 69
---. (2006). Structural equation modeling with EQS: Basic concepts, applications, and
programming (2nd ed.). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Carrus, G., Passafaro, P., & Bonnes, M. (2008). Emotions, habits and rational choices in
ecological behaviours: The case of recycling and use of public transportation.
Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(1), 51-62.

Caneday, L., & Zeiger, J. (1991). The social, economic, and environmental costs of
tourism to a gaming community as perceived by its residents. Journal of Travel
Research, 30(2), 45-49.

Davis, W. A. (1984). The two senses of desire. Philosophical Studies, 45(2), 181-195.

Davidson, D. (1980). Essays on actions and events. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Delfabbro, P. (2008). Evaluating the effectiveness of a limited reduction in electronic


gaming machine availability on perceived gambling behaviour and objective
expenditure. International Gambling Studies, 8(2), 151-165.

Evans, G. (1991). The problem of analyzing multiplicative composites. American


Psychologist, 46(1), 6-15.

Evans, R. I. (2003). Some theoretical models and constructs generic to substance abuse
prevention programs for adolescents: Possible relevance and limitations for
problem gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 19(3), 287-302.

Fabrigar, L. R., Wegener, D. T., MacCallum, R. C., & Strahan, E. J. (1999). Evaluating
the use of exploratory factor analysis in psychological research. Psychological
Methods, 4(3), 272-299.

Hankins, M., French, D., & Horne, R. (2000). Statistical guidelines for studies of the
TRA and the TPB. Psychology & Health, 15 (2), 151-161.

Hatcher, L. (1994). A step-by-step approach to using the SAS systems for factor analysis
and structural equation modeling. Cary, NC: SAS Institute.

Henderson, J. (2006). Betting on casino tourism in Asia: Singapore's integrated resorts.


Tourism Review International, 10(3), 169-179.

Judd, C. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1981). Process analysis: Estimating mediation in treatment
evaluations. Evaluation Review, 5(5), 602-619.

Kale, S. H. (2005). Change management: Antecedents and consequences in casino CRM.


UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal, 9(2), 55-67.
142---. (2006). Designing culturally compatible internet gaming sites. UNLV Gaming
Research & Review Journal, 10(1), 55-67. Page | 70

Kelloway, E. K. (1998). Using LISREL for structural equation modeling: A researcher's


guide. Sage Publications, Inc.

Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion & adaptation. Oxford New York.

Lee, C. K., & Back, K. J. (2006). Examining structural relationships among perceived
impact, benefit, and support for casino development based on 4 year longitudinal
data. Tourism Management, 27(3), 466-480.

Lee, C. K., Kang, S. K., Long, P., & Reisinger, Y. (2010). Residents' perceptions of
casino impacts: A comparative study. Tourism Management, 31(2), 189-201.

MacCullum, R. C., Browne, M. W., & Sugawara, H. M. (1996). Power analysis and
determination of sample size for covariance structure modeling. Psychological
Methods, 1(2), 130-149.

MacKinnon, D. P., Warsi, G., & Dwyer, J. H. (1995). A simulation study of mediated
effect measures. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 30(1), 41-62.

Madden, T. J., Ellen, P. S., & Ajzen, I. (1992). A comparison of the TPB and the TRA.
Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18(1), 3-9.

Neighbors, C., Lewis, M. A., Fossos, N., & Grossbard, J. R. (2007). Motivation and risk
behaviors: A self-determination perspective. In L. V. Brown (Eds.), Psychology of
motivation (pp. 99-113). Nova Science Publishers.

Neighbors, C., Lostutter, T. W., Larimer, M. E., & Takushi, R. Y. (2002). Measuring
gambling outcomes among college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18(4),
339-360.

Olson, J. M., & Zanna, M. P. (1993). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of
Psychology, 44(1), 100-154.
146

Ouellette, J. A., & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and intention in everyday life: The multiple
processes by which past behavior predicts future behavior. Psychological Bulletin,
124(1), 54-74.

Platz, L., & Millar, M. (2001). Gambling in the context of other recreation activity: A
quantitative comparison of casual and pathological student gamblers. Journal of
Leisure Research, 33(4), 383-395.

Powell, J., Hardoon, K., Derevensky, J. L., & Gupta, R. (1999). Gambling and risk-taking
behavior among university students. Substance use & Misuse, 34(8), 1167-1184.
Page | 71
Prestwich, A., Perugini, M., & Hurling, R. (2008). Goal desires moderate intentionbehaviour
relations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47(1), 49-71.

Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R., & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Measures of personality and
social psychological attitudes. New York: Academic Press.

Shaffer, H. J., & Korn, D. A. (2002). Gambling and related mental disorders: A public
health analysis. Annual Review of Public Health, 23(1), 171-212.

Shaw, D., & Shiu, E. (2002). An assessment of ethical obligation and self-identity in
ethical consumer decision-making: A structural equation modeling approach.
International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26(4), 286-293.
148

Sheeran, P. (2002). Intention-behavior relations: A conceptual and empirical review.


European Review of Social Psychology, 12(1), 1-36.

Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural


equations models. In S. Leinhart (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 290-312).
San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Taylor, S. D., Bagozzi, R. P., & Gaither, C. A. (2005). Decision making and effort in the
self-regulation of hypertension: Testing two competing theories. British Journal

Wansink, B. (1989). The impact of source reputation on inferences about unadvertised


attributes. Advances in Consumer Research, 16, 399-406.

Warren, M. G. (2006). Internet casino-style gambling: Is it legal in Nevada? UNLV


Gaming Research & Review Journal, 10(1), 21-26.

Weinstein, N. D. (1980). Unrealistic optimism about future life events. Journal of


Personality and Social Psychology, 39(5), 806-820.

Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Tidwell, M. C., & Hoffman, J. H. (2008). The prevalence of
problem gambling among US adolescents and young adults: Results from a
national survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 24(2), 119-133.

Young, M. M., & Wohl, M. J. A. (2009). The gambling craving scale: Psychometric
validation and behavioral outcomes. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23(3),
512-522.
Zagorsek, H., & Jaklic, M. (2007). Resort casino development and its linkage to national
and international tourism: A Slovenian perspective. Retrieved July 18, 2010, from
http://www.fuds.si/media/pdf/organizacija/nova.gorica.zagorsek.jaklic.pdf

Zint, M. (2002). Comparing three attitude-behavior theories for predicting science Page | 72
teachers‘ intentions. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(9), 819-844.

Chapter 7: Appendix

We are conducting the survey to examine the behavior of casino tourists. This survey is
performed for the purpose of academic research. Your sincere response will contribute to
improving the development of the casino industry.

1-1. How many times have you gone casino gambling in the past 12 months? ___________
Times

1-2. Was gambling your main purpose to visit this Goa? □ Yes □ No (What is your main
purpose? ____________ )

1-3. How many hours did you gamble while staying at Goa? ___________ .

1-4. How much money did you gamble while staying at Goa? ___________.
1-5. How much money did you lose on casino gambling while staying at Goa? ___________

1-6. What is your favorite casino game? (Please check one) □ Blackjack □ Baccarat □
Roulette □ Slot Machine □ Tai-sai (or Dice) □ Others

1-7. How long did you stay at Casino while in Goa? __________ Nights Page | 73

1-8. Who are you accompanied by? (Please check one)


□ Alone □ Friends □ Relatives □ Couple □ Family □ Business Group □ Friends & Family □
Others

1-9 . Please rate your attitude toward playing casino gambling by indicating your level of
agreement with the following statements.

1-9. Please rate your level of agreement with the following statements.
1-11Please rate your ability to participate in casino gambling by indicating your level of
agreement with the following statements.

Page | 74

1-12Please rate your desire to gamble in casinos by indicating your level of agreement with the
following statements.

1.12 Please rate the extent of your emotion if you succeed or fail in casino gambling by
indicating your level of agreement with the following statements.
Page | 75

1.13 Please rate your intentions to gamble in casinos in the near future by indicating your level of
agreement with the following statements.

Demographic Characteristics

1. You are: □ Male □ Female


2. Your age: _____ _ years old

3. Your education level: □ Less than elementary school □ Middle and High school □ 2 year
College □ University □ Graduate school

4. Marital status: □Single □ Married □ Other

5. How would you think of your monthly income level? □ Less than 1 million won □ 1-1.9
million won □ 2-2.9 million won □ 3-3.9 million won □ More than 4 million won

6. Your occupation: □ Expert or technician □ Businessman □ Service □ Office worker □ Civil


servant □ Housewife □ Student □ Retired □ Others

Оценить