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Universal Laws of Physics

Kinematics
 describes motion in
terms of:
 displacement (d)
 velocity (v)
 acceleration (a)
• Scalars are quantities that are fully described by a
magnitude alone (numerical value and units)
• Vectors are quantities that are fully described by
both a magnitude and a direction

SCALAR VECTOR
Distance Displacement
Speed Velocity
Time Acceleration
Checking Understanding:
•5m • SCALAR
• 30 m/sec, East • VECTOR
• 5 mi., North • VECTOR
• 20 degrees Celsius • SCALAR
• 256 bytes • SCALAR
• 4000 Calories • SCALAR
Distance vs. Displacement
• "how much ground an • "how far out of place an
object has covered" object is“
during its motion • where you are (direction) in
• how far you have relation to where you started
traveled, regardless of • Total distance from the start
direction to the end point
• total ground covered

SI Unit of Distance &


Displacement: meter (m)
Distance vs. Displacement
• You drive the path, and your odometer goes up by 8
miles (your distance).
• What if you drove in a circle?
• Your displacement is the shorter directed distance
from start to stop (green arrow).
start

stop
Distance
.

Checking Understanding
A student walks • What is the total
4 meters East, distance?
2 meters South, Ans: 12 meters
4 meters West,
and 2 meters North.
• What is the final
displacement?
Ans: 0 displacement
.

Checking Understanding
The skier moves from
A to B to C to D. • What is the total
At each of the indicated times, the distance?
skier turns around and reverses Ans: (180 m + 140 m
the direction of travel. + 100 m) = 420 m
• What is the final
displacement?
Ans: 140 m,
rightward
Checking Understanding
Mica walks 16 km to the north, 12 km back to the east
and 15 km to the west.
a. Determine the distance which Mica moved.
b. Determine Mica's displacement.
15km, W
12km, E

Displacement:
16km, N

16.28 km, 10.62° west of north


Distance:

16km + 12km + 15km = 43km


Vector Addition

•The sum of two or


more vectors is
represented by a
single vector called
the resultant
Vector Addition
Determining the magnitude and
direction of the resultant vector:

• Head-to-tail method using a


scaled vector diagram

• Pythagorean theorem and


trigonometric methods
• The Pythagorean theorem is
a useful method for
determining the result of
adding two vectors that
make a right angle to each
other.

• A mathematical equation
that relates the length of the
sides of a right triangle to the
length of the hypotenuse of
a right triangle.
Using Trigonometry to Determine a
Vector's Direction
The direction of a resultant vector can often be
determined by using trigonometric functions

The sine function relates to the measure of


an acute angle to the ratio of the length of the
side opposite the angle to the length of the
hypotenuse.
Using Trigonometry to Determine a
Vector's Direction
The direction of a resultant vector can often be
determined by use of trigonometric functions

The cosine function relates to the


measure of an acute angle to the ratio of
the length of the side adjacent the angle
to the length of the hypotenuse.
Using Trigonometry to Determine a
Vector's Direction
The direction of a resultant vector can often be
determined by use of trigonometric functions

The tangent function relates to the


measure of an angle to the ratio of the
length of the side opposite the angle to the
length of the side adjacent to the angle.
1. Eric leaves the base camp and hikes 11 km north,
and then hikes 11 km east. Determine Eric's resulting
displacement.
11km, E
c = √ a2 + b2

vR = √ v12 + v22

11km, N = √(11 km)2 + (11 km)2


Ө
= √ 121 km2 + 121 km2

= √242 km2
= 15.56 km
1. Eric leaves the base camp and hikes 11 km north,
and then hikes 11 km east. Determine Eric's
resulting displacement.
11km, E
tanӨ = 11 km
11 km
= 1
= tan-1 (1)
11km, N
Ө 15. 56 km = 45⁰ east of north
vR = 15.56 km,
45⁰ east of north
2. In order for Allan to reach his workplace, he
drove 10 km west and 5 km south. Determine
Allan’s displacement.
c = √ a2 + b 2
10km, W vR = √ v12 + v22
Ө
5km, S = √(10 km)2 + (5 km)2

= √100 km2 + 25 km2

= √125 km2
= 11.18 km
2. In order for Allan to reach his workplace, he
drove 10 km west and 5 km south. Determine
Allan’s displacement.

tanӨ = 5 km
10km, W 10 km
Ө = 0.5
= tan-1 (0.5)
5km, S = 26.565⁰ south of west
11.18km vR = 11.180 km,
26.57⁰ south of west
A plane flying due north at 100 m/s
is blown by a 500 m/s strong wind
due east. What is the direction of
the plane?
A plane flying due north at 100 m/s is blown by a
500 m/s strong wind due east. What is the
plane’s resultant velocity?

c = √ a2 + b 2
vR = √ v12 + v22
= √(100m/s)2 + (500m/s)2
= √(10,000m/s)2 + (250000m/s)2
= √260,000m2/s2
= 509.90 m/s
A plane flying due north at 100 m/s is blown by a
500 m/s strong wind due east. What is the
direction of the plane?
N

b
a Ө
W E

tanӨ = 500 m/s


100 m/s
= 5
= tan-1 (5)
= 78.69⁰ east of north
S vR = 509.90 m/s, 78.69⁰ east of north
Checking Understanding:

1. Sam leaves the base camp and hikes 18 km


north, and then hikes 13.5 km east.

2. Mica drove 33.7 km west and 54.98 km south.

3. A cart was pushed 12.57 km south, and then


19.2 km east.
1. Sam leaves the base camp and hikes 18
km north, and then hikes 13.5 km east.
c = √ a2 + b 2
13.5km, W

vR = √ v12 + v22
18km, N
= √(18 km)2 + (13.5 km)2
Ө
= √ 324 km2 + 182.25 km2

= √ 506.25 km2
= 22.50 km
1. Sam leaves the base camp and hikes 18
km north, and then hikes 13.5 km east.
13.5km, E
tanӨ = 13.5 km
18 km
= 0.75
18km, N
= tan-1 (0.75)
22.5 km = 36.87⁰ east of north
Ө vR = 22.50 km,
36.87⁰ east of north
2. Mica drove 33.7 km west, and 54.98 km south.
33.7km, W

c = √ a2 + b2

vR = √ v12 + v22

54.98km, S = √(33.7 km)2 + (54.98 km)2

= √1,135.69 km2 + 3,022.8 km2

= √4,158.49 km2
= 64.49 km
2. Mica drove 33.7 km west, and 54.98 km south.
33.7km, W

tanӨ = 54.98 km
33.7 km
= 1.631454006
= tan-1 (1.631454006)
54.98km, S
= 58.487⁰ south of west
vR = 64.49 km,
58.49⁰ south of west

64.49 km
3. A cart was pushed 12.57 km south,
and then 19.2 km east.
c = √ a2 + b 2

vR = √ v12 + v22
12.57km, S
= √(12.57 km)2 + (19.2 km)2

19.2km, E = √158 km2 + 368.64 km2

= √526.64 km2
= 22.95 km
3. A cart was pushed 12.57 km south,
and then 19.2 km east.

tanӨ = 19.2 km
22.95 km 12.57 km
= 1.527446301
12.57km, S
= tan-1 (1.527446301)
= 56.78⁰ east of south
vR = 22.95km,
19.2km, E
56.79⁰ east of south
Speed & Velocity
Speed vs. Velocity
• "how fast an object is • “how fast and which
moving“ way

• rate at which an • rate at which an object


object covers distance changes its position"

SI Unit of Speed and Velocity: meter (m) per second (s) = m/s
Formula

Speed = distance
time

Velocity = displacement
time
Speed VS Displacment
1. In a drag race competition,
John completes the 402.25 m
dragster race in a record time
of 4.44 s. Determine the
speed of John’s car.

Given: d= 402.25 m
speed= distance / time
t = 4.44 s
Formula: = 402.25 m / 4.44 s
speed = distance / time
= 90.60 m/s
2. In the qualifying round of the
50-yd freestyle in the sectional
swimming championship, David
got an early lead by finishing the
first 22.86m in 10.01 s. He
finished the return leg in 10.22
seconds.
a. Determine David's speed for the entire race.

b. Determine David's speed for the first 22.86 m leg of


the race.

c. Determine David's velocity for the entire race.


Given: d1 =22.86 m
d2 =22.86 m
t1 = 10.01 s
t2 =10.22 s

a. Determine David's speed for the entire race.


Speed = distance / time

= (22.86 m + 22.86 m) / (10.01 s + 10.22 s)

= 45.72 m / 20.23 s

Speed = 2.26 m/s


Given: d1 =22.86 m
d2 =22.86 m
t1 = 10.01 s
t2 =10.22 s

b. Determine David's speed for the first 22.86m leg of the race.

Speed = distance / time

= 22.86 m / 10.01 s

Speed = 2.28 m/s


Given: d1 =22.86 m
d2 =22.86 m
t1 =10.01 s
t2 =10.22 s

c. Determine David's velocity for the entire race.

Velocity = displacement / time

= 0 m / 20.23 s

Velocity = 0 m/s
PNR travels forward along a straight track at 60 m/s
for 2,500 m and then travels at 100 m/s for the next
2,500 m. What is the velocity?
Given: d1 = 2500m time= displacement / velocity
d2 = 2500 m
v1 = 60 m/s t1= 2500 m and t2= 2500 m
v2 = 100 m/s 60 m/s 100 m/s
= 41.67 s = 25 s

Velocity = displacement /time


= (2500 m + 2500 m)
(41.67 s + 25 s)
= 75 m/s
• Acceleration refers to the change in velocity of a moving
object per unit of time.

• The change in velocity may be achieved in three ways:


• Change in speed (speeds up/ slows down)
• Change in direction
• Change in both speed and direction
A body is said to be “accelerating” when it is :
• moving at changing speed but same direction
• moving at constant speed but changing direction
• moving at changing speed and direction

Acceleration = Vf – Vi SI Unit of Acceleration:


meter (m) / second2 (s2)
t
• Positive acceleration – final velocity is greater than
initial velocity (speeds up)
• Negative acceleration - initial velocity is greater than
final velocity (slows down), sometimes called
deceleration
• However, the term acceleration applies to a decrease
or an increase in velocity
Zero acceleration

Positive acceleration

Negative acceleration
1. The Lamborghini can accelerate from 0 to 27.8 m/s
in a time of 3.40 seconds. Determine the
acceleration of this car.
Given: Vi = 0 m/s
Vf = 27.8 m/s
t = 3.40 s

Formula: Acceleration =( Vf – Vi ) / t

Acceleration = ( Vf – Vi ) / t

= (27.8 m/s – 0 m/s) / 3.40 s

Acceleration = 8.18 m/s2


2. Homer leads the Varsity team in home runs. In a recent
game, Homer hit a 90 m/s curve ball head on, sending it off
his bat in the exact opposite direction at 134 m/s. The
contact between ball and bat lasted for 0.75 s. Determine
the acceleration of the ball during the contact with the bat.
Given: Vi = 90 m/s
Vf = 134 m/s
t = 0.75 s

Acceleration = ( Vf – Vi ) / t

= (134 m/s – 90 m/s) / 0.75 s

Acceleration = 58.67 m/s2


POSITION vs TIME GRAPH
Position Position

time time
Time is increasing Time is increasing
Distance is constant Distance is increasing
SPEED = 0 SPEED = CONSTANT
POSITION vs TIME GRAPH
Position Position

time time
Time is increasing Steeper line indicates
Distance is increasing larger distance covered
SPEED = CONSTANT GREATER SPEED/
“FASTER”
POSITION TIME GRAPH
Position

If an object changes
speed, the graph is
curving upward

time
Speed is increasing
Change in speed is constant
OBJECT IS ACCELERATING
KINEMATIC EQUATIONS
(for uniformly accelerated motion*)
wherein:
d = displacement
t = time interval
vi = initial velocity
vf = final velocity
a = uniform / constant acceleration

* constant acceleration and constant


velocity
KINEMATIC EQUATIONS
(for uniformly accelerated motion*)
(missing d)
Problem solving tip: Note
that each kinematic formula
is missing one of the five
(missing v)
kinematic variables. To
choose the kinematic
(missing t) formula that's right for your
problem, figure out which
variable you are not given
(missing a) and not asked to find.
Aristotle Galileo
• Any object not in its natural place will
strive to get there • Any two objects that are dropped
• Object fall at a rate proportional to together will fall together regardless of
Vertical Motion
their weight their weight if air resistance is negligible
• Heavier objects fall much faster than • Object falls at the same rate
lighter objects
• Force is NOT needed to sustain motion
Horizontal • Force is needed to start and sustain of an object
Motion the motion of an object • Force is required to change motion (to
accelerate)
• A force is needed to start an object to • A projectile is influenced by vertical
Projectile Motion move through air until its natural motion due to the force of gravity and
motion eventually brings it to earth horizontal motion that is uniform
Sir Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727)
•Only 25 when he formulated most of
his discoveries in math and physics
•His book Mathematical Principles of
Natural Philosophy is considered to
be the most important publication in
the history of Physics

Intro
•In the absence of external forces, an object at rest
remains at rest and an object in motion continues
in motion with a constant velocity.

• Newton’s First Law describes what happens in


the absence of a force.

•The First Law also allows the definition of force as



that which causes a change in the motion of an


object.
F
Net force is balanced
A spacecraft
keeps going
because no forces
act to stop it

Photo Source: Copyright © Bobby H. Bammel. All rights reserved.


A large rock stays put until/if a large enough
force acts on it.

Photo Source: Copyright © Bobby H. Bammel. All rights reserved.


Balanced (equal) forces,
therefore no motion.

Equal in magnitude but in opposite directions.


3-66
Section 3.1
Inertia
- the natural tendency of ALL objects to remain at rest or
in uniform motion along a straight line; “resists changes
in motion”
MASS – quantitative measure of inertia of a body
FORCE – action exerted upon by / to a body that
changes its state of motion
** the larger the mass of a body, the more force is needed to
overcome its inertia / change its state of motion
Mass and Inertia

The large man has more inertia – more force is necessary to start
him swinging and also to stop him – due to his greater inertia
Unbalanced forces result in motion

Net force to the right


3-69
Section 3.1
Net Force
• Vector sum of all the forces acting on an object
• Can change an object’s state of motion
• The SI unit of force is NEWTON (N) or kg⋅ m/sec2
 

- When a net force acts on an object, the
acceleration of an object is directly F  ma
proportional to the net force acting on it
and inversely proportional to its mass
- The direction of the acceleration is the same a= F
as the direction of the net force ma
- The bigger the force, the greater the
acceleration; the larger the mass, the smaller
the acceleration Forces are
- SI unit for force: 1 Newton = 1.0 kg⋅m/s2 unbalanced
Force, Mass, Acceleration
a) Original situation
a=F
m
b) If we double the force, we
double the acceleration.

b) If we double the mass, we


half the acceleration.
The Second Law & Force of Gravity
• Gravity: the force that pulls objects towards
each other
• Since gravity is a force it also obeys Newton’s
second law
Since objects fall at the same speed,
their acceleration is the same.
Here on Earth, ALL objects
accelerate at the rate:
ag = - 9.8 m/s2
or
ag = - 32 ft/s2 Air resistance keeps things
from falling equally
Problem Solving:

1. A net force of 16 N causes a mass to accelerate at a


rate of 5 m/s2. Determine the mass.

2. What is the force on a 1000 kg elevator that is


falling freely at 9.8 m/s2?
• For every action, there is an equal
and opposite reaction.

• Whenever one body exerts a force


on a second body, the second
body exerts a force back on the
first that is equal in magnitude but
opposite in direction.

• Action Force Equal in magnitude


but in opposite
• Reaction Force directions

• Fa = - Fb or m1a1 = -m2a2
Constantly affects our everyday activities.
 LOCOMOTION
Dynamics
• study of the
causes of motion
Freely Falling Objects
• When an object falls under the
influence of gravity alone, it is in a
state of free fall
• In the absence of air resistance, all
objects falling near the earth’s surface
fall with a constant acceleration
g = acceleration due to gravity
velocity of a falling object = g x time
Acceleration due to Gravity (g)
• g = 9.80 m/s²
• g is always directed
downward, toward the center
of the earth
• Ignoring air resistance and
assuming g doesn’t vary with
altitude over short vertical
distances, free fall is
constantly accelerated motion
Important to Remember
•An object in free fall experiences an acceleration of -9.8
m/s2. (The - sign indicates a downward acceleration.)
Whether explicitly stated or not, the value of the
acceleration in the kinematic equations is -9.8 m/s2 for
any freely falling object.
•If an object is merely
dropped (as opposed to
being thrown) from an
elevated height, then the
initial velocity of the object
is 0 m/s.
Important to Remember
•If an object is thrown upwards in a
perfectly vertical direction, then it
will slow down as it rises upward.
The instant at which it reaches the
peak of its trajectory, its velocity is
0 m/s. This value can be used as
one of the motion parameters in
the kinematic equations; for
example, the final velocity (vf) after
traveling to the peak would be
assigned a value of 0 m/s.
Equations

(UAM 1) wherein:
d = displacement
t = time interval
(UAM 3) vi = initial velocity
vf = final velocity
(UAM 4)
g = acceleration due to gravity

(UAM 2)
1. Andrew drops a ball from a roof of the house
which takes 3 seconds to hit the ground. What is the
velocity of the ball before it hits ground?
Given: Vi = 0 m/s
t = 3.0 s
g = 9.8 m/s2
Vf = ?
Formula: Vf = Vi - gt

Vf = 0 m/s – [(9.8 m/s2) (3.0 s)]


= - 29.4 m/s
2. A ball was thrown upward with a speed of
29.4 m/s. Compute its velocity at 3.0 s?
Given: Vi = 29.4 m/s
t = 3.0 s
g = 9.8 m/s2
Vf = ?
Formula: Vf = Vi - gt

Vf = 29.4 m/s – [(9.8 m/s2) (3.0 s)]


= 0 m/s
3. A stone is dropped from the rooftop of a building. What
is the velocity and displacement of the stone after 5.0 s?

Given: Vi = 0 m/s Formula: Vf = Vi – gt


t = 5.0 s d = Vit – ½ gt2
g = 9.8 m/s2
Vf = ?
d=?
1
Vf = 0 m/s – (9.8 m/s2) (5.0 s)
= - 49. m/s

2
d = Vit– ½ gt2
= 0 m/s (5 s) – [½ (0 m/s) (9.8 m/s2) (32s)]
= - 122.50 m
Checking Understanding

1. A rocket is fired vertically upward with an initial velocity of 29.0


m/s . Find the rocket's maximum altitude.

2. What is the velocity of the water balloon after falling for 2.35 s?

3. A stone is dropped from the rooftop of a building. What is the


velocity and displacement of the stone after 5.0 s?
Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions:

PROJECTILE MOTION
Projectile Motion
• the motion of object in two dimensions
(horizontal and vertical components)
- an object following a projectile motion is
called a projectile
• acted by gravity alone (air resistance is
negligible)
• the path that a projectile follows is called its
trajectory
- trajectory of a projectile results in a
parabola (since it moves both along
the horizontal and vertical directions)
Dropped from Thrown vertically Thrown upward at an angle
rest upward to the horizontal

 Any object that, once projected or dropped, continues in motion by its


own inertia and is only influenced by the downward force of gravity
• Since a projectile
moves in two
dimensions,
therefore it has two
components:

Horizontal velocity
(Vx)
Vertical velocity
(Vy)
Projectile Motion
Horizontal Velocity (Vx)
Component
NEVER changes  covers
equal displacements in equal
time periods
Initial horizontal velocity
equals final horizontal velocity

In other words, horizontal


velocity is CONSTANT, because
gravity DOES NOT work
 Consistent with Newton’s First Law horizontally to increase or
(Law of Inertia) decrease the velocity
Vertical Velocity (Vy) Component

 CHANGES (due to gravity)  DOES NOT cover equal displacements in equal time periods
 Both the magnitude and direction change. As the projectile moves UPWARD, the
magnitude DECREASES and the direction is UPWARD. Once it reaches the top of its flight
path, it will start to move DOWNWARD, then the magnitude INCREASES (because it is
gaining speed from force of gravity) and the direction is DOWNWARD.
Combining the 2 components:
Together, these
components
produce a
parabolic
trajectory or path
(characteristic of
all projectiles)

Component Magnitude Direction


Horizontal Constant Constant
Vertical Changes Changes
In the presence of gravity…
A projectile travels with a
constant horizontal velocity
and a downward vertical
acceleration.

The horizontal and vertical


motions of a projectile are
completely independent of
each other.
Time (maximum height)

sin2𝞱
g
• A football is kicked with an initial velocity of 25 m/s at an angle of 45
degrees with the horizontal. Determine the peak height of the
football, the time of flight, and the horizontal displacement (range).
Given: Vi = 25 m/s
𝞱 = 45°
H=?
t=?
R=?
2
2 2 i
1 i 2 i 3
• A cannon ball on the ground is fired at 35o with an initial velocity of 250
m/s.
a) How long will it take to hit the ground,
b) how far from the cannon ball will it hit the ground, and
c) compute for the maximum height to be reached by the cannon ball.
Given: Vi = 250 m/s
𝞱 = 35°
t=?
R=?
H=?
2 2
a b
2 c i
i i
What is Momentum (p) ?
• The quantity of motion of a moving body – “mass in motion”
• All objects have mass; so if an object is moving, then it has
momentum - it has its mass in motion.
• Dependent upon two variables: how much object is moving
and how fast the object is moving.
What is Momentum (p) ?
• Momentum depends on two variables: mass and velocity
• Momentum of an object is equal to the mass of the object
times the velocity of the object. (kg.m/s)
Momentum (p) = Mass (m) * Velocity (v)

• An object may have large momentum due to (a) large mass;


(b) large velocity; or (c) both
What is Momentum (p) ?
• Momentum is a vector quantity
• Fully described by both magnitude and direction
• A 5kg ball is moving 2m/s West. Its momentum is
10kg.m/s, west
Check your understanding:

A.

>
Mass of truck is greater than
motorcycle ∴ greater momentum

B.

<

Truck is at rest ∴ no momentum


Examples:
1. Determine the momentum of a ...

a. 60-kg cart moving eastward at 9 m/s.

b. 1000-kg car moving northward at 20 m/s.

c. 40-kg train moving southward at 2 m/s.


Examples:
1. Determine the momentum of a ...

a. 60-kg cart moving eastward at 9 m/s.


• p = 540 kg•m/s, east

b. 1000-kg car moving northward at 20 m/s.


• p = 20 000 kg•m/s, north

c. 40-kg train moving southward at 2 m/s.


• p = 80 kg•m/s, south
Examples:

2. A car possesses a momentum of 20,000 kg.m/s. What would


be the car's new momentum if ...
a. its velocity was doubled.
b. its velocity was tripled.
c. its mass was doubled (add more passengers and a greater
load)
d. both its velocity was doubled and its mass was doubled.
Examples:
2. A car possesses a momentum of 20,000 kg.m/s. What would
be the car's new momentum if ...
a. its velocity was doubled.
• p = 40,000 kg.m/s (doubling the velocity will double the
momentum)
b. its velocity was tripled.
• p = 60,000 kg.m/s (tripling the velocity will triple the
momentum)
Examples:

2. A car possesses a momentum of 20,000 kg.m/s. What would


be the car's new momentum if ...
c. its mass was doubled (add more passengers and a greater
load)
• p = 40,000 kg.m/s (double mass = double momentum)
d. both its velocity was doubled and its mass was doubled.
• p = 80,000 kg.m/s (double velocity = double
momentum; double mass = double momentum)
Law of Momentum Conservation
“The total momentum of the two
objects before the collision is equal
to the total momentum of the two
objects after the collision”
Law of Momentum Conservation
• momentum is neither lost or gained

• "when two bodies collide with one another, the total


energy remains constant“

• follows Newton’s 3rd Law of Motion “Law of Interaction”


Law of Momentum Conservation
• Momentum is always conserved in collisions.

m1vi1 + m2vi2 = m1vf1 + m2vf2


wherein:
m1 mass of Body A
m2 mass of the Body B
vi1 initial velocity of Body A (before
interaction)
vi2 initial velocity of Body B (before
interaction)
Vi1 final velocity of Body A (after interaction)
vi2 final velocity of Body B (after interaction)

.
Law of Momentum Conservation

• The dropped brick is at rest and begins with zero momentum.

• The loaded cart is in motion with considerable momentum.

• The total amount of momentum is the sum of the dropped brick's


momentum (0 kg.m/s) and the loaded cart's momentum.
Law of Momentum Conservation

• If momentum is conserved during the collision, the sum of the


dropped brick's and loaded cart's momentum after the collision
should be the same as before the collision.

• The momentum lost by the loaded cart should equal the


momentum gained by the dropped brick.
Law of Momentum Conservation

Change in
Before Collision After Collision
Momentum
Momentum Momentum

Dropped Brick 0 kg.m/s 14 kg.m/s +14 kg.m/s

Loaded Cart 45 kg.m/s 31 kg.m/s -14 kg.m/s

Total 45 kg.m/s 45 kg.m/s


Law of Momentum Conservation
Law of Momentum Conservation

Newton’s Cradle
Law of Momentum Conservation
Law of Momentum Conservation
• Newton's third law of motion is
naturally applied to collisions
between two objects

• Both objects experience forces that


are equal in magnitude and
opposite in direction

• Such forces often cause one object


to speed up (gain momentum) and
the other object to slow down (lose
momentum)
Law of Momentum Conservation
• accelerations of the objects are not
necessarily equal in magnitude

• Newton’s 2nd law of motion states, “the


acceleration of an object is dependent
upon both force and mass”

• equal mass = equal acceleration

• unequal mass = unequal acceleration


Equal and
Opposite
Momentum
Changes
m1vi1 + m2vi2 = m1vf1 + m2vf2

1. A 15kg ball is thrown at a velocity of 20 km/hr to a 60kg person on roller


blades. The person catches the ball and subsequently slides with the
ball across the floor. Determine the velocity of the person and the ball
after the collision.

2. A 0.150kg baseball moving at a speed of 45.0 m/s crosses the plate and
strikes the 0.250kg catcher's mitt (originally at rest). The catcher's mitt
immediately moves backwards (at the same speed as the ball) before
the catcher applies an external force to stop its momentum. Determine
the post-collision velocity of the mitt and ball.

3. A 3000-kg truck moving with a velocity of 10 m/s hits a 1000-kg parked


car. The impact causes the 1000-kg car to be set in motion at 15 m/s.
Assuming that momentum is conserved during the collision, determine
the velocity of the truck immediately after the collision.
m1vi1 + m2vi2 = m1vf1 + m2vf2

1. A 15kg ball is thrown at a velocity of 20 km/hr to a 60kg person


on roller blades. The person catches the ball and subsequently
slides with the ball across the floor. Determine the velocity of
the person and the ball after the collision.

(60kg)(0km/hr) + (15kg)(20km/hr) = (60kg)(vf1) + (15kg)(vf2)


0kg.km/hr + 300kg.km/hr = 60kg + 15kg (v)
300kg.km/hr =
= 75kg (v)
75kg 75kg

v = 4km/hr
m1vi1 + m2vi2 = m1vf1 + m2vf2

2. A 0.150kg baseball moving at a speed of 45.0 m/s crosses the


plate and strikes the 0.250kg catcher's mitt (originally at rest).
The catcher's mitt immediately moves backwards (at the same
speed as the ball) before the catcher applies an external force
to stop its momentum. Determine the post-collision velocity of
the mitt and ball.

(0.15kg)(45m/s) + (0.25kg)(0m/s) = (0.15kg)(vf1) + (0.25kg)(vf2)


6.75kg.m/s + 0kg.m/s = 0.15kg + 0.25kg (v)
6.75kg.m/s == 0.40kg (v)
0.40kg 0.40kg
v= 16.88 m/s
m1vi1 + m2vi2 = m1vf1 + m2vf2
3. A 3000-kg truck moving with a velocity of 10 m/s hits a 1000-
kg parked car. The impact causes the 1000-kg car to be set in
motion at 15 m/s. Assuming that momentum is conserved
during the collision, determine the velocity of the truck
immediately after the collision.
(3,000kg)(10m/s) + (1,000kg)(0m/s) = (3,000kg)(vf1) +
(1,000kg)(15m/s)
30,000kg.m/s + 0kg.m/s = (3,000kg) (vf1) + 15,000kg.m/s
30,000kg.m/s - 15,000kg.m/s = 3,000kg (vf1)
15,000kg.m/s == 3,000kg (vf1)
3,000kg 3,000kg

vf1 = 5.0m/s
Impulse
• Impulse = change in momentum

• Impulse = Force x time (unit is N.s)

• Change in momentum = mass x Δv

• F x t = m x Δv (Impulse-Momentum Theorem)
Examples:
1. Jennifer, who has a mass of 50.0 kg, is riding at 35.0 m/s in
her red sports car when she must suddenly slam on the brakes
to avoid hitting a cat crossing the road. She strikes the air bag,
that brings her body to a stop in 0.500 s. What average force
does the seat belt exert on her?

2. If Jennifer had not been wearing her seat belt and not had an
air bag, then the windshield would have stopped her head in
0.002 s. What average force would the windshield have
exerted on her?
Example:
1. Jennifer, who has a mass of 50.0 kg, is riding at 35.0 m/s in
her red sports car when she must suddenly slam on the brakes
to avoid hitting a cat crossing the road. She strikes the air bag,
that brings her body to a stop in 0.500 s. What average force
does the seat belt exert on her?

(F) (t) = (mass) (Δv)

(F) (0.500 s) = (50 kg) (35 m/s)

(F) (0.500 s) = 1,750 kg.m/s


0.500 s 0.500 s

F = 3500 N
Example:
2. If Jennifer had not been wearing her seat belt and not had an
air bag, then the windshield would have stopped her head in
0.002 s. What average force would the windshield have
exerted on her?

(F) (t) = (Mass) (Δv)

(F) (0.002 s) = (50 kg) (35 m/s)

(F) (0.002 s) = 1,750 kg.m/s


0.002 s 0.002 s

F = 875,000 N
Fill in the Blanks:

Mom.
Force Time Impulse Mass Vel. Change
Change
(N) (s) (N.s) (kg) (m/s)
(kg.m/s)

? N
-4,000 0.010 s -40?N.s ?
-40 kg.m/s 10 kg -4 m/s

? N
-400 0.100 s -40 N.s ?
-40 kg.m/s 10 kg -4 ?m/s

?
-20,000 N 0.010 s ? N.s
-200 -200 kg.m/s 50 kg -4 ?m/s

-20,000 N ? s
0.010 ? N.s
-200 -200 kg.m/s 25? kg -8 m/s

-200 N 1.0 s ? N.s


-200 -200 ?kg.m/s 50 kg -4 ?m/s