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Kinematics

describes motion in

terms of:

displacement (d)

velocity (v)

acceleration (a)

• Scalars are quantities that are fully described by a

magnitude alone (numerical value and units)

• Vectors are quantities that are fully described by

both a magnitude and a direction

SCALAR VECTOR

Distance Displacement

Speed Velocity

Time Acceleration

Checking Understanding:

•5m • SCALAR

• 30 m/sec, East • VECTOR

• 5 mi., North • VECTOR

• 20 degrees Celsius • SCALAR

• 256 bytes • SCALAR

• 4000 Calories • SCALAR

Distance vs. Displacement

• "how much ground an • "how far out of place an

object has covered" object is“

during its motion • where you are (direction) in

• how far you have relation to where you started

traveled, regardless of • Total distance from the start

direction to the end point

• total ground covered

Displacement: meter (m)

Distance vs. Displacement

• You drive the path, and your odometer goes up by 8

miles (your distance).

• What if you drove in a circle?

• Your displacement is the shorter directed distance

from start to stop (green arrow).

start

stop

Distance

.

Checking Understanding

A student walks • What is the total

4 meters East, distance?

2 meters South, Ans: 12 meters

4 meters West,

and 2 meters North.

• What is the final

displacement?

Ans: 0 displacement

.

Checking Understanding

The skier moves from

A to B to C to D. • What is the total

At each of the indicated times, the distance?

skier turns around and reverses Ans: (180 m + 140 m

the direction of travel. + 100 m) = 420 m

• What is the final

displacement?

Ans: 140 m,

rightward

Checking Understanding

Mica walks 16 km to the north, 12 km back to the east

and 15 km to the west.

a. Determine the distance which Mica moved.

b. Determine Mica's displacement.

15km, W

12km, E

Displacement:

16km, N

Distance:

Vector Addition

more vectors is

represented by a

single vector called

the resultant

Vector Addition

Determining the magnitude and

direction of the resultant vector:

scaled vector diagram

trigonometric methods

• The Pythagorean theorem is

a useful method for

determining the result of

adding two vectors that

make a right angle to each

other.

• A mathematical equation

that relates the length of the

sides of a right triangle to the

length of the hypotenuse of

a right triangle.

Using Trigonometry to Determine a

Vector's Direction

The direction of a resultant vector can often be

determined by using trigonometric functions

an acute angle to the ratio of the length of the

side opposite the angle to the length of the

hypotenuse.

Using Trigonometry to Determine a

Vector's Direction

The direction of a resultant vector can often be

determined by use of trigonometric functions

measure of an acute angle to the ratio of

the length of the side adjacent the angle

to the length of the hypotenuse.

Using Trigonometry to Determine a

Vector's Direction

The direction of a resultant vector can often be

determined by use of trigonometric functions

measure of an angle to the ratio of the

length of the side opposite the angle to the

length of the side adjacent to the angle.

1. Eric leaves the base camp and hikes 11 km north,

and then hikes 11 km east. Determine Eric's resulting

displacement.

11km, E

c = √ a2 + b2

vR = √ v12 + v22

Ө

= √ 121 km2 + 121 km2

= √242 km2

= 15.56 km

1. Eric leaves the base camp and hikes 11 km north,

and then hikes 11 km east. Determine Eric's

resulting displacement.

11km, E

tanӨ = 11 km

11 km

= 1

= tan-1 (1)

11km, N

Ө 15. 56 km = 45⁰ east of north

vR = 15.56 km,

45⁰ east of north

2. In order for Allan to reach his workplace, he

drove 10 km west and 5 km south. Determine

Allan’s displacement.

c = √ a2 + b 2

10km, W vR = √ v12 + v22

Ө

5km, S = √(10 km)2 + (5 km)2

= √125 km2

= 11.18 km

2. In order for Allan to reach his workplace, he

drove 10 km west and 5 km south. Determine

Allan’s displacement.

tanӨ = 5 km

10km, W 10 km

Ө = 0.5

= tan-1 (0.5)

5km, S = 26.565⁰ south of west

11.18km vR = 11.180 km,

26.57⁰ south of west

A plane flying due north at 100 m/s

is blown by a 500 m/s strong wind

due east. What is the direction of

the plane?

A plane flying due north at 100 m/s is blown by a

500 m/s strong wind due east. What is the

plane’s resultant velocity?

c = √ a2 + b 2

vR = √ v12 + v22

= √(100m/s)2 + (500m/s)2

= √(10,000m/s)2 + (250000m/s)2

= √260,000m2/s2

= 509.90 m/s

A plane flying due north at 100 m/s is blown by a

500 m/s strong wind due east. What is the

direction of the plane?

N

b

a Ө

W E

100 m/s

= 5

= tan-1 (5)

= 78.69⁰ east of north

S vR = 509.90 m/s, 78.69⁰ east of north

Checking Understanding:

north, and then hikes 13.5 km east.

19.2 km east.

1. Sam leaves the base camp and hikes 18

km north, and then hikes 13.5 km east.

c = √ a2 + b 2

13.5km, W

vR = √ v12 + v22

18km, N

= √(18 km)2 + (13.5 km)2

Ө

= √ 324 km2 + 182.25 km2

= √ 506.25 km2

= 22.50 km

1. Sam leaves the base camp and hikes 18

km north, and then hikes 13.5 km east.

13.5km, E

tanӨ = 13.5 km

18 km

= 0.75

18km, N

= tan-1 (0.75)

22.5 km = 36.87⁰ east of north

Ө vR = 22.50 km,

36.87⁰ east of north

2. Mica drove 33.7 km west, and 54.98 km south.

33.7km, W

c = √ a2 + b2

vR = √ v12 + v22

= √4,158.49 km2

= 64.49 km

2. Mica drove 33.7 km west, and 54.98 km south.

33.7km, W

tanӨ = 54.98 km

33.7 km

= 1.631454006

= tan-1 (1.631454006)

54.98km, S

= 58.487⁰ south of west

vR = 64.49 km,

58.49⁰ south of west

64.49 km

3. A cart was pushed 12.57 km south,

and then 19.2 km east.

c = √ a2 + b 2

vR = √ v12 + v22

12.57km, S

= √(12.57 km)2 + (19.2 km)2

= √526.64 km2

= 22.95 km

3. A cart was pushed 12.57 km south,

and then 19.2 km east.

tanӨ = 19.2 km

22.95 km 12.57 km

= 1.527446301

12.57km, S

= tan-1 (1.527446301)

= 56.78⁰ east of south

vR = 22.95km,

19.2km, E

56.79⁰ east of south

Speed & Velocity

Speed vs. Velocity

• "how fast an object is • “how fast and which

moving“ way

object covers distance changes its position"

SI Unit of Speed and Velocity: meter (m) per second (s) = m/s

Formula

Speed = distance

time

Velocity = displacement

time

Speed VS Displacment

1. In a drag race competition,

John completes the 402.25 m

dragster race in a record time

of 4.44 s. Determine the

speed of John’s car.

Given: d= 402.25 m

speed= distance / time

t = 4.44 s

Formula: = 402.25 m / 4.44 s

speed = distance / time

= 90.60 m/s

2. In the qualifying round of the

50-yd freestyle in the sectional

swimming championship, David

got an early lead by finishing the

first 22.86m in 10.01 s. He

finished the return leg in 10.22

seconds.

a. Determine David's speed for the entire race.

the race.

Given: d1 =22.86 m

d2 =22.86 m

t1 = 10.01 s

t2 =10.22 s

Speed = distance / time

= 45.72 m / 20.23 s

Given: d1 =22.86 m

d2 =22.86 m

t1 = 10.01 s

t2 =10.22 s

b. Determine David's speed for the first 22.86m leg of the race.

= 22.86 m / 10.01 s

Given: d1 =22.86 m

d2 =22.86 m

t1 =10.01 s

t2 =10.22 s

= 0 m / 20.23 s

Velocity = 0 m/s

PNR travels forward along a straight track at 60 m/s

for 2,500 m and then travels at 100 m/s for the next

2,500 m. What is the velocity?

Given: d1 = 2500m time= displacement / velocity

d2 = 2500 m

v1 = 60 m/s t1= 2500 m and t2= 2500 m

v2 = 100 m/s 60 m/s 100 m/s

= 41.67 s = 25 s

= (2500 m + 2500 m)

(41.67 s + 25 s)

= 75 m/s

• Acceleration refers to the change in velocity of a moving

object per unit of time.

• Change in speed (speeds up/ slows down)

• Change in direction

• Change in both speed and direction

A body is said to be “accelerating” when it is :

• moving at changing speed but same direction

• moving at constant speed but changing direction

• moving at changing speed and direction

meter (m) / second2 (s2)

t

• Positive acceleration – final velocity is greater than

initial velocity (speeds up)

• Negative acceleration - initial velocity is greater than

final velocity (slows down), sometimes called

deceleration

• However, the term acceleration applies to a decrease

or an increase in velocity

Zero acceleration

Positive acceleration

Negative acceleration

1. The Lamborghini can accelerate from 0 to 27.8 m/s

in a time of 3.40 seconds. Determine the

acceleration of this car.

Given: Vi = 0 m/s

Vf = 27.8 m/s

t = 3.40 s

Formula: Acceleration =( Vf – Vi ) / t

Acceleration = ( Vf – Vi ) / t

2. Homer leads the Varsity team in home runs. In a recent

game, Homer hit a 90 m/s curve ball head on, sending it off

his bat in the exact opposite direction at 134 m/s. The

contact between ball and bat lasted for 0.75 s. Determine

the acceleration of the ball during the contact with the bat.

Given: Vi = 90 m/s

Vf = 134 m/s

t = 0.75 s

Acceleration = ( Vf – Vi ) / t

POSITION vs TIME GRAPH

Position Position

time time

Time is increasing Time is increasing

Distance is constant Distance is increasing

SPEED = 0 SPEED = CONSTANT

POSITION vs TIME GRAPH

Position Position

time time

Time is increasing Steeper line indicates

Distance is increasing larger distance covered

SPEED = CONSTANT GREATER SPEED/

“FASTER”

POSITION TIME GRAPH

Position

If an object changes

speed, the graph is

curving upward

time

Speed is increasing

Change in speed is constant

OBJECT IS ACCELERATING

KINEMATIC EQUATIONS

(for uniformly accelerated motion*)

wherein:

d = displacement

t = time interval

vi = initial velocity

vf = final velocity

a = uniform / constant acceleration

velocity

KINEMATIC EQUATIONS

(for uniformly accelerated motion*)

(missing d)

Problem solving tip: Note

that each kinematic formula

is missing one of the five

(missing v)

kinematic variables. To

choose the kinematic

(missing t) formula that's right for your

problem, figure out which

variable you are not given

(missing a) and not asked to find.

Aristotle Galileo

• Any object not in its natural place will

strive to get there • Any two objects that are dropped

• Object fall at a rate proportional to together will fall together regardless of

Vertical Motion

their weight their weight if air resistance is negligible

• Heavier objects fall much faster than • Object falls at the same rate

lighter objects

• Force is NOT needed to sustain motion

Horizontal • Force is needed to start and sustain of an object

Motion the motion of an object • Force is required to change motion (to

accelerate)

• A force is needed to start an object to • A projectile is influenced by vertical

Projectile Motion move through air until its natural motion due to the force of gravity and

motion eventually brings it to earth horizontal motion that is uniform

Sir Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727)

•Only 25 when he formulated most of

his discoveries in math and physics

•His book Mathematical Principles of

Natural Philosophy is considered to

be the most important publication in

the history of Physics

Intro

•In the absence of external forces, an object at rest

remains at rest and an object in motion continues

in motion with a constant velocity.

the absence of a force.

that which causes a change in the motion of an

object.

F

Net force is balanced

A spacecraft

keeps going

because no forces

act to stop it

A large rock stays put until/if a large enough

force acts on it.

Balanced (equal) forces,

therefore no motion.

3-66

Section 3.1

Inertia

- the natural tendency of ALL objects to remain at rest or

in uniform motion along a straight line; “resists changes

in motion”

MASS – quantitative measure of inertia of a body

FORCE – action exerted upon by / to a body that

changes its state of motion

** the larger the mass of a body, the more force is needed to

overcome its inertia / change its state of motion

Mass and Inertia

The large man has more inertia – more force is necessary to start

him swinging and also to stop him – due to his greater inertia

Unbalanced forces result in motion

3-69

Section 3.1

Net Force

• Vector sum of all the forces acting on an object

• Can change an object’s state of motion

• The SI unit of force is NEWTON (N) or kg⋅ m/sec2

- When a net force acts on an object, the

acceleration of an object is directly F ma

proportional to the net force acting on it

and inversely proportional to its mass

- The direction of the acceleration is the same a= F

as the direction of the net force ma

- The bigger the force, the greater the

acceleration; the larger the mass, the smaller

the acceleration Forces are

- SI unit for force: 1 Newton = 1.0 kg⋅m/s2 unbalanced

Force, Mass, Acceleration

a) Original situation

a=F

m

b) If we double the force, we

double the acceleration.

half the acceleration.

The Second Law & Force of Gravity

• Gravity: the force that pulls objects towards

each other

• Since gravity is a force it also obeys Newton’s

second law

Since objects fall at the same speed,

their acceleration is the same.

Here on Earth, ALL objects

accelerate at the rate:

ag = - 9.8 m/s2

or

ag = - 32 ft/s2 Air resistance keeps things

from falling equally

Problem Solving:

rate of 5 m/s2. Determine the mass.

falling freely at 9.8 m/s2?

• For every action, there is an equal

and opposite reaction.

on a second body, the second

body exerts a force back on the

first that is equal in magnitude but

opposite in direction.

but in opposite

• Reaction Force directions

• Fa = - Fb or m1a1 = -m2a2

Constantly affects our everyday activities.

LOCOMOTION

Dynamics

• study of the

causes of motion

Freely Falling Objects

• When an object falls under the

influence of gravity alone, it is in a

state of free fall

• In the absence of air resistance, all

objects falling near the earth’s surface

fall with a constant acceleration

g = acceleration due to gravity

velocity of a falling object = g x time

Acceleration due to Gravity (g)

• g = 9.80 m/s²

• g is always directed

downward, toward the center

of the earth

• Ignoring air resistance and

assuming g doesn’t vary with

altitude over short vertical

distances, free fall is

constantly accelerated motion

Important to Remember

•An object in free fall experiences an acceleration of -9.8

m/s2. (The - sign indicates a downward acceleration.)

Whether explicitly stated or not, the value of the

acceleration in the kinematic equations is -9.8 m/s2 for

any freely falling object.

•If an object is merely

dropped (as opposed to

being thrown) from an

elevated height, then the

initial velocity of the object

is 0 m/s.

Important to Remember

•If an object is thrown upwards in a

perfectly vertical direction, then it

will slow down as it rises upward.

The instant at which it reaches the

peak of its trajectory, its velocity is

0 m/s. This value can be used as

one of the motion parameters in

the kinematic equations; for

example, the final velocity (vf) after

traveling to the peak would be

assigned a value of 0 m/s.

Equations

(UAM 1) wherein:

d = displacement

t = time interval

(UAM 3) vi = initial velocity

vf = final velocity

(UAM 4)

g = acceleration due to gravity

(UAM 2)

1. Andrew drops a ball from a roof of the house

which takes 3 seconds to hit the ground. What is the

velocity of the ball before it hits ground?

Given: Vi = 0 m/s

t = 3.0 s

g = 9.8 m/s2

Vf = ?

Formula: Vf = Vi - gt

= - 29.4 m/s

2. A ball was thrown upward with a speed of

29.4 m/s. Compute its velocity at 3.0 s?

Given: Vi = 29.4 m/s

t = 3.0 s

g = 9.8 m/s2

Vf = ?

Formula: Vf = Vi - gt

= 0 m/s

3. A stone is dropped from the rooftop of a building. What

is the velocity and displacement of the stone after 5.0 s?

t = 5.0 s d = Vit – ½ gt2

g = 9.8 m/s2

Vf = ?

d=?

1

Vf = 0 m/s – (9.8 m/s2) (5.0 s)

= - 49. m/s

2

d = Vit– ½ gt2

= 0 m/s (5 s) – [½ (0 m/s) (9.8 m/s2) (32s)]

= - 122.50 m

Checking Understanding

m/s . Find the rocket's maximum altitude.

2. What is the velocity of the water balloon after falling for 2.35 s?

velocity and displacement of the stone after 5.0 s?

Motion and Forces in Two Dimensions:

PROJECTILE MOTION

Projectile Motion

• the motion of object in two dimensions

(horizontal and vertical components)

- an object following a projectile motion is

called a projectile

• acted by gravity alone (air resistance is

negligible)

• the path that a projectile follows is called its

trajectory

- trajectory of a projectile results in a

parabola (since it moves both along

the horizontal and vertical directions)

Dropped from Thrown vertically Thrown upward at an angle

rest upward to the horizontal

own inertia and is only influenced by the downward force of gravity

• Since a projectile

moves in two

dimensions,

therefore it has two

components:

Horizontal velocity

(Vx)

Vertical velocity

(Vy)

Projectile Motion

Horizontal Velocity (Vx)

Component

NEVER changes covers

equal displacements in equal

time periods

Initial horizontal velocity

equals final horizontal velocity

velocity is CONSTANT, because

gravity DOES NOT work

Consistent with Newton’s First Law horizontally to increase or

(Law of Inertia) decrease the velocity

Vertical Velocity (Vy) Component

CHANGES (due to gravity) DOES NOT cover equal displacements in equal time periods

Both the magnitude and direction change. As the projectile moves UPWARD, the

magnitude DECREASES and the direction is UPWARD. Once it reaches the top of its flight

path, it will start to move DOWNWARD, then the magnitude INCREASES (because it is

gaining speed from force of gravity) and the direction is DOWNWARD.

Combining the 2 components:

Together, these

components

produce a

parabolic

trajectory or path

(characteristic of

all projectiles)

Horizontal Constant Constant

Vertical Changes Changes

In the presence of gravity…

A projectile travels with a

constant horizontal velocity

and a downward vertical

acceleration.

motions of a projectile are

completely independent of

each other.

Time (maximum height)

sin2𝞱

g

• A football is kicked with an initial velocity of 25 m/s at an angle of 45

degrees with the horizontal. Determine the peak height of the

football, the time of flight, and the horizontal displacement (range).

Given: Vi = 25 m/s

𝞱 = 45°

H=?

t=?

R=?

2

2 2 i

1 i 2 i 3

• A cannon ball on the ground is fired at 35o with an initial velocity of 250

m/s.

a) How long will it take to hit the ground,

b) how far from the cannon ball will it hit the ground, and

c) compute for the maximum height to be reached by the cannon ball.

Given: Vi = 250 m/s

𝞱 = 35°

t=?

R=?

H=?

2 2

a b

2 c i

i i

What is Momentum (p) ?

• The quantity of motion of a moving body – “mass in motion”

• All objects have mass; so if an object is moving, then it has

momentum - it has its mass in motion.

• Dependent upon two variables: how much object is moving

and how fast the object is moving.

What is Momentum (p) ?

• Momentum depends on two variables: mass and velocity

• Momentum of an object is equal to the mass of the object

times the velocity of the object. (kg.m/s)

Momentum (p) = Mass (m) * Velocity (v)

(b) large velocity; or (c) both

What is Momentum (p) ?

• Momentum is a vector quantity

• Fully described by both magnitude and direction

• A 5kg ball is moving 2m/s West. Its momentum is

10kg.m/s, west

Check your understanding:

A.

>

Mass of truck is greater than

motorcycle ∴ greater momentum

B.

<

Examples:

1. Determine the momentum of a ...

Examples:

1. Determine the momentum of a ...

• p = 540 kg•m/s, east

• p = 20 000 kg•m/s, north

• p = 80 kg•m/s, south

Examples:

be the car's new momentum if ...

a. its velocity was doubled.

b. its velocity was tripled.

c. its mass was doubled (add more passengers and a greater

load)

d. both its velocity was doubled and its mass was doubled.

Examples:

2. A car possesses a momentum of 20,000 kg.m/s. What would

be the car's new momentum if ...

a. its velocity was doubled.

• p = 40,000 kg.m/s (doubling the velocity will double the

momentum)

b. its velocity was tripled.

• p = 60,000 kg.m/s (tripling the velocity will triple the

momentum)

Examples:

be the car's new momentum if ...

c. its mass was doubled (add more passengers and a greater

load)

• p = 40,000 kg.m/s (double mass = double momentum)

d. both its velocity was doubled and its mass was doubled.

• p = 80,000 kg.m/s (double velocity = double

momentum; double mass = double momentum)

Law of Momentum Conservation

“The total momentum of the two

objects before the collision is equal

to the total momentum of the two

objects after the collision”

Law of Momentum Conservation

• momentum is neither lost or gained

energy remains constant“

Law of Momentum Conservation

• Momentum is always conserved in collisions.

wherein:

m1 mass of Body A

m2 mass of the Body B

vi1 initial velocity of Body A (before

interaction)

vi2 initial velocity of Body B (before

interaction)

Vi1 final velocity of Body A (after interaction)

vi2 final velocity of Body B (after interaction)

.

Law of Momentum Conservation

momentum (0 kg.m/s) and the loaded cart's momentum.

Law of Momentum Conservation

dropped brick's and loaded cart's momentum after the collision

should be the same as before the collision.

momentum gained by the dropped brick.

Law of Momentum Conservation

Change in

Before Collision After Collision

Momentum

Momentum Momentum

Law of Momentum Conservation

Law of Momentum Conservation

Newton’s Cradle

Law of Momentum Conservation

Law of Momentum Conservation

• Newton's third law of motion is

naturally applied to collisions

between two objects

are equal in magnitude and

opposite in direction

to speed up (gain momentum) and

the other object to slow down (lose

momentum)

Law of Momentum Conservation

• accelerations of the objects are not

necessarily equal in magnitude

acceleration of an object is dependent

upon both force and mass”

Equal and

Opposite

Momentum

Changes

m1vi1 + m2vi2 = m1vf1 + m2vf2

blades. The person catches the ball and subsequently slides with the

ball across the floor. Determine the velocity of the person and the ball

after the collision.

2. A 0.150kg baseball moving at a speed of 45.0 m/s crosses the plate and

strikes the 0.250kg catcher's mitt (originally at rest). The catcher's mitt

immediately moves backwards (at the same speed as the ball) before

the catcher applies an external force to stop its momentum. Determine

the post-collision velocity of the mitt and ball.

car. The impact causes the 1000-kg car to be set in motion at 15 m/s.

Assuming that momentum is conserved during the collision, determine

the velocity of the truck immediately after the collision.

m1vi1 + m2vi2 = m1vf1 + m2vf2

on roller blades. The person catches the ball and subsequently

slides with the ball across the floor. Determine the velocity of

the person and the ball after the collision.

0kg.km/hr + 300kg.km/hr = 60kg + 15kg (v)

300kg.km/hr =

= 75kg (v)

75kg 75kg

v = 4km/hr

m1vi1 + m2vi2 = m1vf1 + m2vf2

plate and strikes the 0.250kg catcher's mitt (originally at rest).

The catcher's mitt immediately moves backwards (at the same

speed as the ball) before the catcher applies an external force

to stop its momentum. Determine the post-collision velocity of

the mitt and ball.

6.75kg.m/s + 0kg.m/s = 0.15kg + 0.25kg (v)

6.75kg.m/s == 0.40kg (v)

0.40kg 0.40kg

v= 16.88 m/s

m1vi1 + m2vi2 = m1vf1 + m2vf2

3. A 3000-kg truck moving with a velocity of 10 m/s hits a 1000-

kg parked car. The impact causes the 1000-kg car to be set in

motion at 15 m/s. Assuming that momentum is conserved

during the collision, determine the velocity of the truck

immediately after the collision.

(3,000kg)(10m/s) + (1,000kg)(0m/s) = (3,000kg)(vf1) +

(1,000kg)(15m/s)

30,000kg.m/s + 0kg.m/s = (3,000kg) (vf1) + 15,000kg.m/s

30,000kg.m/s - 15,000kg.m/s = 3,000kg (vf1)

15,000kg.m/s == 3,000kg (vf1)

3,000kg 3,000kg

vf1 = 5.0m/s

Impulse

• Impulse = change in momentum

• F x t = m x Δv (Impulse-Momentum Theorem)

Examples:

1. Jennifer, who has a mass of 50.0 kg, is riding at 35.0 m/s in

her red sports car when she must suddenly slam on the brakes

to avoid hitting a cat crossing the road. She strikes the air bag,

that brings her body to a stop in 0.500 s. What average force

does the seat belt exert on her?

2. If Jennifer had not been wearing her seat belt and not had an

air bag, then the windshield would have stopped her head in

0.002 s. What average force would the windshield have

exerted on her?

Example:

1. Jennifer, who has a mass of 50.0 kg, is riding at 35.0 m/s in

her red sports car when she must suddenly slam on the brakes

to avoid hitting a cat crossing the road. She strikes the air bag,

that brings her body to a stop in 0.500 s. What average force

does the seat belt exert on her?

0.500 s 0.500 s

F = 3500 N

Example:

2. If Jennifer had not been wearing her seat belt and not had an

air bag, then the windshield would have stopped her head in

0.002 s. What average force would the windshield have

exerted on her?

0.002 s 0.002 s

F = 875,000 N

Fill in the Blanks:

Mom.

Force Time Impulse Mass Vel. Change

Change

(N) (s) (N.s) (kg) (m/s)

(kg.m/s)

? N

-4,000 0.010 s -40?N.s ?

-40 kg.m/s 10 kg -4 m/s

? N

-400 0.100 s -40 N.s ?

-40 kg.m/s 10 kg -4 ?m/s

?

-20,000 N 0.010 s ? N.s

-200 -200 kg.m/s 50 kg -4 ?m/s

-20,000 N ? s

0.010 ? N.s

-200 -200 kg.m/s 25? kg -8 m/s

-200 -200 ?kg.m/s 50 kg -4 ?m/s