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Introduction

whether the mean of a dependent variable is the same in two or more

unrelated, independent groups of an independent variable. However, it

is typically only used when you have three or more independent,

unrelated groups, since an independent t-test is more commonly used

when you have just two groups. If you have more than one dependent

variable, you might need a one-way MANOVA.

weight loss is best achieved through exercise, diet, or exercise and

diet combined (i.e., your dependent variable would be "weight loss",

measured in kilograms, and your independent variable would be

"intervention type", which has three groups: "exercise", "diet and

"exercise and diet"). Alternately, a one-way ANOVA could be used to

understand whether there is a difference in salary based on education

level (i.e., your dependent variable would be "salary" and your

independent variable would be "education level", which has three

groups: "high school", "undergraduate degree" and "graduate degree").

it is possible to determine which specific groups were significantly

different from each other using a post hoc test. You need to conduct a

post hoc test because the one-way ANOVA is an omnibus test statistic

and cannot tell you which specific groups were significantly different

from each other; it only tells you that at least two groups were different.

This "quick start" guide shows you how to carry out a one-way ANOVA

using Minitab, as well as how to interpret and report the results from

this test. However, before we introduce you to this procedure, you

need to understand the different assumptions that your data must meet

in order for a one-way ANOVA to give you a valid result. We discuss

these assumptions next.

Minitabtop ^

Assumptions

The one-way ANOVA has six assumptions. You cannot test the first

three of these assumptions with Minitab because they relate to your

study design and choice of variables. However, you should check

whether your study meets these three assumptions before moving on.

If these assumptions are not met, there is likely to be a different

statistical test that you can use instead. Assumptions #1, #2 and #3

are explained below:

a continuous level (i.e., it is an interval or ratio variable). Examples of

such dependent variables include height (measured in feet and inches),

temperature (measured in °C), salary (measured in US dollars), revision

time (measured in hours), intelligence (measured using IQ score),

reaction time (measured in milliseconds), test performance (measured

from 0 to 100), sales (measured in number of transactions per month),

and so forth. If you are unsure whether your dependent variable is

continuous (i.e., measured at the interval or ratio level), see our Types

of Variable guide.

o Assumption #2: Your independent variable should consist of two or

more categorical, independent (unrelated) groups. Examples

of categorical variables include gender (e.g., two groups: male and

female), ethnicity (e.g., three groups: Caucasian, African American and

Hispanic), physical activity level (e.g., four groups: sedentary, low,

moderate and high), and profession (e.g., five groups: surgeon, doctor,

nurse, dentist, therapist).

o Assumption #3: You should have independence of observations,

which means that there is no relationship between the observations in

each group or between the groups themselves. For example, there must

be different participants in each group with no participant being in

more than one group. If you do not have independence of observations,

it is likely you have "related groups", which means you will might need

to use a one-way repeated measures ANOVA instead of the one-way

ANOVA.

Assumptions #4, #5 and #6 relate to the nature of your data and can be

checked using Minitab. You have to check that your data meets these

assumptions because if it does not, the results you get when running a one-

way ANOVA might not be valid. In fact, do not be surprised if your data

violates one or more of these assumptions. This is not uncommon. However,

there are possible solutions to correct such violations (e.g., transforming your

data) such that you can still use a one-way ANOVA. Assumptions #4, #5 and

#6 are explained below:

simply a single case within your data set that does not follow the usual

pattern (e.g., in a study of 100 students' IQ scores, where the mean

score was 108 with only a small variation between students, one student

had a score of 156, which is very unusual, and may even put her in the

top 1% of IQ scores globally). The problem with outliers is that they

can have a negative effect on the one-way ANOVA, reducing the

accuracy of your results. Fortunately, when using Minitab to run a one-

way ANOVA on your data, you can easily detect possible outliers.

o Assumption #5: Your dependent variable should be approximately

normally distributed for each group of the independent variable.

Your data need only be approximately normal for running a one-way

ANOVA because it is quite "robust" to violations of normality,

meaning that this assumption can be a little violated and still provide

valid results. You can test for normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test for

normality, which is easily tested for using Minitab.

o Assumption #6: There needs to be homogeneity of variances. You

can test this assumption in Minitab using Levene's test for homogeneity

of variances. Levene's test is very important when it comes to

interpreting the results from a one-way ANOVA because Minitab is

capable of producing different output depending on whether your data

meets or fails this assumption.

most of your time when carrying out a one-way ANOVA. However, it is not a

difficult task and Minitab provides all the tools you need to do this.

required to perform a one-way ANOVA assuming that no assumptions have

been violated. First, we set out the example we use to explain the one-way

ANOVA procedure in Minitab.

Minitabtop ^

Example

An online retailer wants to get the best from its employees, as well as improve

their working experience. Currently, employees in the retailer’s order

fulfilment centre are not provided with any kind of entertainment whilst they

work (e.g., no background music, television, etc.). However, the retailer wants

to know whether providing music, which a few employees have requested,

would lead to greater productivity, and if so, by how much.

sample of 60 participants was randomly split into three independent groups

with 20 participants in each group: (a) a "control group" that did not listen to

music; (b) a "treatment group" who listened to music, but had no choice of

what they listened to; and (c) a second treatment group who listened to music

and had a choice of what they listened to.

The experiment lasted for one month. At the end of the experiment, the

"productivity" of the three groups was measured in terms of the "average

number of packages processed per hour". Therefore, the dependent variable

was "productivity" (measured in terms of the average number of packages

processed per hour during the one month experiment), whilst the independent

variable was "treatment type", where there were three independent groups:

"No music" (control group), "Music - No choice" (treatment group A) and

"Music - choice" (treatment group B).

significant difference in productivity between the three independent groups.

Note: The example and data used for this guide are fictitious. We have just

created them for the purposes of this guide.

Minitabtop ^

Setup in Minitab

dependent variable, which we named Productivity, as follows: . Then,

under column we entered the name of the independent variable

, Music, as follows: . The three groups of the independent

variable, Music, were: (a) "No music" for the control group; (b) "Music - No

choice" for the treatment group who listened to music, but had no choice of

what they listened to; and (c) "Music - Choice" for the treatment group who

listened to music and had a choice of what they listened to, as shown below:

Published with written permission from Minitab Inc.

Minitabtop ^

Test Procedure in Minitab

In this section, we show you how to analyse your data using a one-way

ANOVA in Minitab when the six assumptions in the previous

section, Assumptions, have not been violated. The procedure changed from

Minitab 16 to Minitab 17. Therefore, we present the procedure for both below:

Minitab 16

Click Stat > ANOVA > One-Way... on the top menu, as shown below:

Published with written permission from Minitab Inc.

You will be presented with the following One-Way Analysis of Variance dialogue box:

Transfer the dependent variable, Productivity, into the Response: box and the independent variable, Music, into

the Factor: box. To do this, you first need to click into the Response: box for the dependent variable to appear

in the main left-hand box (e.g., C1 Productivity). This will activate the button (it is usually

faded: ). To transfer the variable into this box, select C1 Productivity in the main left-hand box

and press the button or simply double-click on C1 Productivity. You now need to do the same

for C2 Music, but this time into the Factor: box. You will end up with the dialogue box shown below:

Click the button. The output that Minitab produces is shown below.

Minitab 17

Click Stat > ANOVA > One-Way... on the top menu, as shown below:

Published with written permission from Minitab Inc.

You will be presented with the following One-Way Analysis of Variance dialogue box:

Transfer the dependent variable, Productivity, into the Response: box and the independent variable, Music, into

the Factor: box. To do this, you first need to click into the Response: box for the dependent variable to appear

in the main left-hand box (e.g., C1 Productivity). This will activate the button (it is usually

faded: ). To transfer the variable into this box, select C1 Productivity in the main left-hand box

and press the button or simply double-click on C1 Productivity. You now need to do the same

for C2 Music, but this time into the Factor: box. You will end up with the dialogue box shown below:

Click the button. The output that Minitab produces is shown below.

Minitabtop ^

Output of the one-way ANOVA in Minitab

The Minitab output for a one-way ANOVA includes many useful statistics,

including descriptive statistics for the groups that you compared. However, in

this guide we focus on the Analysis of Variance table which reports the

statistical significance of the one-way ANOVA, as shown below (for Minitab

17):

And for Minitab 16:

The statistical significance of the one-way ANOVA is found under the "P-

Value" column ("P" column in Minitab 16). You can see that the significance

level is 0.004 (i.e., p = .004). Since this is below 0.05 (i.e., p < .05), we can

declare that the result is statistically significant. That is, there is a statistically

significant difference in the mean productivity between the three different

groups of the independent variable, Music (i.e., "No Music", "Music - No

Choice" and "Music - Choice").

Note: We present the output from the one-way ANOVA above. However,

since you should have tested your data for the assumptions we explained

earlier in the Assumptions section, you will also need to interpret the Minitab

output that was produced when you tested for them. This includes: (a) the

boxplots you used to check if there were any significant outliers; (b) the

output Minitab produces for your Shapiro-Wilk test for normality to determine

normality; and (c) the output Minitab produces for Levene's test for

homogeneity of variances. Also, remember that if your data failed any of these

assumptions, the output that you get from the one-way ANOVA procedure

(i.e., the output we discuss above) might no longer be valid and you will need

to interpret the Minitab output that is produced when they fail (i.e., this

includes different results).

Minitabtop ^

Reporting the output of the one-way ANOVA

When you report the output of your one-way ANOVA, it is good practice to

include:

o B. Information about your sample, including how many participants

were in each group of your independent groups (N) (N.B., this is

particularly useful if the group sizes were unequal or there were

missing values).

o C. A statement of whether there were statistically significant

differences between your groups, including the observed F-value

(F and F-Value for Minitab 16 and 17, respectively), degrees of

freedom (DF), and significance level, or more specifically, the 2-

tailed p-value (Pand P-Value for Minitab 16 and 17, respectively).

Based on the Minitab output above, we could report the results of this study as

follows:

General

A one-way ANOVA was conducted to determine if productivity in a packing facility was different for

groups with different physical activity levels. Participants were classified into three groups: No music

(n = 20), Music - No choice (n = 20) and Music - Choice (n = 20). There was a statistically significant

difference between groups as determined by a one-way ANOVA, F(2, 57) = 6.08, p = .004.

present your results. For example, you could do this using a bar chart with

error bars (e.g., where the errors bars could be the standard deviation, standard

error or 95% confidence intervals). This can make it easier for others to

understand your results. Furthermore, you are increasingly expected to report

"effect sizes" in addition to your one-way ANOVA results. Effect sizes are

important because whilst the one-way ANOVA tells you whether differences

between group means are "real" (i.e., different in the population), it does not

tell you the "size" of the difference. Whilst Minitab will not produce these

effect sizes for you using this procedure, there is a procedure in Minitab to do

so.

Portions of information contained in this publication/book are printed with permission of Minitab Inc. All such material

remains the exclusive property and copyright of Minitab Inc. All rights reserved.

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