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Sta.

Elena High School

WATER CONSUMPTION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

Isais, Dominic Christian

STE 8 B – Gemelina

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WATER CONSUMPTION OF HIGH PERFORMANCE CONCRETE

-How much water (fresh water and effluent water) is consumed to produce high

performance concrete?

1. What is the efficiency of concrete made of varying amounts of fresh water?

a. 25%

b. 50%

c. 75%

I predict that the efficiency of concrete made of varying amounts of fresh water

would be 75%

2. What is the efficiency of concrete made of varying amounts of effluent water?

a. 25%

b. 50%

c. 75%

I predict that the efficiency of concrete made with varying amounts of effluent

water would be 50%

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3. Is there a significant difference between the concrete made of fresh water and

Concrete made with effluent water?

I predict that there would be a significant difference between the concrete made

of fresh water compared to concrete made with effluent water.

INTRODUCTION

High performance concrete has always have been praised for its high strength and high

durability. High performance concrete usually shines at applications in where it is used on tall

building in where high performance concrete and steel is used to support the weight of the whole

building. But using high performance concrete requires a lot of water.

Water consumption of high performance concrete has always been one of the hindrance in

the development of these massive structures, the cost of the required water with the cost of the

cement used in the high performance concrete would be the cause. The quality of the water matters

most in the creation of these concrete.

In this research, using varying amounts of fresh and effluent water with HPC cement is

used and measured its durability, strength, and weight in comparison to its price to know which is

more cost effective.

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SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

In this study I would like to focus on the impact of the purity of water on the quality of

concrete. This study aims to improve the efficiency of high performance concrete through the

purity of water since the production cost would increase if we were to use more pure water. This

study could also help cut corners in the production of high performance concrete for the reason of

the use of effluent water instead of fresh water in the production of high performance concrete.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

Demand for high performance concrete recently sky rocketed. This may be due to

the fact that tall building getting more popular or demand for better building materials are

heightened. High performance concrete have a high demand on countries like Hong Kong

and United states in where high rise buildings are very common. Water is an important

factor to the quality of concrete. Water is mixed with cement and aggregate to form a

workable paste. Too little water can lead to poor quality concrete, too much water can

also lead to poor quality concrete. The quality of cement may also depend on the type of

water used, but has not yet been proved. “Apart from high strength, we are now looking

for also high performance in other quality aspects such as high workability, low heat

generation during curing, high dimensional stability and high durability etc ” (A.K.H. Kwan,

2015, p. 1). In this study I would like to focus on the impact of the purity of water on the

quality of concrete. This study aims to improve the efficiency of high performance

concrete through the purity of water since the production cost would increase if we were

to use more pure water.

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The quality of concrete does not simply depend on the quality of cement, it may

also depend on the quality and quantity of water. SOON LEE and his team, OOI & Salim,

Mohd & Ismail, and Mohammad (2001) conducted a research study and found out that

the properties of treated effluent used in their study were found to be within the tolerable

limits from the other researchers, higher compressive strength was received for concrete

cube with treated effluent compared to the concrete cube with potable water. It has been

stated that the more pure the water is the greater the quality of the concrete. “Impurities

in water may interfere with the setting of the cement and may adversely affect the strength

and durability of the concrete also, the chemical constituents present in water may

actively participate in the chemical reactions and thus affect the setting, hardening and

strength development of concrete In addition to that, health issues related to the safe

handling of such water must be considered”( Mr. K. J. Kucche, Dr. S. S. Jamkar,Dr. P. A.

Sadgir, 2015, p.1). This thinking is half correct and half wrong, since a lot of factors affect

the quality of concrete. The factors that may affect the quality of the concrete can range

from the temperature of the day to even the quality of cement being used to make the

said concrete. People heavily depends on concrete, since it is the most common material

for building structures. That is why the quality of concrete can also affect the structural

integrity of many manmade structures.

We still have not yet discovered the difference between using effluent water and

fresh water in the making of concrete. Other researchers found that it is tolerable to use

just effluent water, but other’s stated that the more pure the water the better. If we could

see the difference between the usage of fresh water and effluent water we would know

which to use if we were trying to cut corners or even make something stronger.

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METHODS

FRAMEWORK

GATHERING
MATERIALS

MAKING THE CONCRETES

DRYING THE CONCRETES

WEIGHING THE CONCRETES

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TESTING THE CONCRETE
FOR ITS STRENGHT

TESTING THE CONCRETE


FOR ITS DURABILITY

COMPUTING ITS
EFFICIENCY

A lot of quality testing is done on the concrete to


know its possible application, its strengths and
weaknesses, and its cost effectiveness

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METHODS

SCIENCE TECHNIQUES

I have merely used 2 science techniques, these techniques are only physical techniques and

no chemical techniques. The first one that I have used is drying. I have needed the drying because

the concrete cannot solidify unless it will agitate. Using the undried concrete was simply not

needed because the undried is almost a liquid, the strength is barely good at the semi-liquid state

and the durability is as expected, bad. The second physical technique I used is weighing. I have

used the weighing as an expectation on how much pressure it might exert upon itself while stacking

each other.

These scientific techniques will be useful when looking at the efficiency of the concrete

made with varying amounts of effluent water and fresh water. It would be because the impurities

on the effluent water affect the weight of the concrete and lose efficiency on weight if it is a

significant change compared to the fresh water.

WEIGHING

to determine or ascertain the force that gravitation exerts upon (a person or thing) by use

of a balance, scale, or other mechanical device

DRYING

Jump to navigation jump to search drying is a mass transfer process consisting of the removal of

water or another solvent by evaporation from a solid, semi-solid or liquid.


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METHODS

ETHICS

Safety was the number one priority when it comes to these kinds of experiments. It had to

be made sure that the researcher(s) involved was using appropriate safety equipment such as iron

toed shoes to protect the feet from the possible drop of the experimental object. If any harmful

byproduct was produced it was disposed of properly. There was not that many hazardous

substances involved, the most hazardous would be the HPC cement that could be a choking hazard

if there was any children nearby. It was made sure that there was no child nearby when the

experiment was done to insure maximum safety can guaranteed.

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REFERENCE

REFERENCE

1. “Apart from high strength, we are now looking for also high performance in other quality

aspects such as high workability, low heat generation during curing, high dimensional

stability and high durability etc ” (A.K.H. Kwan, 2015, p. 1). :

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/266466870_Development_of_High_Performan

ce_Concrete_for_Hong_Kong

2. SOON LEE and his team, OOI & Salim, Mohd & Ismail, and Mohammad conducted a

research and found out that the properties of treated effluent used in their study were

found to be within the tolerable limits from the other researchers, higher compressive

strength was received for concrete cube with treated effluent compared to the concrete

cube with potable water. :

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/255579573_Reusing_treated_effluent_in_con

crete_technology

3. “Impurities in water may interfere with the setting of the cement and may adversely

affect the strength and durability of the concrete also, the chemical constituents present

in water may actively participate in the chemical reactions and thus affect the setting,

hardening and strength development of concrete In addition to that, health issues related

to the safe handling of such water must be considered”( Mr. K. J. Kucche, Dr. S. S.

Jamkar,Dr. P. A. Sadgir, 2015, p.1). : http://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0115/ijsrp-

p3720.pdf

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