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Source: - Grübl, P; Nealen, A; Schmidt, N, “Concrete made from Recycled Aggregate: Experiences

from the Building Project “waldspirale””.

 In context with consistency controlled production, the grading curve of the

aggregate mix is of substantial influence. During the construction phase of
“waldspirale”, the grading curve of all aggregate fractions remained within tolerable
 Both mixtures were designed by the guideline of the, Deutscher Ausschuss für
Stahlbeton‘ (1) and are displayed in Table 1.

Table 1:- Concrete sort 540423 590321

Compressive Strength Class B25 B25

Water (kg/m 3) 190 180

CEM I 42, 5R (kg/m 3) - 290

CEM III/A 32, 5R (kg/m3) 300 -

Fly ash 50 40

Effective Water Cement Ratio (-)0, 59 0, 59

Sand 0/2a (kg/m3) 616 615

Aggregate 2/8 (kg/m3) 530 290

Recycled Aggregate 8/16 (kg/m3) 569 334

Aggregate 16/32 (kg/m3) - 544

Water Reducing Agent (kg/m3) 1, 5 -

Initial Consistency a10min (cm) 40-42 36-38

Ref (1):- DEUTSCHER AUSSCHUB FUR STAHLBETON, DAfstb: Ritchline “Beton mit rezykliertem
Zuschlag”, Ausagabe August 1988.
Source: - Limbachiya, M.C.; Leelawat, T; and Dhir, R.K, “Use of Recycled Concrete Aggregate in
High- Strength Concrete ”, Materials and Structures, V 33, November 2000, pp 574-580.

 The grading of RCA was within the limits for the crushed-rock aggregate to BS 882

Ref (11):- British Standard Institutions, BS 882, Specifications for aggregate from natural resources
for concrete” (London 1992).

Source: - Malešer, M; Radonjanin, V; and Marinkorić, S, “Recycled Concrete as Aggregate for

Structural Concrete Production”, Sustainability 2010, 2, pp 1204-1225.

 Properties of natural and recycled concrete aggregate were tested according to

Serbian standards for natural aggregates and quality requirements given in Table 1
and 2 and are also according to Serbian standard for natural aggregate: SRPS B. B2,
010: 986 [22]. As it can be seen from Table 2, recycled aggregate with grain sizes of
8/16 and 16/32 don’t satisfy the weak grains content and crushing resistance quality
requirements for natural aggregates. This was expected because of the mortar and
cement paste attached to the stone particles in recycled aggregate.

Ref (22):- Aggregate for concrete: In Technical Requirements; Serbian Institutions for
standardization (SIS): Belgrade, Serbia, 1986.

Source: - Babu, V.S.; Mullick, A.K.; Jain, K.K.; Singh, P.k., “Mechanical Properties of High Strength
Concrete with Recycled Aggregate – Influence of Processing”, The Indian Concrete
Journal, V88, may 2014.

 Both VCA and PRA were produced from JUET crushing plant and conforming to the
requirements of IS2386: 1963 and IS 383: 1970.