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Analysis of Calcium Content in Egg Shell

Aim of The Experiment


To find the percentage of calcium present in the eggshell by titration.
Materials Required
 Burette and Burette Stand
 Pipette
 Conical Flask
 Funnel
 White Glaze Tile
 Beakers
 Measuring Cylinder
 Glass Rod
 Filter Paper
 Balance
 Egg Shells
Theory
The major Component of eggshells in Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3).
This analysis will be done volumetrically by using characteristic research of
carbonate compounds, mainly their reaction with acids. Calcium Carbonate
(Limestone) is very insoluble in pure water but will readily dissolve in acid
according to the following reaction.
2HCl + CaCO3(s)  Ca2+ + CO2(g) + H2O + 2Cl(aq)
This reaction cannot be used directly to titrate CaCO3 because it is very slow
when the reaction is close to the end point. Instead, the determination is
achieved by adding an excess of acid to dissolve all of the CaCO3 and then
titrating the remaining H3O+ with NaOH solution to determine the amount of
acid which has not reacted with calcium carbonate. The difference between the
amount of acid (HCl) initially added and the amount left over after the reaction
is equal to the amount used by CaCO3. The reaction used to determine the
leftover acid is:
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq)  H2O + Na+ + Cl-(aq)
Reactions Involved
CaCO3 + 2HCl  CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O
NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O

Procedure
Weigh out two grams of ground eggshell
 Prepare a 0.6M HCl solution
o Measure exactly 12.7ml of HCl and dissolve it in water in a clean
beaker.
o Transfer the content to a 250 ml standard flask and make the
volume up to 250 ml.
 Prepare 0.1M NaOH solution
o Weigh 4g of NaOH and dissolve it in water
o Transfer the contents to a 1000ml standard flask and make the
volume up to 1000ml
o Shake well to get the uniform concentration
Add 20ml of dilute HCl solution to 2g of egg shells.
Wait for two minutes for the reaction to be completed and then filter out the
excess (i.e. unreacted) HCl.
Observation

Blank Titration with HCl


Burette Solution: NaOH
Pipette Solution: HCl
Temperature: Room Temperature
Indicator: Phenolphthalein
End Point: Colourless to pale pink

Series No. Volume of Initial Burette Final Burette Volume of


HCl(ml) Reading Reading NaOH(ml)

Molarity OF HCl

n1M1V1= n2M2V2
Titration with excess HCl

Burette Solution: NaOH


Pipette Solution: HCl
Temperature: Room Temperature
Indicator: Phenolphthalein
End Point: Colourless to pale Pink

Series No. Volume of Initial Burette Final Burette Volume of


HCl(ml) Reading Reading NaOH(ml)

Molarity of HCl

n1M1V1= n2M2V2

Calculations

Result

Precautions
 See that the tap of the burette does not leak
 There should be no air bubbles in the burette
 Never close the pipette with the thumb
 Do not blow off the last drip of the solution from the jet end of the
pipette.