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“ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS: A CASE STUDY OF

RAJASTHAN ELECTIONS”

FINAL DRAFT SUBMITTED IN THE PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE COURSE


TITLED –

SOCIOLOGY OF LAW

SUBMITTED TO:

Dr. Sangeet Kumar

SUBMITTED BY:

NAME: PRANAV RAJ

COURSE: B.B.A. LL.B (Hons.)

ROLL NO: 2030

SEMESTER: 2ND

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY, NYAYA


NAGAR, MITHAPUR, PATNA - 800001

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DECLARATION BY THE CANDIDATE

I hereby declare that the work reported in the B.B.A., LL.B (Hons.) Project Report entitled
“ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS: A CASE STUDY OF RAJASTHAN ELECTIONS” submitted
at Chanakya National Law University is an authentic record of my work carried out under the
supervision of Dr. Sangeet Kumar. I have not submitted this work elsewhere for any other
degree or diploma. I am fully responsible for the contents of my Project Report.

SIGNATURE OF CANDIDATE

NAME OF CANDIDATE: PRANAV RAJ

CHANAKYA NATIONAL LAW UNIVERSITY, PATNA

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I would like to thank my faculty Dr. Sangeet Kumar whose guidance helped me a lot with
structuring my project.

I owe the present accomplishment of my project to my friends, who helped me immensely


with materials throughout the project and without whom I couldn’t have completed it in the
present way.

I would also like to extend my gratitude to my parents and all those unseen hands that helped
me out at every stage of my project.

THANK YOU,

NAME: Pranav Raj

COURSE: B.B.A., LL.B. (Hons.)

ROLL NO: 2030

SEMESTER: 2ND

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INDEX

INTRODUCTION

* AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

* HYPOTHESIS

* RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

* SOURCES OF DATA

1. ELECTIONS IN INDIA AND GUIDELINES

2. VOTING BEHAVIOURS AND FACTORS IN ELECTIONS

3. RAJASTHAN STATE ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS: 2018

4. QUESTIONNAIRE REGARDING 2018 STATE ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS

5. MALPRACTICES DURING THE ELECTIONS

6. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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INTRODUCTION

Assembly election is the election for state legislative assembly (Bidhansabha).The elected
members are called MLA (Member of legislative assembly). Leader of the winning party
becomes the chief minister of that state. Every area in this country falls under two political
boundaries. One is assembly seat whose winner will go to the state legislative assembly as a
MLA, another is parliamentary seat whose winner will go to the country's parliament as an
MP. The Rajasthan Legislative Assembly or the Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha is the unicameral
legislature of the Indian state of Rajasthan. The assembly meets at Vidhana Bhavan situated
in Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan. Members of the Legislative assembly are directly elected
by the people for a term of 5 years. Presently, the legislative assembly consists of 200
members.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

1. The researcher tends to analyse the State assembly elections of Rajasthan.


2. To analyse the progress in technology to be used for elections.
3. To analyse whether the elections conducted are free and fair.
4. To analyse the rights of people during elections and types of malpractice done by political
parties during elections.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The researcher will be relying on Doctrinal as well as Non- Doctrinal methods of research to
complete the project.

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HYPOTHESIS

The researcher hypothesises that “Assembly Elections should be conducted free and fair, case
study of RAJASTHAN ELECTIONS”.

SOURCES OF DATA

The researcher will be relying on both primary and secondary sources to complete the
project.

1. Primary Sources: Acts & Articles

2. Secondary Sources: Books, newspapers, journals, Survey of Literature and websites.

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1. ELECTIONS IN INDIA AND GUIDELINES

Elections in the Republic of India constitution include elections for the Parliament, Rajya
Sabha, Lok Sabha, the Legislative Assemblies, and numerous other Councils and local
bodies.

According to Constitution of India, elections for the Parliament and the State Legislative
Assemblies should take place every five years, unless a state of emergency has been declared.
Any vacancy caused by death or resignation must be filled through an election within six
months of any such occurrence. The elections for the lower houses (in Parliament and in the
states) use the first-past-the-post electoral system (i.e. the candidate with the majority of the
votes wins the election).

India's government is based on Federalism. Elected officials are appointed at federal, state
and local levels. In India, there is universal suffrage. Results of elections are determined by
first-past-the-post electoral system. Elections are conducted by the Election Commission of
India.

The Prime Minister of India is elected by members of the Lok Sabha, the lower house of
parliament.[6] The Constitution of India allows for up to 552 members in the Lok Sabha,
with up to 530 members representing the States. Up to 20 members represent the Union
Territories. In practice, 543 members of the Lok Sabha are elected every five years. Two
members are elected by the President of India to represent the Anglo-Indian community.

In 1952, there were 1874 candidates vying for places in the Lok Sabha. In 1996, this number
rose to 1,39,529 candidates. In 2009 there were only 80,708 candidates. The number of votes
and seats won provides a ranking of the major political parties.

The Rajya Sabha is the upper house of the parliament. 233 of its members are elected
indirectly by the legislative assemblies of the states and the Electoral College of the Union
Territories. The President of India appoints 12 of its members. The 233 members are elected
for a six-year term. Every two years, one-third of the members retire. The elected members
are chosen by proportional representation via the single transferable vote. There are twelve

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nominated members who are usually an eclectic mix of eminent artists (including actors),
scientists, jurists, sportsmen and women, executives, journalists and other citizens.

TYPES OF ELECTIONS IN INDIA:

1) General Elections (Lok sabha): This is the important election that takes place once in 5
years to elect 543 members for the Parliament (Lower house). A party needs 272 MPs to
stake claim to form the Central Government. If a party doesn't have 272 MPs on its own it
can ally with other parties and form the government. Leader of the party/alliance takes oath
as the Prime Minister.

2) Rajya sabha Elections (upper House): Rajya sabha is the Upper house and its members
are not directly elected by the people. They are elected by the Members of Legislative
Assembly of the respective states. Rajya Sabha MP has a 6 year term

3) State Assembly Elections: People directly elect their representatives for the Legislative
assembly. Total strength of each assembly depends on each State, mostly based on size and
population.
Eg: Tamil Nadu has 234 MLAs while Delhi has 70 MLAs

4) Local Body Elections : In this case as well, people directly elect their representatives for a
smaller geographical area. There are different types of local bodies. Corporations,
Municipalities, Panchayats, etc.

ELECTION COMMISSION

The Election Commission of India is an autonomous entity prescribed in the Constitution of


India. It is the federal authority responsible for administering all the electoral processes of
India and ensuring they are free and fair.

Elections are conducted according to constitutional provisions and parliamentary legislation.


These include the Representation of the People Act, 1950, which mainly deals with the
preparation and revision of electoral rolls, and the Representation of the People Act, 1957

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which deals, in detail, with all aspects of the conduct of elections and post-election disputes.
The Supreme Court of India has held that where the enacted laws are silent or make
insufficient provision to deal with a given situation in the conduct of elections, the Election
Commission has the residuary powers under the Constitution to act in an appropriate manner.

From 1947 to 16 October 1989, there was one Chief Election Commissioner. From 1989 to 1
January 1990, there were two commissioners. In 1990 of January, two chief commissioners
were abolished and election commission acted as a single-member body. Again by The
Election Commissioner Amendment Act, 1993 made the Election Commission a multi-
member body. On 1 October 1993, a further two commissioners were appointed. Decisions
are made by majority vote.

ELECTORAL PROCEDURES

Candidates are required to file their nomination papers with the Electoral Commission. Then,
a list of candidates is published. No party is allowed to use government resources for
campaigning. No party is allowed to bribe the candidates before elections. The government
cannot start a project during the election period. Campaigning ends by 6:00 pm two days
before the polling day. The polling is held between 7:00 am and 6:00 pm. The Collector of
each district is in charge of polling. Government employees are employed as poll officers at
the polling stations. Electronic Voting Machines (EVM) are being used instead of ballot
boxes to prevent election fraud. After the citizen votes his or her left index finger is marked
with an indelible ink. This practice was instituted in 1962.

Indelible ink:

Research into an indelible ink was commenced by the Council of Scientific and Industrial
Research (CSIR). In the 1950s, M. L. Goel worked on this research at the Chemical Division
of the National Physical Laboratory of India. The ink used contains silver nitrate, which
makes it photo-sensitive. It is stored in amber coloured plastic or brown coloured glass
bottles. On application, the ink remains on the fingernail for at least two days. It may last up
to a month depending upon the person's body temperature and the environment.

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Electronic voting:

BHAVIK (EVM) were first used in the 1999 election and became the only method of voting
in 2004. The EVMs save time and report results. A voter-verified paper audit trail (VVPAT)
was introduced on 14 August 2013. In the 2014 general election, VVPAT was operational in
8 constituencies as a pilot project. These included Lucknow, Gandhinagar, Bangalore South,
Chennai Central, Jadavpur, Raipur, Patna Sahib and Mizoram constituencies. A slip
generated by the VVPT tells a voter to which party or candidate their vote has been given,
their name, their constituency and their polling booth. VVPAT has been in news recently
(2017), following the demand of opposition parties to make it mandatory in the upcoming
elections all over India due to allegations on the government of hacking the EVM. For the
voters, it is very important to know how the VVPAT works to enable them cross-check
whether the vote they have given goes to the right candidate. Here is a brief " At the point
when the voter presses the button against the name of the applicant of her/his decision on the
EVM unit, the VVPAT unit produces a paper slip, additionally called 'ballot slip'. This paper
slip contains the name, serial number, and image of the candidate selected by the voter for his
vote.

NOTA: (None of the Above in Indian Elections)

On 27 September 2013, the Supreme Court of India judged that citizens have the right to a
negative vote by exercising a "None of the above" (NOTA) option. This was the result of
petitioning from the Electoral Commission and the People's Union for Civil Liberties from
2009. In November 2013, NOTA was introduced in five state elections.

Absentee voting:

India does not provide general absentee voting. On 24 November 2010, the Representation of
the People (Amendment) Bill 2010 was gazetted to give voting rights to non-resident Indians
but a physical presence at the voting booth is still required.

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REDRESSAL

The redressal for any doubts and disputes arising out of the elections to the office of the
President of India and the Vice-President of India lie with the Supreme Court.

For doubts and disputes arising out of elections to the offices of Parliament and State
Legislatures, the High Court serves as the initial jurisdiction. There is a provision to appeal to
the Supreme Court if needed.

For matters relating to the elections to municipalities and other local bodies, the lower courts
are entrusted with resolving disputes in accordance with the laws enacted by the concerned
State Government.

ACTS AND RULES RELATING TO THE ELECTION LAWS

 Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act 1952


This act was enacted by the Indian Parliament for the election to the offices of President
and Vice-President of India.

 Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Rules 1974


This is a supplementary set of rules to the Presidential and Vice-Presidential Elections Act
1952.

 Representation of the People Act 1950


This Act governs the conduct of elections to State Legislatures and to Parliament. This act
is concerned with the preparation of electoral rolls and their revisions.

 The Registration of Electors Rules 1960


Under Section 28 of the Act, these rules were made by the Central Government along with
the Election Commission, and supplements the provisions of this act with detailed rules.
All rules relating to the preparation of electoral rolls, their periodic updating and revision
fall under this provision. It provides for the registration of eligible electors and the issue of
voter ID cards or electoral identity cards with the voter’s photograph. It also includes rules
on the inclusion of eligible voters, the exclusion of ineligible voters and any corrections
required. With these rules, the Election Commission is empowered to prepare the photo

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electoral rolls which will contain the name, photograph and other particulars of the
electors.

 Representation of the People Act 1951


This Act governs the actual conduct of elections to State Legislatures and to Parliament.
According to this Act, all post election matters that comprise of doubts and disputes that
arise out of the elections or are in connection with the elections, will be dealt with in
accordance to the provisions of this Act. All disputes can be raised in the High Court of the
respective State. These post election matters can be raised after the election is over and not
during the process of it.

 Conduct of Elections Rules 1961


These rules were framed under Section 169 of the Act by the Central Government along
with the Election Commission. It deals with detailed rules for every stage of the conduct of
elections. It encompassses the issue of the writ notification for conducting elections, filing
of nominations, and the scrutiny of the nominations. It also deals with withdrawal of
candidates. Taking the polls and counting votes are also governed by these rules. Finally,
the constitution of the Houses based on the results are also categorised under these rules.

MODEL CODE OF CONDUCT

Under Article 324 of the Constitution of India, the Election Commission has the right to
exercise its power in the enforcement of the Model Code of Conduct. This Code is a unique
document which helps guide political candidates and parties. The Model Code of Conduct
was created by the political parties to ensure fair elections for all parties involved. It governs
matters related to conduct and the maintenance of a level playing field throughout the
elections. It also provides for rules against the misuse of official machinery and power by the
ruling party to ensure that they do not unfairly further the electoral prospects of their own
candidates.

The Acts and Rules listed above empower the Election Commission to issue directives to deal
with different aspects involved with the preparation of electoral rolls, its revision and the
actual conduct of elections. All grievance related to the elections will have to be resolved
under the Representation of the People Acts 1950 and 1951, and the Registration of Electors

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Rules 1960 and Conduct of Elections Rules 1961. These Acts and Rules form a complete set
of rules and a code for all matters relating to the elections to the State Legislatures and
Houses of Parliament.

STATE ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS:

The Vidhan Sabha or the State Legislative Assembly is a house of a state legislature in the
States and Union Territories of India. In the 29 states and 2 union territories with unicameral
state legislature it is the sole legislative house. In 7 states it is the lower house of their
bicameral state legislatures with the upper house being Vidhan Parishad or the State
Legislative Council. 5 Union Territories are governed directly by the Union Government and
have no legislative body. Members of a Vidhan Sabha are referred to as MLAs and are
directly elected to serve 5 year terms by single-member constituencies. In 14 states the
Governor of a state may appoint one Anglo-Indian MLA to their respective states Vidhan
Sabha in accordance with the 23rd Amendment of the Constitution of India. The Constitution
of India states that a Vidhan Sabha must have no less than 60 and no more than 500 members
however an exception may be granted via an Act of Parliament as is the case in the states of
Goa, Sikkim, Mizoram and the union territory of Puducherry which have fewer than 60
members. A Vidhan Sabha may be dissolved in a state of emergency, by the Governor on
request of the Chief Minister, or if a motion of no confidence is passed against the majority
coalition

India Elections in India: State elections:

1920 1923 1926 1930 1934 1937 1946 1952 1954 1955 1957 1960 1961 1962 1964 1965
1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1974 1975 1977 1978 1979 1980 1982 1983 1984 1985
1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
2019

FIRST EVER ELECTION IN INDIA: 1920

General elections were held in British India in 1920 to elect members to the Imperial
Legislative Council and the Provincial Councils. They were the first elections in the country's

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modern history. The new Central Legislative Assembly which was the lower chamber of the
Imperial Legislative Council was based in Delhi had 104 elected seats, of which 66 were
contested and eight were reserved for Europeans elected through the Chambers of
Commerce. For the upper chamber, the Council of State, 24 of the 34 seats were contested,
whilst five were reserved for Muslims, three for Whites, one for Sikhs and one for the United
Provinces. The Parliament was opened by the Duke of Connaught and Strathearn on 9
February 1921.
Alongside the national elections there were also elections to 637 seats in Provincial
Assemblies. Of these, 440 were contested, 188 had a single candidate elected unopposed.
Despite the calls by Mahatma Gandhi for a boycott of the elections, only six had no
candidate. Within the Provincial Assemblies 38 were reserved for White voters.

Central Legislative Assembly

Party Seats Leader

Democratic Party 48 Hari Singh Gour

Other parties and independents 47

Europeans 9

Total 104

The Rajasthan Legislative Assembly or the Rajasthan Vidhan Sabha is the unicameral
legislature of the Indian state of Rajasthan. The assembly meets at Vidhana Bhavan situated
in Jaipur, the capital of Rajasthan. Members of the Legislative assembly are directly elected
by the people for a term of 5 years. Presently, the legislative assembly consists of 200
members.

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2. VOTING BEHAVIOUS AND FACTORS

Voting’ is one of the most commonly used terms in contemporary age of democratic politics.
The ever increasing popularity of democratic theory and practice has even made this term a
household name. In democratic system, and their number is quite large and ever increasing,
each adult citizen uses ‘voting’ as a means of expressing his approval or disapproval of
government decisions, policies and programmes, the policies and programmes of various
political parties and qualities of candidate who are engaged in struggle to get the status of
being the representatives of people

However, in broad terms, as Richard Rose and Harve Massaavir point out, voting covers as
many as five important functions:
1. It involves individuals’ choice of governors or major governmental policies;
2. It permits individuals to participate in a reciprocal and continuing exchange of influence
with the office-holders and candidates;
3. It contributes to the development or maintenance of an individual’s allegiance to the
existing constitutional regime;
4. It contributes to the development or maintenance of a voters disaffection from the existing
constitutional regime;
5. It has emotional significance for the individuals; and for some individuals it may be
functionless, i.e. devoid of any significant personal emotional or political consequences.

Samuel S.Eldersveld in his ‘theory and Method in voting Behaviour research’ writes. “The
term ‘voting behaviour’ is not new. But it has been used of late to describe certain areas of
study and types of political phenomena which previously had either not been conceived or
were considered irrelevant.” Voting behaviour is not confined to the examination of voting
statistics, records and computation of electoral shifts and swings. It also involves an analysis
of individual psychological processes (perception, emotion and motivation) and their relation
to political action as well as of institutional patterns, such as the communication process and
their impact on elections.

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Voting Behaviour in India:

India is the largest working democracy, a parliamentary democracy, in the world. At the time
of March April 1996 polls, an electorate of as many as 591.5 million voters went to the polls
to choose their representatives from amongst 14474 contestants. All men and women of 18
years or above of the age have the right to vote in Indian elections. Despite the fact that
nearly half of them are illiterates, they have in the past acted wisely and in mature way to
elect their representatives. They have already participated in eleven elections to Lok Sabha,
several elections to state legislative assemblies and a large number of bi- elections. Elections
in India have been mainly studied by political scientists, but the contributions of social
Anthropologists in this respect cannot be ignored. Special mention must be of F.G. Baily and
A.C. Mayer who have dealt with elections mainly at micro-level. With the help of both
participants and non-participants observation technique they have delved into the election
politics and voting behaviour of the people. They have further emphasized the linkage
between local, state and national politics which is woven round patronage and brokerage.
They have highlighted the “Machine” character of election politics.

Determinants of voting Behaviour:

The behaviour of a voter is influence by several factors such as religion, caste, community,
language, money, policy or ideology, purpose of the polls, extent of franchise and the like
political parties and groups make use of these variables for the sake of winning the battle of
the ballot box. Despite making their professions for enlightened secularism, politicians can be
found invoking appeals to the religious and communal sentiments of the people; they can also
be found involved in exploiting the factors of language or money to achieve the purpose of
emerging successful in the war of votes. Appeals are issued and canvassing campaigns are
conducted in the name of a particular policy or ideology for the same purpose. The interest of
the voters and accordingly their behaviour at the time of voting is also influenced by the
nature or purpose of the elections or the extent of the suffrage. That is, national elections or
the election of the chief executive engage wider attention than a local election for the post of
a sub-ordinate authority. The force of charisma has its own part to play where by voters are
influenced en masse by the slogan of “Garibi Hatao”, or ‘A vote for a pair of bullocks is a
vote for Panditji is and a vote for panditji vote for stability and progress; or ‘ Indira means
India, India means Indira’ and the like. Voters are most concerned about general issues than
specific issues. Candidate- orientation means the attitude of the voter towards the personal
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qualities of the candidate. This can be broken up further into his performance, capabilities
and his personal qualities kike his honesty, his religious devotion etc. candidate – orientation
is significant factor. The data pertaining to the elections and the electoral process can help us
to analyze the voting behaviour of the people of India. Infact, the voting behaviour studies
conducted in India have identified the following main political and socio-economic factors
which act as determinants of voting behaviour in India.

Caste:

Caste continues to be a determinant of voting behaviour in India. It has deep roots in the
society and constitutes an important basis of social relations at all levels. Despite the adoption
of several provisions which prohibit action and discrimination on its basis, caste continues to
be a determinant of political behaviour. Votes are demanded in the name of caste. “Jat Ki
Vote Jat Ko.” Brahmin votes vs Jat votes or Jat votes vs Ahir votes etc., are commonly used
‘principles’ in planning election strategy.

Religion:

The establishment of a secular state in India by guaranteeing the right to freedom of religion
to everyone, treating every religion as equal and non-Recognition of any religion as a state
religion-has not been successful in preventing the role of the religion as a determinant of
political behaviour in general and voting behaviour in particular. The existence of such
political parties and non-political groups as stand linked with a particular religion, for
example ,the Muslim league, the Akali Dal, the Hindu Maha Sabha, the Shiv Sena etc.has
been one of the reasons behind the continued role of religion as a determinant of voting
behaviour. The selection of candidates is done with an eye upon the presence of a religious
majority in a particular constituency.

Money Factor:

The role of money cannot be ignored in the study of electoral behaviour. Though India is a
poor country, crores of rupees are spent in election. In the present political and economic
context, the conduct of election and the electioneering campaign led by candidates and
political parties have tended to be costly. While the 1952 elections to parliament and the state
legislatures cost Rs. 10.50 crores, the 1980 elections to the Lok Sabha alone cost about Rs. 52

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crores, notwithstanding all the economy measures taken to keep the costs down. It must be
stressed here that this is a conservative estimate based perhaps on the returns filed by the
candidates to the election commission. These incurred. Certainly with the present system of
conducting elections, the costs will escalate at least in proportion to the rise in the cost of
living.

Language:

India is a multi-lingual state. There are 18 official languages and several hundred other
languages and dialects. Linguism also serves as a factor in voting behaviour. The
organization of states on linguistic basis fully reflects the importance of language as a factor
of politics in India. There have been problems in the states like that of the status of one
particular language in that state or relating to the quality of the status of a language of a state
for example, in Haryana there has been a demand for declaring Punjabi as the second official
language. The Punjabis want that the language status should be conferred on Punjabi in
Haryana (this was realized in 1996). In Karnataka there is a demand that Kannada alone
should be the medium of instructions in schools, but it is being opposed by other ethnic
groups. Such problems are presenting in almost all the states since people have emotional
attachment with their languages, they easily get influenced whenever there comes up any
issue relating to language. Linguistic interest always influences voting behaviour.

Election Campaigns:

Each party launches a vigorous campaign for influencing the voters in its favour. Use of such
means as mass meetings, street meetings, personal contacts, posters, poster war, speeches by
film stars, T.V and radio broadcasts, News Paper advertisements, hand bills, processions and
propaganda is made to win votes, particularly the floating votes during the election
campaigns. The election campaigns are designed to make a voter believe that his interest can
be best served by the party/the candidate of the party contesting from his constituency. Thus
acts as an important determinant of voting behaviour.

Local Issues: Local issues always influence the choice of the voters. A regional or a local
party always tries to identify itself with local issues and there by secures for itself popular
local support. The success of the Jharkhand Muki Morcha in Jharkhand region of Bihar is a
classic example which highlights the role of local issues as determinants of voting behaviour.

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The spectacular success of the Telugu Desam Party in Andhra Pradesh in the 1999 Lok Sabha
and Andhra Vidhan Sabha elections was largely determined by its image as a local party
identified with the local interests of the state and having a good support with the centre. All
regional parties try to win elections on local issues. In fact, all agencies of public opinion
always act as determinants of voting behaviour.

Current events:

The current problems and difficulties faced by the people as well as recent political
developments or the poll eve developments also act as determinants of voting behaviour. The
political and economic events of the election year also act as determining factors. The price
rise, shortages and other economic hardships faced by the people during 1966-67 helped
several Political parties in considerably reducing the popularity of the congress with the
masses. In 1967, the congress, though it retained its majority at the centre, suffered a loss of
popularity which was reflected in its poor performance in the elections to the Legislative
Assemblies. However, the victory in the 1971 Indo-pak war turned the tide in favour of the
Congress in the elections that followed. In 1984 of the assassination of Mrs.Gandhi created a
huge sympathy wave in favour of the congress(I) and its leaders Mr. Rajiv Gandhi in1991,the
assassination of Mr.rajiv Gandhi on 21ist May, stemmed the swing away to a low swing in
favour of the Congress(I). The violent protests against the decision to implement the Mandal
Commission Report by the Janta dal Government in 1990 played a definite role in reducing
its popularity. In the election, the current event like the Kargil victory always influences the
voting behaviour.

Mass Illiteracy:

Mass illiteracy has been another factor of voting behaviour in India. It is because of this
weakness of the people that political parties, communal groups and militant outfits are in a
position to exploit the sentiments of the votes of the illiterates constitute a big proportion of
the votes polled and hence they play a big role in determining the outcomes of elections.
However, despite this feature, the common sense and maturity born out of the experience of
the past has also been playing a big role in influencing the voter’s minds and actions. In 1997,
they united to defeat the forces of authoritarianism and in 1980, they again united to defeat
the disunited non- performers.

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3. RAJASTHAN ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS

The First Rajasthan Legislative Assembly (1952–57) was inaugurated on 31 March 1952. It
had strength of 160 members. The strength was increased to 190 after the merger of the
erstwhile Ajmer state with Rajasthan in 1956. The Second (1957–62) and Third (1962–67)
Legislative Assemblies had a strength of 176. The Fourth (1967–72) and Fifth (1972–77)
Legislative Assembly comprised 184 members each. The strength became 200 from the Sixth
(1977–80) Legislative Assembly onwards. The Fourteenth Legislative Assembly was
commenced on 21 January 2013. Umed Singh of Barmer was youngest member of Rajasthan
Legislative Assembly, as in 1962 election Result was declared on 19 February 1962 and he
was elected from Barmer, that time he was just 25 year and 4 months old.

1) 1952 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:


Elections to the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly were held on February 29, 1952. 616
candidates contested for the 140 constituencies in the Assembly. There were 20 two-member
constituencies and 120 single-member constituencies.

2) 1957 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:


Due to States Reorganisation Act 1956, Rajasthan assembly constituencies changed from 140
with 160 seats to 136 with 176 seats. 96 of them were single member constituencies while the
number of double member constituencies was 40. 28 of the double member constituencies
were reserved for Scheduled Caste while 4 of the single member and 12 of the double
member constituencies (total 16 constituencies) were reserved for Schedule Tribe. There
were 48,43,841 electors in single member constituencies, while 38,92,288 were in double
member constituencies. Total 737 candidates contested for the 176 seats of the 136
constituencies in the Assembly. Poll percentage in the 1957 election was 38.45%.

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3) 1962 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

Party Wise Summary Rajasthan Assembly Election Results in 1962

Party Name Seats

Communist Party of India (CPI) 5

Indian National Congress (INC) 88

Jan Sangh (JS) 15

Praja Socialist Party (PSP) 2

Socialist (SOC) 5

Swatantra (SWA) 36

Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad (RRP) 3

Independent (IND) 22

Total 176

4) 1967 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

Party Wise Summary Rajasthan Assembly Election Results in 1967

Party Name Seats

Bharatiya Jan Sangh (BJS) 22

Communist Party of India (CPI) 1

Indian National Congress (INC) 89

21
Sanghata Socialist Party (SSP) 8

Swatantra Party (SWA) 48

Independent (IND) 16

Total 184

5) 1972 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

Sh. Barkatullah Khan was a leader of the Indian National Congress party and he became the
Chief Minister of Rajasthan after winning the State Assembly elections from Jodhpur. Khan
was the Chief Minister of the state for as many as 765 days, from 9th July 1971 to 11th
August 1973. Sardar Hukam Singh was the Governor of the state at that time and he was
succeeded by Sardar Jogendra Singh who took over from 1st July 1972.

6) 1977 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

Sh. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat who was then a member of the Janata Party became the Chief
Minister of Rajasthan on 22nd June 1977. He remained the Chief Minister of the state for 970
days i.e. till 16th February 1980. Sh. Vedpal Tyagi was the acting Governor of the state at
that time. He was succeeded by Sh. Raghukul Tilak who governed the state of Rajasthan
from 17th May 1977 to 8th August 1981.

Sh. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat was specifically known for his contributions towards the
upliftment of the poorest of the poor and it was through his 'Antyoday Yojna' scheme that he
aimed to work in that direction. He was actively involved in forming new policies that would
go on to make Rajasthan a leading state in terms of literacy and industrialization. It was Sh.
Shekhawat who popularized the idea of tourism that involved themes of heritage, wildlife and
villages.

22
7) 1980 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

Sh. Jagannath Pahadia was the Chief Minister of Rajasthan briefly for a period of 403 days,
i.e. from 6th June 1980 to 13th July 1981. He was succeeded by Sh. Shiv Charan Mathur who
ruled the state of Rajasthan till 23rd February 1985. Sh. K.D. Sharma was the acting
Governor of the state from 8th August 1981 to 6th March 1982 who was then succeeded by
Sh. Om Prakash Mehra who remained the Governor of Rajasthan till 4th January 1985.

Sh. Shiv Charan Mathur, the then Chief Minister of Rajasthan was a strong supporter of the
downtrodden and deprived sections of the society. With a deep sense of commitment towards
the poor he envisioned the idea of conducting a genuine probe to find out the real issues that
are forcing a large section of the society to live below the poverty line. His quest encouraged
him to establish the "Social Policy Research Institute" in 1985 mainly to conduct thorough
exploration of public policies and to find out ways to increase their effectiveness towards the
realization of the policy purposes.

8) 1985 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

Sh. Hari Dev Joshi from the Indian National Congress party was the Chief Minister of
Rajasthan from 10th March 1985 to 20th January 1988. Sh. Vasantrao Patil was the Governor
of the state of Rajasthan at that time from 20th November 1985 to 15th October 1987.

9) 1990 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

Sh. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat was the Chief Minister of Rajasthan from 4th March 1990 to
15th December 1992. Sh. Milap Chand Jain was the then acting Governor of Rajasthan. He
was succeeded by Sh. Debi Prasad Chattopadhay who remained the governor of the state till
26th August 1991 followed by Sh. Swaroop Singh and Sh. Marie Chenna Reddy.

Sh. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat has been hailed as one of the tallest leaders of the country. His
supreme contribution towards the development of the state of Rajasthan is beyond
comparison till today.

23
10) 1993 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

Sh. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat a candidate of the Bharatiya Janata Party was elected as the
Chief Minister of Rajasthan from 4th December 1993 to 29th November 1998. Sh. Bali Ram
Bhagat was the governor of Rajasthan at that time and he was succeeded by Sh. Darbara
Singh and later by Sh. Navrang Lal Tibrewal.

Sh. Bhairon Singh Shekhawat was popularly known as the Father of Industrial and Economic
Development in Rajasthan. With Sh. Shekhawat at the helm of affairs Rajasthan flourished
leaps and bounds both economically and financially. His focus was mainly to bring about
improvement from the grassroots level and that is why he emphasized on education,
upbringing of a girl child, safeguarding the rights of the poor, progress of the minorities and
the backward classes and physically handicapped. He made people aware about the
disadvantages of a large family and population explosion. It was under the tutelage of Sh.
Shekhawat that several Heritage Hotels came up in Rajasthan which saw a significant
improvement in the state's tourism department. Many new investment friendly policies were
introduced during his time which not only helped the people but it also contributed towards
the development of the state.

11) 1998 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

Party Wise Summary Rajasthan Assembly Election Results in 1998

Party Name Seats

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 33

Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) 2

Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM) 1

Indian National Congress (INC) 153

Janata Dal (JD) 3

RASHTRIYA JANATA DAL (RJD) 1

24
Independent (IND) 7

Total 200

12) 2003 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

Party Wise Summary Rajasthan Assembly Election Results in 2003

Party Name Seats

Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 120

Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) 2

Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPM) 1

Indian National Congress (INC) 56

Indian National Lok Dal (INLD) 4

Janata Dal (United), JD(U) 2

Lok Jan Shakti Party (LJNSP) 1

Rajasthan Samajik Nyaya Manch (RSNM) 1

Independent (IND) 13

Total 200

13) 2008 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

The state assembly elections of Rajasthan were held on 4th December 2008 and the results
declared on 8th December revealed the victory of the Congress party. For the second time

25
Shri Ashok Gehlot was sworn in as the Chief Minister of Rajasthan on 13th December 2008.
The then Governor of the State was Shri Shailendra Kumar Singh who was succeeded by Sh
Prabhu Rau followed by Sh Shivraj Patil. At present the Governor of Rajasthan is Smt
Margaret Alva.

Despite adverse geographical conditions Shri Ashok Gehlot has been successful enough in
putting Rajasthan to the path of progress. Today, Rajasthan is a well balanced state in terms
of infrastructural development, employment generation, tourism and industry, drought
management, power generation, etc. The Mukhyamantri Anna Suraksha Yojana launched by
Shri Ashok Gehlot makes it possible for the people of Rajasthan to purchase wheat for just
Re 1/kg. Schemes like the Mukhyamantri Nishulk Dawa Yojna and the Mukhyamantri
Nishulk Jaanch Yojna have been started to facilitate free medical care at all Primary Health
Centres. Measures have also been taken to encourage the birth of girl child through
Mukhyamantri Shubhlaxmi Yojna. This scheme is particularly beneficial for women and also
under it they are provided 30% exemption in bus fares. The Mukhyamantri Samman Pension
started by Mr. Gehlot has proved to be a boon for senior citizens, widows, divorcees and
handicapped people all over the state of Rajasthan.

14) 2013 Rajasthan Assembly Elections:

The ruling Congress government led by Ashok Gehlot in Rajasthan was completely rooted by
the BJP, owing to the strong anti-incumbency wave against the ruling party in the state. The
Congress suffered a ignominious defeat in the hands of the BJP, although Gehlot won from
his constituency of Sardarpura. Vasundhara Raje will be enthroned as the Chief Minister of
Rajasthan. She attributed the massive success of the BJP in Rajasthan to Narendra Modi’s
“good show”. Gehlot on the other hand asserted that the central leadership of the Congress
cannot be blamed for the party’s pathetic performance in Rajasthan. He said that neither
Rahul Gandhi nor Sonia Gandhi has much role to play in this defeat, and the introspection
must come from the state Congress ministry.

26
RAJASTHAN ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS- 2018

Rajasthan Legislative Assembly election, 2018

4. RAJASTHAN LEGESLATIVE
ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS: 2018

All 200 seats in the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly


101 seats needed for a majority

Leader Sachin Pilot Vasundhara Raje Mayawati

Party INC BJP BSP

Leader since 2014 2003 2003

Leader's seat Tonk Jhalrapatan Did not contest

Last election 21 163 3

Seats after 99 73 6

Seat change 78 90 3

Popular vote 1,39,35,201 1,37,57,502 14,10,995

Percentage 39.3% 38.8% 4.0%

27
RESULTS:

Popular vote Seats

Parties and coalitions


W
Votes % ±pp +/−
on

1 Indian National Congress (INC) 1,39,35,201 39.3% 6.23 99 78

2 Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) 1,37,57,502 38.8% 6.37 73 92

3 Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) 14,10,995 4.0% 0.63 6 3

4 Independents (IND) 33,72,206 9.5% 1.29 13 6

5 Rashtriya Loktantrik Party (RLP) 8,56,038 2.4% New 3 New

Communist Party of India (Marxist) (CPI-


6 4,34,210 1.2% 0.33 2 2
M)

7 Bharatiya Tribal Party (BTP) 2,55,100 0.7% New 2 New

8 Rashtriya Lok Dal (RLD) 1,16,320 0.3% 0.29 1 1

9 Other parties and candidates (OTH) 8,87,317 2.5% 0.00 0 0

10 None of the Above (NOTA) 4,67,781 1.3%

Total 3,54,92,670 100.00 199 ±0

28
LIST OF RAJASTHAN ASSEMBLY ELECTIONS

Vidhan Sabha
Year Party-wise Details Chief Minister Party
Election
Tika Ram Paliwal
1952 First Assembly Total: 160. INC: 82, RRP: 24, BJS: 8 Jai Narayan Vyas INC
Mohan Lal Sukhadia
1957 Second Assembly Total: 176. INC: 119, RRP: 17, BJS: 6 Mohan Lal Sukhadia INC
Total: 176. INC: 88, Swatantra Party:
1962 Third Assembly Mohan Lal Sukhadia INC
36, BJS: 15
Total: 184. INC: 89, Swatantra Party: Mohan Lal Sukhadia
1967 Fourth Assembly INC
48, BJS: 22 Barkatullah Khan
Total: 184. INC: 145, Swatantra Party: Barkatullah Khan
1972 Fifth Assembly INC
11, BJS: 8 Hari Dev Joshi
1977 Sixth Assembly Total: 200. JP: 151, INC: 41 Bhairon Singh Shekhawat JP
Jagannath Pahadia
1980 Seventh Assembly Total: 200. Congress (I): 133, BJP: 32 INC
Shiv Charan Mathur
Hira Lal Devpura
Total: 200. INC: 113, BJP: 39, Lok Dal:
1985 Eighth Assembly Hari Dev Joshi INC
27, JP: 10
Shiv Charan Mathur
1990 Ninth Assembly Total: 200. BJP: 85 + JD: 55, INC: 50 Bhairon Singh Shekhawat BJP
1993 Tenth Assembly Total: 200. BJP: 95, INC: 76 Bhairon Singh Shekhawat BJP
1998 Eleventh Assembly Total: 200. INC: 153, BJP: 33 Ashok Gehlot INC
2003 Twelfth Assembly Total: 200. BJP: 120, INC: 56 Vasundhara Raje BJP
2008 Thirteenth Assembly Total: 200. INC: 96, BJP: 78 Ashok Gehlot INC
Fourteenth Total: 200. BJP: 163, INC: 21, BSP: 2,
2013 Vasundhara Raje BJP
Assembly Ind: 7
Total: 199. INC: 99, BJP: 73, BSP: 6,
2018 Fifteenth Assembly CPI(M): 2, RLP: 3, BTP: 2, RLD: 1, Ashok Gehlot INC
Ind: 13

29
REPORTS OF BOOTH MONITORING DURING ELECTIONS

1) KALI PALTAN MOHALLA, TONK CITY


POLL MONITORING REPORT

Area surveyed - Kali Paltan, Tonk (96 constituency number)


Team Members - Pranav Raj, Krishna Khandelwal and Niharika Rajpurohit
Resource Persons - Noor Mohammed, Nasir
Booth Names - Oxford School - 154
Ram Rahim School - 156
Nalanda School - 155
Bal Vikas Vidyalaya - 157, 158.
Selection of Tonk - We chose to survey Tonk because it was a hotly contested seat.

30
We the team consisting of Pranav Raj, Krishna Khandelwal and Niharika Rajpurohit were
assigned to monitor and observe the voting booths in the district, TONK. Our team went in
the area of Kali Paltan and monitored 4 booths which were in different buildings namely:
Oxford School, Ram Rahim School, Nalanda School and Bal Vikas Vidyalay.

When we entered Tonk district we met Noor Muhammad Sir, who was our main coordinator
and he explained the situation of Tonk and he told us about the vulnerable booths of Tonk.
We first visited the booth together with the other team and talked to the assigned officer
regarding the facilities, he did not allowed us to enter the premises but told us that every

31
facility was taken care of. Further Noor Muhammad Sir talked to Nasir Sir who was in the
area of Kali Paltan and he further coordinated with us. Then the team distributed and we went
to Kali Paltan area where we met Nasir Sir and he informed that last night on 6th December
BJP people distributed around 3 crore cash in his locality and every family head were given
around 3 to 4 lakhs for their whole family vote.

He took us to the 4 different booths where he made us known with the local people who were
there for our help, we interacted with the local police assigned and they told us that
everything was going smoothly.

Bal Vikas Vidyalay:

Nasir sir told us that the Bal Vikas Vidyalay was the most vulnerable booth as the number of
voters of 2 main communities was same and there was a fair chance of disturbance. And this
building had 2 booths, booth no.157 and booth no.158, so total number of voters at that
building combining the 2 booths were 2000. So we stayed at that particular booth for a fair
amount of time the main observation we had was that according to the provisions of election
commission, everything was not fulfilled such as there was a common bathroom for all, the
rooms did not had 2 doors for entry and exit, there was a common door and the women : men
ratio of 2 : 1 was not being followed. And the number of police officials assigned was very
less as there were only 2 police officials at that booth although it was hotly contested area
which was questionable, although the voting process at that booth was pretty smooth and
nothing suspect able was observed by us.

Ram Rahim, ,

Booth no.156, tonk (96) had a lot of problems since the starting as the voting started an hour
late. When asked the authority replied that the EVM was not working. During the tenure of
voting the EVM machine was changed twice

32
According to the local people and the old people who were coming out after casting their vote
complained of very dim lighting in the voting room. For that particular problem we tried to
talk to the assigned officer but the police did not allow us as he said that everything was fine
and taken care of and the officer was busy in voting process and the line was quite big and we
could not meet him. Somehow our co-intern Niharika went and talked to him and the problem
was taken care of. And some of the people outside that booth told that they(authority) were
not returning the parcha after casting the vote and they were also not destroying the same. So
regarding these particular problems as suggested by Shubhangi Maam I interviewed a person
there who told about the problem and I uploaded the same at the cVigil app. The number of
police official was a common problem here as there was a lot of mismanagement. And delay
at every hour was questionable.

33
Nalanda School,
Booth no. 155 was pretty mismanaged as the entrance was very small horizontally and
vertically. At the entrance only there were stairs which was uncomfortable for the old people
and the disabled ones. The polling rooms were also very small and the entry and exit were
also the same and the lines for men and women were also not managed and the number the
officials assigned were also less. Under the 100 m. area some people were also roaming
around which was suspicious, on closely observing we saw that a man was carrying a demo
EVM and telling women to vote for congress. Regarding the same I complained to the
official at that booth and also uploaded a picture of that booth and wrote the description about
the problem. There was no wheelchair at any of the booths for the disabled, when asked they
told there was 1 wheelchair for 10 booths. Otherwise the voting process was pretty smooth.

Oxford School,
Booth no. 154 which was at Oxford School was one specific community dominated area so
the voting process was going smoothly but the problems remained the same such as lack of
police officials and no facilities of disabled people. One point I(Pranav) personally noted that
the people who own that building or had house nearby were indulged in the conducting of
election which was not required. Such as they were allowed to roam freely in the compound
of the voting booth and they were the one who coordinated with us also and helped us enter
the compound and observe the smooth running of elections.

In general nothing was much suspicious in Tonk just the lack of facilities and lot of
mismanagement. In future number of authorities for a particular booth must be increased.

I also complained thrice on the cVigil app as I complained it anonymously so no status or


complain number was allotted in my app. The complains consisted a video as containing a
person’s interview who told his problems faced and other were also about the same booth no.
156 as there were light problems and delay in voting.

34
2) ELECTION WATCH IN RENI , ALWAR

On date – 07-12-2018

Area surveyed- Nangal village-bairwabas- Tehsil vireni –Reni – Laxmangarh

Team members – Vaishali Gothwal (Chanakya National Law University), Snehil( Maharaja
Sayajirao University of Baroda) , Chattrapal Singh (Symbiosis Law School,Hyderabad)

Constituency Name and Constituency number- Rajgarh –Laxmangarh , 68

Booth name- Rajkiya Prathmik Vidhyala Nangalwas , Reni (Alwar district) - 119

Resource person – Jagdish Chand Verma

35
Reason for sensitivity- The area is a Meena caste community dominated area and the
minority castes are Bairwa, Jatav .The meena community due to its majority has a stronghold
over the area and in past had not allowed other SC communities to freely caste their votes in
the elections.

The team consisting of Vaishali Gothwal, Chattrapal Singh and Snehil were assigned to
monitor and and observe the polling booth in Nangalwas , Reni. We monitored one booth as
assigned to us. When we tried to match the qualities of a ideal or the model polling booth
with the Reni polling booth which were mentioned in the check list many things were
missing or were not present in the right conditions .For example the voting hall must be airy
and should have proper light facilities but the whole election there was conducted with the
help of two yellow bulbs which was not efficient enough to lighten up the room. The
affidavits and criminal records of all the candidates must be present on the walls of polling
booth but that was also missing.There was no complainant desk and enquiry desk present
there. The building was a government school –Rajkiya Prathmik Vidhyalaya Nangalwas,Reni
which was also not in a very good condition because that government school was not in use.

36
There was water facility and toilet facility but the washrooms were not separate for men and
women. There was a wheel chair present for the disabled to be carried for voting and the
attendants were small school children. BLO was present there since 8a.m. As the area was a
sensitive area due to activities of last elections so there were four BSF soldiers and a
constable for the safety and peace handling .

According to the rules there should be a proper list of all cadidates name and their party
symbols outside the polling booth but unfortunately it was present with no symbols drawn on
it. There was uncontrolled growth of wild plants and lots of soil in the area which was also
present on the ramp through which old people were to be carried and it was creating problem
for the wheel chair to move.

37
We talked to peole there, they were basically Meena community people who all recited a
same answer that it is a peaceful area and there is no need of any monitoring here. They told
that all people vote there and there was no discrimination between any caste. The other caste
people came there to vote in a small quantity and did not prefer to talk to us and moved from
the booth area swiftly. A localite told us that something had happened in the village last night
in which minority community people were threatened not to cast their vote otherwise they
would suffer from dire consequences. People also told that they have to behave accordingly
because the elections and BSF gaurds were present only for a day and on other days they
have to survive in the same village peacefully. It was very hard to extract anything true from
those people because it was a particular Meena caste and were having similar views. All
people were talking that they will vote for elephant and were very rude with the ones who
spoke that they will vote for congress, but still one of them told us there is no scope of BSP
coming to power because 11 candidates are contesting elections from the same party and thus
votes are sure to divide.

A group of people were just sitting in the 100 metre boundary, discussing about whom to
vote and many were boasting about the achievements of their parties ,their voice was very
loud and was something not to be done because there could be no election campaign due to
model code of conduct and also people cannot assemble in the area under the boundary of
100 metres so we asked the BSF guards to make them disperse. The BSF people make them
run from there for once but they again returned after sometime and sat down again at the
boundary of 100 metres drawn there ,they were adamant with their behaviour.

38
There were many women who voted for twice or thrice with the help of their long veil. In
front of us a woman told that she had already voted twice and is going to cast it thrice , they
were using veil efficiently to cast fake votes and they easily removed that black ink painted
on their fingers because its easy to remove before it gets dry.The women took their fingers in
their mouth and easily removed the ink and the women wore similar clothes like a long
yellow dupatta that was their tradition and was wore by every women so it was hard to
distinguish them per se and also their images were also not clear on their voting slip so there
was fake voting done there.

4. QUESTIONNAIRE REGARDING 2018 STATE ASSEMBLY


ELECTIONS

A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions (or other types of


prompts) for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. The questionnaire was
invented by the Statistical Society of London in 1838.

Although questionnaires are often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not
always the case.

Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they are cheap, do
not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone surveys, and often have
standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. However, such standardized
answers may frustrate users. Questionnaires are also sharply limited by the fact that
respondents must be able to read the questions and respond to them. Thus, for some
demographic groups conducting a survey by questionnaire may not be concrete.

Some questions regarding the Rajasthan Election, 2018 which have been answered by some
of my co-interns who were also working on the same issue and many of them voted for the
first time so here are their experiences:

39
NAME: RICHA GUNAWAT GENDER: FEMALE
1)
LOCALITY: JAIPUR LOCALITE AGE: 22

I. What were your expectations from any political party before voting?

Political parties must have democracy in itself, transparency in vision and funding.

II. For how many elections have you voted till now? Have you observed changes by
election commission in improving standard of elections?
First, EVM has been introduced, transparency of funding increased, code of conduct.

III. According to you, was the Rajasthan State Assembly Elections, 2018 free and fair?

Yes it was free and fair as no violence or booth capturing reported and no false rumours.

IV. Do you think that the respective parties lay more emphasis on development of
Rajasthan or are just concerned with winning the elections?

Parties are focused on vote banks. No party’s works on development rather on religion.

V. Which were the major issues side-lined by the political parties in their manifesto?

Issues of dying farmers

VI. Which of the issues raised by the contesting political parties were baseless?

Manipulative issue of the religion

VII. Do you think that the political leaders of your constituency are more connected to
the local people?

Yes leader in my constituency is local resident and hence connected to local people.

VIII. As there has been a change in government of Rajasthan what more do you expect
from them?

Parties to fulfil their promises from manifesto, Dire need of code of conduct and personal
abuses amongst them should decrease and local issues should be discussed. Parties should do
“inclusive politics” and must respect opposition.

IX. In future do you wish to see more transparency in political parties funding?

Yes, funding should come under RTI.

X. What are your suggestions regarding elections?

It should maintain the essence of democracy.

40
NAME: KATHIK BOHRA GENDER: MALE
2)
LOCALITY: JAIPUR AGE: 20

I. What were your expectations from any political party before voting?
Overall development of the state and considering every strata of people, policies should be
made.
II. For how many elections have you voted till now? Have you observed changes by
election commission in improving standard of elections?
This was my first time.
III. According to you, was the Rajasthan State Assembly Elections, 2018 free and fair?
No, I was an intern in the PUCL, and as I was doing field work I saw many of the
malpractices happening all around and social media was being used primarily.
IV. Do you think that the respective parties lay more emphasis on development of
Rajasthan or are just concerned with winning the elections?
I personally think it depends on person to person, some people are dedicated towards there
people and some doesn’t care.
V. Which were the major issues side-lined by the political parties in their manifesto?
Everything, they are just concerned with the past, what has happened not what’s gonna
happen.
VI. Which of the issues raised by the contesting political parties were baseless?
Reservation to people who are already profiting.
VII. Do you think that the political leaders of your constituency are more connected to
the local people?
Not sure enough.
VIII. As there has been a change in government of Rajasthan what more do you expect
from them?
Just work positively and benefit the needy and prosper overall.
IX. In future do you wish to see more transparency in political parties funding?
We all know that a huge amount is invested in elections and no one can change that so I
don’t see such change coming anytime soon.
X. What are your suggestions regarding elections?
Elections are a lot time and money consuming process, but as it is democracy we can’t do
anything about it.

41
NAME: AYUSH GARG GENDER: MALE
3)
LOCALITY: JAIPUR AGE: 19

I. What were your expectations from any political party before voting?

I expected the parties to come up with improved plans for the overall development of state.

II. For how many elections have you voted till now? Have you observed changes by
election commission in improving standard of elections?
This was the first time. As, my parents told me nothing new was observed by them.

III. According to you, was the Rajasthan State Assembly Elections, 2018 free and fair?

Yes, I am positive it was free and fair.

IV. Do you think that the respective parties lay more emphasis on development of
Rajasthan or are just concerned with winning the elections?

No they are just concerned with their profits.

V. Which were the major issues side-lined by the political parties in their manifesto?

Education was left out for sure.

VI. Which of the issues raised by the contesting political parties were baseless?

They kept mentioning about their past works.

VII. Do you think that the political leaders of your constituency are more connected to
the local people?

No, I just saw him during road show.

VIII. As there has been a change in government of Rajasthan what more do you expect
from them?

As I am a student I would love to have some policies for students.

IX. In future do you wish to see more transparency in political parties funding?

I don’t think so transparency is required.

X. What are your suggestions regarding elections?

Elections need to have more volunteers during voting sessions, otherwise everything is fine.

42
NAME: VAISHALI GENDER: FEMALE
4)
LOCALITY: ALWAR AGE: 19

I. What were your expectations from any political party before voting?

That in future they will fulfil all their promises towards us.

II. For how many elections have you voted till now? Have you observed changes by
election commission in improving standard of elections?
First time, but yes elections are evolving, and will surely improve in future

III. According to you, was the Rajasthan State Assembly Elections, 2018 free and fair?

Yes, as no complaints were registered and voting % increased this year.

IV. Do you think that the respective parties lay more emphasis on development of
Rajasthan or are just concerned with winning the elections?

They are usually concerned with winning elections.

V. Which were the major issues side-lined by the political parties in their manifesto?

Issues related to farmer are being ignored by the parties.

VI. Which of the issues raised by the contesting political parties were baseless?

Increasing of tourism in pace of basic education of girl child and upliftment of marginalised
class and still existing honour killing in state.

VII. Do you think that the political leaders of your constituency are more connected to
the local people?

Sanjay Sharma from BJP in my constituency works for the people.

VIII. As there has been a change in government of Rajasthan what more do you expect
from them?
Looking after the basic problems of the society and then developing overall.

IX. In future do you wish to see more transparency in political parties funding?

Yes maybe it should come under RTI.

X. What are your suggestions regarding elections?

It should be free and fair and must maintain the essence of unity and democracy.

43
NAME: NAHUSH GENDER: MALE
5)
LOCALITY: ALWAR AGE: 19

I. What were your expectations from any political party before voting?

Good governance of the state.

II. For how many elections have you voted till now? Have you observed changes by
election commission in improving standard of elections?
First time, yes little changes have been observed.

III. According to you, was the Rajasthan State Assembly Elections, 2018 free and fair?

No not at all, media has also highlighted the same.

IV. Do you think that the respective parties lay more emphasis on development of
Rajasthan or are just concerned with winning the elections?

They are concerned of winning elections.

V. Which were the major issues side-lined by the political parties in their manifesto?

Issues related to farmers.

VI. Which of the issues raised by the contesting political parties were baseless?

Religious issues of the state

VII. Do you think that the political leaders of your constituency are more connected to
the local people?

Yes in my region he is concerned with the local people.

VIII. As there has been a change in government of Rajasthan what more do you expect
from them?

New opportunities for the youth in all the fields

IX. In future do you wish to see more transparency in political parties funding?

Indeed yes.

X. What are your suggestions regarding elections?

Election must be free fair and for everyone.

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NAME: ANUPAMA GENDER: FEMALE
6)
LOCALITY: JAIPUR AGE: 19

I. What were your expectations from any political party before voting?

Scam- free governance

II. For how many elections have you voted till now? Have you observed changes by
election commission in improving standard of elections?
Once so no

III. According to you, was the Rajasthan State Assembly Elections, 2018 free and fair?

No, the marginalised class and the minorities were manipulated on name of religion.

IV. Do you think that the respective parties lay more emphasis on development of
Rajasthan or are just concerned with winning the elections?

Winning the elections

V. Which were the major issues side-lined by the political parties in their manifesto?

Issue of education of girls as many of the schools have been shut in recent years.

VI. Which of the issues raised by the contesting political parties were baseless?

Proving their works done in past.

VII. Do you think that the political leaders of your constituency are more connected to
the local people?

No, he doesn’t even stays in Jaipur.

VIII. As there has been a change in government of Rajasthan what more do you expect
from them?

Just, hope that does some good work for the people.

IX. In future do you wish to see more transparency in political parties funding?

No I don’t think so anybody is concerned with all this.

X. What are your suggestions regarding elections?

It should remain to be much fairer towards the common people and essence of “one man one
vote” must prevail.

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NAME: SHUBHA JINDAL GENDER: FEMALE
7)
LOCALITY: JAIPUR AGE: 26

I. What were your expectations from any political party before voting?

That they would stick to what they have highlighted in their manifestoes as we the people
usually vote them on that basis.

II. For how many elections have you voted till now? Have you observed changes by
election commission in improving standard of elections?

Second time, yeah last time there were booth capturing but this time security was increased
as compared to last time many personals were appointed.

III. According to you, was the Rajasthan State Assembly Elections, 2018 free and fair?

Yes, considerably it was free and fair.

IV. Do you think that the respective parties lay more emphasis on development of
Rajasthan or are just concerned with winning the elections?

Parties are concerned with winning while some leaders are concerned with the people.

V. Which were the major issues side-lined by the political parties in their manifesto?

Issues related to uplifttment of the poor and hardworking farmers.

VI. Which of the issues raised by the contesting political parties were baseless?
Provisions of developing the already developed areas

VII. Do you think that the political leaders of your constituency are more connected to
the local people?

Maybe yes can’t judge as he new one.

VIII. As there has been a change in government of Rajasthan what more do you expect
from them?

Working for the people

IX. In future do you wish to see more transparency in political parties funding?

Yes maybe it should happen.

X. What are your suggestions regarding elections?


It should always remain to be free and fair.

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5. MALPRACTICES DURING ELECTIONS:

1. Use of black money for rallies, ads and votes. Between 4-15 crores is spent by many
candidates in Lok Sabha elections whereas the EC limit is Rs 70 lakhs. Naturally, most
money used is black money, undeclared to the EC. Although crores of rupees are found by
EC in raids during elections, the EC largely has been rather ineffective against black money.

2. Over-expenditure. India spends an amount comparable to American elections whereas


India’s GDP is nowhere close to the American GDP.

3. Cash for votes. A large chunk of money spent by candidates is used to pay voters for votes
in cash or liquor, or to pay the visitors of rallies for their time.

4. Misuse of religion or caste. Classic divide and rule. Members of one or more communities
are aroused to vote on religious or caste lines.

5. Hate speech. A severe form of misuse of religion or caste. Not many people are aware that
such hate speech amount to the Violation of the RPA and may result in disqualification of the
candidates who make such speeches.

6. Getting "apoliticals" to take political stand. Eminent persons not directly associated with
politics are called upon to support one party or oppose an adversary.

7. False promises. Making promises with no intention or possibility of fulfilling them once in
power.

8. Paid news. Paid news include news tarnishing the image of an adversary and inordinately
positive news about a crony politician. In order to counter this, public debates between
candidates should be made compulsory---however, not the noisy Aajtak's sytle but on the
style of US Presidential debates.

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9. Fake stings. A rather severe form of paid/biased news.

10. Online opinion rigging. Paid keyboard operators run by PR firms are deployed to shape
public opinion online.

11. Rigging of opinion and exit polls. Rather than prediction, these polls are used to shape
public opinion for or against certain political parties and politicians.

12. Dummy candidates. Several candidates of the same name as an adversary are fielded in
order to cut his or her votes.

13. Dividing votes. Candidates of other parties are overtly or covertly supported in order to
divide votes of the adversary.

14. Horse trading. Some parties have developed systematic methods for horse trading in which a
few candidates of some other party are bought into one's own party.

15. Dummy and duplicate voters in the EC's electoral list. Lakhs of duplicate voters (register
in multiple constituencies) were found in Delhi before the 2015 Assembly elections.

16. Malpractices in the registration of voters before the elections. New applicants weeks
before an election may find their voter registration process failed and they could not get
registered. In many cases, this is because the ruling administration does not like these new
voters.
17. Violence. Against adversarial candidates and voters.

18. Misuse of the state machinery. The use of Police and other state machinery by the ruling
party to harass adversarial candidates.

19. Booth capturing. This used to be a big problem in the past, but is slowly dying.

20. Rigging EVMs before or after the polling process. Some EVMs have been found to vote
for only one party. There is also a possibility that EVM can be tampered after the polling and
before counting.

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MALPRACTICE IN RAJASTHAN

These are pictures showing some liquor given


by a particular political party during their
political campaign. As it has been always
evident that the corrupt politicians have tried
to buy vote and the same is evident here in the
picture above.

As I was working with the media team at


PUCL, Jaipur which in the collaboration with
other renowned organisations such as MKSS,
was running a a program named “Election
Watch” which was specifically made to look
into the malpractices of the political parties
during the elections and report the same to the
Election commission as it was very
cooperative with us and was promoting our work.

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The above pictures are the screenshots of the Fake News which is being spread throughout
the social media by medium of Whatsapp, Facebook and Twitter.

I infiltrated in some of the Whatsapp groups of the Political parties during elections and
observed that particularly a message on the basis of religion was being spread out by the
people to divide the votes amongst the parties. The worst face of elections were clearly
visible and too train us to look into the Fake News with a better perspective we were guided
by a team from Delhi which was expert in the field of Fake News as in this Digital World to
conduct free and fair elections we need to understand these problems. The report of that
seminar is:

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6. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS

The continuity in the operation of India’s political system as a developing democratic


political system is gradually training the Indian voters. The process of emergence of an issue
based political struggle in place of a caste or religion or personality dominated struggle for
power is very slowly but gradually taking shape. Elections occupy a prominent place in the
democratic government. It is a means through which people express and enforce their
political opinion and regulate political organization of the society. However the behaviour of
a voter is influence by several factors such as religion, caste, community, language, money,
policy or ideology, purpose of the polls, extent of franchise and the like political parties and
groups make use of these variables for the sake of winning the battle of the ballot box. It is
therefore, imperative that the use of these determinants should be avoided and elections
should be conducted in a very free and fair manner. It also depends upon whether the system
allows freedom of thought, expression and association to the people. Mere presence of an
electoral system does not make a political system democratic. The will of people is expressed
through voting in elections and therefore, all undemocratic and unfair means like
manipulating and rigging need to be avoided in the elections. No such action is taken which
would in any way undermine the popular will expressed through elections.
The result of the Rajasthan assembly election has been finalised, with the Congress falling
just one short of the 100-seat majority mark, in the 199-seat strong Rajasthan assembly. The
ruling BJP party won 73 seats and the state's senior Congress leaders have expressed
"confidence" of forming the next government of the state.
Vasundhara Raje, Sachin Pilot and Ashok Gehlot all won their respective seats of
Jhalrapatan, Tonk and Sardarpura.

As I was an intern of PUCL, Jaipur from 12th November, 2018 to 12th December, 2018 I was
deeply involved in the Rajasthan Assembly Elections watch. The program ‘Election Watch’
was started to help out the Election Commission in conducting free and fair election. As I
observed all over the month while visiting different districts of Rajasthan that the election
was calm and composed as there was no riot on the basis of religion. There were some delay
in voting process but not much more suspicious was detected. Overall the election was a
peaceful one but was it free and fair is still a big question?

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BIBLIOGRAPHY:

The researcher has consulted following sources to complete the rough proposal:

PRIMARY SOURCES:

1. Analysis of Rajasthan State Assembly Election Results, Datanet India Pvt Ltd (2014), by
Dr.R K Thukral
2. Reports prepared by interns and social activists at PUCL, Jaipur

SECONDARY SOURCES:

 WEBSITES:
a. https://thewire.in/politics/rajasthan-assembly-elections-timeline-state-electoral-history
b. https://www.business-standard.com/article/elections/as-rajasthan-votes-here-s-a-recap-of-
the-state-s-electoral-history-118120700151_1.html
c. https://www.thehindu.com/elections/rajasthan-assembly-elections-2018/rajasthan-
assembly-elections-2018-when-history-shadows-the-cut-and-thrust/article25429650.ece

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