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Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Cement and Concrete

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Cement and Concrete Composites

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cemconcomp Water absorption and electrical resistivity of concrete with

Water absorption and electrical resistivity of concrete with recycled concrete aggregates and y ash

Rawaz Kurda, Jorge de Brito , José D. Silvestre

CERIS, DECivil, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001, Lisbon, Portugal

T
T

ARTICLE INFO

Keywords:

Fly ash Concrete Durability Water absorption by immersion and capillarity actions Electrical resistivity Recycled aggregates

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a literature review and experimental results on the e ect of high incorporation levels of y ash (FA) and recycled concrete aggregates (RCA), individually and jointly, on the pore system of concrete that remarkably in uences its durability. For that purpose, apart from an extensive literature review, three tests were performed, including electrical resistivity (ER) test, which indirectly measures the interconnected porosity of concrete, and water absorption (WA) by capillarity and immersion tests that both depend on the pores number and size but in a di erent way. A comparison between the experimental results and the literature is also pre- sented to show the main ndings and the research needs. The results show that WA increases and ER decreases with increasing incorporation level of RCA, and the opposite occurs with the addition of FA for both tests. The reduction percentage of WA was higher in mixes with both RCA and FA when compared to the sum of reductions in mixes with only RCA or FA. Thus, it is advisable to produce concrete with both mentioned non-traditional materials in terms of WA and ER of concrete. In addition, the bene t of incorporating of FA and RCA in concrete increased even more when superplasticizers was used.

1. Introduction

The consumption of energy and natural resources has exponentially increased in the construction sector due to the signi cant increment of the human population and demand. As a result, the volume of waste has swiftly increased worldwide. To overcome this situation and as a step towards environmental sustainability in the construction sector, one vital step is to use by-products such as supplementary cementitious materials and recycling aggregates simultaneously. Based on Freedonia group [1 ], fty two billion metric tonnes of aggregates will be consumed in 2019 worldwide. However, globally, only 3% of the consumed aggregates are recycled aggregates [ 2 ]. Fur- thermore, the production of cement was four thousand and one hun- dred million metric tonnes in 2017 worldwide [3 ]. Furthermore, a signi cant amount of by-product materials such as y ash (FA) is ob- tained annually from pulverise coal at electrical thermal power plant (3769 million metric tonnes of coal was consumed in 2017 [ 4 ]). As mentioned before, one alternative to decrease the consumption of natural resources is to introduce high volume of by-product (e.g. FA) and recycling aggregates (e.g. recycled concrete aggregates RCA ) in concrete instead to sending them to land ll.

According to the standards [5 ,6 ], FA can be classi ed based on its CaO content, namely class F (low CaO content) and class C (high SiO 2 ). However, the most common FA type globally produced in thermal power plants is class F. Therefore, this study focuses on the mentioned type. Moreover, the quantity of Ca(OH) 2 in RCA can be high due to the attached mortars [7 ]. However, the quantity depends on several factors, e.g. the age of the source concrete when it is crushed, water to binder ratio (w/b) and size of the aggregates. The variation of the major chemical composition in each of the mentioned products (RCA and FA) motivates their joint incorporation to produce a concrete with su cient durability, due to pozzolanic reaction that may happen between SiO 2 of FA (§3.1) (§3.1) and CaO of RCA [7 ]. Since there is a strong relationship between the service life (mea- sured by durability characteristics) and environmental impact of con- crete, previous studies have focused on the durability of concrete made with FA [ 8 13 ] or RCA [ 14 20 ], and both FA and RCA [ 21 24 ]. However, the number of the studies regarding the inuence of high incorporation of both FA and RCA on durability of concrete are very scarce [25 27 ]. In addition, there are tests performed to identify the same durability concept (e.g. water absorption (WA) by immersion and capillarity) of concrete, but they are quite di erent regarding their

Acronyms list: FA, y ash; NA, natural aggregates; w/b, water to binder ratio; RCA, recycled concrete aggregate; SP, superplasticizers; SSD, saturated surface dry; ER, electrical resistivity; OPC, Ordinary Portland cement; D nssm , non-steady state chloride migration coe cient of di usion; WA, water absorption Corresponding author. E-mail addresses: rawaz.kurda@tecnico.ulisboa.pt (R. Kurda), jb@civil.ist.utl.pt (J. de Brito), jose.silvestre@ist.utl.pt (J.D. Silvestre).

Received 16 August 2018; Received in revised form 2 October 2018; Accepted 9 October 2018

Available online 12 October 2018 0958-9465/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

R. Kurda et al.

in uence on concrete. For example, the WA by immersion mainly de- pends on the total porosity of concrete, while the capillary absorption is a ected by the diameter of the pores, their connectivity and their tor- tuosity. Therefore, it is worthwhile to simultaneously consider most of the factors that explain the pore system of concrete that is neglected in most of the previous studies, namely the WA by immersion and ca- pillarity, and also electrical resistivity (ER) of concrete. Also, the re- lationship between the mentioned characteristics is presented with other concrete characteristics (saturated surface dry (SSD) density, ul- trasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and chloride ion penetration resistance) that were obtained for the same concrete mixes to understand the global inuence of incorporation of FA and RCA on most of the concrete durability characteristics. Additionally, the rst part of this study is dedicated to the expected trends (literature review) by considering the results of the previous studies [ 8,14 17, 2022, 28 51 ], and then the results of this study (ex- perimental work) are shown, namely those which are not expected or not given by the previous studies. With this presenting structure, the readers can easily see what can be expected from durability of concrete by incorporating FA and RCA, and also what innovative trends this study shows. According to previous studies [ 52 , 53 ], it is demonstrated that the sum of the decrements in mechanical performance of concrete due to the individual e ects of incorporating FA and RCA are higher than that of concrete produced with both FA and RCA. Apart from the fact that some authors believe this may be related to the pozzolanic reaction between FA and RCA [54 ], this still may not be the only factor. For example, for high-strength concrete (e.g. made only with Ordinary Portland cement OPC ) the incorporation of RCA signi cantly de- creases the mechanical strength of concrete because the ultimate strength depends on the strength of aggregates, but for low-strength concrete (e.g. made with OPC and FA), the strength of concrete may not signi cantly decrease by incorporating RCA because for low-strength concrete the ultimate strength depends on the strength of paste rather than the strength of aggregates. Since the RCA and FA a ect the dur- ability of concrete in di erent phenomena, the trends mentioned for the mechanical performance of concrete may not necessarily apply to the durability of high- and low-strength concrete made with FA and RCA, especially when joint and individual e ects are compared.

2. Methodology and experimental program

As mentioned before, to present the e ects of the incorporation of FA and RCA on the durability of concrete mixes, the results are divided into two main aspects. First, the expected trends are shown by con- sidering the results of the previous studies (section 3 ). Then, the missing information and the non-expected results from the previous studies are shown in sections 4, 5 and 6 in terms of WA by immersion and ca- pillarity, and ER, respectively. Regarding the experimental program, OPC (CEM I 42.5 R) and FA (type F) were used as binder. The coarse and ne natural aggregates' (NA) geological nature are crushed limestone and natural silica, re- spectively. The ne (WA of 8%) and coarse (WA of 5%) RCA were made from uncontaminated concrete with compressive strength of 24 MPa (further details regarding the source concrete were shown in a previous study [ 52]). The binder content (OPC and/or FA) of the concrete mixes was kept constant at 350 kg/m 3 . Furthermore, the target workability (S2) was obtained by maintaining the e ective w/b. The w/b of the conventional concrete without (M) and with (M sp ) superplasticizers SP (1% of cement's mass) were 0.53 and 0.40, respectively. Ad- ditionally, twenty eight mixes were obtained with various incorpora- tion ratios of FA (0 60%) and RCA (0 100%) ( Table 1 ). To understand the e ect of w/b on the pore system of concrete containing FA and/or RCA, half of the concrete mixes were repeated by using SP. Further information regarding the methodology and experimental program of this study (e.g. material properties, experimental design, mixing

170

Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182

procedures and curing methods) can be found in the previous studies made by the same authors [52 ,55 ]. The procedure used in the WA by immersion test complied with the provisions of specication LNEC E394 [56 ]. In this study, three 100 mm cubical specimens per mix were tested at 28, 90, 180 and 365 days. Regarding the WA by capillarity, the test was performed according to the methodology indicated in speci cation LNEC E393 [ 56 ]. For each concrete composition, three cylinders per mix with 150 mm diameter and 100 mm height were tested, at 28, 90, 180 and 365 days. For the ER test, cylinders with Ø100 × 50 cm were used in accordance with the proposed European standard presented by the ChlorTest group [57 ], as well as the DURAR manual [ 58 ] and technical recommendation TC 154 RILEM [59 ]. For each of these tests further information is provided in Supplementary le I.

3. Expected trends

In this section, the e ect of incorporation of FA and/or RCA on the WA by immersion and capillarity and ER of concrete is presented based on the results of the previous studies [8 ,14 17 ,20 22 ,28 51 ].

3.1. E ect of incorporating FA according to previous studies

FA is considered a by-product material and it is mostly sourced from electrical thermal power generation plants. Its particles are usually spherical in shape and very small in size [60 ]. These two physical properties increase the density of concrete because the smaller particles of FA ll the voids between particles of the other materials used, and due to their spherical shape less water is required to obtain the target workability. According to the results of previous studies [ 12 ,13 , 30 ,61 72 ], the major element of FA is SiO 2 , followed distantly by Al 2 O 3 , Fe 2 O 3 and CaO, and for OPC it is CaO, followed distantly by SiO 2 , Al2O 3 and Fe 2 O 3 ( Fig. 1 ). Apart from the fact that it is expected to decrease the WA, FA may also decrease the ion penetration due to its chemical composition, e.g. its richness in Al 2 O 3 ( Fig. 1 ). Some studies [ 73 76 ] investigated the sorptivity of concrete mixes made with high contents of FA (50 70% of cement's mass), and the results show a sorptivity decrease of 13 54%. In all studies, the sorp- tivity of FA concrete signi cantly deceased over time. On the contrary, other studies [ 28 30 ] using similar content of FA (60% of cement's mass) found sorptivity increase of 27 61%. This inconsistency (FA in- creasing sorptivity) may be due to the short curing period of the spe- cimens [8 , 77 ]. Another explanation for this inconsistency may be re- lated with the size of the pores, where water cannot go through either because they are very small or too wide. It is well-known that the WA by immersion of concrete decreases with the incorporation of low volume of FA due to the mentioned factors above, namely the size and shape of FA particles. However, there are no adequate evidences regarding the e ect of high volume of FA on the WA by immersion of concrete. As for the total porosity of concrete, some studies [29 ,31 , 32 ] incorporated 50 60% of FA and found increases of 33 38%. Apart from this fact, the mentioned in- formation may not be reliable because the total porosity results cannot be compared with the WA by immersion values, due to the fact that the WA test only measures the volume of the accessible pores and does not represent total volume of the voids [78 ]. There is still a lack of research related to the e ect of high in- corporation ratios of FA on the ER of concrete. However, according to some of the studies [31 , 33 ], it can be concluded that a high in- corporation level of FA increases the ER about 5 times. Moreover, other studies [ 8 ,34 ] showed that the ER was not signi cantly changed by the incorporation of FA. This may be explained by the same fact referred to for WA by capillarity, namely short curing time.

R. Kurda et al.

Table 1 Mix proportions of the concrete mixes.

Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182

RAC (%)

Coarse RCA

0

100

Fine RCA

0

50

100

0

50

100

FA (%)

0

M1 & M1 sp

M2

M3 & M3 sp

M10 & M10 sp

M11

M12 & M12 sp

30

M4

M5 & M5 sp

M6

M13

M14 & M14 sp

M15

60

M7 & M7 sp

M8

M9 & M9 sp

M16 & M16 sp

M17

M18 & M18 sp

3.2. Eect of incorporating RCA according to previous studies

The density, WA, particle shape and chemical composition of RCA di er from NA due to the attached mortar. The mentioned factors considerably a ect the durability behaviour of concrete, due to the angular shape and higher WA of RCA compared to NA. Fig. 2 presents the correlation between density and WA of RCA [ 7 ,16 ,17 , 37,44 ,54,79 115 ]. The results show that the WA of ne and coarse RCA is higher than that of the ne ( 1%) [48 ] and coarse (0.3 1.67%) NA, and the WA of coarse RCA is lower than that of the ne RCA. Additionally, the average akiness index and shape index of RCA are 8% and 18%, and of the NA are 12% and 13%, respectively [ 97 ,99 ,103 ,107 , 108,112 ,116 ]. Previous studies show that the WA by capillarity [14 ,15 , 17 ,35 ] and immersion [14 17,36] increased by up to 3 and 1.6 times, respectively, as the incorporation level of ne RCA increased, due to the higher w/b of the concrete mixes. In addition, concrete mixes made with ne RCA of higher WA seem to absorb more water by capillarity than mixes with ne RCA of lower WA. Similar trends can be seen in concrete mixes made with coarse RCA, leading to an increase of WA by capillarity [ 37 ,38 ] and immersion [ 36 ,38 42 ], by up to 1.48 and 1.33 times, re- spectively. In addition, the capillary absorption of concrete mixes with ne RCA was higher than that of those made with coarse RCA due to the di erence between their WA ( Fig. 2 ). Opposite to the WA tests of RCA concrete, studies regarding the ER of RCA concrete are still scarce. Apart from the w/b [20], the ER may also depend on the aggregate content, binder type, humidity, and temperature [ 43 ]. A few studies obtained the ER for ne [44 ] and coarse [45 , 46 ] RCA concrete, and they show that it decreases with incorporation of RCA.

3.3. Eect of incorporating both FA and RCA according to previous studies

As con rmed by other recent review studies [47 , 48 ], opposite to the individual e ect of FA and RCA on the WA by immersion and ca- pillarity, and ER of concrete, studies regarding the combined e ect of a

high volume of the mentioned non-traditional materials are still very scarce. A study [ 21 ] shows that the WA by immersion of ne RCA concrete can be equivalent to that of conventional concrete by in- corporating 30 40% of FA, after 28 days. Similar trends can be seen for the porosity of RCA concrete containing FA [23 ]. However, other stu- dies [ 22 ,49 ] found an opposite behaviour. As mentioned above, this inconsistency in FA concrete may be related to the curing process and delayed binding action of FA. Additionally, some studies [50 ,51 ] show that the sorptivity of RCA concrete can be oset by incorporating FA. From the above literature review, it can be concluded that there is lack of research related to the e ect of high incorporation ratios of FA and RCA on the ER and WA of concrete made with low and high w/b ratio (with or without SP). Therefore, the following sections mainly focus on this gap.

4. Water absorption by immersion

WA is a relevant test in terms of concrete durability, since it is an indirect measurement of the water accessible porosity [117 ,118 ]. The WA by immersion test shows the di erence between the mass of SSD sample and its mass in the dry state. The WA by immersion of concrete mixes is mainly a ected by the factors that control the concrete por- osity, namely w/b [ 117 ]. In this study, the WA by immersion of the concrete mixes was de- termined at 28, 90, 180 and 365 days ( Table 2 ). Regarding the in- dividual e ects, in summary, the results show that the WA by immer- sion increased linearly with increasing incorporation level of RCA. The WA of coarse RCA concrete was lower than that of ne RCA concrete. Further details were shown in Supplementary le II . The mentioned facts agree with the conclusions obtained by the previous studies (§3.2). Contrary to the RCA e ect, WA by immersion decreased when the incorporation level of FA increased. As mentioned above, the number of evidences regarding this test is very few, but the results agree with the previous study (§3.1) where the porosity of concrete was obtained. The results show that the WA by immersion decreased 3% and 15% with

show that the WA by immersion decreased 3% and 15% with Fig. 1. The main components

Fig. 1. The main components of OPC and FA. Y ± Y value is the average content and standard deviation of the elements in FA.

171

R. Kurda et al.

Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182

et al. Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182 Fig. 2. Relationship between WA and particle

Fig. 2. Relationship between WA and particle oven-dried density of (a) ne and (b) coarse RCA.

incorporation of 30% and 60% of FA at 28 days. This is because FA decreases the water content that is required to achieve the target workability. As a consequence, the density of the cementitious paste increased. Another possible explanation for this is the texture and size of the FA particles, since they ll the voids between particles of the other materials used [119 ]. For longer ages, the WA signi cantly decreased with growing in- corporation levels of FA, e.g. the WA decreased by about 27 31% and 38 44% when OPC was replaced with 30% and 60% of FA, respec- tively, at ages from 90 to 365 days ( Fig. 3 ). The observed increase in pozzolanic activity of FA, especially at longer ages, can explain the mentioned decrement in WA of the FA concrete because FA decreases the interconnectivity of the pore structure since it consumes Ca(OH) 2 from the cement paste and causes secondary calcium silicate to hydrate. However, the incorporation of FA may increase the total porosity of concrete but it reduces the pore re nement/ pore size[31 ]. Regarding the combined in uence of RCA and FA, Fig. 4 shows that the WA by immersion in most of the RCA concrete mixes containing FA was higher than that of traditional concrete, at 28 days. However, the opposite can be seen at later ages. These results are likely to be related with the pozzolanic reaction of FA and RCA [ 54 ]. As mentioned in another study [55 ], due to better compactness, the air content of the fresh concrete decreased when FA and RCA were incorporated in the same mixes. This secondary factor may also change the WA by im- mersion of concrete. Table 3 shows the combined and individual e ect of RCA and FA on the WA by immersion of the mixes.

Table 2 -WA by immersion of the concrete mixes (%).

mixes. Table 2 -WA by immersion of the concrete mixes (%). Fig. 3. E ff ect
mixes. Table 2 -WA by immersion of the concrete mixes (%). Fig. 3. E ff ect

Fig. 3. E ect of the incorporation of FA on the WA by immersion of concrete over time.

If the actual results (experimental) are compared with the expected results (summing the individual e ects of introducing of RCA and FA), it is clear that the experimental WA by immersion of concrete mixes containing both FA and RCA was signi cantly lower than the one ex- pected by summing the individual e ects of FA and RCA. The men- tioned facts can be clearly seen for concrete made with ne RCA and FA, because ne RCA contains higher old cement content than coarse RCA [ 120 ], and helps the SiO 2 of FA consume further Ca(OH) 2 and

Mixes

M1

M1 sp

M2

M3

M3 sp

M4

M5

M5 sp

M6

M7

M7 sp

M8

M9

M9 sp

28 days

12.99

8.21

16.34

17.50

14.51

12.66

13.89

8.60

15.29

11.00

6.43

11.72

14.50

11.18

90 days

12.57

8.13

15.78

16.80

14.33

9.24

10.12

7.31

11.11

7.81

4.82

8.30

10.22

8.21

180 days

12.44

8.04

15.59

16.58

14.16

8.78

9.59

6.36

10.52

7.26

4.58

7.68

9.43

7.79

365 days

12.32

8.00

15.41

16.37

14.08

8.51

9.27

6.26

10.17

6.90

4.40

7.27

8.91

7.38

Mixes

M10

M10 sp

M11

M12

M12 sp

M13

M14

M14 sp

M15

M16

M16 sp

M17

M18

M18 sp

28 days

15.90

10.20

19.69

21.25

18.02

15.21

16.24

11.70

19.91

13.00

7.90

14.10

16.90

13.10

90 days

15.34

10.05

18.98

20.36

17.71

11.07

11.77

9.83

14.33

9.18

5.85

9.93

11.85

9.56

180 days

15.14

9.94

18.69

20.01

17.45

10.49

11.11

8.50

13.47

8.49

5.55

9.15

10.90

9.02

365 days

14.98

9.89

18.47

19.75

17.33

10.15

10.71

8.37

12.95

8.05

5.27

8.62

10.25

8.97

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Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182

et al. Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182 Fig. 4. E ff ect of the

Fig. 4. E ect of the incorporation of FA and ne RCA on concrete's WA by immersion with (a) 0% and 30%, (b) 100% and 30%, (c) 100% and 60%, and (d) 100% and 60% of coarse RCA and FA, respectively.

consequently produce hydration products. Furthermore, the best con- crete mix in terms of the combined e ect was the one with high in- corporation level of FA and 100% RCA with SP. The use of SP is ad- visable for mixes containing RCA and FA because it causes better dispersion of their particles and makes them react [121 ], and decreases the pore size as a result. Concerning the in uence of w/b on the WA by immersion of con- crete mixes, Fig. 5 presents the WA by immersion of mixes without SP versus the corresponding mixes with SP. Similarly to the mechanical strength of the same concrete mixes [ 52 ], the SP e ciency is more sensitive (its advantage decreases) to the incorporation of ne RCA regarding WA because the speci c surface of ne RCA is very high. However, the incorporation of coarse RCA seems

not to a ect the e ciency of SP because their surface area is much lower than that of the ne RCA. Furthermore, there is a signi cant e ect of SP on the WA of some concrete mixes, namely those containing FA. In other words, a better performance was found by using SP in FA concrete because it signicantly decreases the water content (major contributor to the porosity of concrete) required to obtain the target workability, and it also helps the particles of the FA to disperse in the whole system and ll the voids as a result. This is due to the above- mentioned factor, namely the dispersion of FA particles. Moreover, relative to the traditional concrete mixes (M x ), the performance of most of the mixes (M xsp ) with SP decreased over time. This is because SP disperses the particles of FA and RCA, which is the main reason to accelerate the hydration process and decrease the pore size at early age

Table 3 Comparison between the individual and combined e ects of RCA and FA on the WA by immersion of concrete.

Mixes

Fine RCA (%) FA (%) Coarse RCA (%) SP (%) WA of concrete mixes relative to the reference concrete a

 
 

28 days

365 days

 

RCA

FA

Expected (FA + RCA) Experimental RCA FA

Expected ( FA + RCA) Experimental

M5

50

30

0

0

26

3

23

7

25

31

6

25

M6

100

30

0

0

35

3

32

18

33

31

2

17

M8

50

60

0

0

26

15

10

10

25

44

19

41

M9

100

60

0

0

35

15

19

12

33

44

11

28

M13

0

30

100

0

22

3

20

17

22

31

9

18

M14

50

30

100

0

52

3

49

25

50

31

19

13

M15

100

30

100

0

64

3

61

53

60

31

29

5

M16

0

60

100

0

22

15

7

0

22

44

22

35

M17

50

60

100

0

52

15

36

9

50

44

6

30

M18

100

60

100

0

64

15

48

30

60

44

16

17

M9sp

100

60

0

1

77

22

55

36

76

45

31

8

M16sp

0

60

100

1

24

22

3

4

24

45

22

34

M18sp 100

60

100

1

120

22

98

60

116

45

71

12

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Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182

et al. Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182 Fig. 5. E ff ect of the
et al. Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182 Fig. 5. E ff ect of the
et al. Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182 Fig. 5. E ff ect of the

Fig. 5. E ect of the incorporation of SP on the WA by immersion of the concrete mixes at (a) 28 and (b) 365 days.

compared with the corresponding concrete without SP. This is clearly shown in mixes containing both FA and RCA, e.g. M18, because it promotes the dispersion of the particles of FA and absorbs more Ca (OH) 2 from the RCA and cement particles. Fig. 6 presents the relationship between the WA by immersion (current study) and SSD density [122 ] and UPV [123 ] of concrete be- tween 28 and 365 days that was obtained for the same concrete mixes. The results show a power relationship between WA by immersion and SSD density with a coe cient of determination of 0.610.78, and a power relationship between WA by immersion and UPV with a coe- cient of determination of 0.72 0.79, between 28 and 365 days ( Fig. 6 ). Furthermore, the coe cient of determination of the relationship be- tween WA by immersion and SSD density signi cantly decreased when FA was incorporated because of the reaction between FA and RCA at longer ages. As a result, the density (total mass) of concrete mixes may not increase over time but the size of pores may signi cantly decrease over time due to the hydration products. Hence, both properties may not increase proportionately with time. Since UPV and WA by immer- sion of concrete both depend on the total porosity (e.g. paste micro- structure [ 124 ]) and both properties change proportionally over time,

the coe cient of determination slightly decreased when FA was used.

5. Water absorption by capillarity

WA by capillarity is one of the most relevant factors to understand the durability performance of concrete, since it is subjected to many aggressive environments that may a ect its components due to the penetrability of the pore system that absorbs water or other liquids by ascending capillarity. The concept of WA by capillarity is the penetra- tion of a liquid into a porous solid due to the surface stress of the ca- pillaries [ 125 ]. The WA by capillarity test of concrete allows measuring its capacity to absorb water through the capillaries because of the pressure di erence between the water surface inside the capillaries and the air. In this study, apart from the fact that WA by capillarity obtained for the concrete mixes at various period of times (10 min72 h) ( Fig. 7 ), the evolution over time of the WA by capillarity was obtained by the ad- justment function given by Halls [126 ] model (Eq. (1) ), in order to obtain a coe cient that gives a general idea of the WA rate in each mix. According to Evangelista and de Brito [15 ] and Cartuxo et al. [ 14 ], the

and de Brito [ 15 ] and Cartuxo et al. [ 14 ], the Fig. 6.

Fig. 6. Relationship between WA by immersion and (a) SSD density, and (b) UPV of the concrete mixes at 28365 days.

174

R. Kurda et al.

Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182

et al. Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182 Fig. 7. WA by capillarity of the

Fig. 7. WA by capillarity of the reference concrete between 28 and 365 days.

WA by capillarity perfectly adapts to the Hall's formula. Fig. 7 shows the capillary WA over time of the reference concrete and the adjustment function given by Hall at ages between 28 and 365 days. The same graph is drawn for all mixes in Supplementary le III in order to nd the sorptivity of each concrete mix ( Table 4 ).

W A = A +⋅St −⋅Ct

(1)

Where, W A c - capillary WA (g/mm 2 ); S - sorptivity (mm/hour 0.5 ); t - time (hour); and A and C are constants. As expected from §3.2, the reduction of capillary absorption (e.g. WA by capillarity at 72 h and sorptivity) of concrete increased over time as the RCA content increased. This is associated with the factor men- tioned for WA by immersion (§4), namely the size of pores starts to decrease over time due to the increased formation of hydration pro- ducts because of the old mortar attached in RCA. As for the WA by immersion, after 28 days, the reduction of the capillary absorption of ne RCA concrete was higher than that of coarse RCA concrete. Furthermore, the sum of the individual inuences of ne and coarse RCA on the capillary WA of concrete was similar to the in uence found in the mixes with both ne and coarse RCA when only OPC is used as a binder. Broadly speaking, these results agree with the ones reached for WA by immersion. The type of binder signicantly aected capillary WA. The capillary absorption of concrete decreased when cement was replaced with FA either at early or later ages ( Table 4 ). At early ages, this can be asso- ciated with the lower amount of water required to obtain the target slump, resulting in denser concrete [ 73 ] and, because of its size, FA works as ller and reduces the pore sizes and microcracking in the ITZ [ 127 ]. At longer ages, FA decreases the interconnectivity of the pore structure [ 31 ] due to the fact that it consumes Ca(OH) 2 from the cement and causes secondary calcium silicate hydrate. Moreover, the results show that the sorptivity of concrete mixes decreased as the FA content increased. However, the ndings of the current study are not supported by some of the previous studies, since there are contradictory conclu- sions concerning the inuence of high incorporation ratios of FA on the sorptivity. For example, some studies [73 77 ] agreed with the ndings

0.5

C

175

of this study, while others [28 ,29 , 128 ] argue that the sorptivity of concrete increased with high volume of FA content. However, it is di cult to make a comparison and draw conclusions based on those results, especially when two of the most important factors (concrete moisture content and room temperature) that aect water absorption results are not given by the mentioned studies. Regarding the combined e ects of FA and RCA on capillary ab- sorption of concrete, Fig. 8 shows that the sorptivity of ne RCA con- crete made with 30 60% of FA is higher (up to 11%) than that of the reference concrete up to 28 days, after that (at or after 90 days) it re- markably decreases. Furthermore, the di erence between the sorptivity of the traditional concrete and of FA concrete mixes produced with 100% coarse was not signi cant at early ages. For later ages, relative to traditional concrete, the sorptivity decreased up to 27%. Additionally, for concrete mixes made with 100% coarse RCA and various in- corporation ratios of ne RCA and FA, the sorptivity decreased at 28 days. After that, the results depended on the incorporation level of RCA and FA. However, after one year, the sorptivity of all mixes decreased up to 22%. In addition, the results show that, as the capillary absorption (at 72 h) increased, the sorptivity of concrete also increased ( Table 1 ). As for the WA by immersion, the di erence between the actual e ects of both FA and RCA in the same concrete and the sum of the positive e ect of FA and negative e ect of RCA on the capillary WA were sig- nicant. In other words, the incorporation of FA that exceed the stan- dard limit (higher than 55% of cement's mass) in RCA concrete is ad- visable because, apart from the fact that the particles of FA work as a ller ( ne aggregates) and also decrease the required water needed to obtain the target workability (further details regarding these two mentioned factors were shown in a previous study [ 55 ] including the proportions and the properties of the ingredients of the concrete mixes), many of the particles may work as a pozzolanic binder due to high amount of the Ca(OH) 2 in RCA. Fig. 9 presents the level between the capillary WA of concrete mixes with SP and that of the corresponding mixes without SP. Broadly speaking, the WA by capillarity of concrete decreases with the use of SP because less water content is needed to obtain the target workability

R. Kurda et al.

Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182

Table 4 Capillary WA, sorptivity, and adjustment parameters of the Hall's capillarity model for each concrete mix.

Age (day) Mix a

A ×10 7 S sorptivity (×10 3 mm/h 0.5 )

C ×10 5

R 2

WA at 72 h (×10 3 g/mm 2 )

Mix a

A ×10 7

S sorptivity (×10 3 mm/h 0.5 )

C ×10 5

R 2

WA at 72 h (×10 3 g/mm 2 )

28

M1

0.4

1.37

2.6

0.99

9.7

M10

1.5

1.60

2.7

0.99 11.6

90

F0

0.3

1.29

3.0

0.97

8.8

F0

0.1

1.50

3.4

0.98 10.3

180

C0

0.4

1.25

2.9

0.98

8.5

C100

2.3

1.46

3.4

0.98

9.9

365

FA0

0.3

1.24

3.4

0.97

8.1

FA0

3.6

1.44

3.9

0.98

9.4

28

M2

0.6

2.02

3.3

0.98 14.7

M11

1.0

2.25

3.0

0.98 16.9

90

F50

7.8

1.87

3.6

0.98 13.2

F50

1.9

2.10

4.2

0.98 14.8

180

C0

0.3

1.80

3.3

0.98 12.9

C100

2.6

2.01

3.7

0.98 14.4

365

FA0

24.0

1.77

4.1

0.97 12.1

FA0

3.5

1.97

4.5

0.98 13.5

28

M3

28.0

2.15

3.1

0.96 16.0

M12

2.7

2.47

4.0

0.98

18.1

90

F100

4.4

2.00

4.3

0.97 13.9

F100

5.8

2.30

5.4

0.98 15.6

180

C0

4.9

1.92

3.9

0.97 13.5

C100

4.9

2.21

5.2

0.99 15.0

365

FA30

7.5

1.89

4.6

0.96 12.7

FA30

1.3

2.16

5.9

0.99 14.1

28

M4

29.0

1.24

4.3

0.97

7.4

M13

4.4

1.39

3.3

0.99

9.4

90

F0

3.5

1.08

5.0

0.98

5.6

F0

0.6

1.20

4.6

0.98

6.9

180

C0

9.3

0.97

4.3

0.99

5.2

C100

4.0

1.07

3.9

0.99

6.3

365

FA30

4.2

0.92

4.4

0.99

4.7

FA30

1.0

1.01

4.1

0.98

5.6

28

M5

6.0

1.40

0.8

0.99 11.3

M14

1.2

1.55

2.0

0.99 11.7

90

F50

3.8

1.20

2.5

0.98

8.4

F50

2.6

1.33

3.9

0.98

8.5

180

C0

4.8

1.07

1.8

0.98

7.7

C100

4.8

1.18

3.4

0.98

7.6

365

FA30

4.6

1.01

2.3

0.98

6.9

FA30

0.3

1.10

3.5

0.98

6.8

28

M6

2.1

1.52

1.4

0.98 11.9

M15

0.2

1.72

1.0

0.98 13.9

90

F100

2.3

1.30

3.4

0.98

8.6

F100

4.5

1.46

3.3

0.98 10.0

180

C0

4.8

1.16

2.7

0.98

7.9

C100

5.9

1.29

2.8

0.98

8.9

365

FA30

0.2

1.10

3.3

0.98

7.0

FA30

3.8

1.20

3.1

0.98

7.9

28

M7

7.0

1.22

4.6

0.98

7.0

M16

1.3

1.35

3.7

0.98

8.8

90

F0

7.5

1.03

5.1

0.98

5.1

F0

4.9

1.18

5.3

0.98

6.2

180

C0

0.5

0.88

3.8

0.98

4.7

C100

6.6

1.00

4.2

0.98

5.5

365

FA60

4.4

0.81

4.0

0.98

4.0

FA60

0.1

0.90

4.5

0.98

4.4

28

M8

8.6

1.36

4.4

0.98

8.3

M17

0.3

1.52

3.3

0.98 10.5

90

F50

1.6

1.14

5.4

0.98

5.8

F50

2.4

1.28

4.8

0.99

7.4

180

C0

5.1

0.96

4.0

0.99

5.3

C100

5.4

1.08

3.6

0.99

6.6

365

FA60

6.9

0.87

4.1

0.99

4.5

FA60

4.8

0.97

4.2

0.99

5.2

28

M9

9.3

1.47

3.1

0.99 10.2

M18

2.5

1.68

1.5

0.99 13.2

90

F100

2.7

1.23

4.6

0.98

7.1

F100

0.8

1.39

3.8

0.98

9.0

180

C0

3.5

1.03

3.4

0.98

6.3

C100

3.3

1.16

2.5

0.98

8.0

365

FA60

0.6

0.93

3.7

0.98

5.2

FA60

5.6

1.03

3.3

0.98

6.3

28

M1sp 3.5

0.75

1.4

0.97

5.3

M10sp 3.0

0.98

0.5

0.97

8.0

90

F0

4.6

0.69

1.1

0.97

5.1

F0

3.4

0.86

0.3

0.99

7.5

180

C0

0.6

0.68

1.1

0.97

5.0

C100

4.1

0.84

0.2

0.98

7.2

365

FA0

1.1

0.67

1.1

0.98

4.9

FA0

1.5

0.82

0.1

0.97

7.0

28

M3sp 4.1

1.40

4.1

0.98

8.9

M12sp 2.7

1.72

1.5

0.98 13.5

90

F100

3.7

1.27

3.2

0.98

8.4

F100

2.4

1.56

1.0

0.99 12.5

180

C0

0.6

1.23

3.0

0.97

8.3

C100

2.1

1.52

1.2

0.96 12.0

365

FA60

0.3

1.21

3.0

0.98

8.1

FA60

3.7

1.49

1.2

0.98 11.7

28

M5sp 2.3

1.00

4.8

0.97

5.1

M14sp 5.3

1.30

4.0

0.98

8.1

90

F100

4.8

0.80

3.1

0.99

4.5

F100

1.6

1.00

1.7

0.98

7.3

180

C0

1.8

0.74

2.8

0.97

4.2

C100

2.3

0.91

1.7

0.98

6.5

365

FA30

1.2

0.70

2.7

0.97

4.0

FA30

1.9

0.85

1.5

0.98

6.1

28

M7sp 0.4

0.75

3.8

0.97

3.7

M16sp 2.4

0.99

5.0

0.98

4.8

90

F0

3.0

0.50

1.4

0.98

3.2

F0

1.3

0.58

1.0

0.98

4.2

180

C0

1.7

0.45

1.2

0.98

3.0

C100

1.1

0.52

1.0

0.98

3.7

365

FA60

1.9

0.41

1.1

0.98

2.7

FA60

0.7

0.48

0.9

0.97

3.4

28

M9sp 3.2

1.12

5.4

0.97

5.6

M18sp

0.1

1.44

6.4

0.98

7.6

90

F100

4.7

0.62

0.5

0.98

4.9

F100

3.1

0.70

0.8

0.99

6.5

180

C0

5.5

0.54

0.4

0.98

4.3

C100

5.4

0.61

0.7

0.98

5.7

365

FA60

2.5

0.49

0.4

0.98

3.9

FA60

4.5

0.54

0.7

0.98

5.1

a

F - ne RCA%, C - coarse RCA%, FA - y ash% and SP - superplastisizer.

and resulting decrease of porosity. In other words, the same factors that a ect the WA by immersion §4and UPV [123 ] of the concrete mixes containing SP can be invoked concerning the WA by capillary. As ex- pected from other properties of concrete (e.g. WA by immersion §4and compressive strength [ 52 ] and UPV [123 ]), the mixes in- corporating SP were more sensitive when NA were replaced with RCA because of the particles distribution change caused by the use of SP, as referred by Mehta and Monteiro [ 127 ], which enhance the inter-con- nectivity of the capillaries [ 92 ]. Since SP disperses the particles of FA and causes the particles to pack competently and e ectively ll the voids between the other particles of the materials used [ 121 ], in most FA concrete mixes the use of SP was found to improve the performance.

176

However, the use of SP is more e ective in concrete with low volume FA (M5) compared to those with high volume (e.g. M7, M16). Although in concrete mixes with high incorporation level of FA the SP disperses their particles, due to the high number of the FA particles, the distance between cement particles will be signi cant and the total voids between the particles will increase. In other words, high incorporation level of FA decreases the size of the voids but it also increases the number of voids. Further evidences regarding these phenomena were shown for the same mixes in a study of Kurda et al. [123 ]. In terms of the combined e ect of FA and RCA in mixes with SP, the ndings of this investigation complement those of previous properties, namely WA by immersion, i.e. the use of SP in concrete mixes with FA

R. Kurda et al.

Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182

et al. Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182 Fig. 8. Relative sorptivity of concrete mixes

Fig. 8. Relative sorptivity of concrete mixes (a) with and (b) without 100% of coarse RCA at 28 days, and (c) with and (d) without 100% of coarse RCA at 365 days.

and (c) with and (d) without 100% of coarse RCA at 365 days. Fig. 9. E

Fig. 9. Eect of the incorporation of SP on the capillary WA of concrete mixes.

177

R. Kurda et al.

R. Kurda et al. Fig. 10. Relationship between WA by capillarity and immersion of the concrete

Fig. 10. Relationship between WA by capillarity and immersion of the concrete mixes between 28 and 365 days.

and

RCA is an added value because it disperses the FA particles in the

mix

and they reach more Ca(OH) 2 from the RCA's particle and therefore

further pozzolanic reactions develop at early ages. In addition, for some

types of SP, the use of high contents may increase the total air content of concrete [129 ] and, consequently the WA of concrete mixes may be slightly higher than expected due to the air bubbles. However, in this study, the use of SP did not a ect the total air content in most of the concrete mixes [ 55]. Fig. 10 presents the relationship between the WA by capillarity ( Table 4 ) and by immersion ( Table 2 ) between 28 and 365 days. It shows a linear correlation between them with a high coe cient of determination between 0.87 and 0.92.

6. Electrical resistivity

Electrical resistance is de ned as the ratio between the applied voltage and the electrical current that ows through a sample. It may

also be dened as the resistance of materials to the electrical current

passage. It is important to know how concrete opposes the ow of

electrical current because it can help to determine the corrosion risk of

the reinforcement. Alonso et al. [ 130 ] and report COST-509 [ 131 ]

grouped the value of conventional concrete resistivity in four broad types: < 100, 100 500, 500 1000 and > 1000 Ω m, for which the risk of corrosion of the reinforcement is high, moderate, low and negligible,

respectively. Apart from the w/b [20 ], the ER may also depend on the aggregates content, binder type, humidity, and temperature [ 43 ], the

method of measuring the resistivity whether AC or DC [132 ], frequency [ 133] and curing age [ 132 , 134 ]. In this study, the ER of the concrete specimens was obtained by considering the bulk electrical resistivity . The surface electrical resistivity was not used to measure the ER because some of the specimens contained FA and their surface layer may be fully carbonated and densi ed as a result. Therefore, the spe- cimens may have a higher resistivity than the bulk electrical re- sistivity [59]. Thus, the samples cannot be compared with those without FA. However, it should be kept in mind that the application of

the bulk electrical resistivity is limited for eld evaluation because

electrodes access to opposite sides of the concrete element is not

Table 5 ER of the concrete mixes at 28, 90, 180 and 365 days (Ω .m).

Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182

possible all the time [ 135 ]. As shown in §3, the number of studies regarding the ER of concrete mixes containing FA and/or RCA is still limited. Therefore, the e ect of the incorporation of each mentioned non-traditional material on the ER of concrete is presented next. The average ER of the concrete mixes at 28, 90, 180 and 365 days is presented in Table 5 . Generally, the results show that RCA decreased the ER of concrete and the opposite occurred for FA. Similarly to the evidences mentioned for chloride ion penetration resistance [ 136 ] and other concrete properties, namely porosity of concrete [ 45 ] that was obtained for the same concrete mixes, the ER of the concrete mixes decreased as the replacement level of NA with RCA increased. As for the chloride ion penetration resistance [136 ], the ER of concrete mixes with ne RCA was lower than that of those made with coarse RCA ( Fig. 11 ). This variability was found to be mainly due to the fact that coarse RCA (5%) normally exhibited lower WA than ne RCA (8%) due to higher porosity of the mortar attached to the ne RCA. Similar results can be seen in Levy and Helene [ 44 ] for ne RCA con- crete and Andreu and Mire [45 ] for coarse RCA concrete. The current study found that, after 28 days, the di erence between ER of reference concrete and RCA concrete decreased over time. This is because the size of pores starts to decrease over time due to the hy- dration products that increase owing to the old mortar attached in RCA. The hydration product, and also further pozzolanic capability may be considered as the main reasons for the increment of the ER over time ( Figs. 11 and 12 ), since they a ect the porosity, pore solution chemistry and tortuosity of the pore network [133 , 137 ]. Furthermore, the sum of the individual in uences of ne and coarse RCA on the ER of concrete was similar to the inuence found in the mixes with both ne and coarse RCA when only OPC was used as a binder ( Fig. 11 ). Furthermore, the ER of RCA concrete increased up to 122% and 45% with the use of SP (1% of cement's weight) at 28 and 365 days, respectively. However, the risk of corrosion of reinforcement in the OPC concrete mixes (with or without RCA) still remains in the same classi cation group (risk of corrosion of the reinforcement: high, moderate, low and negligible) mentioned before according to the study of Alonso et al. [130 ] and report COST-509 [ 131 ]. Fig. 12 shows that the ER of concrete signi cantly increased for greater incorporation ratios of FA. This can be explained by the same factors invoked for chloride ion penetration resistance [136 ]. The ER increased about 1, 1.8, 2.2 and 2.4 times when incorporating 30% of FA, and 1.4, 2.3, 4.0 and 5.1 times when incorporating 60% of FA at 28, 90, 180 and 365 days, respectively ( Fig. 12 ). Due to the chemical composition of FA (high amount of SO 2 and Al 2 O 3 , and low CaO content - Fig. 1 ), the long-term kinetic reaction of FA alters the original mi- crostructure formed by cement during the initial stages. FA particles ll the pores and increase the tortuosity of the capillary network, resulting in longer paths and smaller pore diameters [ 138 ]. The pore diameter reduction intensi es the interaction between the soluble ions, the par- ticles, and the hydrates. As a consequence, the ionic mobility in elec- trolytic solutions decreases [139 ]. Fig. 13 shows the ER of concrete mixes with various incorporation

Mixes

M1

M1 sp

M2

M3

M3 sp

M4

M5

M5 sp

M6

M7

M7 sp

M8

M9

M9 sp

28 days

98

220

80

72

142

197

155

381

145

230

633

194

170

460

90 days

147

238

120

110

155

417

330

516

310

490

960

450

421

760

180 days

162

250

134

124

165

521

413

610

400

809

1296

748

715

1050

365 days

170

256

142

132

170

586

465

666

462

1040

1523

970

930

1250

Mixes

M10

M10 sp

M11

M12

M12 sp

M13

M14

M14 sp

M15

M16

M16 sp

M17

M18

M18 sp

28 days

88

195

73

66

134

183

145

340

135

210

570

180

165

430

90 days

140

212

112

101

146

390

310

462

290

455

870

435

415

680

180 days

155

225

126

115

156

500

410

580

382

755

1195

725

710

990

365 days

164

232

134

123

161

571

480

654

447

975

1418

940

925

1219

R. Kurda et al.

Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182

et al. Cement and Concrete Composites 95 (2019) 169–182 Fig. 11. E ff ect of incorporation

Fig. 11. E ect of incorporation of (a) ne RCA, (b) coarse RCA, and (c) ne RCA plus 100% coarse RCA on the ER of the concrete mixes between 28 and 365 days.

  mix, either with or without SP. For later ages (90 – 365 days), the
  mix, either with or without SP. For later ages (90 – 365 days), the