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By Abdullah Rahim Roman

Cosize Tafsir of the Qur‘an


in Summarized Form
Understanding the Noble Qur‘an in
Thematic Form
By Abdullah Rahim Roman
© July 2019

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Copyright Page

Copyright © 2019 Abdullah Rahim Roman.

All rights reserved. This book or any portion thereof may not be
reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the
express written permission of the publisher except for the use of
brief quotations in a book review.

All Rights Reserved: a.r.roman@hotmail.com

Source: Tafhim al-Qur'an - The Meaning of the Qur'an


and other congruent sources available on the Net

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Dedicated to My beloved Teacher,

Sheikh Imran Nazar Hosein, upon


whose inspiratin I have jolted our this
work from scratch to now what it is,
AlHamdulillah

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Table of Content
TABLE OF CONTENT --------------------------------------------------------------------------- IV
PREFACE AND DEFINITION OF THEMATIC TAFSIR---------------------- XI
INTRODUCTION --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- XII
1. SURAH AL FATIHAH (THE OPENING) ------------------------------------------ 1
2. SURAH AL-BAQARAH (THE COW; THE HEIFER; THE
MAVERICK) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6
3. SURAH ALI „IMRAN (THE FAMILY OF IMRAN) ------------------------- 19
4. SURAH AN-NISA‟ (THE WOMEN; THE FEMALE ADULTS; THE
ADULT FEMALES) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 29
5. SURAH AL-MA'IDAH (THE TABLE SPREAD; THE DINNER
TABLE; THE FEAST) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 40
6. SURAH AL-AN'AM (THE CATTLE) ------------------------------------------------ 51
7. SURAH AL-A‟RAF (A HILL BETWEEN HELL AND PARADISE;
THE ELEVATED PLACES; THE HEIGHTS) -------------------------------------- 58
8. SURAH AL-ANFAL (THE SPOILS OF WAR) --------------------------------- 72
9. SURAH AT TAUBAH (THE REPENTANCE) ---------------------------------- 78
10. SURAH YUNUS (JONAH) ------------------------------------------------------------- 87
11. SURAH HUD [HUD (A)] ---------------------------------------------------------------- 96
12. SURAH YUSUF [JOSEPH (YUSUF „ALAIHIS SALAM )] ---------- 104
13. SURAH AR-RA„D (THE THUNDER) ------------------------------------------ 115
14. SURAH IBRAHIM (PROPHET ABRAHAM) ------------------------------ 126
15. SURAH AL-HIJR (THE VALLEY OF STONE; THE STONELAND;
THE ROCK; THE ROCKY TRACT) --------------------------------------------------- 132
16. AN-NAHL (THE HONEY BEE)---------------------------------------------------- 140
17. SURAH ISRA (THE NIGHT JOURNEY)/ BANI ISRAEL
(CHILDREN OF ISRAEL)------------------------------------------------------------------ 154
18. SURAH AL-KAHF (THE CAVE) -------------------------------------------------- 168
19. SURAH MARYAM (MARY) --------------------------------------------------------- 178
20. SURAH TA HA ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 186
21. SURAH AL-ANBIYA‟ (THE PROPHETS) ----------------------------------- 196
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22. SURAH AL-HAJJ (THE HAJJ; THE PILGRIMAGE; PILLAR OF
ISLAM; PILGRIM'S JOURNEY) ------------------------------------------------------- 205
23. SURAH AL-MU'MINUN (THE BELIEVERS; FAITHFUL AND
SUBMISSIVE ONES WHO UNDERSTOOD THE ESSENCE OF
FAITH) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 215
24. SURAH AN-NUR (THE LIGHT; THE CLARITY OF
ILLUMINATION; APPARENT TO THE SENSES; THE ONE WHO
ENLIGHTENS) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 222
25. SURAH AL FURQAN (THE CRITERION; THE EVIDENCE; THE
RIGHT AND WRONG DISCRIMINATORS; THE PROOF OF AL-
QUR‟AN) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 233
26. SURAH ASH-SHU'ARA (THE POETS) --------------------------------------- 241
27. SURAH AN-NAML (THE ANTS) ------------------------------------------------- 250
28. SURAH AL QASAS (THE STORY; THE NARRATION; THE
NARRATIVE) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 260
29. SURAH AL „ANKABUT (THE SPIDER)-------------------------------------- 269
30. SURAH AR RUM (THE ROMANS; THE CONSTANTINOPLE;
THE BYZANTINE) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 278
31. SURAH LUQMAN (LOKMAAN; THE WISE; WISE ONE) --------- 286
32. SURAH AS-SAJDAH (THE PROSTRATION; BOWING
FOREHEAD IN THE GROUND TO LORD ALMIGHTY; A STATE
THAT RECEIVES VITAL ENERGIES) ---------------------------------------------- 301
33. SURAH AL-AHZAB (THE ALLIES; THE CLANS; THE
COALITION; THE COMBINED FORCES; THE CONFERATES) ----- 308
34. SURAH SABA‟ (THE SABAEANS) ---------------------------------------------- 317
35. SURAH FATIR (THE ORIGINATOR; THE CREATOR; THE
ORIGANTOR OF CREATION) ----------------------------------------------------------- 327
36. SURAH YA SIN ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- 334
37. SURAH AS-SAFFAT (THOSE WHO SET THE RANKS; THOSE
LINED UP; THOSE RANGED IN ROWS; THE RANGERS) ------------ 344
38. SURAH SAD --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 351
39. SURAH AZ-ZUMAR (THE TROOPS; THE GROUPS; THE
THRONGS) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 359
40. SURAH AL MU'MIN (THE BELIEVER), ALSO KNOWN AS
SURAH AL GHAFIR (THE FORGIVER) ------------------------------------------- 366

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41. SURAH HA MIM AS-SAJDAH, ALSO KNOWN AS SURAH
FUSSILAT (EXPLAINED IN DETAIL) --------------------------------------------- 375
42. SURAH ASH-SHURA (THE CONSULTATION; DIALOGUE;
DISCUSSION; TALK IN THE MEETING) ---------------------------------------- 385
43. SURAH AZ-ZUKHRUF (GOLDEN ORNAMENTS; THE
ORNAMENTS OF GOLD; THE LUXURY) ---------------------------------------- 393
44. SURAH AD-DUKHAN (THE SMOKE; THE FUME; THE REEK;
THE BURNING SMOLDER; THE SMOULDER) ------------------------------ 401
45. SURAH AL-JATHIYAH (THE KNEELING DOWN; THE
CROUCHING) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 408
46. SURAH AL-AHQAF (THE WIND CURVED SAND DUNES; THE
SANDHILLS; THE SAND DUNES; THE WINDING SAND TRACTS)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 413
47. SURAH MUHAMMAD (THE PRAISED ONE) ALSO SURAH AL-
QITAL (FIGHTING) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 418
48. SURAH AL-FATH (THE VICTORY; THE TRIUMPH; THE
ACHIEVEMENT OF SUCCESS) -------------------------------------------------------- 424
49. SURAH AL-HUJURAAT (THE PRIVATE APARTMENTS; THE
CHAMBERS) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 430
50. SURAH QAF (THE LETTER QĀF) ---------------------------------------------- 436
51. SURAH AZ-ZARIYAT (THE WINDS THAT SCATTER; THE
SCATTERING WINDS; THE WINNOWING WINDS) --------------------- 441
52. SURAH AT-TUR (MOUNTAIN OF TUR; THE MOUNT; MOUNT
SINAI; MOUNT OF OLIVES) ------------------------------------------------------------ 447
53. SURAH AN-NAJM (THE STAR; LUMINARY OBJECT THAT
DIRECTS ATTENTION) -------------------------------------------------------------------- 451
54. SURAH AL-QAMAR (THE MOON) -------------------------------------------- 462
55. SURAH AR-RAHMAN (THE MOST GRACIOUS; THE MOST
MERCIFUL; THE MOST BENEFICENT; THE ALL MERCIFUL; THE
LORD OF MERCY) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 468
56. SURAH AL-WAQI`AH (THE INEVITABLE EVENT; THE
OCCURRENCE; THE COMING EVENT) ------------------------------------------ 474
57. SURAH AL-HADID (THE FERRUM; THE IRON; RIGID AND
MAGNETIC METAL WITH SILVERY-GREY HUE)------------------------- 479
58. SURAH AL-MUJADILAH (THE WOMAN WHO DISPUTES;
PLEADING WOMAN; SHE THAT DISPUTETH) ----------------------------- 486

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59. SURAH AL-HASHR (THE BANISHMENT; THE EXILE; THE
GATHERING) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 494
60. CONCISE TAFSEER OF SURAH AL-MUMTAHINAH IN
SUMMARIZED FORM ----------------------------------------------------------------------- 506
61. SURAH AS-SAFF (THE RANKS; THE ARRAY; THE BATTLE
ARRAY) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 512
62. SURAH AL-JAMU'AH (THE ASEMBLY; THE DAY IN THE
ASSEMBLY; THE DAY OF GATHERING; THE CONGREGATION) 517
63. SURAH AL-MUNAFIQUN (THE HYPOCRITES; WOLF IN
SHEEP‟S CLOTHING; THE MASQUERADER) -------------------------------- 523
64. SURAH AT-TAGHABUN (MUTUAL LOSS AND GAIN; THE
DEPRIVATION; MUTUAL DISPOSSESSION IN GAINING
PERSONAL BENEFITS) -------------------------------------------------------------------- 530
65. SURAH AT-TALAQ (THE DIVORCE) ----------------------------------------- 533
66. SURAH AT-TAHRIM (THE PROHIBITION; HOLDING
SOMETHING TO BE FORBIDDEN; THE BANNING) --------------------- 538
67. SURAH AL-MULK (THE DOMINION; THE KINGDOM; THE
SOVEREIGNTY OF SUPREME POWER) ----------------------------------------- 544
68. SURAH AL-QALAM (THE PEN) ------------------------------------------------- 549
69. SURAH AL-HAQQAH (THE MANIFEST REALITY; THE
INEVITABLE REALITY; THE EVENT OF TRUTH; THE SURE
TRUTH) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 555
70. SURAH AL MA‟ARIJ (THE ASCENDING STAIRWAYS; THE
ASCENDING STEPS; THE WAYS OF ASCENT) ------------------------------ 558
71. SURAH NUH (NOAH) ------------------------------------------------------------------ 561
72. SURAH AL JINN (THE JINN) ----------------------------------------------------- 568
73. SURAH AL-MUZZAMMIL (THE FOLDED GARMENTS; THE
ONE WHO IS COVERED UP; THE ENSHROUDED ONE; THE ONE
WRAPPED UP) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 578
74. SURAH AL-MUDDATHTHIR (THE CLOAKED ONE; THE
ENVELOPED ONE; THE MAN WEARING A CLOAK; THE ONE
WRAPPING HIMSELF UP) --------------------------------------------------------------- 584
75. SURAH AL-QIYAMAH (THE RESURRECTION; THE RISING OF
THE DEAD) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 589
76. SURAH AD-DAHR (AGE; ERA; ENDLESS TIME; THE EPOCH),
ALSO KNOWN AS AL-INSAN (MAN; HUMAN; THE ONE) ----------- 594

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77. SURAH AL-MURSALAT (THOSE SENT FORTH; THE WINDS
WHICH ARE SENT FORTH; THE EMISSARIES) --------------------------- 597
78. SURAH AN-NABA' (THE GREAT NEWS; THE TIDINGS; THE
ANNOUNCEMENT) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 601
79. SURAH AN-NAZI‟AT (THE SOUL SNATCHERS; THOSE WHO
DRAG; THOSE WHO TEAR OUT; THE EXTRACTORS; THOSE
WHO PULL OUT) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 604
80. SURAH „ABASA (HE FROWNED) --------------------------------------------- 609
81. SURAH AT-TAKWIR (THE FOLDING UP; THE
OVERTHROWING; THE ROLLING; THE WRAPPING; SHROUDED
IN DARKNESS) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 613
82. SURAH AL-INFITAR (THE CLEAVING; BURSTING APART;
THE CLEAVING ASUNDER; THE SPLITTING) ------------------------------ 616
83. SURAH AL-MUTAFFIFEEN (THE CHEATS; THE
DEFRAUDERS; THOSE WHO GIVE LESS; THOSE WHO DEAL IN
FRAUD; THOSE WHO WEIGH LESS) --------------------------------------------- 619
84. SURAH AL-INSHIQAQ (THE SPLITTING APART; THE
SUNDERING; THE RENDING ASUNDER) ------------------------------------- 623
85. SURAH AL-BUROOJ (THE CONSTELLATIONS; THE GREAT
STARS; THE ZODIACAL SIGNS) ----------------------------------------------------- 628
86. SURAH AT-TARIQ (THE MORNING STAR; THE NIGHT
VISITANT; THE PIERCING STAR) -------------------------------------------------- 635
87. SURAH AL-A‟LA (THE MOST HIGH; THE SUPREME) ----------- 639
88. SURAH AL-GHASHIYAH (THE OVERWHELMING EVENT;
THE PALL; THE VEIL; THE SCREEN IN COVER) ------------------------- 642
89. SURAH AL-FAJR (THE DAWN; THE DAYBREAK) ----------------- 645
90. SURAH AL-BALAD (THE CITY; THE LAND) --------------------------- 650
91. SURAH ASH-SHAMS (THE SUN) ---------------------------------------------- 654
92. SURAH AL-LAIL (THE NIGHT) ------------------------------------------------- 658
93. SURAH AD-DHUHA (THE MORNING LIGHT; THE
FORENOON; THE MORNING HOURS; MORNING BRIGHT) ------ 661
94. SURAH AL-INSHIRAH (THE OPENING UP; THE
CONSOLATION)/ALAM NASHRAH (DID WE NOT EXPAND)/
SURAH ASH-SHARH (THE EXPANSION) -------------------------------------- 665
95. SURAH AT-TIN (THE FIG; THE FIG TREE) ----------------------------- 668

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96. SURAH AL-„ALAQ (THE CLINGING SUBSTANCE; THE EARLY
STAGE OF THE EMBRYO; COAGULATED BLOOD; BLOOD CLOT; A
LUMP OF MUD) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 673
97. SURAH AL-QADR (THE DECREE; THE DESTINY; THE FATE;
THE POWER) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 679
98. SURAH AL-BAYYINAH (THE CLEAR EVIDENCE; THE CLEAR
PROOF)----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 684
99. SURAH AZ-ZALZALAH (THE CONVULSION; THE
EARTHQUAKE; THE QUAKE; THE SHAKING; THE VIOLENT
TREMBLING) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 687
100. SURAH AL-'ADIYAT (THOSE THAT RUN; THE CHARGERS;
THE COURSERS; THE RACERS; THE WAR-HORSES; THE
ASSAULTERS) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 692
101. SURAH AL-QARI‟AH (THE CALAMITY; THE CLAMOUR; THE
GREAT DISASTER; THE STRIKING HOUR; THE SHOCKER) ------ 696
102. SURAH AT-TAKATHUR (THE MUTUAL RIVALRY; THE
PILING UP; THE INCESSANT COMPETITION; STRIVING FOR
MORE; THE SHOW OFF) ------------------------------------------------------------------ 700
103. SURAH AL-„ASR (THE DECLINING DAY, TIME THROUGH
THE AGES; EVENTIDE; THE EPOCH) -------------------------------------------- 705
104. SURAH AL-HUMAZAH (THE ONE WHO SLANDERS; THE
BACKBITER; THE TRADUCER; THE GOSSIPMONGER; THE
SLANDERER; THE SCORNER) -------------------------------------------------------- 709
105. SURAH AL-FIL (THE ELEPHANT) ------------------------------------------ 713
106. SURAH QURAISH (QURAISH) ------------------------------------------------ 719
107. SURAH AL-MA'UN (THE SMALL KINDNESSES; ASSISTANCE;
ALMSGIVING; HAVE YOU SEEN; NEIGBOURLY NEEDS) ----------- 724
108. SURAH AL-KAUTHAR (ABUNDANCE OF A LOT; A LOT;
ABUNDANCE OF GOOD; PLENTY; THE ABUNDANCE) --------------- 729
109. SURAH AL-KAFIRUN (THE DISBELIEVERS; THE
UNBELIEVERS) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 735
110. SURAH AN-NASR (THE HELP; DIVINE SUPPORT) -------------- 741
111. SURAH AL-LAHAB (THE FLAME)/ AL-MASAD (THE PALM
FIBER) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 746
112. SURAH AL-IKHLAS (THE FIDELITY; THE PURITY; THE
SINCERITY; ONE THIRD OF THE QUR‟AN)/ SURAH AT-TAUHID
(MONOTHEISM) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 754

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113. SURAH AL-FALAQ (EARLY BRIGHT; THE DAYBREAK; THE
DAWN; SUNRISE) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 760
114. SURAH AN-NAS (MANKIND; PEOPLE; HUMANS, MEN AND
WOMEN) -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 768

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Preface and Definition of Thematic Tafsir
The authore of the Qur‘an is the Lord Almighty which has been
revealed to Prophet Muhammad (s) heart from his age of 40 to
his last year of return from this earth at the age of 63 for 23
years.

From the Abstact of, “Al-Munasabah and Thematic


Tafsir of the Quran: A Methodological and Comparative
Study”

There are certain rules and approaches in the interpretative


tradition of the Holy Quran, starting from etymology to
addressing and framing the various pertinent issues. As the main
keys of the Quranic unit are investigated, it has been found that
each surah constitutes an independent unit with respect to the
correlation, meanings and contents of its verses. Al-Munasabah
and Al-Tafsir Al-Maudui‘i (thematic interpretation) seek to
reveal this connectivity in order to demonstrate the subject
matter of the Quran and to stand against all the smear
campaigns which aim at criticizing its I‘jaz (inimitability) and
structure. This study highlights the theoretical angle of the
etymology of Al-Munasabah and al-Tafsir Al-Mawdui which are
used to investigate the special organization of each surah. It also
deals with the differences and similarities between the two
terms. It lays down the methodological and scientific principles
to investigate the Quranic issues. It is expected that this study
may help in understanding the Quranic linguistics and
inimitability in comprehensive and innovative manner. However,
this study discusses the following issues: origin and classification
of al-Munasabah; Muslim interpreters‘ contributions in
Munasabah; origin and definition of the thematic tafsir; the
similarities and dissimilarities between Mushabah and al-Tafsir
al-Mawdui; and their methodological principles. [Zahra'
Khalid Saadullah Al-Abidi]

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Introduction
This English rendition of tafsir (explanation) pf the individual
Surahs of the Qur‘an is compile work by me which I accumulated
over period of last 2 years and so. AlHamdulillah, I drafted this
book‘s content in three note-books before writing it in online
with the help of online resources and editing it with proper sub-
headings to each and every Surah to form a snyc-hole of
understanding between me and the Qur‘an. The Qur‘an says,

―………And We have sent down The Book (Qur`an) upon you


(Muhammad) as a clarifier of all things…...” [Suratul
Nahl (16), ayah 89]

In the copyright page, I included the reference of Tafhimul


Qur‘an. Basically that was the first tafsir book I have taken to
draft the initial wordings of this book into note-form of writings
in note-books (Khatas). Then, when I started typing it on
electronic platform – I used other resources. They are: some
explanatory lectures notes of Nouman Ali Khan, Farhat Hashmi‘s
Al-Qur‘an Tadabbur wa Amal from alhudapk, Wikipedia &
Qur‘an-wiki, islamreligion.com and al-mawrid.org.

I have also used snippets from Tafsir Ibn Kathir which I found in
various online sites, slideshare contents from different
presentations, and gathered anyalitical data of Tadubbur-e-
Qur‘an of Amin Islahi in my comipation in work, along with
some few others which are all blended into this work-flow.
SubHanallah!

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1. Surah Al Fatihah (The Opening)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Surah Al Fatihah In
Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This is the first Surah of the Qur‘an, although not in the order of
revelation and the 5th Surah to be revealed in Chronology. Al-
Fatihah is a sort of preface which is the subject-matter of it. In
Arabic, the word ―Fataha‖ means, ―to open something closed‖.
The Surah has seven ayats.

The scholars say that Al-Fatihah consists of twenty-five words,


and that it contains one hundred and thirteen letters.

Period of Revelation

It is one of the very earliest Revelations to Prophet Muhammad


(s). As a matter of fact, we learn from authentic Traditions that it
was the first complete Surah which was revealed to prophet (s).
Before this, only a few miscellaneous ayats were revealed which
form parts of `Alaq, Muzzammil, Muddaththir, etc.

The Subject Matter of the Surah

The name al-Fatihah ("the Opener or the opening") is due to the


subject-matter of the Surah. Fatiḥah is that which opens a
subject or a book or any other thing. In other words, this Surah is
a sort of preface. The word ‫ اٌ فات حة‬came from the root word ‫ف تح‬
which means to open, explain, disclose keys of treasure etc. That
means Surah Al-Fatihah is the summary of the whole Qur‘an.

This preface is meant to create a strong desire in the heart of the


reader to seek guidance from the Lord of the samawat, Who
alone can grant it. Thus Al-Fatihah indirectly teaches that the
best thing for a man is to pray for guidance to the straight path,

1
to study the Qur‘an with the mental attitude of a seeker- after-
truth and to recognize the fact that the Lord of the samawat is
the source of all knowledge.

Surah Al-Fatiha is paired with rest of the whole Qur‘an. It is also


called Umm Al-Kitab ("the Mother of the Book") and Umm Al-
Qur‘an ("the Mother of the Qur‘an"); Sab'a al Mathani ("Seven
repeated [ayats]", an appellation taken from ayat 15:87 of the
Qur‘an); Al-Hamd ("praise"), because a hadith narrates from
Muhammad (s) as having said that Allah says: "The prayer [al-
Fātiḥah] is divided into two halves between Me and My servants.
When the servant says, 'All praise is due to Allah', the Lord of
existence, God says, 'My servant has praised Me'."; Al-Shifa' ("the
Cure"), because a hadith narrates Muhammad as having said:
"The Opening of the Book is a cure for every poison."; Al-Ruqyah
("remedy" or "spiritual cure")., and al-Asas, "The Foundation",
referring to its serving as a foundation for the entire Qur‘an.

So, as it all stands – Surah Al-Fatihah is the prayer from the


servant to his/her Master. The Master places the whole of the
Qur‘an before him/her in answer to his prayer, as if to say, "This
is the Guidance you begged from Me."

The Virtue of Surah Al-Fatihah

In his hadith collection Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Ahmad ibn


Hanbal recorded that Abu Sa`id bin Al-Mu`alla had said:
"I was praying when the Prophet called me, so I did not answer
him until I finished the prayer. I then went to him and he said,
What prevented you from coming?
I said, 'O Messenger of Allah! I was praying.'
He said, Didn't Allah say,
O you who believe! Answer Allah (by obeying Him) and (His)
Messenger when he calls you to that which gives you life.

He then said,
"I will teach you the greatest Surah in the Qur'an before you
leave the Masjid."
He held my hand and when he was about to leave the Masjid, I
2
said, `O Messenger of Allah! You said: I will teach you the
greatest Surah in the Qur'an.'
He said, Yes.
Al-Hamdu lillahi Rabbil-`Alamin,
It is the seven repeated (ayats) and the Glorious Qur'an that I
was given. [Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Musnad Ahmad ibn
Hanbal; Muhammad al-Bukhari, Abu Dawood, Al-
Nasa'i and Ibn Majah also recorded this hadith]

One hadith narrates a story of a companion of Muhammad (s)


who recited al-Fātiḥah as a remedy for a tribal chief who was
poisoned. According to the hadith, Muhammad (s) later asked
the companion, "How did you know that it is a Ruqqayah
[remedy]?" Muhammad al-Bukhari recorded in his collection:
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
While we were on one of our journeys, we dismounted at a place
where a slave girl came and said, "The chief of this tribe has been
stung by a scorpion and our men are not present; is there
anybody among you who can treat him (by reciting something)?"
Then one of our men went along with her though we did not
think that he knew any such treatment. But he treated the chief
by reciting something, and the sick man recovered whereupon he
gave him thirty sheep and gave us milk to drink (as a reward).
When he returned, we asked our friend, "Did you know how to
treat with the recitation of something?" He said, "No, but I
treated him only with the recitation of the Mother of the Book
[al-Fatiḥah]." We said,
"Do not say anything (about it) till we reach or ask the Prophet.
So when we reached Medina, we mentioned that to the Prophet
(in order to know whether the sheep which we had taken were
lawful to take or not). The Prophet said, "How did he come to
know that it [al-Fatiḥah] could be used for treatment? Distribute
your reward and assign for me one share thereof as well."
[Muhammad al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari]

Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj recorded:


Ibn 'Abbas reported that while Gabriel was sitting with the
Prophet (s) he heard a creaking sound above him. He lifted his
head and said: This As a gate opened in heaven today which had
3
never been opened before. Then when an angel descended
through it, he said: This is an angel who came down to the earth
who had-never come down before. He greeted and said: Rejoice
in two lights given to you which have not been given to any
prophet before you: Fatiha al-Kitab and the concluding ayats of
Surah al-Baqara. You will never recite a letter from them for
which you will not be given (a reward). [Muslim ibn al-Hajjaj,
Sahih Muslim]

Lessons and Reflections

1. Allah (swt) gives an introduction about Himself as Rabb


(Lord, Sustainer, Cherisher, Master, Nourisher).
2. Asking Allah (swt) for the Straight Path.

3. One pleads Allah (swt) to help him follow the path of the
righteous people.

4. Al-Fatihah is a great Du‘a (supplication) that Allah has


taught the Muslims to say in every Rak‘ah (unit) of Salah
(prayer). Regarding this aspect of Al-Fatihah, Prophet
Muhammad (s) said:

5. ―Allah said, ‗I divided the prayer (i.e. Al-Fatihah) into two


halves between Myself and My servant, one half is for Me
and one half for My servant.

6. My servant shall have what he asks for.‘ When the servant


says, ―All the praises and thanks be to Allah, the Lord of
the ‗Alamîn (mankind, jinns and all that exists)‖, Allah
says, ‗My servant has praised Me.‘

7. When the servant says, ‗The Most Beneficent, the Most


Merciful‘, Allah says, ‗My servant has praised Me.‘

8. When the servant says, ‗The Only Owner (and the Only
Ruling Judge) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of
4
Resurrection)‘, Allah says, ‗My servant has glorified Me.‘

9. If the servant says, ‗You (Alone) we worship, and You


(Alone) we ask for help (for each and everything)‘, Allah
says, ‗This is between Me and My servant, and My servant
shall have what he asked.‘

10. If the servant says, ‗Guide us to the Straight Way The Way
of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, Not
(the way) of those who earned Your Anger, nor of those
who went astray.‘ Allah says, ‗This is for My servant, and
My servant shall have what he asked.‘‖ [Narrated by
Muslim]

11. Surah al-Fatihah is a cure, treatment for illness – be they


spiritual, physical or otherwise.

12. No Salah (prayer) is valid without reciting Surah al-


Fatihah. The Prophet (s) is reported to have said, "(There)
is no Salah for the one that does not recite with the
Fatihah of the Book" (Bukhari and Muslim)

5
2. Surah Al-Baqarah (The Cow; The Heifer; The
Maverick)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al-Baqarah In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name, ―Al-Baqarah (the Cow)‖ in the Surah references the


story (ayats 67-73) of a heifer sacrificed by the Israelites. It has
not, however, been used as a title to indicate the subject of the
Surah. The Cow, comes from the story of the cow discussed in the
ayats 67 to 73. Prophet Muhammad (s) said that everything has
its peak and the peak of the Qur‘an is Al-Baqarah (The Cow). It
flows easily from one subject to another and its primary audience
includes the believers, the Jews of Madinah and the hypocrites.

The Surah includes the single longest ayah in the Qur'an (2:282)
– the ayah which talks about legal procedures regarding financial
transactions. The Surah starts with this, ―This is the Book (that)
….. is guidance …..‖. The Madani Surahs focus on building a
strong Muslim society and this chapter deals with many social,
cultural, economic, political and legal issues.

The Surah has 286 ayats which are divided into 40 Ruku‘
(Section).

Period of Revelation

Al-Baqarah is the longest Surah of the Qur‘an. According to the


commentators, this Madani Surah was not revealed at once to
Muhammad (s), but in various social circumstances and
conditions. The most part of the Surah was revealed during first
and second year of Hijrah in the period before the Battle of Badr
except some ayats such as 275 to 281 which belong to the last
months of Prophet Muhammad(s)‘s life.

At the time of the revelation of Al-Baqarah, all sorts of hypocrites

6
had begun to appear. Allah (swt) has, therefore, briefly pointed
out their characteristics here. Afterwards, when their evil
characteristics and mischievous deeds became manifest, Allah
(swt) sent detailed instructions about them. The last ayats of the
Surah (284-286) were revealed at Makkah before the migration
of the Prophet (s) to AI-Madinah has also been included in it.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The Book of Guidance for those who want to be


righteous. The difference between the believers and
the non-believers.
2. The hypocrites: their sickness, mischief and self-
deception.
3. Mankind, worship Allah (swt) alone. Make no partners
in Allah's divinity. The challenge of the Qur‘an. This
Book will guide many but many will remain in error.
The character of those who shall remain in error.
4. The story of the creation of Adam (a). Almighty Allah‘s
plan and promise to send His guidance from time to
time through His prophets.
5. Address to Bani Israel to accept this message. Allah‘s
(swt) covenant must be fulfilled.
6. Warnings to those who stray from the covenant of
Allah (swt). How some from among the Children of
Israel turned away from Lord Almighty‘s teachings.
7. Allah‘s (swt) blessings on the Children of Israel and
their transgressions.
8. The real inheritors of Divine salvation. The hesitation
of Bani Israel in sacrificing the cow.
9. Some perversions of those who were supposed to
follow the law of Allah (swt).
10. Basic principles of Almighty Allah‘s Covenant with the
Children of Israel.
11. Some of the Bani Israel were arrogant to follow the
teachings of their prophets, some rejected the prophets
or tried to kill them, and some revered the calf,
7
disobeyed Allah‘s commands and became too greedy
for the life of this world.
12. Opposition and enmity towards the Prophets,
following devils and magic.
13. Believers are reminded to follow the stated examples
by staying firm on the principles ordained by Allah
(swt) and His final Rasul (s). Some among the People
of the Book will always have false claims and
assertions.
14. The true guidance of Allah (swt) is here. Read the Book
of Lord Almighty and follow it.
15. The great example of Prophet Ibrahim (a). He and his
son Ismail (a) built the Ka‘bah and prayed for a
Prophet to come.
16. Prophet Ibrahim (a) submitted to Allah (swt) and this
is the message that he and his sons gave to their
progeny.
17. The change of Kiblah and the response of the
hypocrites and fools. Those who have knowledge
know that this is the true Kiblah of all the Prophets.
18. The Kiblah is now collectively for all. Believers are told
to follow the direction wherever they are.
19. Believers will be tried but they should be firm and
steadfast and must face the trials with patience and
prayers.
20. Almighty Allah‘s signs and His bounties are
everywhere. The polytheists and idolaters are
misplacing their loyalties.
21. Believers should eat good and permissible food and
should never follow the steps of the devil.
22. The true piety and righteousness. Some rules related to
the punishment of murderers. The rules of bequests.
23. Fasting and Ramadan: the objective of fasting and
some rules.
24. Rules of Hajj, fighting those who expelled Muslims
from their homes.

8
25. There is no fighting during Hajj, Allah‘s bounty should
be sought after returning from Hajj.
26. One should appreciate Allah‘s (swt) bounties. All
human beings were originally one community.
Divisions came later. One should be generous and
defend his/her faith.
27. Some important questions answered: War in the
sacred months, wine and gambling, charity, orphans‘
money, divorced women and their situation.
28. The laws of divorce.
29. Continuation of the laws of divorce.
30. Rules on the remarriage of the divorced women or the
widowers.
31. Further rules of divorce
32. Fighting in the cause of Allah (swt): two examples
from history- Israelites under the leadership of
Prophet Musa (a).
33. Under the leadership of Prophet Daud (a) – the victory
came over the forces of Goliath.
34. Emphasis on charity. Everything belongs to Allah
(swt). His Throne extends to heaven and earth. No
compulsion in religion. Allah (swt) brings out people
from darkness unto light.
35. Almighty Allah‘s power over life and death, some
examples: Prophet Ibrahim‘s (a) dialogue with
Namrood, a man in the valley of dead (probably
Prophet Ezekiel‘s vision of Jerusalem), Prophet
Ibrahim (a) asks Allah how will He raise the dead to
life. Allah‘s answer to Ibrahim (a).
36. Allah (swt) blesses charity: some examples of how
Lord Almighty blesses charity.
37. Emphasis on charity: spend good things, give openly
and secretly to the poor and needy.
38. Prohibition of usury (riba) and its bad effects on
individuals and society
39. Some rules on loan transactions

9
40. Conclusion and prayer: Everything in the heaven and
earth belong to Almighty Allah, the prayer of the
believers.
Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah deals with a number of issues related to beliefs,


history, law and morality. The Surah begins with the statement
that it is Allah (swt) who revealed this book (the Qur'an) for the
guidance of those who are conscious of Allah (swt). Only those
who seek guidance can benefit from the guidance of this Book.
There are three types of human beings:
1. Those who believe in the unseen realities, perform
prayers, give part of their wealth in charity, and believe
in what is revealed in this scripture and what was
revealed before to other prophets and messengers of
Allah (swt). These are the true believers. They shall
benefit from this book and they shall be eternally
successful.
2. Second group consists of those who have decided to
reject Allah's message. They are the Kafirs. Since they
have made up their minds to reject Islam, no
preaching will help them. Allah (swt) will punish them
on the Day of Judgment because of their rejection.
3. Third one is the group of people who say that they
have believed, but actually they have not believed.
They try to be on both sides: sometimes at the side of
faith and sometimes at the side of unfaith. They are
the hypocrites. They may think that in this way they
will gain both sides, but in reality they are the losers.
Allah (swt) narrated the story of the creation of human beings.
He created Adam (a) and gave him knowledge, asked the angels
to bow to him and gave him and his wife the garden of bliss to
reside and enjoy its fruits. Allah (swt) told them to eat whatever
they wished, but not to approach one tree. But Shaitan caused
Adam (a) to lose paradise. Adam (a) and his wife, along with the
Shaitan, was sent to the earth and were told to remember the
10
lesson that they learnt from the Paradise.

The Surah contains various stories, incidents etc. revolving


around the central theme, ―The Cow‖. The Surah addresses a
wide variety of topics, including substantial amounts of law, and
retells stories of Adam (a), Ibrahim (a) and Musa (a).
Condemnation of alcoholic beverages and gambling is also first
found in the Surah.

A critical review of the Bani Israel‘s history has been made


pointing out their religious perversions, moral degradation and
their disobedience to the Prophets particularly their rebellious
behaviour with Prophet Musa (a). Their reluctance to slaughter
the cow, even after Allah‘s (swt) command, has been highlighted.
Their sin of worshipping a calf and violation of religious laws like
Sabbath has been brought into focus.

When the immorality of material imperialism set in among the


midst of some Bani Israels, they started to believe in the mighty
kingdom and astonishing power of Sulaiman (a) as merely due to
occult sciences and magical formulae, not by the divine wisdom
of Allah (swt). People were so engrossed in such practices that
they ignored both the Book of God Almighty and anyone who
summoned them to truth and righteousness. They were
overwhelmed with slavery and ignorance, with misery and
poverty, and with humiliation and decadence.

They were thus drained of all high ambitions and increasingly


turned to magic, sorcery, witchcraft, charms and amulets.
Incidents from their history have been quoted not only to
admonish them, but also to throw light on the essentials of true
faith.

The Israelites were advised to believe in Muhammad (s) and


follow the guidance - Al-Qur‘an – which was given to him as he
was the messenger sent by the Almighty Allah to all mankind,
and he had been given the same message which had been given
to the earlier Prophets like Ibrahim (a), Ishaq (a), Yaqub (a),
Musa (a) and Isa (a).
11
This advice seems to be especially relevant in view of the
background that the Jews of Madinah who used to say that a
Prophet was about to come and that with his help they (Jews)
would destroy the pagans of Arabia were now opposing the
Prophet Muhammad (s) by tooth and nail.

The Surah includes a few rules related to varying subjects, such


as: prayers, fasting, striving on the way of Allah, the pilgrimage
to Makkah, the change of the direction of prayer (Kiblah) from
Jerusalem to Makkah, marriage and divorce, commerce, debt,
and a great many of the ordinances concerning usury.

All people are invited to worship Allah (swt) and to become His
true servants. Allah (swt) created all people and He made the
earth and heaven for their benefit and produced sustenance for
them. The problem comes when people deny their Creator, break
the relations that Allah (swt) told them to keep, follow the wrong
ways in life and make mischief in the land.

Virtue of the Surah

The Messenger of Allah (s) sent an expedition force comprising


of many men and asked each about what they memorized of the
Qur‘an. The Prophet (s) came to one of the
youngest men among them and asked him, ‗what have you
memorized young man?' He said, `I memorized such and such
Surahs and also Al-Baqarah.' The Prophet (s) said, `You
memorized Surat Al-Baqarah?' He said, `Yes.' The Prophet (s)
said, `Then you are their commander.' [Tirmidhi, Nasai &
Ibn Majah]

Abu Huraira (ra) reported that the Messenger of Allah (salAllahu


alayhi wasalam) said, ―Do not turn your houses into graves.
Shaitan is barred from any house in which Surat al-Baqarah (2)
is recited.‖ [Muslim 780, 4: 1707]

Narrated Abu Mas'ud Al-Ansari (ra): The Prophet (s) said, "If
one recites the last two ayats of Surat-al-Baqarah at night, it is
sufficient for him (for that night)." [SAHIH BUKHARI,
12
Volume 6, Book 61: Virtues of the Qur'an, Number 560]

Abu Umama (ra) said he heard Allah's Messenger (s) say: Recite
the Qur'an, for on the Day of Resurrection it will come as an
intercessor for those who recite It. Recite the two bright ones, al-
Baqarah and Surah Al 'Imran, for on the Day of Resurrection
they will come as two clouds or two shades, or two flocks of birds
in ranks, pleading for those who recite them. Recite Surah al-
Baqarah, for to take recourse to it is a blessing and to give it up is
a cause of grief, and the magicians cannot confront it. (Mu'awiya
said: It has been conveyed to me that here Batala means
magicians.) [Sahih Muslim 804]
Sahl ibn Sa‘d (ra) narrated that the Prophet (s) said, ―Everything
has a hump (or, high peak), and al-Baqarah is the high peak of
the Qur‘an. Whoever recites al-Baqarah at night in his house,
then Shaytan will not enter that house for three nights. Whoever
recites it during a day in his house, then Shaytan will not enter
that house for three days.‖ [Ibn Hibban, at-Tabarani]

Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu‘anhu) reports that


Rasulullah (sallallahu‘alaihi wasallam) said: ―Everything has a
peak and the peak of the Qur‘an is Surah al-Baqarah, it contains
an ayah which is the leader of all the ayats in the Qur‘an.‖
[Sunan-Tirmidhi]

On the authority of ahadith received from both Ibn Abbas (ra)


and from Umar (ra), we know that the last Revelation received by
the blessed Prophet (s) shortly before his death, was the passage
in Surah Al-Baqarah (2:278-281) which dealt with riba: Umar
Ibn Khattab (ra) said: ―The last ayah to be revealed was on riba,
but Allah‘s Messenger (s) was taken without having expounded it
to us; so give up not only riba but also reebah (whatever raise
doubts in the mind about its rightfulness). [Ibn Majah,
Darimi]

―O you who believe, fear Allah and give up what remains (due to
you) from riba (from now onwards) if you are indeed believers …
And none shall be dealt with unjustly. (Al-Baqarah 2:278-281).
Ibn Abbas (ra) said: ―These were the last ayats revealed to the
13
Prophet (s).‖ [Bukhari]

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 20): The matter concerning the attitude and


characteristics of believers, disbelievers, and hypocrites are
discussed.

Ayats (21 – 29): Mankind has been asked by the creator Allah
(swt) to voluntarily accept and submit to Him. They are also been
told to believe in Al-Qur‘an, His Guidance, and in the life after
death.

Ayats (30 – 39): The story of Adam (a) has been narrated. Allah
(swt) appointed Adam (a) as vicegerent to Earth. As a matter of
consequence Shaitan tempted him, and Adam (a) fell prey to
that. Allah (swt) related the incidents of repentance and its
acceptance from Adam (a) to show mankind (Adam‘s (a)
offspring) the original notion of guidance towards truth.

Ayats (40 – 120): Bani Israel‘s past and present attitude towards
guidance has been critically assessed in these ayats. Allah (swt)
has shown the course of their degradation was their deviation
from guidance.

Ayats (121 – 141): Allah (swt) exhorted (strongly urged) to accept


the guidance sent to Prophet Muhammad (s), who is from the
descendant and follower of Ibrahim (a) – whom Jews honour.
The story of building the Ka‘bah has also been narrated in
precedence to the event of making it as kiblah to Muslim
Community.

Ayats (142 – 152): The declaration of the change in Kiblah has


been made – From Masjid-al-Aqsa (Jerusalem) to Ka‘bah
(Makkah).

Ayats (153 – 251): Allah (swt) entrusted Muslims with necessary


responsibilities to walk in the road of guidance. He prescribed
Salat, Fast, Zakat, Hajj and Jihad as a moral training to the
14
Ummah. The believers have been commanded to obey authority,
to be just, to fulfil pledges, to observe treaties, to spend wealth,
etc. in the way of Allah (swt). Drinking, gambling, lending money
on Interest etc. have been prohibited to keep the Ummah safe
from disintegration.

Ayats (252 – 260): Allah (swt) mentioned some introductory


points on lending money on interest. This part described the
issue of life-after-death, true conception of Lord Almighty (Allah)
and revelation to emphasis the essence of accountability. The two
stories of Ibrahim (a) and the man [Uzair (a)] who woke up after
100 years has also been mentioned.

Ayats 261 to 283: Allah (swt) resumed the theme of - ayats 153 to
251. He exhorted the believers to spend in the way of Him. And
He warned them about the evil of lending money on the interest.
At the later ayats Allah (swt) declared war on those who would
touch Riba accompanying with the last Rasul Muhammad (s). He
instructed us to be honest in our conduct
of day-to-day business transactions.

Ayats 284 to 286: The basic article of Faith (Imaan) has been
reviewed here at the end of the Surah, as it was discussed at the
beginning. The ayats contains du‘a (private prayers for
individuals) for the Muslim Community. These are for the early
Muslims of Makkah who faced untold hardships in the
propagation of the Guidance.

Lessons and Reflections

1. Believe in the divine guidance of al-Qur‘an.

2. It is the truth, so don‘t mix truth with falsehood.

3. Believers should take action in order to establish Salat and


pay Zakat.

4. The Judgment Day is certain.

15
5. Eat of lawful things and don‘t make any food haram on
yourself.

6. A pious person is the one who believes in Allah (swt) and


the Last Day and the Angels and in all the revealed Book
and the Prophets.

7. Six qualities of people who will be benefited from this


Book - Piety, Faith on Ghaib, Salat,Charity, Faith on
Books,and Faith on Hereafter.

8. One should bequeath his/her property equitably to his

parents and relatives before dying.

9. Fasts are prescribed for Muslims in the month of


Ramadan.

10. Do not usurp another‘s property.

11. Don‘t believe in superstitions.

12. Spend your wealth in the way of Allah (swt).

13. Perform hajj-the pilgrimage to house of Allah (swt).

14. Don‘t follow a part of Islam and neglect the other.

15. Don‘t get deceived by the charm of disbelievers.

16. No one should curse trials, it paves the way for the
believer to achieve strong belief in the unseen.

17. Spend your money, but don‘t be a miser.

18. Don‘t dislike going to war for the cause of Islam.

16
19. No drinking and gambling as it is prohibited.

20. Marry believing men and women.

21. Don‘t enter into women during their monthly course.

22. Take care to have offspring as a continuation of charity.

23. Do not use Allah‘s name for such oaths to be away from

virtue, piety and the welfare of mankind.

24. Divorced women should reveal their pregnancy before


marrying again.

25. Don‘t prevent your divorced wife to remarry another


person.

26. The waiting period (Iddah) of a widow is four months and


ten days.

27. Fight and struggle in the way of Allah (swt).

28. Allah (swt) alone can increase and decrease wealth.

29. Spend the wealth in the cause of Allah (swt).

30. There is no compulsion in religion. But one should act in


accordance to his/her belief after the distinction has been
made between right and wrong.

31. Don‘t keep reminding a person of your charity. Kind


words are better than charity which is followed up by
insult or injury.

17
32. One should not spoil his/her charity by big talks and show
offs.

33. Those who devour interest become like the one whom
Satan has bewitched and maddened by his touch.

34. In a monetary transaction, debtors should be provided

grace to eliminate debt from the shoulders of the beholder


by the mercy of Allah (swt).

35. Last three ayats of Surah Baqarah is a Gift of Miraj


(Ascension) of Muhammad (s)- one of thebest du‘as which
Allah has taught us to believers in the Qur‘an.

18
3. Surah Ali „Imran (The Family of Imran)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Ali „Imran In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This Surah was revealed at Madinah, and the title is derived from
the ayah 33, referring to the family of Imran. This is the 3rd
Surah of the Qur'an according to its arrangement, but it is 89th
Surah according to the order of revelation. This Surah consists of
200 ayats divided in 20 Ruku‘ (Section).

The Surah points out to man‘s craving for the goodness of this
world. The believer prays for goodness in the life of the
Hereafter, and to safeguard him from the torment of the Fire.
The Surah asserts that the Day will definitely come, when each
soul will be accounted for his actions on earth. From those who
die as unbelievers, no ransom shall be accepted, even if it were as
much gold as would fill the entire earth.

Patience and piety are held up as virtues that will safeguard one
against evil conspiracies. Referring to the inattention of the
Muslims in the battle of Uhud, the Surah says that such
misfortunes befall the believers, so that Allah (swt) might test the
strength of their faith.

Each soul shall eventually be brought back to its Creator, and the
believer, who has lived righteously on earth, would enter
Paradise, and that would be the great Triumph.

Period of Revelation

Most part of the Surah was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (s)


in the years 3 A.H. and 4 A.H. However, its ayats 33 to 63,
according to a tradition, were revealed in the year 9 A.H. on the
occasion of the deputation of the Christians from Najran. The
stages of discourse can be divided into four:

19
 1st discourse – ayats 1 to 32 – likely to be revealed soon
after the Battle of Badr.
 2nd discourse – ayats 33 to 63 – revealed on 9 A.H on the
occasion of the visit of the deputation from the Christians
of Najran.
 3rd discourse – ayats 64 to 120 – appears to have been
revealed immediately after the first deputation.
 4th discourse – ayats 121 to 200 – revealed after the
Battle of Uhud.
Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Allah (swt) is the Ever-Living, Self-Subsisting. He sent Al-


Qur'an as He sent before the Tawrat and Injil for the
guidance of people. True believers are those who accept
everything of the Book of Allah (swt) and try to
understand it. Believers are those who always pray to
Lord Almighty for guidance.
2. Those who reject the truth, their wealth and their progeny
will not avail them anything against the reckoning of God
Almighty.
3. Allah (swt) bears witness for His own Tawhid as well as
the angels and the people of knowledge. Islam is the
religion acceptable in the sight of Lord Almighty.
4. One must follow the Prophet Muhammad (s) in order to
love Allah (swt). Faith requires obedience to Allah (swt)
and His final Messenger (s). Allah (swt) chose Adam (a),
Nuh (a), Family of Ibrahim (a) and the Family of Imran to
guide humanity through them. Many prophets and
messengers of Almighty Allah came for this purpose.
5. Birth of Isa (a) and his true message.
6. Isa (a) [Jesus] preached the message of Tawhid. His true
followers are those who recognize Tawhid. The birth of Isa
(a) was miraculous, just as Adam‘s (a) was one
miraculous. Some Christians argued with the Prophet

20
Muhammad (s). He asked them to come for an open
Mubahalah.
7. Invitation to the People of the Book to come to a common
word of Tawhid and obedience to Allah (swt).
8. Some People of the Book try to discredit Islam. Muslims
are warned to be conscious of this challenge.
9. Previous prophets and their scriptures confirm the truth
of Islam.
10. Charity and sacrifice are necessary to attain faith and
piety. Muslims should pay attention to the Ka‘bah and
stand firm to give the message of Islam to the world.
11. Muslims must remain conscious of Allah (swt) and must
hold fast together the rope of Allah (swt), i.e His Book and
His guidance.
12. The role of the Muslim Ummah in the world.
13. The critical review of the Battle of Uhud
14. Prohibition of Riba and emphasis on charity. Believers
must hasten to seek the forgiveness from their Lord. Some
beautiful characters and qualities of the believers are
mentioned.
15. Prophet Muhammad (s) is only a Messenger of Lord
Almighty like other messengers. His death should not
mean giving up the faith. Believers must persevere and be
patient in difficulties.
16. Criticism of those who showed weakness during the Battle
of Uhud. Muslims should be strong in their commitment
to faith.
17. True believers and the hypocrites. Hypocrites' negligence
at the time of Uhud.
18. Steadfast attitude of the Believers. Shaitan tries to
frighten the Believers, but the true Believers become even
stronger after trials and tests.
19. Some propaganda of the People of the Book against Islam
and how to respond to such challenges.
20. Allah‘s (swt) promise of success for the Believers. How the
believers should pray to Allah and seek His blessings.

21
Subject Matter of the Surah

This Surah is a sequel to the previous Surah Al-Baqarah. The


previous one was addressed primarily to the Children of Israel
(the Jews), and this one is for the Family of Imran (Surah Al
‗Imran) the invitation is extended to the Christians. Thus the
Surah begins by inviting the People of the Book (Jews and
Christians) to the truth of Islam and goes on to warn the
Muslims to take heed of the religious degeneration that plagued
the two earlier communities.

This Surah has a critical review of the Battle of Uhud fought


between 700 strong Muslim army led by the Prophet
Muhammad (s) against the 3000 strong Quraysh army led by
Abu Sufyan in 3 A.H. The causes and consequences of the
setback of the Muslim army have been discussed. The moral
weaknesses of the Muslims, the material greed of some of them,
and the disobedience of the persons not to abide by the orders of
the Prophet Muhammad (s) regarding the protection of the pass
were the main reasons for the setback. The Muslims have been
admonished to overcome their weaknesses, practice restraint, be
patient, fear Allah (swt), and trust in Him in order to get victory.

Here in this Surah, Allah (swt) introduces us about two types of


ayats present in Al-Qur‘an: The Mutashabihat and Muhkamat
Ayat. Muhkamat Ayats are entirely clear and plain, and these are
the foundations of the Book which are plain for everyone. And
the Mutashabihat Ayats are those in the Qur'an which are not
entirely clear, but allegorical, which could be understood
according to the context of the reader‘s perception while reciting
and making tadabbur (to ponder, reflect and think).

The Muhkamat are the Ayats that explain the abrogating rulings,
the allowed, prohibited laws, limits, obligations and rulings that
should be believed in and implemented. As for the Mutashabihat
Ayats, they include the abrogated Ayat, parables, oaths, and what
should be believed in, but not implemented. [Tafseer Ibn
Kathir]

22
This Surah mentions the event of Mubahala (i.e. deciding a
dispute by invoking curse of Allah on the liar), in the ayah 61, the
Christians of the Deputation from Najran were challenged by
Prophet Muhammad (s) to ―Mubahallah‖ which they declined.

Allah (swt) told us that He chose Prophet Adam (a), Prophet Nuh
(a), the family of Ibrahim (a) and the family of Imran from
amongst those who were living during their times for Prophet-
hood among the mankind. The Surah narrates the story of
Maryam and Isa (a) [Mary and Jesus] as well as of Zakariah (a),
the father of Yahya (a) [John the Baptist], all of whom belonged
to the family of Imran who was father of Prophet Musa (a) and
Haroon (a).

These family connections have been cited to illustrate the


miraculous birth of Isa (a) as well as that of his mother Maryam
and of Yahya (a). Maryam (Mary) was an example given by Allah
(swt) to Zakaria (a) who prayed to Allah (swt) asking to give him
a righteous son even though he and his wife were old and barren.
The angels confirmed him about a son. Allah (swt) named him as
Yahya – who was destined to be a chaste leader and Prophet.

So, the instances of Yahya (a) (John the Baptist) to a barren


woman and an extremely aged man and that of Adam (a) without
father and mother have been cited to show that there is nothing
in the birth of Isa (a) (Jesus) without a father to entitle him to
Divinity.

As it all stands - the main topics of this Surah Al ‗Imran are


Tawhid, Prophet-hood and the truth of the Qur' an. Along with
those, the Surah illustrates the beliefs of the People of Scripture
(the Jews and the Christians) - pointing out the errors in their
faith, and invited them to believe in Islam and follow the last
Prophet Muhammad (s). It has been declared (in ayah 110) that
the followers of Islam now form the best community which has
been raised for the guidance of mankind. This clearly means that
the earlier communities have been deposed and the religious
leadership of mankind has been vested in the Muslims. The
Surah also discusses the subjects of Hajj, Jihad, Zakat and Riba.
23
The Surah ends, like Surah al-Baqarah, with a du'a. The believers
are reminded to be mindful of Allah (swt), be patient and
steadfast. They are told not to be disconcerted by the freedom
and ease of the unbelievers, their enjoyment will be brief and
their final destination is Hell. The believers will gain Paradise.
Among the People of the Book are those who believe
submissively in one God and His revelations.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats 1 to 32: Allah (swt) repeated the fundamental truths about


Him with ayats concerning the Revelation and the Life-after-
death as a prefaces to the main topics of the Surah.

Ayats 33 to 65: Alllah (swt) addressed the Christians in order to


invite them to accept Islam. The miraculous birth of Isa (a)
[Jesus] has been narrated with the birth of Yahya (a) to a barren
woman and an extremely aged man Zakaria (a) and that of Adam
(a), who didn‘t have any father.

Ayats 66 to 101: Allah (swt) invited the Jews to give up their evil
way of life and to accept the Divine Guidance. At the same time
the Muslims have been warned to be on their guard against their
foul intents, erroneous ways and absurd complaints.

Ayats 102 to 120: Allah (swt) instructed the Muslims to take heed
from the history of the people of the Book. They were told to
guard themselves from their corrupt deceitful works. Muslims
were also advised to prepare and train themselves to have virtue
within their heart and put an end to all evil.

Ayats 121 to 175: This portion of ayats contains a critical analysis


of the Battle of Uhud. Muslim were taught and reassured that the
plotting of their enemies could do them no harm, if they would
practice restraint and fortitude and have taqwa of Allah (swt). It

24
has been pointed out that the set-back they had suffered was due
to the lack of some moral qualities and the existence of some
evils within their own ranks. Since the main cause of the defeat
was the greed of the archers, and guarding the pass - the taking
of interest has been prohibited to eradicate this evil.

Ayats 175 to 189: The main theme of the ayats 109 to 120 has
been resumed to reassure and encourage the Muslims against the
dangerous plots of their enemies.
Ayats 190 to 200: These ayats are the conclusion of the theme of
the Surah as a whole.

Virtue of the Surah

Saaiduna Abdullah Ibn Masuud (raḍyAllāhu 'anhu) said: ―What


an excellent treasure Surah Ali Imran is to the pauper when he
recites it in prayer during the last part of the night.‖ [Sunan
Darimi]

Makhul (raḍyAllāhu 'anhu) reports that The Prophet of Allah


(ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said; ―If anyone recites Surah Ali
Imran on yaum-al-Jumu‘ah , the angels will invoke blessings on
him till night comes.‖ [Mishkaatul Masaabeeh]

Saaiduna Abu Umamah (raḍyAllāhu 'anhu) reports that The


Prophet of Allah (ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said; ―Read the
two radiant ones, Al Baqarah and Ali Imran for they will come on
the day of Resurrection like two clouds, or two shades, or two
flocks of birds, pleading for their companions.‖ [Sahih
Muslim]

The Prophet (ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said to Muadh


(radiAllahu ‗anhu), ‗Should I not teach you a supplication which,
when used to implore Allah, Allah shall pay your debt, even it be
as huge as Mount Uhud? He then mentioned them (i.e. Surah ali
Imran ayat 26 & 27)‟ [Tabarani in Al Saghir 1/330]

Prophet Muhammad (ṣallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: ―Allah's


most magnificent name, which when used to implore Him, He
25
responds, is found in three Surrahs. Al Baqara, Ali Imran and
Taha‖ [Hakim & Ibn Majah 3856]

Lessons and Reflections

1. In this Surah, Allah (swt) encouraged us to look at the


bigger picture of this ephemeral life. Material things are
temporary and are bound to perish, while what lies with
Allah (swt) is everlasting.

2. Some of the people who possess the book will try their
best to deviate us from the Deen of Allah (swt). So one
should be wary of this, and remain attendant by not taking
―protectors‖ outside of their ranks. However, not all are
wicked, so one should avoid generalizations.

3. Unity is encouraged throughout the Surah, while division


is discouraged. Unity is key to success.

4. Fight those who fight you, and don‘t seek to appease your
enemies who only seek your downfall. What happened on
the day of the battle (Uhud) was a test from Allah (swt) to
see who the true believers were and who the hypocrites
were. On that day, the hypocrites were closer to disbelief
when they spoke with their mouths what was not in their
hearts. Surely, Allah (swt) knows what was concealed.

5. Some amongst the People of the Book are trustworthy;


others are not, because they do not think it is a sin to
cheat someone not of their faith. Some people seek to
distort the book, claiming what they say is from it, while
most certainly it is not. So, one must not invent
ordinances in the name of Allah (swt).

6. This is the only Surah that categorized ayats as Muhkamat


(Ordinances) and Mutashabihat (Historical accounts &
Allegories). Muhkamat ayats are the ―mother of the book‖,
26
meaning these clear-cut ayats should give birth/guide our
way to understanding the Mutashabihat. Only Allah (swt)
knows the ―true‖ meanings of Mutashabihat, therefore
there is no ―correct‖ interpretation of these ayats. Key to
understanding these ayats is to be humble, and be sincere.

7. Resolve differences between each other and come to a


common word: Not to serve anyone except Allah (swt),
and not to set authorities with Him.

8. Like in Surah Baqarah, Allah (swt) has reminded us here


also not to consume usury.

9. This Surah encourage us to race for Jannah‘s


unfathomable expanse. In the past many Prophets have
fought steadfastly for the cause of Lord Almighty, some
with many followers, and they did not give in to
adversaries or disbelief. They only asked for forgiveness
and victory over the disbelievers. They were rewarded in
this life and reward awaits them in the Hereafter.

10. One should behave soft heartedly: restrain anger and


overlook the mistakes of others. And make Islah
(correction) in everything he/she does. So, one must not
dispute on things which he/she has no knowledge of.

11. Allah (swt) tells the believer in ayah 97: …..And Hajj
(pilgrimage to Makkah) to the House (Ka`bah) is a duty
that mankind owes to Allah, those who can afford the
expenses (for one‘s conveyance, provision and residence).
Those who do not perform Haj even when they have
ability to manage it, at the end of the ayah Allah tells He
would put those into accountability who would become
irresponsible.

12. Hajj gives us a focus, center and orientation. We have one

27
Qiblah and that is our direction for worship. But we
should not have only one Qiblah for worship; we should
also have unity of purpose and mission in our life.
Muslims should be the people of a focus and direction, not
a confused people or a people without any orientation and
direction. Our focus of life is Allah and House of Allah, the
Ka'bah on this earth. We have with us Allah's book that we
must hold fast together. "And hold fast all together Allah's
rope and be not divided... (Ali 'Imran 3:103).

13. The Surah ends beautifully by asking the believers to


exhort patience and support each other so that they may
become successful. Certainly, victory is in the possession
of almighty Allah (swt).

28
4. Surah An-Nisa‟ (The Women; The Female Adults; The
Adult Females)
Concise Tafseer of Surah An-Nisa‟ In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This is a Madani Surah. It was revealed after Surah Al-


Mumtahinah and the fourth Surah in the sequence of the Qur‘an,
exactly after Surah Al-‗Imran (the family of ‗Imran). Surah An-
Nisa‘ is the Surah that calls for justice and mercy, especially for
those helpless in society. The Surah begins with the stressing on
the unity of mankind, with special mention of the rights of
orphans.

A major portion of the Surah An-Nisa‘ deals with the rights of


women and their position with regard to family life and
marriage. Men are advised to treat their wives kindly. Guidelines
are given as to the law of inheritance and prohibition of marriage
to close relations. This Surah has 176 ayats divided in 24 Ruku‘
(Section).

Period of Revelation

In the opinion of some very careful commentators of the Qur‘an,


this Surah was mainly revealed in 4 AH while some passages of it
were revealed in the end of 3 AH and in the beginning of 5 AH.
Ayah 176 was sent down long after the revelation of this Surah;
according to most authentic traditions, it was revealed in 9 AH
when An-Nisa' was already being recited as a complete Surah.

Although it is difficult to determine the exact dates of their


revelations, yet it is possible to assign to them a fairly correct
period with the help of the Commandments and the events
mentioned therein and the Traditions concerning them. A few
instances include:
 We know that the instructions about the division of
inheritance of the martyrs and for the safeguard of the
29
rights of the orphans were sent down after the Battle of
Uhud in which 70 Muslims were killed. Then naturally
the question of the division of the inheritance of the
martyrs and the safeguard of the rights of their
orphans arose in many families at Al-Madinah. From
this we conclude that ayats 1 to 28 were revealed on
that occasion.
 We learn from the Traditions that the Commandment
about Salat during war time was given on the occasion
of Zat-ur-Riqa'a, an expedition which took place in 4
AH. From this we conclude that the discourse
containing ayah 102 was revealed on that occasion.
 The last warning (ayah 47) to the Jews was given
before the Banu Nadir were exiled from Al-Madinah in
Rabi'-ulAwwal, 4 AH. From this it may safely be
concluded that the discourse containing ayah 47 must
have been revealed some time before that date.
 The permission about tayammum (the performance of
ablutions with pure dust, in case of no water is
available: ayah 43) was given during the Bani-al-
Mustaliq expedition, which took place in 5 AH.
Therefore, the probable period of that discourse was in
5 AH.
Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Responsibility to take care of the family. Special care of


orphans.
2. Laws of inheritance. It is an obligation from Allah (swt).
3. Relations between men and women should be based on
the principle of equity and goodness.
4. Rules of marriage especially concerning the women who
cannot be taken in marriage.
5. Men and women's rights over their properties.
6. Disagreement and reconciliation between husband and
wife.
7. Internal and external purity: rules of wudu, ghusl and
30
prayers.
8. Fulfill the trusts and refer all disputes to Allah (swt) and
His Last Messenger.
9. Those who decline to accept the decisions of Allah's (swt)
Messenger are the hypocrites.
10. It is the duty of the Believers to establish justice and
protect the poor and the oppressed.
11. Hypocrites' attitude to the Prophet Muhammad (s) and to
the Believers.
12. How to deal with the hypocrites who are prone to fighting.
13. Believers must respect the life of other Believers. Murder
and its punishment.
14. Believers must join and live with other Believers unless
they are unable to do so.
15. Prayers for the travelers and those who are in the
battlefield.
16. Always be just and do not take the side of the unjust.
17. The secret councils of the hypocrites.
18. Allah (swt) will not forgive Shirk. Shaitan is misleading
the humans through deceptions and false promises.
19. Some more directions about dealing with orphans and
family disputes.
20. Believers must stand for justice for all. They must pay
attention to their faith.
21. Hypocrites try to deceive Allah (swt). They are lazy in
their prayers. Their end will be the lowest part of hell.
22. Allah's (swt) punishment for those who broke their
covenant with Him. Some People of the Book tried to
crucify Isa (a) [Jesus], but Allah (swt) saved him.
23. The message of Islam is the same as the message of
previous Prophets.
24. Invitation to the People of the Book to accept Islam and
recognize the true teachings of Isa (a). Some more
elaboration on the law of Inheritance.
Subject Matter of the Surah

31
The main theme of Surah An-Nisa‘ is the building of a strong
Muslim society, particularly in reference to granting women,
their God-given rights to fulfill their true roles in a society. This
Surah teaches the Muslims to adhere to the ways which would
make their faith firm and strong. The core facet of that society is
none other than a stable family.

The setback at Uhud in 3 AH and the martyrdom of seventy


companions of the Prophet Muhammad (s) left a large number of
orphans and widows who had to be looked after. One of the
major causes of the reverse at Uhud was desertion of the
hypocrites under Abdullah Bin Ubayy and the presence of some
of them in the Muslim army who were not fully committed to the
cause of Islam.

The Jews, on the other hand, had inspired the hypocrites to be


courageous and conspire openly with the Quraysh and their
tribes to be hostile to the Muslims. So this Surah, mainly deals
with these three subjects, i.e. the social problems faced by the
Muslims regarding the widows and orphans, the attitude of the
hypocrites and how to beware of them, and the hostility of the
Jews and how to deal with them.

The Surah deals with the case of Bani Nadir. In spite of the peace
treaties they had with Muslims, they openly siding with the
enemies of Islam. They were exiled from Al-Madinah for plotting
against Muhammad (s) and the Muslim Community. In order to
consolidate and strengthen the community of Islam detail
instructions have been given in continuation to those of Surah
Al-Baqarah.

The moral and religious condition of the People of the Book is


reviewed to teach lessons to the Muslims, and a warning is given
to refrain from following their footsteps. The distinctive features
of hypocrisy and true faith are clearly marked for easy
identification between the two.

After the Battle of Uhud Allah (swt) revealed inspiring discourses


to encourage the believers to stay patient and persevere to do the
32
instructed orders against hypocrites and Arab mushriks.
Believers were asked to make a thorough inquiry about their
conspiracy and then inform it to the leaders for appropriate
measures.

Muslims were experiencing difficulties in offering their Salah


during the expeditions when water was not available to perform
ablution. In such circumstances Allah (swt) granted a permission
to make Tayammum (purification with clean earth), and to
shorten the Salah or to offer the "Salat-ul-Khauf," when they
were faced with danger. Instructions were also given to those
Muslims who were living in the enemy camps that they should
migrate to Al-Madinah, the newly formed state of Islam.

Clear instruction was sent to Muslims about how they would


behave with the clans not allied. Greater importance was made to
that of character building. The superiority of cultural ethics set
by Islam is established over that of the Jews, Christians and
Mushrikin.

The Revelation of the Qur‘an was sent to Muhammad (s) and just
like all the prophets before him. Daud (a) [David] received the
Psalms, and Musa (s) [Moses] spoke directly to God Almighty
and he was given Taurat. And Isa (a) [Jesus] was also a
messenger people of the Scripture have been told to abandon the
Trinitarian doctrine because God Almighty as He is Only One.
He does not need a son.

In the last ayah an additional ruling of inheritance has been


divinely prescribed. The ruling for a on the inheritance of a
person (Allah mentions them as ―Kalalah‖ in Arabic) with neither
descendants nor ascendants. In such cases, a sister inherits half
her brother‘s estate; a brother inherits all his sisters‘ estate. If
there are two sisters or more, they inherit two-thirds of the
estate. And if there are both brothers and sisters, the male
inherits twice the share of the female.

Interconnection of the Topics

33
 The opening ayah stresses the unity of human race by
pointing out they were created from a single soul.
 In ayats 2 to 10, rights of orphans have been laid down in
general. Permission given regarding polygamy (ayah
no.3). This permission encourages Muslims to marry
widows and other helpless women such as orphaned adult
female and divorcees in order to provide them protection
as well as protection to the orphans who are with the
widows.
 Ayats 11 and 12 along with ayats 7, 8, 33 and 176 lay down
the law of inheritance in Islam.
 Rights to women have been granted in ayats 3 and 127 (in
case of polygamy), in ayats 7, 11, 12 and 176 (regarding
inheritance), in ayats 4, 19, 20 and 21 (regarding dower),
in ayats 19, 22, 23, 24, 25 (regarding marriage), in ayats
34, 35, 128 (regarding disputes with the husband), in ayah
127 (regarding marriage of orphan female adults), etc.
 Law of dower has been legislated in ayats 4, 19 to 21.
 Ayats 22 to 24 establishes rule of prohibition of marriages
within certain degrees of close relationships.
 Before legislating the punishment for fornication finally in
Surah An-Nur [24], the way to deal with the women and
men guilty of this offence has been announced in ayats 15
and 16 of this Surah.
 Rules regarding repentance and forgiveness have been
laid down in ayats 17 and 18.
 Law of arbitration has been laid down in ayah 35.
 Ayah 36 enjoins kind treatment to parents, near kindred,
orphans, the neighbours, friends, slaves and wayfarers. It
bids us to worship Allah (swt) only and not to associate
any partner with Him. Ayats 48 and 116 make ascribing
partners to Allah (Shirk or polytheism) unpardonable sin.
 Ayah 43 legislates initial prohibition of drinking,
forbidding the Muslims to approach prayer while drunk. It
also makes rules regarding bath and dry ablution.

34
 Rules regarding deposits, doing justice, obeying Allah
(swt) and the messenger, obedience to Amir are laid down
in ayats 58 and 59.
 Instructions regarding Jihad (fighting for the cause of
Allah) have been given in ayats 71, 74, 75 to 78, 84 and 95.
 In ayah 86, manners of greeting have been laid down.
 Ayats 92 and 93 enacts the law regarding punishment for
murder.
 In ayats 97 to 100 - migration has been enjoined on
believers in case of danger to lives and beliefs.
 Rules regarding prayer in case of journey, fear and war
have been laid down in ayats 101 to 103.
 Ayats 37 to 42, 62 to 68, 72 to 73, 77 to 83, 88 to 91, 113,
138 to 143 and 145 deal with the behaviour of hypocrites
and warn the Muslims to be careful about them.
 Case of the Jews has been discussed in ayats 44 to 54 and
ayats 150 to 162.
 Charges against the Jews have been framed such as the
breaking of the covenant with Allah (swt), disobedience to
Musa (a), worship of the calf, breach of the Sabbath,
disbelief in ayats of Allah (swt), assassination of previous
Prophets, and slander against Maryam (mother of Isa (a)),
taking of usury and devouring of the wealth of people
through unlawful means. Although, the Qur‘an rejects
their claim regarding Crucifixion and the killing of Isa (a),
their behaviour with Isa (a) is condemned.
 The Christians have been addressed in ayah 171. The
divinity of Isa (a) and doctrine of Trinity has been rejected
outright and they have been plainly told that Isa (a)
[Jesus] was the only messenger of Allah.
Virtue of the Surah

Hazrat Abdullah ibn Mas‘ood radiyallahu ‗anhu has said, " There
are five Ayats in Surat An-Nisa' that I would prefer to the life of
this world and all that is in it."

35
I. If you avoid great sins which you are forbidden to do,
We shall remit from you your (small) sins, and admit
you to a Noble Entrance (i.e. Paradise). (4:31),
II. Surely, Allah wrongs not even of the weight of an atom
(or a small ant), but if there is any good (done), He
doubles it, and gives from Him a great reward. (4:40),
III. Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set
up with him in worship, but He forgives except that
(anything else) to whom He pleases, and whoever sets
up partners with Allah in worship, he has indeed
invented a tremendous sin. (4:48),
IV. If they (the hypocrites), when they had been unjust to
themselves, had come to you (Muhammad sallallahu
alaihe wasallam) and begged Allah‘s forgiveness, and
the Messenger had begged forgiveness for them, they
would have found Allah indeed the All-Forgiving (One
who accepts repentance), Most Merciful. (4:64),
V. And whoever earns a sin, he earns it only against
himself. And Allah is every All-Knowing, All-Wise.
(4:110).
This statement of Hazrat Abdullah ibn Mas‘ood radiyallahu anhu
has been recorded by Ibn Jareer.

Narrated Yusuf bin Mahk, While I was with Aisha, the mother of
the Believers, a person from Iraq came and asked, "What type of
shroud is the best?" `Aisha said, "May Allah be merciful to you!
What does it matter?" He said, "O mother of the Believers! Show
me (the copy of) your Qur'an," She said, "Why?" He said, "In
order to compile and arrange the Qur'an according to it, for
people recite it with its Surahs not in proper order." `Aisha said,
"What does it matter which part of it you read first? (Be
informed) that the first thing that was revealed thereof was a
Surah from Al-Mufassal, and in it was mentioned Paradise and
the Fire. When the people embraced Islam, the ayats regarding
legal and illegal things were revealed. If the first thing to be
revealed was: 'Do not drink alcoholic drinks.' people would have
said, 'We will never leave alcoholic drinks,' and if there had been
36
revealed, 'Do not commit illegal sexual intercourse, 'they would
have said, 'We will never give up illegal sexual intercourse.' While
I was a young girl of playing age, the following ayah was revealed
in Makkah to Muhammad (s): 'Nay! But the Hour is their
appointed time (for their full recompense), and the Hour will be
more grievous and more bitter.' (54.46) Surah Al-Baqarah (The
Cow) and Surat An-Nisa (The Women) were revealed while I was
with him." Then `Aisha took out the copy of the Qur'an for the
man and dictated to him the ayats of the Suras (in their proper
order). [Sahih al-Bukhari Vol. 6, Book 61, Hadith 515]

Lessons and Reflections

1. The Rules regarding Inheritance is discussed. Laws of


inheritance, women are awarded the rights to inherit.
People are asked to deal justly with the orphans.
2. Men are asked to deal justly with the women and give
them their mahr (‫ )ِهر‬while marrying.

3. Guidelines are laid down about the woman one can


marry and the woman one cannot.

4. Divorce and the right to remarry are discussed.


Mahram relations are explained - relatives that are
prohibited for marriage. Commandment about
'arbitration' in family disputes.

5. Second commandment relating to the prohibition of


drinking, (first commandment was in Surah Al-Baqarah
2:219).

6. Surah An-Nisa‘ warns against hoarding wealth or


spending wealth in order to be seen by men. But it asks
the believers to spend the wealth (one who possess) in
charity, to orphans and to the needy.

7. The meaning of doing jihad in the cause of Allah (swt).


37
Warnings are laid to the believers to be firm in justice and
not to covet each other‘s wealth.

8. It talks about the hypocrites and also about the people


of the book who have laid themselves strayed.

9. Acceptable and unacceptable repentance.

10. The one who disputes the decision of the Prophet (s) is
not a believer.

11. Divine Law that obedience of the Rasool is in fact the


obedience of Allah.

12. Allah commands to respond greetings with better


greetings.

13. Laws about manslaughter, murder and bloodwit.

14. Salat-ul-Qasr: permission of short prayer in travelling.

15. Salat-ul-Khauf: performing prayer in a state of


emergency (war).

16. Salat: (prayers) are obligatory on prescribed timings.

17. Prohibition of 'secret counsels' and its exceptions.


18. Isa (a) – Jesus, was neither killed nor crucified. Isa
was a Prophet of Allah (Almighty God) and His
worshipper. Stop saying "Trinity" - Allah is the One and
Only God.

19. The Qur'an carries the same Message that was sent to
Nuh (Noah), Ibrahim (Abraham), Musa (Moses) and Isa
(Jesus).

38
20. Allah's commandments relating to family life and
community life. The Surah illustrates the Qur‘an‘s role as
an authoritative legal source and its ability to shape the
community.

39
5. Surah Al-Ma'idah (The Table Spread; The Dinner
Table; The Feast)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al-Ma'idah In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This is a Madani Surah. This is the 5th Surah according to the


arrangement of the Qur'an and 112th according to the order of
revelation. This Surah takes its name from ayah 112 wherein the
word ―Ma‘idah‖ has occurred in connection with the demand of
the Disciples of Isa (a) [Jeses] who asked him for a table spread
with food be sent from heaven; and the prayer of Prophet Isa (a)
was accepted by Allah (swt).

The story of the Feast (Maidah) is a real life anecdote that sums
up the central theme of the Surah, which is - the covenants. It
also shows that when a person accepts to enter into a covenant
with Allah (swt), they are expected to fulfil their obligation or
else endure severe consequences. The Surah consists of 120 ayats
in 16 Ruku‘ (Section).

Period of Revelation

The exact period of its revelation is not known. This Surah was
revealed to suit the requirement of the changed conditions that
prevailed earlier at the time of the revelation of ―Ali ‗lmran‖ and
―An-Nisa‖. It was revealed, as the theme of the Surah indicates,
after the treaty of Hudaibiyah at the end of 6 AH or beginning of
7 AH. Muslim land had now extended to Najd on the east, to the
Red Sea on the west, to Syria on the north and to Makkah on the
south.

Al-Mai‘dah was revealed in a time when Muslim civilization


started to take shape in its proper form. The social behaviour, the
conversation, the dress, the very mode of living, the culture etc.
had taken definite shape of its own.

40
The laws of marriage and divorce, segregation of sexes,
punishment of adultery and abuse, new and reformed ways of
trade and commerce gave Muslims a special mold.

After the treaty of Hudaibiyah Muslims enjoyed peace in their


own territory and got chance to spread the Islam‘s Messages to
the surrounding territories. Accordingly, Prophet Muhammad (s)
addressed letters to the rulers of Iran, Egypt and the Roman
Empire and chiefs of Arabia, inviting them to Islam. At the same
time missionaries of Islam spread among the clans and tribes,
and invited them to accept the Divine Way of Allah (swt).

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. General Rules of Discipline


2. Cleanliness for prayers, Command to abide by justice.
3. Allah's (swt) covenant with the Children of Israel.
4. Children of Israel broke the covenant of Allah (swt).
5. Musa (a) warned the Children of Israel.
6. Story of the two children of Adam (a), Punishment for the
offenders.
7. Lord Almighty's rules must be established.
8. The relations of Muslims with their opponents.
9. Those who make the mockery of the truth.
10. How Christians deviated from the truth.
11. Some Christians came closer to Islam and recognized the
truth.
12. Prohibition against intoxicants, gambling and shirk.
13. Respect of the Ka'bah.
14. Rules against idolatry and about testimony.
15. Some miracles of Isa (a) [Jesus].
16. How the teachings of Isa (a) were corrupted after his
departure.
Subject Matter of the Surah

Surah al-Mai‘dah complements the discussion in the previous


Surah on social obligations. This Surah starts with the command
41
to ‗fulfil the covenants‘ (ayah 1) which not only includes
covenants between people, but also covenants between Allah
(swt) and His servants. The Surah, then draws many analogies
from the history of the People of the Book who did not honour
their covenants with Allah (swt). As they abandoned and
corrupted the truths conveyed to them by their Prophets, and so
they no longer adhere to the original teachings of the Gospel and
At-Taurah. Believers are requested to study the consequences of
their deviations and avoid falling into the same mistakes like the
previous nations.
There are six main points discussed in this Surah:
1. All obligations whether they are divine or human
should be fulfilled. When we have a pledge or promise
or sign a treaty we must abide by it. Also Allah (swt)
gave some rules for life to keep us clean and sober.
Cleanliness of the body, living with justice, being
upright and moral, avoiding sin, corruption and
superstition, and doing the deeds of piety and
righteousness are important rules and principles and
must be observed.
2. Message to the People of the Book i.e. Christians and
Jews to recognize the truth. Allah's punishment comes
on those who reject Allah's rules and knowingly violate
them.
3. The story of the two children of Adam (a) is told. This
story has many lessons. Sometime even your brothers
become envious of you and they harm you. When one
person kills another, he is the killer of not only one
person but of all human beings because he contravenes
the law of respect for human life upon which the lives
of all human beings depend.
4. Muslims must deal with justice with all people. Justice
should be impartial, even to their enemies they must
be just. However, relations among Muslims themselves
should be deeper. There should not be only justice but
also love, brotherhood, care and concern for each
other.
42
5. Enjoy the good things that Allah (swt) has given, but
guard against excesses. Do not indulge in swearing,
gambling, intoxicants, superstitions, violation of the
sanctities of the Sanctuary of Allah (swt) (the Ka'bah).
6. Isa (a) was a great prophet of Allah (swt). He
performed many miracles, but his teachings were not
followed and they were corrupted after his departure
from this earth.
At the end what matters is that how true we are in our
commitment with Allah (swt) and how truly we follow His
commands. In this world we might pose in front of people and
deceive even our own self; but in the hereafter the only thing of
any value will be the truth.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats 1 to 10: Here the Divine laws about food, sex, salat, and
justice have been prescribed. Believers are ordained to observe
and fulfill these scrupulously.

Ayats 11 to 26: These ayats contain admonition regarding the


ways of Jews and Christians. Believers are requested to study the
consequences of such deviations and avoid falling into the same
mistakes as previous nations. It is for the central theme of this
chapter that it is also given the name Surah Al-‗Uqud
(Covenants).

Ayats 27 to 32: It has the story of the two sons of Adam (a) in
harmony with Jews – those who plotted to kill Rasul Muhammad
(s) and his Companions.

Ayats 33 to 40: These have the prescribed punishment for those


who create chaos in a Muslim State of Khilafah. Believers are
admonished to follow and establish the prescribed ―Right Way‖.

Ayats 41 to 50: As Jews and Christians had forsaken their Torah


and Gospel respectively, Muhammad (s) and through him all
Muslims were calmed not to mind their hostility of faith. The
43
believers were told to continue their struggle to establish the
Right Way with the teachings of the Qur‘an.

Ayats 51 to 69: These ayats contain the elements concerning


standard grade of faith in Islam and about the relationship
between Jews and Christians. Muslims are told to guard
themselves against the evil designs of hypocrites. They are also
admonished to be careful about holding relationship with Jews
and Christians. There will be a time when some Jews and
Christians will be friends with themselves only, if Muslims
become friends with them, they will no longer be in the fold of
Islam.

Ayats 70 to 86: It resumed the theme of corruptions of Jews and


Christians. Christians were especially reproved for swaying
themselves from Tauhid. There were also hard hearted person
among Jews themselves; but there were some of the believer of
Torah who follows the Truth.
Ayats 87 to 108: In addition of ayats 1 to 10, further regulations
concerning what is lawful and unlawful have been given.

Ayats 109 to 119: it includes the conversation of Allah (swt) and


His prophets which will take place in the Day of Judgment. The
conversation with Prophet Isa (a) has been mentioned as an
example to warn particularly the Christians, who profess to
believe in him, and generally all those people who put false hopes
in their Prophets, etc.

Ayah 120: it is the conclusion of the Surah Al-Mai‘dah where


Allah (swt) tells His servants about the true holder of sovereignty
and its notion of importance.

Virtue of the Surah

"This day have those who disbelieve despaired of your religion,


so fear them not, and fear Me. This day have I perfected for you
your religion and completed My favour on you and chosen for
you Islam as a religion.."[Quran 5:3] This ayah was revealed at
Arafat as reported in the authentic hadith:
44
Narrated 'Umar bin Al-Khattab: Once a Jew said to me, "O the
chief of believers! There is a ayah in your Holy Book Which is
read by all of you (Muslims), and had it been revealed to us, we
would have taken that day (on which it was revealed) as a day of
celebration." 'Umar bin Al-Khattab asked, "Which is that ayah?"
The Jew replied, "This day I have perfected your religion For you,
completed My favor upon you, And have chosen for you Islam as
your religion." (5:3) 'Umar replied, ―No doubt, we know when
and where this ayah was revealed to the Prophet. It was Jumu‘ah
and the Prophet was standing at 'Arafat (i.e. the Day of Hajj).
[Bukhari]

At-Tirmidhi recorded that `Abdullah bin `Amr said, "The last


Surahs to be revealed were Surat Al-Ma'idah and Surat Al-Fath
(chapter 48).'' At-Tirmidhi commented, "This Hadith is Hasan,
Gharib.'' and it was also reported that Ibn `Abbas said that the
last Surah to be revealed was,

(When there comes the help of Allah and the Conquest,) Al-
Hakim collected a narration similar to that of At-Tirmidhi in his
Mustadrak, and he said, "It is Sahih according to the criteria of
the Two Shaykhs and they did not record it.'' Al-Hakim narrated
that Jubayr bin Nufayr said, "I performed Hajj once and visited
`A'ishah and she said to me, `O Jubayr! Do you read (or
memorize) Al-Ma'idah ' I answered `Yes.' She said, `It was the
last Surah to be revealed. Therefore, whatever permissible
matters you find in it, then consider (treat) them permissible.
And whatever impermissible matters you find in it, then consider
(treat) them impermissible.''' Al-Hakim said, "It is Sahih
according to the criteria of the Two Shaykhs and they did not
record it. ''
Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Mahdi related
that Mu`awiyah bin Salih added this statement in the last
Hadith, "I (Jubayr) also asked `A'ishah about the Messenger of
Allah's conduct and she answered by saying, `The Qur'an.''' An-
Nasa'i also recorded it. [Tafseer Ibn Kathir]

Imam Ahmad recorded that Abu Hurayrah said, "There were


three stages to prohibiting Khamr (intoxicants). When the
45
Messenger of Allah migrated to Al-Madinah, the people were
consuming alcohol and gambling, so they asked the Messenger of
Allah about these things, Allah revealed,
(They ask you about alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them
is a great sin, and (some) benefit for men.'')﴿2:219﴾, until the end
of the Ayah. The people said, `They (intoxicants and gambling)
were not prohibited for us. Allah only said,
(In them is a great sin, and (some) benefit for men.)' So they
went on drinking Khamr until one day, one of the emigrants lead
his companions in the Maghrib prayer and mixed up the Ayat in
his recitation. Thereafter, Allah sent down a tougher statement,

(O you who believe! Approach not the Salah (the prayer) when
you are in a drunken state until you know (the meaning of) what
you utter.)﴿4:43 ﴾Then, the people would drink before the time of
the prayer so that they would attend the prayer while sober. A
firmer Ayah was later revealed,

(O you who believe! Khamr, Maysir, Ansab, and Azlam are an


abomination of Shaytan's handiwork. So avoid that in order that
you may be successful.)﴿5:90-91 ﴾So they said, `We abstained, O
Lord!' Later, some people said, `O Allah's Messenger! Some
people died in the cause of Allah, while some others died in their
beds, but they used to drink alcohol and indulge in gambling,
which Allah has made a Rijs of the work of Shaytan.' So Allah
sent down,

(Those who believe and do righteous good deeds, there is no sin


on them for what they ate...) ﴿5:93﴾, until the end of the Ayah.
The Prophet said,
(Had they been made impermissible for them, they would have
abandoned them as you have abandoned them.) Ahmad recorded
this Hadith. Imam Ahmad recorded that `Umar bin Al-Khattab
said, "O Allah! Explain the verdict about Khamr to us clearly.''
The Ayah in Surat Al-Baqarah was revealed,

(They ask you about alcoholic drink and gambling. Say: "In them
is a great sin.'')﴿2:219 ﴾`Umar was summoned and this Ayah was
recited to him, but he still said, "O Allah! Make the verdict of
46
Khamr clear to us.'' Then the Ayah in Surat An-Nisa' was
revealed,

(O you who believe! Do not approach the Salah when you are in a
drunken state.)﴿4:43 ﴾Thereafter, the Prophet had someone
herald when it was time to pray, "Those in a drunken state are
not to approach the prayer.'' `Umar was again summoned and
the Ayah was recited to him, but he still said, "O Allah! Make the
verdict concerning Khamr clear to us.'' Then, the Ayah in Surat
Al-Ma'idah ﴿5:91 ﴾was revealed, and `Umar was summoned and
it was recited to him. When he reached the part of the Ayah that
reads,

(So, will you not then abstain)﴿5:91﴾, `Umar said, "We abstained,
we abstained.'' Abu Dawud, At-Tirmidhi, and An-Nasa'i recorded
this Hadith. `Ali bin Al-Madini and At-Tirmidhi graded it Sahih.
It is recorded in the Two Sahihs, that `Umar bin Al-Khattab said
in a speech; while standing on the Minbar of the Messenger of
Allah (in the Prophet's Masjid in Al-Madinah) "O people! The
prohibition of Khamr was revealed; and Khamr was extracted
from five things: From grapes, dates, honey, wheat and barley.
Khamr is what intoxicates the mind.'' Al-Bukhari recorded that
Ibn `Umar said, "The prohibition of Khamr was revealed when
there were five kinds of intoxicants in Al-Madinah, besides what
was produced from grapes.'' [Tafseer Ibn Kathir]

Lessons and Reflections

1. It is duty bound to us to fulfill our obligations. One must


stand up for justice, and be not partial.

2. Allah (swt) made a covenant with ―Bani Israel‖ and the


―Nasara‖ but they breached it. This caused them to be
arrogant, and misrepresent the Message.

3. There has come to you an illuminating book that guides to


*paths* of peace (Islam).

47
4. Muhammad (s) has come to clarify matters, lest one say
―no warner‖ has come to us. Narration about Musa (a) and
his people, his people signifying the lack of devotion to
fight in the cause of Allah (swt).

5. Two sons of Adam (a) have been narrated. The


commandment of murdering an innocent soul is like
murdering the entire mankind, and saving a soul is like
saving the whole mankind. This is so that people do not
forget the pivotal commandment of only killing in self-
defense.
6. The natural consequence of those who wage a war against
―Allah and His Messenger‖ is that they are humiliated in
one way or the other.

7. Attain Taqwa (consciousness of Allah (swt)), and if one


seeks to be successful - one must make a journey towards
Him, which is desirable in the long run. This is better than
acquiring all the material possessions in the world.

8. Those who steal, cut off their capacities. However, if they


sincerely repent, Allah (swt) will forgive them.

9. Beware of the hypocrites. Those who have hearts with


sickness, always say and behave, which is not in their
hearts.

10. Allah (swt) could have made us all one Ummah, but he
provided us with different understandings of the same
truth collectively. Instead of fighting over this, we should
all hasten ourselves to do well.

11. Do not take those who take your Deen as mockery and
play as protectors. This, because these folks have no
intentions of connecting with Allah (swt). So no one
should turn their back, as this means turning away from

48
Laws of Allah (swt) which is act of ignorance.

12. Do not set up authorities with Allah (swt). Some Yahood


say that ―God‘s hands are tied down‖ while they
themselves are extremely stingy. Allah (swt) doesn‘t need
us, rather we need him for blessing. Or else, we would
follow the footsteps of Shaitan.

13. Both Isa (a) and his mother consumed food, and were like
every other mortal. This is termed as a sign for those who
will give thought.

14. The people who possess the book are told not to commit
excess in their Deen, and not follow erroneous views.
Certainly Allah (swt) will guard Al-Qur‘an revealed to
Muhammad (s) from all discrepancies.

15. None should forbid the things what Allah (swt) has made
lawful for oneself.

16. Oaths without deliberate intentions are not accountable.


Oaths with deliberate intentions are accountable.
Expiation of these oaths outlined.

17. Intoxication, games of chance are forbidden. Shaitan


causes enmity and hatred between humans through these
things.

18. Ordinances on hunting during the forbidden months.

19. Don‘t ask about things you have no knowledge of.


However, if one asks about things while the Qur‘an is
being revealed, one will get the answers eventually. The
negation of this commandment has led many towards
disbelief.

49
20. When it is said to people to believe what Allah (swt) has
revealed, they respond by saying that we will, on the
contrary, follow what their forefathers followed.

21. Obey Allah (swt) and the messenger. The messenger‘s


duty is to deliver the message to us. Everyone is hold
accountable to their deeds individually.

50
6. Surah Al-An'am (The Cattle)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al-An'am In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

Surah al-An'am is the first 'Makki' Surah after Surah Al-Fatihah


after a series of long Madani Surahs. This Surah is the 6th Surah
according to the arrangement of the Qur'an and 55th Surah
according to the order of revelation. The Surah derives its name
from a word ―َ‫ أٔ عا‬: An‘am‖ in ayah 136, repeated in ayats 138
and 139, where cattle have been mentioned in connection
with certain superstitious practices of the pagans of Arab.

The whole Surah was revealed in Makkah at one sitting


according to the tradition of Ibn ‗Abbass, unlike all the previous
long Surahs which were revealed in small stages. Its revelation
was accompanied by 70 angels which demonstrates the Surah's
importance.

It is reported on the authority of ‗Asma-u- bint Yazid‘, a first


cousin of the great companion of the Prophet (s), Muaz bin
Jabal, who said:‖ During the revelation of this Surah, the Prophet
(s) was riding on a she-camel, and I was holding her nose string.
The she-camel began to feel the weight bearing heavily on her,
and it seemed her bones would break under it‖.
The Surah has 165 ayats in 20 Ruku‘ (Section).

Period of Revelation

The subject-matter of the Surah clearly illustrates the revelation


period, it must have been revealed during the last year of Prophet
Muhammad‘s (s) life at Makkah. The antagonism and
persecution by the Quraysh had become most savage and brutal
and the majority of the Muslims had to migrate to Habash
(Abyssinia).

51
Additionally, the two great supporters of the Prophet, Abu Talib
and his wife Khadijah (rh) were no longer there to help him, so
he was deprived of all worldly support.

It was in these dark circumstances that a ray of hope gleamed


from Yathrib (Madinah), where Islam began to spread freely by
the efforts of some influential people of the tribes of Aws and
Khazraj, who had embraced Islam at Makkah. At that time, none
but Allah (swt) knew the great hidden potential in this.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Allah (swt) created the heaven and earth but the non-
believers call others equal to Allah (swt).
2. Allah‘s (swt) punishment came upon those who denied the
truth.
3. On the Day of Judgment the Mushrikin will admit their
guilt.
4. Those who deny the Hereafter they are the real losers.
Non-believers ridiculed Allah's (swt) Prophets, but in the
end the truth prevailed.
5. Nations were warned before. Allah (swt) did try them in
various ways.
6. Believers should be respected.
7. Allah (swt) is the Final judge and He will decide the
destiny of the individuals or nations.
8. Allah‘s (swt) majesty, power and might.
9. Prophet Ibrahim‘s (a) arguments against Shirk.
10. Other Prophets also gave the message of Tawhid.
11. Allah's (swt) revelation to His Prophets.
12. Allah's (swt) signs in the creation.
13. Allah (swt) has no partner, no son.
14. Arrogance of the non-believers and their opposition to the
15. Prophets. Do not eat the animals slaughtered in the name
of anyone other than Allah (swt).
16. Those who plot against Allah (swt), they suffer
themselves.
52
17. Superstitions of the Mushrikin.
18. Allah's (swt) gifts for humanity and people's self-imposed
prohibitions.
19. What are the things that Allah (swt) has forbidden?
20. Collective principles of Islam.
21. The true religion: prayer, sacrifice, life, death, everything
must be for Allah (swt).
Subject Matter of the Surah

A good part of the Surah is devoted to God (Allah - the Lord


Almighty) and how He mechanizes the world of creation,
showing a divergence from earlier Surahs which focused on
ordinances. Whereas the previous Surahs dealt with the Ahl al-
Kitab (Jews & Christians), this Surah makes reference to the
Mushrikeen (Idolaters). This is the first Surah to mention as
many as 18 different messengers/prophets.

The central themes of the Surah are Tauhid (monotheism),


demonstration of Allah's Omnipotence and the rejection of
polytheism. All these themes have been blended together in an
excellent manner with no separate headings. Other topics
include - life after death, Prophet-hood and their practical
relevance to human life.

Surah Al-An‘am refutes the erroneous beliefs of those opposing


the truth and answers their objections, warning and
admonishing them. Furthermore, it comforts the Prophet (s) and
his followers who were suffering from persecution.

So, this Surah mainly discusses the different aspects of the major
articles of the faith in Islam. It gives beautiful description of
Allah's creative power. It criticizes Shirk and its manifestations.
To summarize it all, the basic topics discussed are:-
1. Unity of Allah (swt) is the reality of this existential world.
2. Polytheism has no foundation.
3. Prophet Ibrahim (s) preached Tauhid. Other Prophets
also gave the same message.

53
4. Allah's (swt) judgment will come and the truth will
prevail.
5. Allah (swt) gives right guidance about food and other
matters of life.
Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats 1 to 12: Polytheism or ascribing partners to Allah (swt) are


rejected. Idolatrous practices and superstitions of the
disbelievers are condemned. If they don‘t follow the Creed of
Islam, they will face the same consequence of the former
disbelievers.

Ayats 13 to 24: These ayats give us instructions on Tauhid, and


refute Shirk - which is the greatest obstacle in the way of its
approval from a disbeliever. The Doctrine of Divine unity in all
its purity is established with the Oneness of Allah (swt).
Ayats 25 to 32: Here, these ayats have description of the life of
Hereafter, which has been depicted to warn the disbelievers of
the consequences of rejecting the Articles of Faith.

Ayats 33 to 73: The main theme of these ayats is the Prophet-


hood of Muhammed (s). It has been discussed from the point of
view of his Mission, the limitations of his powers, the attitude
towards his followers and also from the point of view of the
disbelievers.

Ayats 74 to 90: In continuation to the theme of Prophet-hood,


the story of Prophet Ibrahim (a) has been narrated to the pagan
Arabs of the Quraysh, which they were proud of as descendants.
Muhammad (s) was given soothing inspiration and told about
the ultimate triumph of Truth when he had lost all hope about
the success of his mission.

Ayats 91 to 108: These ayats discusses the proof of Prophet-hood


of Muhammad (s), which is the Qur‘an itself. The prophet is
mortal like other human beings are and he does not possess any
supernatural powers. He only follows that which is revealed to
him.
54
Ayats 109 to 154: Divine limit of restrictions have been
contrasted with the limited pagan Arabs‘ superstitious
restrictions in order to show the striking differences between the
two. Thus Allah (swt) proved the Qur‘an to be a Revealed Book.

Ayats 155 to 160: The Jews here have been urged to compare the
teachings of the Qur‘an with those of At-Taurat (the Torah) so
that they might recognize their similarity. They were criticized in
ayats 144 – 147 along with the pagan Arabs. They were warned to
give up their lame excuses and adopt the Guidance of the Qur‘an
to escape the retribution on the Day of Resurrection.

Ayats 161 to 165: This part is the conclusion of the Surah. The
Prophet Muhammad (s) has been instructed in a beautiful and
forceful manner to proclaim the true Articles of Islam along with
its implications without any fear. The ultimate purpose of the life
of a Prophet and an ordinary believer is to declare: My prayer,
my sacrifice, my living and my dying are all for Allah, the Lord of
the worlds (ayah 162). Man has been made Caliph (vicegerent)
on earth - ayah 165.

Virtue of the Surah

Al-`Awfi, `Ikrimah and `Ata' said that Ibn `Abbas said, ―Surat
Al-An`am was revealed in Makkah‖' At-Tabarani recorded that
Ibn `Abbas said, ―All of Surat Al-An`am was revealed in Makkah
at night, accompanied by seventy thousand angels, raising their
voices in glorification of Allah‖ As-Suddi said that Murrah said
that `Abdullah said, ―Surat Al-An`am was revealed in the
company of seventy thousand angels.‖ [Tafseer Ibn Kathir]

Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiAllahu ‗anhu) reported that The


Prophet (salAllahu ‗alayhi wasalam) said, ―Surah An‘aam is from
the core of the Qur‘an‖. [Tafsir of al-Qurtubi]

Jabir (radiAllahu ‗anhu) reported that The Prophet (salAllahu


‗alayhi wasalam) said, ‗So many Angels accompanied its
revelation that the horizon was covered with them‘.
55
[Hakim, Dhahabi & Baihaqi]

The Prophet (salAllahu alayhi wasalam) said, 'The Qur'an was


revealed in one fifth part, whoever memorised it in one fifth
parts would not forget it. Except for Surah al An'am, which was
revelaed in it's entirity, seen off by seventy angels from each
heaven until they delivered it to the Prophet. Never has it been
recited over a sick person, without Allah granting him a cure'
[Baihaqi & Khatib]

Lessons and Reflections

1. Refutation of Shirk and guidance towards Tauhid


(Oneness of God). Reality of the life after death and the
Day of Judgment. One should come back to the source
[Lord – Allah (swt)], and not set up authorities against
Him. All spiritual practices should be for Allah (swt), not
earthly entities.

2. The commandments of Allah (swt) are not irrational


taboos; these are the fundamental moral principles of a
society based on belief (Islam – submission to Allah).

3. The self-imposed prohibitions which have been falsely


attributed to Allah (swt) are mentioned and clarified. One
must not set up idols besides Him.

4. Answers to objections raised against the person and the


mission of the Prophet Muhammad (s).

5. Comfort and encouragement is provided to the Prophet


(s) and his followers who were at that time in a state of
anxiety and hopelessness.

6. Allah (swt) is the All-Subtle, the All-Aware. His vision is


surrounded above all comprehension.

56
7. Do not use foul language to insult those are ignorant, one
should have patience to constraint his/her misgivings of
the self.

8. Admonition, warnings and threats are given to the


disbelievers to give up their apathy and haughtiness.

9. Prohibition of dividing the religion into sects. Different


understandings of the same truth given so that he could
test us individually with different capacities.

10. Allah (swt) requires the Believers to declare: "My Salah,


my devotion, my life and my death are all for Allah."

57
7. Surah Al-A‟raf (A Hill Between Hell and Paradise;
The Elevated Places; The Heights)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al-A‟raf In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

Suratul A‗araf takes its name from the ayats 46 and 48. This
Surah is closely connected with the previous Surah, both
chronologically and with regard to the subject. It consists of 24
ruku‘ (section) having 206 ayats.

The Surah expounds the doctrine of revelation and the religious


history of people, right from Prophet Adam (a), and other
messengers, in particular, the struggles of Prophet Musa (a), to
the time of Prophet Muhammad (s), with whom the revelation
was completed. Its final ayah, ayah 206, requires a sajdah, or
prostration.

Period of Revelation

This is a Makki Surah. A study of its contents clearly shows that


the period of its revelation is about the same as that of Al-An'am,
i.e., the last year of the Prophet Muhammad‘s (s) life at Makkah,
but it cannot be asserted with certainty which of these two was
sent down earlier. Anyhow the manner of its admonition clearly
indicates that it belongs to the same period. So, background of
the Surah is similar to that of Surah Al-An‘am.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The Qur‘an is revealed to remind the believers and to


warn humankind about the consequences of their actions.
The judgment will indeed take place.
2. The story of Man's creation and Shaitan's opposition to
Man.
3. Warning to the Children of Adam (a) to be aware of
Shaitan‘s plots.
58
4. Allah's (swt) messengers came to guide people.
5. The end of those who denied the message and those who
accepted the message.
6. Cries of the wicked in the hellfire.
7. The righteous will prosper.
8. Some lessons from the story of Prophet Nuh (a).
9. Some lessons from the story of Prophet Hud (a).
10. Some lessons from the story of Prophets Salih (a) and Lut
(a).
11. Some lessons from the story of Prophet Shu'ayb (a).
12. Warnings against those who deny the Prophets and
Messengers of Allah (swt).
13. Prophet Musa (a) and his encounter with Pharaoh of
Egypt.
14. Pharaoh and his magicians were defeated.
15. Pharaoh continued in his persecution of the Israelites.
16. Some more signs were shown to Pharaoh and his people.
17. The Taurah was given to Prophet Musa (a).
18. Some Israelites started Calf worship.
19. The Taurah and Injeel speak about the coming of Prophet
Muhammad (s). Allah's promise for those who will follow
the last Prophet.
20. Prophet Muhammad (s) is the Universal Prophet. Some
among the people of Prophet Musa (a) were guided by the
truth and lived with justice.
21. Some Israelites transgressed Allah's (swt) laws and they
suffered the consequences.
22. The eternal covenant of Allah (swt) was taken from all
human beings.
23. The coming of the Last Hour.
24. Shirk has no logic. Ignore the wrongdoers, but invite to
Allah (swt) with kindness. Listen to the Qur'an and
always remember Allah (swt).
Subject Matter of the Surah

This Surah is closely connected with the previous Surah both


59
chronologically and in respect of the subject matter. The central
theme of both Surah al-An‘am and al-A‘raf deal with the core
issues of Faith but from different perspectives. Surah al-An‘am
presents the topic of Aqeedah and its realities by primarily
focusing on the Jahiliyyah (ignorance) of the Arabs whilst Surah
al-A‘raf deals with the Jahiliyyah from a wider historical
perspective. The most of the Surah is devoted to the history of
former prophets and their nations.

Muhammad‘s (s) preaching in Makkah was coming to an end and


he was about to migrate to Madinah. Messenger (s) had spent a
long time in admonishing the people of Makkah without much of
a tangible effect on them. The stories of earlier prophets have
been related in order to warn the pagans of Makkah, and for that
purpose the disbelievers of all the times. The former people met
their ill-fated end as they rejected their Messengers.

The story of Adam (a) and Iblis (the Shaitan) has again been
repeated in this Surah to point out that man is weak by nature
and he is easily misguided by the Shaitan who is an eternal and
open enemy of man. Therefore, human needs constant prophetic
guidance to guard against the tactics of Shaitan and to keep them
on the right path.

The warning of Nuh (a) was rejected by his generation, and they
were destroyed in the Flood. Hud (a) was resisted and refused by
his own people 'Ad, but they were swept away by a terrible blast.
Their successors, the Thamud, were puffed up with pride and
injustice, but behold! An earthquake buried them for their sins
after Salih (a) had warned them from Allah (swt).
With a rain of brimstone and fire were overwhelmed the Cities of
the Plain for their unexampled lusts, against which Lut (a) did
warn them.

The people of Madyan were given to mischief and fraud: Shu'ayb


(a) did warn them, but they heeded not, and perished in an
earthquake. It also details a lengthy account of Musa (a).
Consequences of the rebellious behaviour of the disbelieving
peoples with their messengers have been described to warn those
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who were now rejecting the teachings of Allah‘s last messenger,
the Prophet Muhammad (s).

As Allah (swt) was going to command Prophet Muhammad (s) to


migrate from Makkah to Madinah, where the Prophet had to
come in contact with the people of the Book i.e. the Jews - the
history of the hypocritical conduct of Israelites towards the
Prophet-hood has been traced and their disobediences are
discussed. They professed to believe in Musa (a) but opposed his
teachings in practice – disobeyed him, worshipped falsehood; so
they were consequently afflicted with ignominy and disgrace.

The previous Surah ―Al-An‘am‖ contains the new Mithaq


(covenant) between Allah (swt) and the Muslim Ummah. This
Surah archives just how the previous nation, Bani Israel behaved
with this Mithaq and how a person from amongst them [7:175]
detached himself from the Revelation and illustrates the
consequences of such actions.

Mankind‘s testimony about Allah (swt) before their birth has


been described (in ayats 172 & 173) to establish that belief in the
Oneness of Allah (swt) is but natural and inborn in man. The
believers have been advised to eat pure and good food and to
wear decent and proper dress.

Some instructions are given to Muhammad (s) and his followers


at the end of the Surah. It has been announced that Muhammad
(s) is Allah‘s messenger for the whole of mankind with a
universal mission. His advent was foretold in the Taurah and
Injil and so the people of the Book are obliged to accept his
message.
Muslims should preach the message of Islam with wisdom and
also to exercise restraint against all provocations. They are
admonished to be patient and declare His glory, and rejoice in
His service.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats 1 to 10: These ayats contain passages of warning to the


61
people; if they reject the invitation to the Message send down to
Muhammad (s) there would surely be consequences to follow.

Ayats 11 to 25: Here the story of Adam (a) is mentioned. Like the
case of Adam (a) and Hawa (a) [Adam and Eve], Shaitan is ready
to mislead us too. The opposition of Evil to Good is illustrated by
the story of Iblis with our father and mother of all. The story
teaches men of their spiritual past. Iblis fell from jealousy and
arrogance, and Adam (a) fell because he listened to his deceit.

Ayats 26 to 53: These passages have the Divine instructions with


graphic illustrations contrasting with Shaitan‘s crafty
instructions, and both their consequences. Allah (swt) has
forbidden the things that are evil, not those that are good, for
these were created for man's enjoyment. The transgressors are
those who reject His Signs.

Ayats 54 to 58: These ayats explain by illustrating the reasons


why Allah (swt) should be worshipped alone. The Message has
been sent down by Allah (Who is the Creator of the heavens and
the earth and everything in them). Al-Qur‘an is like the rain
which gives life to the dead earth.

Ayats 59 to 171: This section has life events of some Prophets –


Nuh (a), Hud (a), Salih (a), Lut (a), Shu'ayb (a) and Musa (a).
The events of the prophets depict the consequences that followed
– those who had rejected the Message of Allah (swt).

Ayah 172: It mentions the Covenant of Israelites that Allah (swt)


made with them in the time of Musa (a). The people of Musa (a)
frequently failed to follow Allah‘s (swt) Law as promulgated to
them, and transgressed His Covenant. So, they were scattered
through the earth in sections as a punishment.

Ayats 173 to 174: It contains the mention of the Covenant that


Allah (swt) took with Adam (a) and along with his loins which
explains Muhammad‘s (s) Message is the same and true. The
children of Adam (a) have multiplied, but many of them have
rejected truth and go by degrees to destruction in ways that they
62
do not realize.

Ayats 175 to 179: These ayats give an example of a person who


had the knowledge of the Message but discarded it as false. In
these ayats the message has the meaning of, ―Hell is the abode of
rejecting the truth.‖

Ayats 180 to 198: Here admonition, reprobation and warning


have been made to those who would deviate from the Message,
they would be held accountable for not using their faculty of
knowledge properly. So, there would be serious consequences for
showing antagonistic attitude towards the Message send down to
Muhammad (s).

Ayats 199 to 206: Prophet Muhammad (s) and his followers are
instructed here on how they should adopt attitude against those
who reject the Message and deviate from it.

Virtue of the Surah

THE PEOPLE OF AL-A‟RAF - Author: Mehmet Paksu


Who are the companions of Araf, which is mentioned
in the Surah Al-Araf?

Let us first give the interpretations of the ayats about Araf and
people entitled to Araf, which reads in the Surah Al-Araf before
explaining Araf itself. There are some ayats about Araf in the
Holy Book Qur‘an after the ayats, which are made
mention of the conversations between the companions of Hell
and the companions of Paradise.

[And when their eyes are turned towards the companions of Hell,
they say (in dread of that state): "Our Lord! Do not include us
among the people of the wrongdoing!"
The people of the Heights call out to some men (who were the
leaders of unbelief in the world, and) whom they recognize by
their marks (on their countenances), saying: "(Now you see that)
neither your numbers and the wealth you amassed nor your
growing arrogance and vanity have availed you!"
63
(Pointing to the companions of Paradise, they continue): "Are
those not the ones of whom you swore that God would not favor
them with mercy?" (For now it is they who have been told)
"Enter Paradise; you will have no fear, nor will you grieve."] (Al-
Araf Surah, 7:47-49)

Araf is the plural form of the word Arf. There are so many
explanations about Araf in the interpretations. However, the
common conception mostly accepted by the annotators is Arafs
being a curtain, a high wall, and a hill between Hell and Paradise.
According to Ibni Abbas, it is a balcony (surrounding minaret)
up on the Sirat Bridge (bridge, which is thin, straight, and sharp
will be laid across Hell with Gods command).
Hazrath Hasan Basri says;
These are the people who were assigned by the command of
Allah (swt) to allocate the companions of Hell and the
companions of Paradise. I swear it is true; they might be among
us today.

The reason why the people in the Araf are called as Araf is their
recognizing humans for their actions. And again as it is explained
in the interpretations, when Allah (swt) balances good and evil
deeds in the scale (Mizan) and distinguishes companions of
paradise from companions of Hell, He will make those wait for
quite some time whose good and evil deeds are equal. Those who
are going to be next to the Sirat Bridge will know the
companions of Hell and the companions of Paradise. When they
will see the companions of Paradise, they will say, Allah‘s peace
and blessings be upon you. When they‘ll turn to the left side
they‘ll see the companions of Hell and by seeking refuge in Allah
(swt) - will supplicate as, O Allah do not let us be among those
atrocious. After done with companions of Hell and companions
of Paradise, Allah (swt) will forgive them with His Mercy and will
put them into the Paradise. (3)

As a matter of fact when Prophet Muhammad (s) once asked as


who are the companions of Araf?:
The Prophet said, ―When the people of Paradise will enter
Paradise and the people of Hell will go to Hell, rest will be told
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as, you are saved from Hell for your good deeds but did not
deserve Paradise. But you are saved from Hell by Allah‘s (swt)
mercy, you may enter Paradise.‖

Besides, there are some accounts, which reports that the


companions of Araf are not humans but they are angels. All these
explanations are in conformity with the conception and the
interpretation of the ayats.

However, Ibrahim Hakki in his work Marifetname claims that


insane and children of unbelievers who are not held responsible
of religious duties are entitled to Araf. When they see people of
Paradise just because they cannot reach those blessings, they are
in sadness, but when they see people of Hell, they are thankful to
the Allah (swt) for where they are and they stay there forever.
Nevertheless, every explanation about Araf and People of Araf is
only at the level of interpretation of the ayah. Only Allah (swt)
knows the truth.

Sources:
 Surah Al-A`raf , 47-49.
2. et-Tefsirul-Kebir, 14:87.
3- (Taberi Tefsiri) 8:136-139.
4. A. g. e.
Balaam in the Qur‟an: The Story of Bul`am bin Ba`ura

Regarding the Islamic view of Balaam, there is no clear


reference to Balaam in the Qur'an. However, the commentators
argue that he is the one that the following text is referring to:

Relate to them the story of the man to whom We sent Our signs,
but he passed them by: so Satan followed him up, and he went
astray.

If it had been Our will, We should have elevated him with Our
signs; but he inclined to the earth, and followed his own vain
desires. His similitude is that of a dog: if you attack him, he lolls
out his tongue, or if you leave him alone, he (still) lolls out his
65
tongue. That is the similitude of those who reject Our signs; So
relate the story; perchance they may reflect.
— Qur'an, Surah 7 (Al-A'raf), ayat 175–176

The Muslim commentators explain that Balaam was a Canaanite


who had been given knowledge of some of the books of God. His
people asked him to curse Moses (Musa) and those who were
with him, but he said, "How can I curse one who has angels with
him?" They continued to press him, however, until he cursed the
Israelites, and, as a consequence, they remained forty years in
the Wilderness of the Wanderings. Then, when he had cursed
Moses, his tongue came out and fell upon his breast, and he
began to pant like a dog.

The story as told by Tabari is somewhat more Biblical. Balaam


had the knowledge of the Most Sacred Name of God, and
whatever he asked of God was granted to him. The story of
Balaam and the ass, then follows at length.

When it came to the actual cursing, God "turned his tongue" so


that the cursing fell upon his own people and the blessing upon
Israel. Then his tongue came out and hung down on his breast.
Finally, he advised his people to adorn and beautify their women
and to send them out to ensnare the Israelites.
The story of the plague at Baal-peor and of Cozbi and Zimri
follows.

According to another story which al-Tabari gives, Balaam was a


renegade Israelite who knew the Most Sacred Name and, to gain
the things of this world, went over to the Canaanites. Al-Tha'labi
adds that Balaam was descended from Lot. He gives, too, the
story of Balaam's dream, his being forbidden by God to curse
Israel. Another version is that Balak, the king of Bal'a, compelled
Balaam to use the Most Sacred Name against Israel. The curse
fell automatically, and Moses, having learned whence it came,
entreated God to take from Balaam his knowledge of the Name
and his faith. This being done, they went out from him in the
form of a white dove. [Tafsir Ibn Kathir]

66
Shaykh Fawzaan about him: This man was a scholar from the
children of Israel. “Him to whom We gave Our Ayat”. He
was a scholar from the children of Israel. And he was a person
whose supplication was answered, because he knew the greatest
Name. He knew Allah‘s greatest Name, which if called upon with
this name He will answer the supplication.

He was a worshipper and he was a scholar, and he was a person


whose supplication was answered. His name was Bul`am;
Bul`aam ibn Baa‘ooraa‘.

Thus Musa—peace be upon him—and the children of Israel


fought the military campaign during the battle for Baytul Maqdis
to conquer it and take it from the hands of the pagans, the likes
of the Canaanites and the Amalekites.

So the enemies who Musa were fighting against came to


Bul`aam, this scholar. They were afraid of the Muslims, they
were afraid of Musa peace be upon him. They came to Bul`aam
requesting that he supplicate to Allah against Musa and against
the Muslims. They requested this from him because his
supplication was accepted. At first he rejected their request. He
refused and rejected them. Then they
convinced him, perhaps giving him some wealth. At this point he
supplicated against Musa. Thus Allah the Exalted disgraced him
and removed the blessing from him.

It is a very long journey, but the Surah takes us along, stage by


stage, making a stop at every landmark to indicate that the road
is clearly marked-out with well-known starting and finishing
lines. All mankind travels along, aiming to return to the point
where it started, in heaven, with the Supreme society. [REF:
Qutb, Fi Dhilal al-Qur‟an]

There are 15 sajdas in Qur‟an, as comes in this Hadith:

Narrated Amr ibn al-'As: The Prophet () taught me fifteen


prostrations while reciting the Qur'an, including three in al-
Mufassal and two in Surah al-Hajj. Abu Dawud said: Abu al-
67
Darda' has reported eleven prostrations from the Prophet (s), but
chain of this tradition is weak. [Sunan Abi Dawud Book 7,
Hadith 1]

They are in the following Ayat(in order):


1. Al-'A`rāf (7):206

2. Ar-Ra`d (13):15

3. An-Naĥl (16):49, but the sajda should be performed after


reading the ayah #50 (when the sujood meaning is
complete).

4. Al-'Isrā' (17):107, but the sajda should be performed after


reading the ayah #109 (when the sujood meaning is
complete).

5. Maryam (19):58

6. Al-Ĥaj (22):18

7. Al-Ĥaj (22):77

8. Al-Furqān (25):60

9. An-Naml (27):25, but the sajda should be performed after


reading the ayah #26 (when the sujood meaning is
complete).

10. As-Sajdah (32):15

11. Şād (38):24

12. Fuşşilat (41):37, but the sajda should be performed after


reading the ayah #38 (when the sujood meaning is
complete).

13. An-Najm (53):62

68
14. Al-'Inshiqāq (84):21

15. Al-`Alaq (96):19

Also note that performing the sajdah is not obligatory but is


a stressed (confirmed) sunnah (‫ ) س ٕة ِؤو دة‬that is highly
recommended to follow. Here is a hadith:
Narrated Rabi'a: 'Umar bin Al-Khattab recited Surat-an-Nahl on
a Friday on the pulpit and when he reached the verse of Sajda he
got down from the pulpit and prostrated and the people also
prostrated. The next Friday 'Umar bin Al-Khattab recited the
same Sura and when he reached the verse of Sajda he said, "O
people! When we recite the verses of Sajda (during the sermon)
whoever prostrates does the right thing, yet it is no sin for the
one who does not prostrate." And 'Umar did not prostrate (that
day). Added Ibn `Umar "Allah has not made the prostration of
recitation compulsory but if we wish we can do it." [Sahih al-
Bukhari Book 17, Hadith 11]

Also here is a hadith about how good performing sajdah is:


It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that when, the son
of Adam recites the Ayat of Sajdah (prostration) and then falls
down in prostration, the Satan goes into seclusion and
weeps and says: Alas, and in the narration of Abu Kuraib the
words are: Woe unto me, the son of Adam was commanded to
prostrate, and he prostrated and Paradise was entitled to him
and I was commanded to prostrate, but I refused and am
doomed to Hell. [Sahih Muslim Book 1, Hadith 151]

Courtesy:
https://islam.stackexchange.com/questions/2267/how-
many-sajdas-are-in-quran

Lessons and Reflection

1. An invitation is given to the People of the Book (Jews and


Christians) to become Muslims.

2. This is the first Surah to mention Nuh (a), Hud (a), Salih

69
(a), Lut (a), Shu'ayb (a) – each outlining a segment of the
society that these messengers went to reform. A warning
is given to the unbelievers about the consequences of their
denial through citing the example of punishments which
were inflicted upon former people for their wrong attitude
towards their Prophets.

3. It is the first Surah to have a lengthy discourse on Musa


(a) and his people The Jews are warned about the
consequences of their hypocritical conduct towards the
Prophets. They have conceived a wrong belief about
Allah's (swt) forgiveness.

4. Muslims are commandment to propagate the message of


Islam with wisdom. Believers should wear decent and
proper dress and eat pure and good food.

5. The Prophets as well as the people to whom they are sent


will be questioned on the Day of Judgment.

6. The Surah repeatedly warns the reader not to take Shaitan


as an ally. Affluence and adversity are the reminders from
Allah (swt).
7. Dialogue between the residents of paradise, the inmates of
hell and the people of A'raf (a place between the Paradise
and hell).

8. The fact that affluence and adversity are the reminders


from Almighty Allah.

9. The fact that Muhammad (s) is the Rasool for the all of
mankind.

10. The fact that the advent of Muhammad (s) was described
in At-Taurat ( Torah) and the Injil (Gospel /Bible).

11. Mankind's testimony about Allah (swt) at the time of


Adam's (a) creation. He created all of mankind from a
70
single soul. Allah (swt) made human beings vicegerents on
this earth – we pay back, being ungrateful, by initiating
oppressive systems.

12. Almighty Lord's commandment to show forgiveness,


speak for justice and avoid the ignorant.

13. Allah's (swt) commandment about listening to the


recitation of The Qur'an with complete silence.

71
8. Surah Al-Anfal (The Spoils of War)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al-Anfal In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of the Surah comes from the first ayah, ―Al-Anfal‖
which also means the bounties along the meaning, ―The Spoils of
War‖. The subject of the Surah is Jihad and Peace. It describes
the general principles of war and peace reviewing the Battle of
Badr. It forms a pair with the next Surah, At-Tawbah. This
Surah is number 88 according to the order of revelation.

The previous seven Surahs, comprise a little less than one-third


of the Noble Qur‘an, and include the period of the early religious
history of man, up to the new ‗ummah‘ of the Prophet
Muhammad (s). This Surah has 75 ayats in 10 Ruku‘ (Section).

Period of Revelation

Its revelation occurred after the revelation of Surah Al-Baqarah.


This Surah has been revealed in Madinah. It is a review of Battle
of Badr that Muslims participated on the month of Ramadan in 2
AH. The war was between Quraysh and Muslim (Muhajirs and
Ansars), which was a test for newly formed Al-Madinah.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Commandment relating to the spoils of war. Battle of


Badr.
2. Allah's help for the Believers in the Battle of Badr.
3. Believers must always obey Almighty Allah and His
Messenger.
4. Only the righteous should be the guardians of the Masjid
al-Haram.
5. The purpose of war and the rules about the distribution of
the spoils of war.

72
6. Be firm and united in the combat against the enemy.
7. Victory of the Believers against the unbelievers. Allah
(swt) does not change His blessings unless people change
themselves.
8. Be prepared always to defend yourself and your people.
Make peace if the enemy is inclined towards peace.
9. Almighty Allah's promise to help the Believers.
10. Treatment of the prisoners of war and obligations towards
Muslims living among non-Muslims.

Subject Matter of the Surah

There are several subjects referred to in this Surah, such as:


Treasury of the Muslims, things taken as spoils of war, the Battle
of Badr, the ordinances of Holy Struggle, the night when the
Prophet Muhammad (s) was decided to be stabbed in his bed and
Ali (ra) laid in the couch of him (Laylat-ul-Mabit), and the
qualities of the true believers.

Here we begin another stage, whereby the ‗ummah‘ is


consolidated and directed. We have many lessons to be learnt
from the Battle of Badr, which are as follows:
1. The moral weakness that had come to the surface
in that expedition which has been pointed out so
that Muslims should learn do their best to reform
themselves.
2. The true virtues necessary for fighting the right
way.
3. It has been impressed upon Muslims that the
victory was due to the help of Allah, rather than
their own valour, so that Muslims would learn to
rely on Allah (swt) alone and obey Allah and His
Messenger.
4. Instructions are given regarding the war booty. It is
mentioned that they should gratefully accept with
gratitude their share, and willingly accede the
share, which Allah (swt) sets apart for His cause,
and for the help of the needy.
5. Instructions regarding the laws of peace and war.
73
6. Directions on the treatment of prisoners of war,
and maintaining the solidarity of the Muslim
community.

Muslims are given instructions concerning laws of peace and


war. They were told to refrain themselves from ignorance and
establish moral superiority in the world practically. Besides
stating the affairs of the Battle of Badr, some specialties of the
virtuous soldiers against the enemies of Truth are stated in this
Surah. So the success that yields out from the conflict between
Truth and Falsehood is peace of Almighty Allah.

Some Historical Facts Related to Battle of Badr

The Army of Muslims, Prophet Muhammad‘s (s) army was only


313 in number. Against Muslims Abu Jahl‘s army was stood
which three times as bigger, almost 1000 soldiers to fight with
the Muslims. After arriving in Madinah, the Prophet (s)
concluded a treaty of mutual co-operation and good
neighbourliness with them. Not only did the Prophet (s) take the
initiative in this connection, he also tried his best to maintain
pleasant relations with them.

The Prophet (s) also felt greater affinity with the Jews than with
the polytheists of Makkah. As a rule he always showed preference
to the customs and practices of the People of the Book over those
of the polytheists. But somehow the Jewish rabbis and scholars
were irked by the Prophet's preaching of pure monotheism and
moral uprightness, let alone his scathing criticism of the
deviations which appeared in Jewish belief and conduct. They
were constantly engaged, therefore, in efforts to sabotage the
new religious movement. In this respect, they left no stone
unturned. They collaborated with the hypocrites who were
apparently an integral part of the Muslim body-politic.

To serve the same end they fanned flames to rejuvenate the old
animosities between the Aws and Khazraj which had brought
about bloodshed and fratricide in pre-Islamic times. They
attempted to hatch conspiracies against Islam in collaboration
74
with the Quraysh and other tribes. What was all the more
deplorable was that they indulged in these nefarious activities
despite their treaty of friendship and co-operation with the
Prophet (s).

When the Battle of Badr took place, they took it for granted that
the Muslims would not be able to survive the very first attack of
the Quraysh. However, when the outcome of the battle dashed
their hopes, they became all the more spiteful. Apprehending
that the victory in the Battle of Badr would help the Muslims
consolidate their position, they carried out their hostile activities
against Islam even more vigorously. Ka'b b. Ashraf, a Jewish
chief, went to Makkah personally and recited stirring elegies for
their dead warriors with a view to provoking the Quraysh into
hostile action against the Muslims. It was the same Ka'b b.
Ashraf who considered the Muslim victory in the Battle of Badr
such a catastrophe that he regarded death to be better than life.
In his own words: 'The belly of the earth has become preferable
to us than its back.' (Ibn Hisham, vol. 2. p. 51 - Ed.)

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1-41): These ayats explains about problems and topics


related to ‗Spoils of War‘. These are ―Bounties of Allah‘ that come
as a result of victory at Badr. In recounting the events of the
Battle of Badr, the Qur'an aims to explain the significance of the
word al-anfal (spoils of war). In the opening ayah of the Surah
the Muslims were told that they should not deem the spoils to be
a reward for their toil. Rather, the spoils should
constitute a special reward granted to the Muslims by Lord
Almighty, to Whom the spoils rightfully belong. Moreover, the
spoils, being the bounties of God, belong to Allah (swt) and His
Messenger (s) and they alone are entitled to allocate them - a
fifth of whatever spoils of war you have acquired belongs only to
God, His Prophet, the near relatives [of the Prophet], the
orphans, the needy and the wayfarer.

Ayats (42-54): The ayats describes Battle of Badr as a triumph of


Islam over ―ignorance‖. Muslims should always rely on Allah
75
(swt) to prepare and to win war.

Ayats (55 -59): contains admonition of observing sanctioned


treaties which Muslims were told not to break.
Ayats (60-66): Muslims are told to be aware of war and be
prepared for it on every front, they were also told to be ready to
make peace when the other party wants one.

Ayats (67-71): These ayats contains instructions related to


prisoner of war.

Ayats (72-75): In order to keep the Muslims joined together


against their enemies, they have been taught to have cordial
relations with one another.

Virtue of the Surah

Al-Bukhari recorded that Ibn Abbas said, ―Al-Anfal are the spoils
of war.‖ Al-Bukhari also recorded that Said bin Jubayr said, ―I
said to Ibn Abbas, Surat Al-Anfal‘ He said, ‗It was revealed
concerning (the battle of) Badr.‖‘ (Fath Al-Bari 8:156)
Ali bin Abi Talhah reported, as Al-Bukhari recorded from Ibn
Abbas without a chain of narration, that Ibn Abbas said, ―Al-
Anfal are the spoils of war; they were for the Messenger of Allah,
and none had a share in them.‖ (At-Tabari 13:378)

Similar was said by Mujahid, Ikrimah, Ata‘, Ad-Dahhak,


Qatadah, Ata‘ Al-Khurasani, Muqatil bin Hayyan, Abdur-
Rahman bin Zayd bin Aslam and several others. (At-Tabari
13:361-362)

Lessons and Reflection

1. All success comes from Almighty Allah


2. He only gives success to those who obey Him and follow
his guidelines
3. The pivotal for success is the unity and cooperation with

76
each other. The true virtues necessary for fighting the
rightway is the Sabr/Patience and Dhikr to build strength
and stillness in the heart.
4. It has been impressed upon Muslims that the victory was
due to the help of Allah (swt), rather than their own
valour, so that Muslims would learn to rely on Almighty
Allah alone and obey Allah (swt) and His Messenger.
Muhajirs and Ansars loved each other for the sake of
Almighty Allah.
5. Instructions regarding the laws of peace and war.
Instructions are given regarding the war booty. It is
mentioned that they should gratefully accept with
gratitude their share, and willingly accede the share,
which Allah (swt) sets apart for His cause, and for the help
of the needy.
6. Attention was made to detail to prepare for battle and
adversity – this Surah has directions on the treatment of
prisoners of war, and maintaining the solidarity of the
Muslim community.
7. One should love and obey Allah (swt) and His Rasool (s)
and thus prevent discord based on Self or Ego based
dissatisfaction. Muslims should learn to their best to
reform themselves to resurface their weakness in
immorality that can arise in a battle.
8. One should purify from greed for the booty of this world
in war and peace and strive in peace and war only to
please Allah in words, actions and thoughts. One can
achieve it by releasing oneself from the love of dunya and
material goods.

77
9. Surah At Taubah (The Repentance)
Concise Tafseer of Surah At-Taubah In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This is a Madani Surah. It is the only Surah in the Noble Qur‘an


not to begin with BISMILLAH. To add to the context, the only Surah
in the Qur‘an to mention Bismillah twice is Surah Al-Naml, in
which the blessed words are mentioned at the beginning of the
Surah as well as in ayah 30, when Prophet Sulaiman (a)
addresses a letter to the Queen of Sheba: ―It is from Sulaiman,
and it begins in the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.‖
It is called At-Taubah because it enunciates the nature of taubah
(repentance) and mentions the conditions of its acceptance in the
ayats 102 to 118. The second name Bara'at (Release;
Dissociation) is taken from the first word of the Surah. The Surah
has 129 ayats which are divided into 16 Ruku‘ (Section).

Period of Revelation

It was revealed when there was the time of the Battle of Tabuk. It
was not revealed completely at once; it was revealed in different
parts. Some of its parts were revealed at the start of the war;
some during the war and some parts at the end of this war.
According to Sahih Muslim, Surah Taubah is the last Surah,
which was revealed from Allah (swt).

Historical Background of the Surah

The context of the Surah has the series of evens pertaining to the
conditions which took place after the Peace Treaty of
Hudaibiyah. By that time, one-third of Arabia had come under
the control of Islam.

Well organized Muslim State has the affordable Treaty which


provides opportunities to spread Islam under a comparatively
78
peaceful atmosphere. Two events took place after this Treaty:-
Conquest of Arabia: In the month of Ramadhan 8 AH a sudden
invasion of Makkah led to this conquest. The conquest of Hunain
paves the way to make Arabia ad-Darul-Islam (the Abode of
Islam).

Campaign of Tabuk: The provocative activities of the Christians


living within or near the boundaries of the Roman Empire to the
north of Arabia necessitated the campaign. The campaign of
Tabuk made Islam a formidable power.

Accordingly, Prophet Muhammad (s) marched boldly towards


the Roman Empire with an army of thirty thousand but the
Romans evaded the encounter. Some Christian Chiefs like
Ukaidir bin Abdul Malik Kindi of Dumatul Jaiidai, Yuhanna bin
D'obah of Allah, and the chiefs of Maqna, Jarba' and Azruh also
submitted and agreed to pay Jizyah to the State of Al-Madinah.
As a result the boundaries of the Muslim State of Islam were
extended right up to the Roman Empire. The majority of the
Arab clans, who were being used by the Caesar against Arabia,
became the allies of the Muslims against the Romans.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Proclamation to dissolve the "Treaty of Hudaibiyah."


2. Commandment of Lord Almighty to honour the treaty so
long as the unbelievers honour it. If the unbelievers
violate the treaty, then fight against their ringleaders.
Muslims should trust Allah (swt), not just their numbers.
3. Mushrikeen are forbidden to be the caretakers of Masajid.
Service to pilgrims is not equal to true belief in Allah
(swt), the Last Day, and Jihad. Do not take your fathers
and brothers as your friends if they prefer Kufr (unbelief)
over Imaan (belief).
4. Almighty Allah's help is with the quality and not the
quantity of the believers. Prohibition of Mushrikeen from

79
entering Masjid-al-Haram.
5. The mushrikeen are the Jews and Christians who call Ezra
and Jesus the sons of God Almighty. Do not be like Rabbis
and Priests who misappropriate the wealth of people. The
number of months in the book of Allah is 12, of which 4
are sacred (according to the authentic traditions are the
months of Dhu'l-Qa'dah, Dhu‘l Hijjah, Muharram and
Rajab).
6. Allah's (swt) order to bear arms against the unbelievers, if
necessary.
7. Those who do not participate in Jihad are hypocrites.
Excuses of the hypocrites for not bearing arms against the
Unbelievers.
8. Categories for the distribution of Zakah. The order of
Allah (swt) not to molest the Prophet (s). End of those
who oppose Almighty Allah and the Prophet (s).
Punishment for those who make fun of the religion.
9. Hypocritical actions and their punishment. Believers'
actions and their rewards.
10. Allah's order to make Jihad against hypocrites and
unbelievers. Behavior of the hypocrites.
11. The hypocrites did not join the war against the
unbelievers. Prohibition of offering Funeral prayer for the
hypocrites.
12. Genuine exemptions from the battlefront. Those who
make excuses to avoid serving in armed struggle for the
cause of Almighty Allah when needed, are hypocrites.
13. Categories of hypocrisies. Commandment for the
collection of Zakah. The hypocrites built a Masjid, called
"Masjid-e-Zirar," for mischievous motives.

80
14. Allah (swt) has purchased the persons and wealth of the
Believers in lieu of granting them the Paradise. Do not
seek forgiveness for the Mushrikeen. Allah (swt) forgave
those three who lagged behind but were sincere.
15. Believers are those who prefer the life of the Rasool over
their own. Requirement of obtaining understanding of
religion.
16. Fight the disbelievers and be aware that Almighty Allah is
with pious.
Subject Matter of the Surah

The central theme of both the Surah - Al-‗Anfal and At-Tawbah


are about Jihad in the way of Lord Almighty. Surah Al-‗Anfal
revolves around the first battle of the Prophet (s) - Battle of Badr
- which began the local campaign. Surah At-Tawbah revolves
around the last battle of the Prophet (s) - Battle of Tabuk, which
began the global campaign. This Surah has three discourses:-

1st discourse (ayats 1-37): It was revealed in Dhu'l-Qa'dah 9 AH


or thereabout. Rasul Muhammad (s) dispatched Ali (ra) to follow
Abu Bakr (ra) who had already left for Makkah as leader of the
Pilgrims to the Ka'abah. Ali (ra) was sent to deliver the discourse
before the representatives of the different clans of Arabia so as to
inform them of the new policy towards the mushreeks.

2nd discourse (ayats 38-72): These ayats were revealed in Rajab 9


AH or a little before this, when Prophet Muhammad
(s) was preparing for the Campaign of Tabuk. The discourse was
an admonition for the believers. The shirkers were severely
rebuked for holding back their wealth and for hesitation to
sacrifice their lives in the way of Allah (swt).

3rd discourse (ayats 73-129): These were sent on the return from
the campaign of Tabuk. The discourse warns the hypocrites of
their evil deeds and rebukes those believers who stayed behind in
the campaign of Tabuk. Then after observing the believers
through trial, Allah (swt) pardoned them who had not taken part
81
in the Jihad out of His mercy which yielded from their
repentance.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1-12): These ayats deal with the rules and regulations of a
sanctioned treaty or treaties in case one party disagree to observe
them sincerely.

Ayats (13-37): Here Muslim has been urged to fight in the way of
Almighty Allah against Arab Mushreeks, the Jews and the
Christians who refused to follow the ordained rule of Allah (swt).
As they both hold their principle nabi as son of Allah (swt).

Ayats (38-72): The discourse of it clearly depicts the promise of


Allah (swt) to Muslims that they would certainly get reward if
they actively take part in the conflicts of kufr. Muslims are
warned about hypocrisy of hearts. Without minding their
whimsical feelings they are in obligation to battle dangers,
obstacles, temptations and the like, and to take part in Jihad.

Ayats (73-90): These ayats deal with problems of hypocrites.


These ayats have the detail discussion regarding them. These
ayats set the rules and regulations that should be meted out to
them and points out their distinctive marks from true Muslims.

Ayats (91-110): This segment discusses about those people who


remained behind and did not accompany the Prophet
Muhammad (s) for expedition (Jihad) to Tabuk. The believers
who realized their guilt and punished themselves before the
return of the Prophet (s) from Tabuk and those who confessed
their error - their cases have been dealt with in accordance with
the nature and extent of their offense. The disabled, the sick, the
indigent, the hypocrites they have been separated in different
categories.

Ayats (111-118): Allah (swt) mentions about the characteristics of


the believers in a more conspicuous and dignified qualities in a
noble look. They have been reassured by the Sovereign of the
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Samawat – Allah (swt) is their helper and guardian. Lord
Almighty has forgiven the three believers who did not take part
in the expedition due to their sincerity of believe.

Ayats (119-127): These ayats include the concluding segment of


the Surah where believers have code of instructions on how to
follow guidance.

Ayats (128-129): These are the concluding remarks of the Surah


where believers are told to follow the last prophet Muhammad
(s) and to put total trust to the Lord Almighty Allah.

Virtue of the Surah

―This Surah was revealed to cancel the peace treaty. In it appear


the command of killing the mushrikeen (polytheists) and the
expression of Allah Ta`ala‘s anger over them. Therefore,
Bismillah was not written at the beginning of the Surah since
Bismillah signifies peace and mercy‖. [Bukhri Shareef
(Vol2,pg 271)]

When Hadrat Uthman radi allahu ‗anhu was asked why there
was no bismillah at the beginning of Surah al-Tawba like how
there is bismillah at the beginning of other Surahs, he replied
that there was some doubt as to this Surah being a separate
Surah, because Nabi sallallahu ‗alaihi wa sallam passed away
without explicitly mentioning anything regarding it. This is why
Bismillah was not written at the beginning of Surah Taubah.
However, since its subject-matter is similar to that of Surah Al-
Anfal, it was placed after it and a space for Bismillah has been
kept because it is possible that this is a separate Surah.
[Tirmizi, Vol 2, Pg.139]

It appears in Shaatbi: Bismillah does not appear at the beginning


of this Surah, because it was revealed in connection to war. This

is not the actual reason though it is a point to consider. The


actual reason is that which is narrated from Hadrat Uthman radi
allahu ‗anhu. [Bayanul Qur‟an, Vol 4, Pg 95]
83
The Holy Qur‘an was revealed bit by bit during the period of
twenty three years. The ayats of a Surah were revealed at
different times. When Saaiduna Jibraeel Alayhis Salam would
come with a revelation, he would also point out to the intended
arrangement of each revealed ayah explaining that it should be
placed in such and such Surah after such and such ayah. And
when at the end of one Surah the next was to begin, Bismillahir-
Rahmanir-Rahim would be revealed before the next actually did.

However, with Surah Tawbah, Bismillah was not revealed nor


did the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi Wasalam instruct the
scribe of the revelation to so.

When Saaiduna Usman Radiallahu Anhu arranged the Holy


Qur‘an in the form of a book during the period of his Khilafah,
Bismillah was not there at the beginning of Surah At-Tawbah.
Therefore a doubt arose that perhaps this is not an independent
Surah but was part of another Surah, in which case what would
this other Surah be? In terms of its subjects, Surah Al-Anfal
seemed to fit the slot.

Also it is narrated by Saaiduna Usman Radiallahu Anhu that


during the blessed period of the Prophet of Allah Sallallahu Alahi
Wasalam, both these Surah‘s were called ―Qarinatayn‖ (the
connected ones).

From the above we learn that the reason for not writing
‗Bismillah‘ at the beginning of Surah At-Tawbah lies in the
probability that Surah At-Tawbah may not be an independent
Surah but being part of Surah Al-Anfal. On this basis Muslim
jurists have said that a person who was already been reciting
Surah Al-Anfal from above and is going to begin Surah At-
Tawbah then he or she should not recite Bismillah. But a person,
who is starting his or her recitation of the Holy Qur‘an or from
somewhere in the middle of Surah Tawbah should say
‗Bismillahir-Rahmanir-Rahim‖. [Ma'ariful Qur'an p.300-
p.302 v.4]

84
Uzair (Ezra) lived during the period around 450 B.C. The Jews
regarded him with great reverence as the revivalist of their
Scriptures which had been lost during their captivity in Babylon
after the death of Prophet Sulaiman a (Solomon). After they had
lost all the knowledge of their law and their traditions and of
Hebrew which is their national language, Ezra re-wrote the Old
Testament and revived the law. That is why they used very
exaggerated language in his reverence which misled some of the
Jewish sects to make him ‗the son of God‘. The Qur‘an, however,
does not assert that all the Jews were unanimous in declaring
Ezra as the son of God. What it intends to say is that the
perversion in the articles of faith of the Jews concerning Allah
had degenerated to such an extent that there were some amongst
them who considered Ezra as the son of God. [TafHimul
Qur‟an]

Lessons and Reflections

1. Surah At-Taubah has a great virtue; it is related to


forgiveness of Allah (swt) as well as his blessings. It has its
individuality because we don‘t recite Bismillah at its start.

2. It gives the message of jihad. It cancels the peace treaty


with enemies of Islam. It tells us about the importance of
Taubah.

3. It reminds us about the blessings of Allah Almighty that


how Allah‘s love is more than the love of seventy mothers.
Allah (swt) always opens the door of mercy for us.

4. Our Taubah not only removes our sins, it also pleases


Allah Almighty. We should never be hopeless from his
mercy.

5. Our deeds should be solely for the sake of Allah Almighty


alone.

6. Allah Almighty is well aware of our purpose during our


85
activities. He knows whether we intended Him or
intended other than Him.

7. Allah Almighty is the Collective Observer and Witness


over everything that we do. He is well aware of our actions
before any surveillance registers our very movements.

8. We as human beings should not remain in apathy because


of the lack of belief in us from those around us.

9. We as human beings should act and continue doing that


which is right, even when the odds are stacked up against
us.

86
10. Surah Yunus (Jonah)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Yunus (Jonah) In
Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The Surah derives its name from a reference to the Prophet


Yunus (a). And its name of the Surah appears in the ayah 98. The
Surah has 109 ayats in 11 Ruku‘ (Section).
The Surah mainly points out to the various signs for the people
that could lead them to the truth. It also contains stories of the
Prophets Nuh (a) and Musa (a).

Period of Revelation

This is a Makki Surah, the subject matter of it indicates that it


was revealed during the last stage of Prophet Muhammad‗s (s)
life at Makkah. There are some opinions that some of the ayats
are of Al-Madanah. But the nature of the theme of the Surah
suggests that it was revealed at one sitting and it belongs to
Makki period. This Surah is number 51 according to the order of
revelation. So, this Surah was revealed perhaps a few years
before the Hijrah in Makkah.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The Qur'an is the Book of wisdom; it contains signs from


the All Wise.
2. Man's ingratitude to Allah (swt) and His revelation.
3. Allah's (swt) mercy to His creation. Allah (swt) invites to
the abode of peace.
4. Almighty Allah's gifts. The Qur'an is from Lord Almighty.
Bring a Surah like the Qur'an if you can.

87
5. Those who disbelieve in the Qur'an shall be the losers.
Every people were sent a Messenger.
6. The Qur'an is a mercy, blessing and a cure for the
problems of humankind.
7. Whatever you do Lord Almighty is a Witness. The
mistakes of the Mushrikin.
8. Story of the Prophet Nuh (a) and his people. Rasools were
sent to the descendants of the Prophet Nuh (a) –
similarly. The Prophets Musa (a) and Harun (a) were sent
to Pharaoh.
9. Allah (swt) delivered the Children of Israel from the
bondage of the Pharaoh.
10. Almighty Allah's mercy for the Children of Israel. Prophet
Yunus (a) and his people.
11. If Allah (swt) afflicts you with any loss or wants to bestow
any profit on you, none can avert it. You must always
follow Allah's guidance.
Subject Matter of the Surah

The former Surah, that is ―Repentance‖, dealt with the acts of the
hypocrites as well as their punishment, while this Surah refers to
the acts of polytheists. This Surah represents objections of
pagans of Makkah against the Qur‘an, and responds to them. The
pagans said that Muhammad (s) was a "manifest sorcerer" and
that he fabricated the Qur‘an. They also challenged the Prophet
(s) to immediately bring the punishment of Allah (swt), if his
claim was true. They also demanded that Muhammad (s) to
change the Qur‘an to no longer condemn their practice of
idolatry and using intercessors when worshipping Allah (swt).

The Surah Yunus mainly points out to the various signs for the
people that could lead them to the truth. It also contains stories
of the Prophets Nuh (a) and Musa (a). The stories of those
Prophets are told to remind people about the consequences of
88
unfaithfulness and arrogance.

The Surah also mentions the People of Jonah [Yunus (a)], who at
first rejected Jonah's message, but then repented and believed.
Therefore, unlike the qawm of Nuh (a) and Musa (a), they were
averted from Lord Almighty's punishment. The Surah then
reminds our beloved prophet Muhammad (s) if he had any doubt
about the truth of what was revealed to him, he could ask other
People of the Book (i.e. the Jews and the Christians) who would
be able to confirm the Qur‘an's account of these people of the
past.

At the end of the Surah, Prophet Muhammad (s) is told to tell the
people that the truth has come. Whoever chooses to follow the
right path does so for his/her own benefit and whoever strays do
so at his/her own risk. The prophet (s) is not set over his qawm
to oblige them for guidance. Lord Almighty tells Prophet
Muhammad (s) to follow what has been revealed to him and to
be patient until He judges. Allah (swt) is the best of judges.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats 1 to 13: Surah starts with introductory refutation of the


Message of Doctrine of Tauhid given to Muhammad (s) which is
not the sorcery, and there is life-after-death. Those who are given
revelation from Allah (swt) are assigned two duties, 1) to warn
people against the perils and disasters of using their intellect
wrongfully (in a way that is against the truth and revelation), 2)
and secondly to warn people against the actions that will lead
them to their own disaster.

Ayats 14 to 20: These ayats mentions the natural phenomenon of


all things which go through cycles of change, the only thing that
should remain constant is our faith and trust in Allah (swt). The
human impulse that arises from being a part of creation must
have a yearning to meet the Creator; and finally, that Allah (swt)
does not scourge upon a people outright, rather He gives them
time to reflect, and that is from His divine justice.

89
Ayats 21 to 37: These are reminders that it is as important for
man to remember Allah (swt) in times of ease as it is to
remember Him in times of distress. This life is a test and trial for
us one should use his/her time here on earth so that he/she can
harvest enough provision to take with him/her before dying. One
should make full use of this opportunity of this life. This Kitab
(al-Qur‘an) is the confirmation of what was before it and a
detailed explanation of the [former] Scripture.

Ayats 37 to 45: The Qurʾan confirms its authenticity with a


challenge to those who do not believe it. How can - one denies
that which one has not able to comprehend with knowledge and
whose interpretations have not yet reached him/her.

Ayats 46 to 56: These ayats resumes the divine pattern of justice


of Allah (swt) in prelude to the ayats 14 to 20 which has been
mentioned previously in the Surah. These ayats clarifies the
perspective of Allah‘s (swt) Justice with respect to making man
aware of His Oneness.

Ayats 57 to 60: Allah‘s (swt) ‗faḍl‗(grace) and His ‗raḥmah‘


(mercy) are the two qualities of Allah (swt) that believers should
be proud of. These ayats elaborates the wisdom of that spells out
a simple recipe to be happy and lead a fulfilling life.

Ayats 61 to 70: From the beginning of ayah 61 Allah (swt)


mentions about the one [Muhammad (s)] who recites the Qur‘an
qualifies the depth and the power of ‗wilayah‘ or ‗friendship‘
with Allah (swt) as he/she is abound to follow it. When people

are close to Allah (swt), they do not become insensitive to the


needs of others. The one who follow their assumptions
consequently invent falsehood and hereby disbelieve at the end.

Ayats 71 to 86: The story of Nuḥ (a) is revisited in the opening


ayats with a reminder that when divine retribution or justice
comes down to earth, there are rules of the physical world that
are kept intact. The next several ayats relate the story of Musa (a)

90
and the Pharaoh‘s magicians. The ‗daʿwah‘ (propagation of faith)
of Musa (a) and Nuḥ (a) relates the eventual consequence of
those not adhering the way of Divine Guidance.

Ayats 87 to 100: These ayats re-emphasizes the underlying


theme of this Surah – the Divine justice of Allah (swt) – and
contrasts the stark differences between the story of the Pharaoh
and that of the people of Yunus (a).

Ayats 101 to 109: In the concluding ayats of this Surah, Allah


(swt) emphasizes His all-encompassing power which none can‘t
doubt if one wants to follow it by the observing the heavens and
earth. It is He who manages the macroscopic and the
microscopic affairs of all beings and things. But these signs or
warning is no avail to a people who do not want to believe.

Virtue of the Surah

Sa‘d ibn Waqas (radiAllahu anhu) reported that the Prophet


(salAllahu allayhi wasalam) said, ―The supplication made by the
Companion of the Fish (Prophet Yunus (as)) in the belly of the
fish was - ―There is no God but You, Glorified be You! Truly, I
have been of the wrongdoers‖ (Surah Ambiya, 21:87).
If any Muslim supplicates in these words, his supplication will be
accepted/responded to.‖ In another report we read, ―I know
words that will cause Allah to remove one‘s distress. These are
the words (of supplication) of my brother Yunus, peace be upon
him‖ [at-Tirmidhi; 3500, an-Nisa‟i in `Amal al-yawmi wa
al-layla; #656, al-Hakim 1:505 and 2:383. The latter
declared it sound (sahih) and Dhahabi confirmed him]

The Story of Prophet Yunus (a)

Throughout this long Surah, only one ayah out of the 109 ayats
make mention of the nation Yunus 'alayhi'l-salam (peace be upon
him) was sent to despite the Surah being named after him. The
prophet Yunus 'alayhi'l-salam (peace be upon him) was sent to
the people of Naynawa (Nineveh) in Mosul (modern day
Northern Iraq). This group of people did not believe in his
91
message of Tauhid at first but later they did as described in this
ayah. When Yunus 'alayhi'l-salam (peace be upon him) found
that his people had disbelieved, he was perturbed and annoyed
because they had rejected his call and so he left them. However,
soon Allah guided the hearts of his people and they realized their
mistakes and went out to the desert asking for Allah‘s
forgiveness. On this, Allah spared them from the punishment.
Allah says in the Qur‘an,
―Was there any town that believed (after seeing the
punishment), and its faith saved it Except the people of Yunus;
when they believed, We removed from them the torment of
disgrace in the life of the world, and permitted them to enjoy for
a while.‖ (Surah Yunus, 10:98)

About Prophet Yunus‘s behavior, Allah says in the Qur‘an:


‫ض ً۬با فَظَ َّه أَن لَّه وَّ ۡق ِد َر َعلَ ۡي ِه‬ َ ‫― َو َذا ٱلىُّى ِن إِذ َّذه‬And (remember) Dhun-Nun
ِ ‫َب ُم َغ ٰـ‬
(Prophet Yunus), when he went off in anger (this means: ―Anger
towards his people‖) and imagined that We shall not punish
him!‖ (Surah Ambiya, 21:87)

Prophet Yunus, after leaving his people, went on to board a ship


that got caught up in a storm and its people thought that they
would drown. In such a desperate situation when the ship was
being pounded by waves on all sides, and they were at risk of
drowning, they drew lots to decide to throw someone out of the
ship in an effort to lighten the load. The Prophet of Allah, Yunus
(peace be upon him), lost the draw three times.

However, the people of the ship did not want to throw him out of
the ship. So, he took off his garment so that he could throw
himself into the sea, and they tried to stop him. Allah says:
َ ِ‫ان م َِن ْالم ُْد َحض‬
‫ٌن‬ َ ‫― َف َسـ َه َم َف َك‬Then he (agreed to) cast lots, and he was
among the losers.‖ (Surah As-Saaffaat 37:141)

After he threw himself into the sea, Allah sent from the Green
Sea — according to what Ibn Masud said — a large fish which
cleaved the oceans until it came and swallowed Yunus. Allah
inspired that large fish not to devour his flesh or break his bones.
When in the belly of the fish, Prophet Yunus (peace be upon him)
92
realized his mistake and called out to Allah:
‫ٌِن‬ َّ ‫نت م َِن‬
َ ‫الظـلِم‬ َ ‫ت أَن الَّ إِلَـ َه إِالَّ أَنتَ ُسب َْحـ َن‬
ُ ‫ك إِ ِّنى ُك‬ ُّ ‫ …― َف َنا َدى فِى‬he cried
ِ ‫الظل ُ َمـ‬
through the depths of darkness (saying): ―There is no God but
You, Glorified be You! Truly, I have been of the wrongdoers.‖
(Surah Ambiya, 21:87)

Ibn Masud said regarding the `depths of darkness‘ that it meant


―the darkness of the belly of the fish, the darkness of the sea and
the darkness of the night.‖ Ibn Masud, Ibn Abbas and others also
said that ―The fish took him through the sea, cleaving it until it
reached the bottom of the sea. Yunus heard the rocks at the
bottom of the sea uttering glorification of Allah, at which point
he said:
‫ٌِن‬ َّ ‫نت م َِن‬
َ ‫الظـلِم‬ َ ‫― الَّ إِلَـ َه إِالَّ أَنتَ ُسب َْحـ َن‬There is no God but You,
ُ ‫ك إِ ِّنى ُك‬
Glorified be You! Truly, I have been of the wrongdoers‖ (Surah
Ambiya, 21:87) `

Awf Al-Aarabi said: ―When Yunus found himself in the belly of


the fish, he thought that he had died. But after he realized that he
could still move his legs, he prostrated where he was, and then
called out: `O Lord, I have taken a place of worship to You in a
place where no other person has reached before.‖‘
Allah then tells us in the Qur‘an:
َ ‫ك ُنن ِجـى ْالم ُْؤ ِمن‬
‫ٌِن‬ َ ِ‫― َفاسْ َت َج ْب َنا لَ ُه َو َنجَّ ٌْ َنـ ُه م َِن ْالغَ ِّم َو َكذل‬So `We answered his call,
and delivered him from the distress. (This means that `We
brought him forth from the belly of the fish and from that
darkness.‘ And thus We do deliver (save) the believers.‖ (Surah
Ambiya 21:88)

This clearly shows that when we are in a difficulty or a distressful


situation and turn to Allah and call upon Him with sincere
repentance, especially with these words, Allah responds to our
call. The leader of the Prophets encouraged us to call upon Allah
with these words. Imam Ahmad recorded that Sa‘d bin Abi
Waqqas, may Allah be pleased with him, said: "I passed by
‗Uthman bin `Affan, may Allah be pleased with him, in the
Masjid, and greeted him. But he just stared at him and did not
return the greeting. When Uthman was asked about it later, he
sought Allah‘s forgiveness (for not returning the greeting) and
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said that he had been preoccupied with what he had heard from
the Messenger of Allah about the supplication and Dua of Dhun-
Nun(Prophet Yunus) when he was in the belly of the fish: ―There
is no God but You, Glorified be You! Truly, I have been of the
wrongdoers.‖

It was also recorded by At-Tirmidhi, and by An-Nasa'i in Al-


Yawm wal-Laylah. Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Sa`d said that
َ ‫س اسْ ُت ِج‬
the Messenger of Allah said: «‫ٌب لَه‬ َ ‫ » َمنْ َد َعا ِب ُد َعا ِء ٌُو ُن‬No
Muslim ever prays to his Lord with these words for anything, but
He will answer his prayer. [Recorded by At-Tirmidhi, An-
Nasa‟i in Al-Yawm wal-Laylah]

Ibn Abi Hatim recorded that Saad reported that the Messenger of
Allah said:

َ ‫― » َفإِ َّن ُه لَ ْم ٌَ ْد ُع ِب َها مُسْ لِ ٌم َر َّب ُه فًِ َشًْ ٍء َق ُّط إِ َّال اسْ َت َج‬Whoever offers
‫اب َله‬
supplication in the words of the supplication of Yunus, will be
answered.‖ Abu Saeed said: ―The prophet (s) was referring to this
ayah:
‫ي‬ ِِ ِ ِ‫― َكذل‬And thus We do deliver (save) the believers.‖
َ ‫ك نُنجـى الْ ُم ْؤمن‬ َ
(Surah Ambiya 21:88)

Almighty Allah accepted Prophet Yunus‘s supplication, and cast


him on the shore and protected him there. Allah the Exalted
forgave him his error of impatience in deserting his people
without waiting for Allah‘s instruction.
Allah also made it known that had it not been for Yunus‘s (peace
be upon him) sincere repentance and his invocations to Him, he
would have stayed in the whale‘s stomach till the Day of
Judgment! The Qur‘an says:
َ ‫ث فِى َب ْط ِن ِه إِلَى ٌَ ْو ِم ٌُ ْب َع ُث‬
‫ون‬ َ ‫― َفلَ ْوالَ أَ َّن ُه َك‬Had he not been of
َ ‫ان م َِن ْال ُم َس ِّبح‬
َ ‫ لَلَ ِب‬- ‫ٌِن‬
them who glorify Allah, He would have indeed remained inside
its belly (the fish) till the Day of Resurrection.‖ (Surah As-
Saffaat, 143-144) [Tafsir Ibn Kathir]

Lessons and Reflection

1. In the last version of the religion of Islam (that was sent to


94
Muhammad (s), a person becomes a believer when he/she
believes in Allah subhanahu wa ta‘ala, associates no
partners with Him, and follows the path of Muhammad)s(
in every matter of life.

2. One needs to have patience in all affairs of life.

3. By acknowledging the mistakes/weakness a believer


experiences taqwa (consciousness of Lord Almighty). It
can be attained by honouring Allah‘s (swt) commands and
staying away from prohibitions.
4. One should abstain from mocking, hurting, or causing
discomfort to anyone. By constantly praising Allah and
seeking Allah‘s forgiveness that helps one in challenging
situations.

5. Al-Qur‘an is an instruction to mankind from their Lord


and healing for what is in the chests and guidance and
mercy for the believers.

6. Don‘t Revert to Your Old State When the Test is over. And
when affliction touches man, he calls upon Allah; but
when affliction gets removed, one continues [in
disobedience] as if he had never been in affliction before.

7. Almighty Allah Takes Care of His Friends. Musa (a), Nuh


(a) and Yunus (a) are prophets of Allah (swt) and are
chosen as the guided one. Those of us who follow their
guidance ultimately become friend of Allah the Almighty.
Lord Almighty takes care of His friends in every step of
life.

8. Undoubtedly the friends and allies of Allah (swt) there will


have no fear and would not grieve either. Allah (swt) has
given the believers good tidings in the worldly life and in
the Hereafter.
95
11. Surah Hud [Hud (a)]
Concise Tafseer of Surah Hud In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

Surah Hud is a Makki Surah which obtain its title from the
reference to the story of Prophet Hud (a), who was sent to the
‗Ad people. The story can be found in ayats 50 to 60. It has 123
ayats and 10 Ruku‘(Section).

Period of Revelation

If we take the theme of it in consideration, we conclude that the


Surah was revealed during the same period as Surah Yunus.
Surah Hud was revealed after Surah Yunus and Surah Al-Isra
according to some scholars. The period in which the Surah was
revealed to the Prophet (s) was one of the saddest periods of his
(s) mission, because it was revealed after the death of his dear
wife Khadeejah (rh) who was his honest confidant and supporter.
It was the same period that his beloved uncle, Abu Talib who
used to give him unconditional backing and protect him against
the Quraysh infidels, died.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Seek forgiveness from Allah (swt) and His bounties will be


for you.
2. Patience and good deeds bring the stability in character.
3. The story of Prophet Nuh (a).
4. The fate of those who disbelieved in Prophet Nuh (a). The
moving description of the fate of Prophet Nuh's (a) son.
5. The Message of Prophet Hud (a). 'Ad people denied
Allah's (swt) message and were punished.

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6. The Message of Prophet Saleh (a), the Sign of the She-
Camel, and end of Thamud.
7. Prophet Ibrahim (a) receives the angles. The angels then
went to Prophet Lut (a). The punishment of the people of
Lut(a).
8. Prophet Shu'aib (a) and his message, his people's denial
and their punishment.
9. Prophet Musa (a) was sent to Pharaoh and his people. The
purpose of these stories.
10. Prophets were denied before. Continue presenting the
message with patience. Had Allah (swt) forced His will
upon the people, He would have made them all one
people.
Subject Matter of the Surah

The subject matter of the Surah is same as that of Surah Yunus:


invitation to the message, admonition and warning. The
statement of warning is sterner from the previous Surah Yunus.
The main content of the surah is a series of stories of prophets
who warned their people to follow Allah, the people persisting in
defying their Lord, and Allah punishing for their misdeeds. In
this Surah we have the stories of Prophets Nuh, Salih, Hud, Lut,
Shuaib and Moses -peace be upon them all.
The Surah opens with a discussion on the nature of man and the
punishment that awaits those who defy God Amighty.

Ayats 25 to 49 tell the story of Noah (Nuh a) and how his people
did not believe his commands to follow Lord Almighty. The
unbelievers are drowned in a flood, which includes Noah's son;
Noah asks Almighty God about this act, but He rebukes
Noah as being ignorant and says that Noah's son is "not a
member of his family." Surah 66, At-Tahrim, elaborates on
this and says that Noah's wife is an unbeliever in hell who was
unfaithful to her husband.

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Ayats 50 to 60 deals with the prophet Hud (a). He was sent to the
Ad, an Omani tribe which according to history crumbled
sometime between the 3rd and 6th century AD. The Ad do not
believe Hud, and Hud (a) and those who do believe are rescued
by Allah (swt), followed by God Almighty inflicting a "dreadful
doom" on them so that they were "accursed in the world."

Ayats 61 to 68 concerns the people of Thamud and the prophet


Salih (a). Salih (a) tries to convince Thamud to repent, but once
more the unbelievers ignore the prophet. Salih (a) offers a she-
camel as an offering of peace, but says that it should be left alone.
If anything befalls it, the people will be punished. The camel is
hamstrung, Salih and those who believe are rescued, and the
unbelievers are smitten by a "blast from heaven."

The Qu'ranic version of the Biblical story of Sodom and


Gomorrah is in ayats 69 to 83. ibraham (a) [Abraham] and Sarah
are given the news of their son and grandson's forthcoming birth
Ishaq (a) and Yaqub (a) [Isaac and Jacob], after which they plead
for mercy for Lut's (a) people. God Almighty refuses the request,
saying that the punishment cannot be averted. Lut (a) offers his
daughters to the men of Sodom, but they respond with
disinterest and say "you know what we want." Surah 7:80–84
confirms the Biblical account of homosexuality as being the
crime of Lut's (a) people. Angels descend to protect Lut (a) and
his daughters, and the city is destroyed by a stone rain. Lot's wife
perishes as well.

Ayats 84 to 95 deal with the prophet Shu'aib (a) sent to Midian.


Once more, the people ignore the prophet's warnings; this time,
Shu'aib (a) reminds the people of the fate of the people of Nuh
(a), Hud (a), Salih (a), and Lut (a). It doesn't work, and the
people spare Shu'aib (a) from death by stoning only because he
comes from a powerful clan. Shu'aib (a) and those who believe
are rescued by Almighty Allah. Afterward, the unbelievers
"[were] seized by a punishment from heaven, and lay overturned
in their homes in the morning as though they had not dwelt there
at all."

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At the end, Surah discusses the general theme once more, with
occasional references to Musa (a). The harsh punishment is
explained as "We did not wrong them; they wronged
themselves." Other gods are decried as false, powerless, and
useless. Believers are commanded to walk the straight path and
follow Lord Almighty, and those who disbelieve will suffer in
Hell.

Virtue of the Surah

Surah Hud made the Prophet's Hair turn Gray

Abu `Isa At-Tirmidhi recorded from Ibn `Abbas that Abu Bakr
said, "O Messenger of Allah, verily your hair has turned gray.''
The Prophet replied,
(Surahs Hud, Al-Waqi`ah, Al-Mursalat, `Amma Yatasa'lun ﴿An-
Naba'﴾ and Idhash-Shamsu Kuwwirat ﴿At-Takwir have turned my
hair gray. In another narration he said,
(Surah Hud and its sisters...) [Tafsir Ibn Kathir]

Story of Hud (a) In a Nutshell

Prophet Hud (a) was sent by Allah on the people of ‗Ad, they
were very clever and great architects, they had built the
mansions and everything beautifully. They had known a lot
about the world but less about the Allah, so Allah sent Prophet
Hud (a) to them.

In the Old Testament reference is made to a descendant of Noah


named Eber. In some traditions, he is called Heber, and known
as the father of the Hebrew language. In Islam however he is
known as Hud and is one of four Arabic prophets, the others
being, Salih, Shuaib and Muhammad. Renowned Islamic scholar
of the 14th century, Ibn Kathir, reports that Ibn Jarir also claims
that Hud was a descendent of Noah.

The people of Adam were living between Oman and Yemen. They
were all builders and physically well-built. However, they were
under the leadership of a dictator and were worshipping Allah
99
and as well as other creatures.

Then, Allah sent to Earth, Prophet Hud (a) to guide these people
to His path. He told the people not to practice idolatry and
worship Allah (swt) alone. However, his message did not
convince them and, instead, he was questioned whether he
wanted to be a master and wanted money for his motive.
Hud (a) refused and wanted to them to follow the path of Allah
and that Allah blessed them with strength. Despite being aware,
the wealthy people were still arrogant and ungrateful but did not
believe him.

Hud (a) reminded them of Nuh (a)‘s Ark and what happened if
they did not obey the words of Allah. Years passed, the people
became more arrogant and proud believing that the idols were
their Gods who protect them. Everybody believed that Hud (a)
was crazy, mocked him and accused him of hurting their ‗Gods‘.
Confident and proud, the people asked Hud (a) for judgment of
their actions on Earth which Hud (a) was preaching.

Then, a drought struck the area, cracked the land. No drop of


rain and people‘s heads were on fire. Hud (a) asked the people to
believe in Allah and he would bring rain but they laughed at him.
The drought persisted until dark clouds appeared. The weather
changed drastically bringing gusts that flew everything in its
path, including people.

All the disbelievers‘ bodies were torn away by the winds that
lasted 8 days and 7 nights. The people who believed Hud (a) were
unharmed and migrated to Yemen to worship Allah (swt) alone.

They were destroyed by a furious violent wind which God


imposed on them for seven nights and eight days in succession,
so that you could see men lying overthrown (destroyed) as if they
were hollow trunks of date palms! (Al-Qur‟an, 69.AlHaqqah:
6-7)

Ibn Kathir tells us that the violent gale did not stop until the
entire region, once lush and green was reduced to ruins and
100
swallowed by the sands of the desert. Only Hud (a) and his small
band of followers were saved and were believed to have migrated
to the Hadramaut area of what is today known as Yemen.

Ark settled on Mount Judi

According to the Qur‘an, the Ark rested upon Mount Judi, which
is situated to the north-east of Jazirah Ibn Umar in Kurdistan.
But according to the Bible its resting place was Mount Ararat in
Armenia, which is one of the ranges of mountains of the same
name that extends from Armenia to southern Kurdistan.

Mount Judi is one of the mountains of the Ararat range, and is


known by the same name even today.
The ancient histories confirm that the resting place of the Ark
was Mount Judi. For instance, Berasus, a religious leader of
Babylonia, who lived about 250 years before Christ, says in his
history of the Chaldeans that Noah‘s Ark rested upon Mount
Judi. Abydenus, a pupil of Aristotle, not only confirms the same
but also says that many people of Iraq of his time possessed
pieces of the Ark, which they ground in water and gave to the sick
as a medicine.

Now let us consider the question: Did the deluge mentioned here
cover the whole earth or was it confined to that particular region
where Prophet Noah (peace be upon him) lived?

This is a question which has not been finally settled up to this


day. As far as the Bible and the Israelite traditions are concerned,
this was universal. (Genesis 7: 18- 24) But the Qur‘an is silent
about it, though it does say things which show that the whole
human race after the deluge was the descendant of Prophet Noah
(peace be upon him) and of those with him in the Ark, but this
does not mean that the deluge covered all the earth. It may be
explained like this: At that time of the history the only region of
the earth, which was inhabited by the human race, was the
region in which Noah lived, and the generations which came
after the deluge, gradually spread over other parts of the earth.
This theory is supported by two things. First, there is a
101
conclusive proof that a great flood did come over the land of the
Tigris and the Euphrates. This is confirmed by historical
traditions, archaeological remains and geological evidence. But
there are no such proofs in the other parts of the earth as might
show that the deluge was universal. Secondly, traditions have
come down to almost all the peoples of the earth living even in
distant places like America and Australia, that once a great flood
had come all over the earth. The only conclusion which can be
drawn from the above is that at one time the forefathers of all the
people of the earth lived at one place. But, when afterwards they
spread over different lands in the earth; they carried the
traditions of the deluge along with them. Traditions similar to
the story of Noah are also found in classical Greek Egyptian,
Indian and Chinese literature.

Moreover, stories of identical import have been popular since


time immemorial in Burma, Malaya, the East Indies, Australia,
New Guinea and various parts of Europe and America.

Lessons and Reflection

1. This Surah invites us to: Obey the Messenger of Allah;


discard shirk, and worship Allah and Allah alone. If we
seek forgiveness it will be for our own good.

2. We should all ask for forgiveness to the Most Forgiving,

to return back to Allah and the straight path. Then, we will


have goodness in this world and the hereafter. If we
refuse, however, we will receive a big disaster and
calamity on the Day of Judgment.

3. It is not a sin to enjoy the blessings of Allah as long as we


continue to remember Him and do shukr. But if we forget
our duty towards Allah and the people and our sole
purpose of life becomes this world then it really is a
dangerous thing for our imaan and akhirah.

102
4. Patience and good deeds bring the stability in character.

5. The past nations rejected the appeal of their prophets by


ascribing partners to Allah and not asking for His
forgiveness. Thus, they were destroyed.

6. Allah (swt) makes mention of the ending of those who


disbelieved and do bad deeds on Earth. They are engulfed
by the fires of hell and in there they will be violently
inhaling and exhaling. They would stay in there forever
and hell is the worse of final abodes.

7. A day which Almighty Allah promises would not be


delayed once the time arrives. A day where the
disbelievers would regret all their deeds and the believers
would emerge smiling.

8. To Allah (swt) belongs the unseen of the heavens and the


earth, and every affair gets returned to Him; Lord
Almighty is not heedless of what we do. So, serving and
relying on Him is the ultimate success.

103
12. Surah Yusuf [Joseph (Yusuf „alaihis salam )]
Concise Tafseer of Surah Yusuf In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The Surah is called ―Surah Yusuf‖ as it is entirely dedicated to the


biography of Yusuf (a). It is a Makki Surah revealed towards the
end of the Makki period, about a year or two before the Hijrah.
This Surah has 111 ayats in 12 Section (Ruku‘).

Period of Revelation

There is no confirmed time when Surah Yusuf was revealed, but


it is estimated to be either in the 10th or 11th year of dawah. In
other words, it is known to have been revealed 2 or 3 years before
the Hijrah (Migration) from Makkah to Madinah which is close
to the end of the Makki era. This Surah was revealed after a year
the scholars of seerah call 'am al huzun' (the year of Sorrow or
Despair). This year was a sad and depressing time for
Muhammad (s). He was going through several hardships and
three of those are the most significant.

The first one is his uncle Abu Talib's death. Abu Talib was the
only father figure he had left and one of the people who protected
him from the harms of society. The second tragedy would come
with his beloved first wife, Khadijah's (rh) death.
At that time some of the unbelievers put this question to test
him, ―Why did the Israelites go to Egypt?‖ Probably it was asked
by the instigation of Jews, they knew that their story was known
to the Arabs.

At those times, the Quraysh were considering the question of


killing or exiling or imprisoning Prophet Muhammad (s). Some
of the unbelievers put this question (probably at the instigation
of the Jews) to test him: ―Why did the Israelites go to Egypt?"
This question was asked because they knew that their story
was not known to the Arabs for there was no mention of it

104
whatever in their traditions and the Prophet had never even
referred to it before.

Historical Background in the Surah

The story of the Surah begins with the dream of Yusuf (a) when
he describes his dream to Yaqub (a), where he saw, 11 stars - the
sun, and the moon prostrating to him. Yusuf (a) was the son of
Yaqub (a) [Jacob] and grandson of Ishaq (a) [Isaac] and a great
grandson of Ibrahim (a) [Abraham]. According to the research
scholars of Bible, Yusuf (a) [Joseph] was born in or about 906
BC. The timeline of the story starts at 890 BC. The Hyksos King
that ruled over Egypt at that time was Apophis.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The Qur'an is revealed in the Arabic language. The story of


the Prophet Yusuf (a) - Joseph starts with his dream.

2. Prophet Yusuf (a) suffered the bad treatment of his


stepbrothers.

3. Prophet Yusuf (a) was sold in Egypt, his firmness in piety


against the temptations

4. Prophet Yusuf (a) was in prison.


5. Prophet Yusuf (a) preached to the inmates.
6. The King's dream and Prophet Yusuf‘s (a) interpretation.
7. Prophet Yusuf (a) was cleared of the false charges against
his character. He became a high official in Egypt.
8. The famine in Palestine brought Prophet Yusuf's (a)
brothers to Egypt.
9. Prophet Yusuf (a) meets his real brother.
10. Prophet Yusuf (a) disclosed his identity to his
stepbrothers.
11. Prophet Jacob's [Yaqub (a)] family comes to Egypt.
Prophet Yusuf (a) honours his parents and forgives his
brothers.
12. Most of the ignorant people who believe in Allah (swt)
105
13. also commit shirk. All the Rasools were human beings.
The story of Yusuf (a) is confirmation of previous
scriptures.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The basic theme of the Surah is to emphasize that all Prophets


were human beings and their messages were similar. They were
also highly moral beings. This is the way all believers should be.
The Prophets trusted in Lord Almighty Allah and in the end
Allah's plans did succeed.

The story of Yusuf (Surah Yusuf) is about the prophet Yusuf


translated in English as Joseph. Yusuf (a) is one of the sons of
Ya'qub (a) - Jacob - who has the talent of interpreting dreams.
One day Yusuf has a dream and he narrates his dream to his
father who immediately knows that Yusuf will be a prophet. His
father tells him not to tell his brothers to avoid any harm.
However, because of Ya'qub's loving treatment towards Yusuf,
Yusuf's brothers felt jealous.

They wanted to get rid of Yusuf, so their father could love them
instead of Yusuf. Their initial plan was to kill Yusuf, but later
they decided to throw him in a well. They lied to their father and
told him that a wolf had killed him. Later, a caravan rescued
Yusuf from the well, who then sold him to a man in Egypt. The
man took Yusuf in and was hoping to either put him to work or
adopt him as a son. Later, the man's wife tries to seduce Yusuf,
but he resists. The woman seeing his resistance accuses Yusuf of
wanting to harm her and demands that he should either be
punished severely or sent to jail.

A witness, after Yusuf defends his innocence, testifies "if his shirt
is torn from the front, then she has told the truth, and he is of the
liars but if his shirt is torn from the back, then she has lied, and
he is of the truthful." The shirt was indeed torn from the back.
Soon after this accident, the women of the city talk of how the
wife of the King is seeking to seduce Yusuf. The wife of 'Al-Aziz
invite them to a banquet and give one of each a knife and then
106
tells Yusuf to come out. The women cut their hands in
astonishment. 'She said, "That is the one about whom you
blamed me. And I certainly sought to seduce him, but he firmly
refused; and if he will not do what I order him, he will surely be
imprisoned and will be of those debased. Yusuf (a) prefers prison
to what they call him so he prayed to God Almighty. Yusuf is sent
to prison.

In the prison, Yusuf met two other men and interprets one of the
prisoner's dreams. The prisoner is then released and Yusuf asked
the prisoner to mention his talent to the king. One day, the King
had a dream, and the prisoner who had been released earlier
remembers and mentions Yusuf. He interprets the King's dream,
which is about Egypt having a seven-year drought. To reward
him, the King requests his release from jail and the King also
investigates his case. The wife who tried to seduce Yusuf (a)
testifies that he was innocent, and the truth unveils. Later on
after Yusuf (a) was appointed minister of finance by Ar-Rayyan
bin Al-Walid by the King of Egypt at the time. And after that
Allah (swt) gave him the authority of Egypt as King.

During the seven-year drought, Yusuf's (a) brothers visited Egypt


to get food for their family. Upon seeing his brothers, Yusuf (a)
recognized them though they did not recognize him. He provided
them with enough wheat for their needs and had their money put
back in their bags secretly. He also asked them to bring their
other brother the next time as proof that they were speaking the
truth about their family.

When the brothers returned with their youngest brother, Yusuf


(a) takes him aside and tells him his identity. Yusuf (a) plots a
theft case where his youngest brother is found guilty of theft
when he is truly innocent and is detained from his family, so he
could stay with him. Later, when the father and brothers
face poverty they come back to Yusuf (a) and Yusuf (a) then helps
them and reveals his identity asking them to come and live with
him.

Virtue of the Surah


107
The Prophet (s) said, 'Teach your relatives the recitation of Surah
Yusuf, for, any Muslim who recites it or teaches it to his family
and slaves, Allah shall ease for him the agony of death, and give
him the strength that will prevent him from envying a fellow
Muslim' [Ibn Asakir]

The family of Yusuf (a) who migrated along with him


after he became King of Egypt

It is worthwhile to take notice of the total number of Prophet


Jacob‘s family members that migrated to Egypt with him, for it is
closely connected with the problem that is raised concerning the
total number of the Israelites who emigrated from there some
five hundred years after this. According to the Bible, the total
number of the family members was 70, including Prophet Joseph
and his two sons, and excluding those daughters-in-law who did
not belong to the family of Prophet Jacob. But according to the
census figures given in Numbers, their number was about two
million when they were counted in the wilderness of Sinai in the
second year, after they come out of the land of Egypt. The
problem is this: how is it possible that these three score and ten
souls of his house had multiplied into two million souls during
five hundred years or so?

It is obvious that no family can multiply to such a large number


in five hundred years merely by the generative process. Thus the
only other way in which their number could have been increased
was proselytism. And there are sound reasons to believe that this
must have been so. The Israelites were the descendants of
Prophets. They had migrated to Egypt because of the power
Prophet Joseph enjoyed there. And we have seen that he made
full use of every opportunity he got for carrying out the work of
the mission of Prophethood.

Therefore it may reasonably be expected that the Israelites would


have done their very best to convert the Egyptians to their faith
of Islam during the five centuries of their power in Egypt. As a

108
result of this the Egyptian converts to Islam would not only have
changed their religion but also their culture so as to make them
look quite different from the other Egyptians and look like the
Israelites. Naturally the non-Muslim Egyptians would have
declared them to be foreigners just as the Hindus treat the
Indian Muslims of today.

By and by they themselves would have accepted this position and


become members of the Israelite nationality. Afterwards, when
the Egyptian nationalists began to persecute the alien Israelites,
the Muslim Egyptians were also made a target of their tyranny.
So when the Israelites migrated from Egypt, they, too, left their
country along with them and began to be counted among them.

The above mentioned explanation is confirmed by the Bible also.


For instance, it says ―that when they left Egypt, the children of
Israel journeyed from Remases to Suceoth....and a mixed
multitude went up also with them....‖ (Exodus 12: 37-38) and
―the mix multitude that was among them fell a lusting‖.
(Numbers 11:4)

Then by and by these non-Israelite converts to Islam began to be


called the stranger. ―One ordinance shall be both for you of the
congregation, and also for the stranger that sojourneth with you,
an ordinance forever in your generations: as ye are, so shall the
stranger be before the Lord. One law and the one manner shall
be for you, and for the stranger that sojourneth with you.‖
(Numbers 15: 15-16)

―And I charged your judges at that time, saying: Hear the causes
between your brethren, and judge righteously between every
man and his brother, and the stranger that is with him.‖ (Deut. 1:
16). Now it is not an easy thing to find out the exact term which
was applied in the original Scriptures to the Egyptian converts to
Islam, and which was afterwards changed into the stranger by
the translators.

Al-Qur'an is revealed in Arabic to protect it from


Corruption and Misunderstanding
109
(12:02) Verily, We have sent it down an Arabic recitation, that
haply you will ponder.

The fact that this Qur‘an has been revealed in the Arabic
language makes it imperative for everyone who cares about
religion to learn it. According to Imam Shafe`i, learning Arabic is
an obligation upon every Muslim. As mentioned by Alusi, Ibn
Taymiyyah has reported Imam Abu Yusuf as of the opinion that
whoever can manage some Arabic ought not to speak in any
other language.
Majid writes about the power of the Qur‘anic Arabic: ―Hardly any
language seems capable of exercising over the minds of its users
such irresistible influence as Arabic ... the triumph of Islam was
to a certain extent the triumph of a language, more particularly
of a book.‘ (Hitti, A Short History of the Arabs, pp.90-91)

The origin of the language is a mystery. Earnest Renan (1823-


1894), who carried out an extensive research on Semitic
languages said, ―The Arabic language is the most astonishing
event of human history. During the classical period, it suddenly
emerged as a complete language. After this, it did not undergo
any noticeable change, so one cannot define for it an early or late
stage. It is just the same today as it was when it first appeared.‖

Anyone who knows its grammatical structure, and the strict


application of the rules to the most ancient Arabic texts, when
the art of writing was non-existent, will admit that the language
could not have come into being through the normal process of
gradual development over several centuries, as has been the case
with every other languages. The classical Jahiliyy poetry that the
Arab boast about to this day, was not penned down but centuries
after the poets were dead. These facts have led some linguists to
believe that it is a revealed language. In fact, Hakim has a report
from the Prophet (s) that the language was revealed to Isma‘il.
But some Hadith experts have declared the report da`if and most
of the scholars say that Arabic language precedes Isam`il. Also,
Arabic of higher literary quality happens to be difficult because of
the possibilities of a vast vocabulary, numerously different
shades of meaning and nuances, brought to being by countless
110
rules of grammar.

Hence Imam Shafe`i‘s opinion (as in Alusi) is that no one can


master this language except a Prophet. And hence too, the
Companions often wondered at the Prophet‘s skill in the
language.
As regards any individual gaining complete mastery over the
language, countless Arab linguists will have no hesitation in
accepting it as true.

Allah has informed Muhammad (s) about the past


through the Proof of Qur‟an

(12:101) My Lord! You have bestowed dominion upon me and


have taught me to comprehend the depths of things. O Creator of
heavens and earth! You are my Guardian in this world and in the
Hereafter. Cause me to die in submission to You, and join me, in
the end, with the righteous.

The few sentences that were uttered by Prophet Joseph (a) at the
happiest occasion of his life help depict the most graceful pattern
of the virtues of a true believer. There is the man from the desert,
whom his own brothers had, out of jealousy, attempted to kill,
now sitting on the throne after passing through many
vicissitudes of life. All the members of his family have been
forced by famine to come before him for help.

The same jealous brothers, who had made an attempt on his life,
are now standing before him with downcast heads.
Instead of giving vent to his grievances against his brothers,
making taunts at them for their ill treatment, he does not make
even a mention of such things but puts up a defense for them,
saying that it was all due to Satan, who had stirred up strife
between them: nay, he even puts it forward as a blessing in
disguise, being one of the mysterious ways of Allah by which He
had fulfilled His design of raising him to the throne.

Lessons and Reflection

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1. Knowledge of Dreams: The knowledge of interpreting
dreams is a very important branch of knowledge that Allah
(swt) gives to whom he pleases from His servants. And most
of them (dreams) are based on symbols that are ambiguous
in meaning and in description. For indeed the significance of
the sun, the moon and twelve stars bowing to Yusuf (a), is
that these lights are the beauty of the sky, and from them
emanates benefit. Likewise the prophets and the scholars are
the beauty of this earth, and by them mankind is guided
through darkness just as they do by the light of the stars, the
sun and the moon.

2. Do Not Be Jealous: One should never be jealous and always


be happy for others. Jealousy can break relationships and
sometimes destroy lives. In this Surah, Brothers of Yusuf (a)
started believing that their Father Yaqub (a) loves Yusuf

3. more than them. This was the reason why Yaqub (a) stopped
Yusuf (a) from telling the dream that he saw to his brothers.

4. Sabr – Be Patient and Believe in Allah: Yusuf (a) suffered a


lot after Pharoah‘s wife put false allegations on him; he was
sold out as a slave in Egypt and imprisoned for no reason.
But he remained calm and believed in Almighty Allah. The
merits of taqwah and sabr (patience), for every good in this
life and the next are as result of taqwah and sabr based on
the statement of Allah, ―Allah has indeed been gracious to us.
Verily, he who fears Allah and is patient, then surely, Allah
makes not the reward of the Muhsinun (good-doers) to be
lost."

5. Hosting guests honorably: It is from the ―sunnah‖ of the


prophets to host guest and treat them honourably based on
the statement of Yusuf, ―See you not that I give full measure,
and that I am the best of the hosts?‖

6. Telling about hardships of life being satisfied to Allah is not

112
impermissible: The permissibly of informing others of the
difficulties one is enduring, as long as this is not done in a
manner that indicates one is annoyed with the decree of
Allah, for the brothers of Yusuf complained, ―O ruler of the
land! A hard time has hit us and our family,‖ and Yusuf (a)
did not object to their statement.

7. Forgiveness that Allah Likes: When Yusuf (a) became the


King of Egypt then he forgave each and everything about
their brothers. The matter that really counts in the life of the
servant is the successful ending and not the deficient
beginning. For the children of Yaqub (a) did what they did in
the beginning which was a very reprehensible act, then their
affair ended in sincere repentance, complete forgiveness
from Yusuf (a) and their father, and du‘a was made for them
to be forgiven and have mercy upon.

8. Worshipping Almighty Lord in all specks of life: Just as the


servant worships Allah (swt) during times of ease, similarly
he should also worship him during times of hardship. For
Yusuf (a) was constantly calling to Allah, thus when he
entered the prison he continued to make dawah. He called
the two young men to at-tawheed and he warned them
against as-shirk. Hence, from his quick-wittedness he saw
that they were responsive to his dawah, whereby they said to
him, ―We think you are one of the Muhsinun (doers of
good).‖

9. Trusting someone for assistance is not giving up the reliance


of Allah: It is not considered depending on others (instead of
Allah), if one happens to get into a difficult situation and one
seeks the assistance of someone whom he thinks can alleviate
his situation, for this person there is no blame on him if he
does this. This is because it has always been the custom of
people to seek each other assistance in such matters. Hence,
Yusuf (a) said to the one whom he knew would be saved,
"Mention me to your lord (i.e. your king, so as to get me out
of the prison)."

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10. Save Yourself From Sins: Yusuf (a) was beautiful both
externally and internally. His beauty made women cut their
hands. And his internal beauty was his sabr and not agreeing
on disobeying Almighty Allah. One should be careful to avoid
being secluded with women whom may be a cause of fitnah,
and one should also be cautious of the love for someone that
may be harmful. For the wife of the king did what she did
because of her obsession with Yusuf (a) that lead her to try to
seduce him, tell lies about him and cause him to be
imprisoned for a long time.

11. One should not talk or bear witness without knowledge: It is


not permissible for a person to bear witness except to that
which he has sure knowledge of. Those who acquire their

knowledge either by witnessing it himself or by being


informed by a trustworthy person; based on the statement of
the Yusuf‘s brothers, ―We testify not except according to
what we know.‖

12. Sign that our beloved Prophet (s) is truly a messenger from
Almighty Allah: This Surah has the evidences of the
truthfulness of the prophet hood of Prophet Muhammad (s);
for he narrated to his people this long story and he never had
read the previous books nor learned from any one.

13. Be steadfast in worshiping Lord Almighty at all time: The


servant should always exalt Allah for making him remain
steadfast upon Imaan by constantly doing those deeds that
causes one‘s Imaan to remain firm. Also one should always
ask Allah to have successful ending by perfecting His Favor
upon one based on the du‘a of Yusuf (s), ―My Lord! You have
indeed bestowed on me of the sovereignty, and taught me the
interpretation of dreams; The Creator of the heavens and the
earth! You are my Wali (Protector, Helper, Supporter,
Guardian, etc.) in this world and in the Hereafter, cause me
to die as a Muslim, and join me with the righteous."

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13. Surah Ar-Ra„d (The Thunder)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Ar-Ra‟d In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The Surah takes its name from the word ―ar-ra‘d‖ which appears
in ayah 13, meaning of which is, ―the thunder‖. There is a Sajda-
e-Tilawat in Ayah 15 of this Surah. The Surah has 43 ayats in 6
sections (Ruku‘).

Period of Revelation

The Surah was revealed in the last stage of Prophet Muhammad


(s) stay in Makkah and during the same period in which Surahs
Yunus, Hud and Al- A'araf were sent down. There is also
differing opinions whether Sura Ar-Ra‘d is Makki or Madani
Surah. Some scholars say it has Makki ayats with exception to
few ayats, whereas some other authorities hold that it to be
Madani Surah with exception to few being of Makki period. But
the time period is closer to the Hijrah of Madinah (Yathrib).

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Almighty Allah's signs in nature.


2. Allah (swt) knows everything; the whole samawat praises
Him. Those who have eyes can see the truth. The truth has
an abiding power.
3. The faithful and unfaithful, their characters and their
ends.
4. The comfort of the hearts is in the remembrance of Allah
(swt). Those who deny Lord Almighty, no signs or
miracles can help them.
5. People in the past also denied Allah's Prophets and
laughed at them, but what were their ends.
115
6. Prophet Muhammad (s) is the Messenger of Allah. The
witness is Allah and all those who have the knowledge of
the Scriptures of Allah (swt).
Subject Matter of the Surah

This Surah opens with Muqattat (Qur‘anic initials: disjoined


letters) ‫( اٌ ّر‬Alif. Lam. Mim. Ra). God Almighty Alone knows the
true meaning of this combination and why 29 Surahs of the
Qur‘an open in a similar way. Allah (swt) reminds us that the
Qur‘an has been revealed to Prophet Muhammad (s).
The main theme of this Surah is that the Message of Allah is the
Truth. It is a mistake for people to reject it. The arguments in the
whole Surah turns around this theme, and the basic components
of the Message which are Tauhid (God is One), Risalat
(Prophethood) and Resurrection, are repeated over and over
again. People are invited to believe in these facts for their own
good and if they don't, they are warned about incurring their own
ruin. The following are the contents of the Surah:
1. The Surah takes the human heart on a grand tour,
showing the samawat in a variety of spectacular images:-
- The heavens raise without support
- The sun and the moon pursuing their courses for a
definite time
- The night covered by day
- The spread of the earth with its firm mountains and
running rivers
- Gardens, plants and date trees with different
shapes, tastes and colours yet growing in adjacent
land irrigated with the same water.
2. The pursuit of knowledge of human heart has illustrated
with vividly motional explanation in contrast to Allah‘s
(swt) absolute knowledge.
3. Ar‘ Ra‘d (the thunder) is depicted as a power behind hope
and fear. The Surah gives an impression of the nature of
power of Allah (swt) that encompasses samawat
everywhere –
- The hidden and the apparent
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- Large and small
- Present and detached
4. The content of the Surah guides people to search the
depths of events in history through showing them the
painful end of the disobedient nations in the past.
This Surah also answers the objections and doubts of the
disbelievers which appeared to be a hindrance to accepting the
Divine Message. It also provides comfort, hope, and courage to
the believers who are in a long and hard ordeal in their
disorderly outskirts. So, one should be aware not to be deceived
by the glitter of falsehood. It makes frequent use of sympathetic
advice to win over the hearts of disbelievers by warning them
about the consequences of Kufr (unbelief) and the good results
and rewards of having True Faith.

Thus, This Surah Ar-Ra‘d begins with some ayats concerning


faith and convictions, and ends with introducing the deeds and
activities which are helpful in the formation of human character.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1-7): The Qur'an is revealed by Allah (swt), the Creator of


the heavens and the earth. Trees, fruit, vegetables and their
tastes are the signs of Allah (swt). For every nation Allah (swt)
sent a guide (Rasool).

Ayats (8-18): Allah (swt) never changes the condition of a people


unless they strive to change themselves. Pray to Allah Alone.
Deities besides Allah (swt) have no control over any harm or
benefit and those who do not respond to the call of their Rabb
will have no way to escape.

Ayats (19-26): Those who fulfill their pledge with Allah (swt) will
have an excellent abode in the Hereafter. Those who break their
pledge will have the curse & a terrible home.

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Ayats (27-31): It is the remembrance of Allah (swt) that provides
tranquility to hearts. There is no God but Him, all things are
subject to His command.

Ayats (32-37): Allah (swt) watches each and every soul minutely.
The Qur'an is revealed in Arabic for easy understanding.

Ayats (38-43): The Rasool has no power to show any miracle


without Allah's (swt) sanction. When Allah (swt) commands,
there is none to reverse it. Allah is the Master of all planning.

Virtue of the Surah

The Guardian Angels With Each Person

The honorable angels accompany the children of Adam (a) from


the day they are formed in their mothers‘ wombs until the day
when their souls are brought forth from their bodies at the time
of death. They also accompany them in their graves and in the
Hereafter. Their accompanying them in this world is as follows:

Allah said next,

ِ َّ ‫ظو َن ُه ِمنْ أَمْ ِر‬


﴾........‫َّللا‬ ُ ‫ْن ٌَ َد ٌْ ِه َو ِمنْ َخ ْلفِ ِه ٌَحْ َف‬ ٌ ‫﴿لَ ُه ُم َع ِّق َب‬
ِ ٌ‫ـت مِّن َب‬

(For him (each person), there are angels in succession, before


and behind him. They guard him by the command of Allah.)
[Ar-Ra‟d ; 13:11]

Allah states that there are angels who take turns guarding each
servant, some by night and some by day. These angels protect
each person from harm and accidents. There are also angels who
take turns recording the good and evil deeds, some angels do this
by day and some by night. There are two angels, one to the right
and one to the left of each person, recording the deeds. The angel
to the right records the good deeds, while the angel to the left
records the evil deeds. There are also two angels that guard and
protect each person, one from the back and one from in front.
Therefore, there are four angels that surround each person by
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day and they are replaced by four others at night, two scribes and
two guards. An authentic Hadith states,

(Angels take turns around you, some at night and some by day,
and all of them assemble together at the time of the Fajr and
`Asr prayers. Then those who have stayed with you throughout
the night, ascend to Allah Who asks them, and He knows the
answer better than they about you, "How have you left My
servants'' They reply, "As we have found them praying, we have
left them praying.'') Imam Ahmad recorded that `Abdullah said
that the Messenger of Allah said,

(Verily, every one among you has his companion from the Jinn
and his companion from the angels.'') They said, "And you too, O
Allah's Messenger'' He said,

(And I too, except that Allah has helped me against him, so he


only orders me to do good.) Muslim collected this Hadith. Ibn
Abi Hatim narrated that Ibrahim said, "Allah revealed to a
Prophet from among the Children of Israel, `Say to your nation:
every people of a village or a house who used to obey Allah but
changed their behavior to disobeying Him, then He will take
away from them what they like and exchange it for what they
dislike.'' Ibrahim next said that this statement has proof in
Allah's Book,

(Verily, Allah will not change the (good) condition of a people as


long as they do not change their state (of goodness) themselves.)
[Ar-Ra‟d ; 13:11]

(It is He Who shows you the lightning, as a fear and as a hope.


And it is He Who brings up the clouds, heavy (with water).)

(And Ar-Ra'd (thunder) glorifies and praises Him, and so do the


angels because of His awe. He sends the thunderbolts, and
therewith He strikes whom He wills, yet they (disbelievers)
dispute about Allah. And He is Mighty in strength and Severe in
punishment.) [Ar-Ra‟d ; 13:12-13] [Tafseer Ibn Kathir]

119
Every single person has two angels who write down his deeds,
good and bad, minor and major. Allah says (interpretation of the
meaning):
―But verily, over you (are appointed angels in charge of mankind)
to watch you, Kiraman (Honourable) Katibeen —writing down
(your deeds), They know all that you do.‖ [Al-Infitar; 82:10-
12]

―And indeed We have created man, and We know what his own
self whispers to him. And We are nearer to him than his jugular
vein (by Our Knowledge). (Remember) that the two receivers
(recording angels) receive (each human being), one sitting on the
right and one on the left (to note his or her actions). Not a word
does he (or she) utter but there is a watcher by him ready (to
record it).‖ [Qaf; 50:16-18]

The angel on the right records hasanat (good deeds) and the
angel on the left records sayyiat (bad deeds).

It was reported from Abu Umamah that the Messenger of Allah


(peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: ―The angel on
the left does not write down anything until six hours have passed
after a Muslim does a bad deed. If he regrets it and asks Allah for
forgiveness, he casts it aside [does not write it down], otherwise
he writes down one (sayyiah/bad deed).‖ [al-Tabaraani]

Ayats Requiring Sajda-e-Tilawat

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (ra) that when, the


son of Adam (a) recites the Ayat of sajdah (prostration) and then
falls down in prostration, the Satan goes into seclusion and
weeps and says: ‗Alas, and in the narration of Abu Kuraib the
words are: Woe unto me, the son of Adam was commanded to
prostrate, and he prostrated and Paradise was entitled to him
and I was commanded to prostrate, but I refused and I am
doomed to Hell.‘ (Sahih Muslim, Book #001, Hadith
#0144)

There are fifteen places in the Qur‘an where we should perform


120
Sajdah al-tilaawat (prostration of recitation) when reciting them.
It was reported from ‗Amr ibn al-‗Aas that the Messenger of Allah
(sollallahu ‗alaihi wa sallaam) recited to him fifteen ayats in the
Qur‘an where one should prostrate, three of which are in al-
Mufassal and two in Surah al-Hajj. It was reported by Abu
Dawood, Ibn Maajah, al-Haakim and al-Daaraqutni, and classed
as hasan by al-Mundhiri and al-Nawawi. The fifteen aayat are
(interpretation of the meanings):

Sajdah # 1: Surah Al A‟raf (7) Ayah 206


―Those who are near to thy Lord, disdain not to do Him worship:
They celebrate His praises, and bow down before Him.‖

Sajdah # 2: Surah Al Ra‟d (13) Ayah 15


―Whatever beings there are in the heavens and the earth does
prostrate themselves to Allah (acknowledging subjection), - with
good-will or in spite of themselves: so do their shadows in the
morning and evenings.‖

Sajdah # 3: Surah Al Nahl (16) Ayah 50


―They all revere their Lord, high above them, and they do all that
they are commanded.‖

Sajdah # 4: Surah Al Isra‟ (17) Ayah 109


―They fall down on their faces in tears, and it increases their
(earnest) humility.‖

Sajdah # 5: Surah Maryam (19) Ayah 58


―Those were some of the prophets on whom Allah did bestow His
Grace, - of the posterity of Adam, and of those who We
carried (in the Ark) with Noah, and of the posterity of Abraham
and Israel of those whom We guided and chose. Whenever the
Signs of (Allah) Most Gracious were rehearsed to them, they
would fall down in prostrate adoration and in tears.‖

Sajdah # 6: Surah Al Hajj (22) Ayah 18


―Seest thou not that to Allah bow down in worship all things that
are in the heavens and on earth,- the sun, the moon, the stars;
the hills, the trees, the animals; and a great number among
121
mankind? But a great number are (also) such as are fit for
Punishment: and such as Allah shall disgrace, - None can raise to
honour: for Allah carries out all that He wills.‖

Sajdah # 7: Surah Al Hajj (22) Ayah 77


―O ye who believe! bow down, prostrate yourselves, and adore
your Lord; and do good; that ye may prosper.‖

Sajdah # 8: Surah Al Furqan (25) Ayah 60


―When it is said to them, ―Adore ye (Allah) Most Gracious!‖ they
say, ―And what is (Allah) Most Gracious? Shall we adore that
which thou commandest us?‖ And it increases their flight (from
the Truth).‖

Sajdah # 9: Surah Al Naml (27) Ayah 26


―God!- there is no god but He!- Lord of the Throne Supreme!‖

Sajdah # 10: Surah Al Sajdah (32) Ayah 15


―Only those believe in Our Signs, who, when they are recited to
them, fall down in adoration, and celebrate the praises of their
Lord, nor are they (ever) puffed up with pride.‖

Sajdah # 11: Surah Sad (38) Ayah 24


―(David) said: ―He has undoubtedly wronged thee in demanding
thy (single) ewe to be added to his (flock of) ewes: truly many are
the partners (in business) who wrong each other: Not so do those
who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and how few are
they?‖ …and David gathered that We had tried him: he asked
forgiveness of his Lord, fell down, bowing (in prostration), and
turned (to Allah in repentance).‖

Sajdah # 12: Surah Fussilat (41) Ayah 38


―But if the (Unbelievers) are arrogant, (no matter): for in the
presence of thy Lord are those who celebrate His praises by night
and by day. And they never flag (nor feel themselves above it).‖

Sajdah # 13: Surah Al Najm (53) Ayah 62


―But fall ye down in prostration to Allah, and adore (Him)!‖

122
Sajdah # 14: Surah Al Inshiqaq (84) Ayah 21
―And when the Qur‘an is read to them, they fall not prostrate,‖

Sajdah # 15: Surah Al Alaq (96) Ayah 19


―Nay, heed him not: But bow down in adoration, and bring
thyself the closer (to Allah)!‖

Lessons and Reflection

1. Rationale for existence of Allah and Here after: Allah (swt)


created the heavens; they are above us without any visible
means of support. Then He established Himself above the
heavens on His throne. He created the universe for the
benefit of humankind. It is the truth although most people
do not believe it.

2. Lightning, clouds – its creation and management of this


samawat in control of Allah (swt): The sun and the moon
float in their orbits, they are on a specific course for a
specified amount of time. The world around us is full of
signs and the revelations are clear in order that we have
no doubt concerning our meeting with God in the
Hereafter. Allah (swt) crowded the samawat with signs to
ponder and reflect upon; there are rivers, mountains, fruit
and plants, and the regular cycle of night and day. The
earth is filled with all sorts of vegetation, they are all
watered with rain but some are of better quality. These
signs are obvious for those who think.

3. Allah (swt) knows the obvious and the unseen: Allah (swt)
knows everything about birth and wombs; He knows both
the obvious and the hidden. Speaking in whispers or being
in the cover of darkness does not conceal anything from
Him. Each person has two guardian angels. God Almighty
will not change the condition of a people unless they
change themselves. If Allah (swt) intends to punish a
people, then no one can prevent it. The only real
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protection is from Almighty One Himself.

4. Hearts find rest & comfort in the remembrance of Allah:


Lord Almighty provide guidance to those who seek it, who
want it. They are the ones who believe and find peace in
Allah‘s remembrance. Their heart‘s delight is in Allah‘s
Zikr, whether it is quiet contemplation, or talking to Allah,
or reading Salat and the Qur‘an or talking to others about
Allah (swt). These are the ones who are guided by Allah to
peace and success in both the worlds. Calamities come
due to our own short comings and sins, a believer always
evaluate himself by gratifying the blessings given by the
Sustainer Allah (swt).

5. Umm-ul-Kitab is the Source and Origin of all the revealed


Books: Every age has its own (revealed) Book. Those who
remember Allah (swt) will have a reward that looks like
this; flowing streams, everlasting fruit and shade. But the
unbelievers have nothing but the Fire. Those who
accepted Islam from among the People of the Book (Jews
and Christians) rejoice at the new revelations (Qur‘an) but
some from among the People of the Book deny parts of it.
The Qur‘an has been revealed in Arabic. If Prophet
Muhammad (s) was to follow the vain desires of some of
his community after knowledge had been given to him,
nothing could protect him from the wrath of Allah (swt).

6. All the messengers were ridiculed: The messengers before


Muhammad (s) had wives and children but none had the
power to perform miracles without God‘s permission. In
every time period there was a book (or revelation) and
God confirms or erases whatever He wills because He is
the source. Some people ask Prophet Muhammad (s)
astonishing questions about whether or not they will be
resurrected. They challenge Prophet Muhammad (s) to

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bring about the punishment he refers to rather than
asking God for forgiveness. God is full of forgiveness but
also severe in punishment. They stubbornly demand a
miracle of their choice, but Prophet Muhammad (s) is a
warner, nothing more.

125
14. Surah Ibrahim (Prophet Abraham)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Ibrahim In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The Surah takes its name from Ayah 35 where the mention of
Prophet Ibrahim (a) was made, but it does not mean that it
contains the life story of Ibrahim (a) as a whole, but considerable
mention is made of Prophet Ibrahim (a) and his prayer for the
city of Makkah and his descendants. It has 52 ayats and 7 Ruku‘
(Section).

The righteous and grateful in this world will be suitably rewarded


in the Hereafter; while the ungrateful and disbelievers will be
punished. Each person will be brought to account for his/her
actions.

Period of Revelation

It was revealed during the last stage of Makki period of Prophet


Muhammad (s), except the ayats 28 and 29 that are about those
killed in Badr Campaign and are revealed in Madinah. It is
probably one of the last Makki Surahs.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The purpose of the Qur'an is to lead humankind to light.


2. Prophets and their people.
3. Non-believers threatened the Prophets, but Allah's
promise to the Prophets.
4. Shaitan misleads the disbelievers in this world, but in the
hereafter he would leave them in the lurch.
5. The ingratitude of people
6. Prophet Ibrahim's (a) prayer for Makkah, for its people
126
and for his own children
7. Allah (swt) is aware of what the wrongdoers are doing,
their respite and end.
Subject Matter of the Surah

This Surah is an admonition and a warning to the disbelievers


who were rejecting the Message of the Prophet Muhammad (s)
and devising cunning schemes to defeat his Mission. A good deal
of admonition had already been made in the previous Surahs,
but in spite of this their stubbornness, enmity, hatred, mischief,
harassment, etc. had rather increased.

The purpose of this guidance is to take the people from darkness


to light. Many people in the past had doubts about their
prophets. They laughed at them and they threatened to kill them
or expel them from their towns. However, the lasting word is the
"good word."

The Surah also mentions Prophet Ibrahim's (a) prayer when he


established the city of Makkah.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1-5): This Book is revealed to bring mankind out of


darkness into light. All prophets spoke the language of their own
people. The Prophet Musa (a) was sent to lead his people out of
darkness into light.

Ayats (6-12): If all the dwellers of earth become nonbelievers, it


makes no difference to Allah (swt). Those before us - Allah (swt)
presented us the same old Dailogue between the Rasools and
their nation‘s (the people of Noah and 'Aad and Thamud and
those after them) refused in these ayats. Let the believers put
their trust in Allah (swt).

Ayats (13-21): Allah (swt) punishes the wrongdoers & blesses


those who gratify His eminence. Lord Almighty has based the
creation of heavens and earth on Truth.
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Ayats (12-27): Shaitan has no power over human beings - he only
invites and people follow him. Greetings in Paradise will be
'Peace'. Example of a "good word" is like a root which is firmly
fixed and its branches spring up to the sky and example of a "bad
word" has no stability gets uprooted from the surface of the earth
easily.

Ayats (28-34): Those who show ingratitude towards Allah's


favours shall be cast into Hell. Allah (swt) has given us countless
favours.

Ayats (35-41): Prophet Ibrahim (a) prayed for the city of Makkah
and its residents. The prayer of the Prophet Ibrahim (a) was, ―My
Lord! Make me a performer of the prayer and of my offspring
(too): Our Lord! And accept my petition; Our Lord! Forgive me
and my parents, and the believers on the Day when the
reckoning shall come to pass.‖ [14: 40-41] which is made a part
of Muslims five daily prayers.

Ayats (42-52): Never think that Allah (swt) is unaware of the


unjust, or that He will ever break His promise made to His
Rasools. Allah is the One and Only God.

Virtue of the Surah

Ibrahim (a), an Imam (leader) to the people


Ibrahim (a) was born in a house of idolaters in the ancient city of
Ur of the Chaldees, likely the place called 'Ur' in present-day
Iraq, in which case, the idolaters would have been practitioners
of the hypothesized Ancient Mesopotamian religion.

His father Azar was a well-known idol-sculptor that his people


worshiped. As a young child, Ibrahim used to watch his father
sculpting these idols from stones or wood. When his father was
finished with them, Ibrahim (a) would ask his father why they
could not move or respond to any request and then would mock
them; therefore, his father would always ground him for not
following his ancestors‘ rituals and mocking their idols.

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After Ibrahim (a) qualified in all the trials of Allah (swt), He, the
Exalted, decided to make him an Imam meaning a Prophet and
leader and an example for the people to come:
"And remember that Ibrahim was tried by his Lord with certain
Commands, which he fulfilled: He said: "I will make thee an
Imam to the Nations." He pleaded: "And also (Imams) from my
offspring!" He answered: "But My Promise is not within the
reach of evil-doers." [Surah Al Baqarah 2:124]

"...and We granted him his reward in this life; and he was in the
Hereafter (of the company) of the Righteous." [Surah Al
'Ankabut 29:27]

Allah (swt) granted Prophethood and Divine Books to his


progeny:
"We gave him Ishaque and Yaqub: all (three) We guided: and
before him, We guided Nuh, and among his progeny, Dawud,
Sulaiman, Ayyub, Yusuf, Musa, and Harun: thus do We reward
those who do good: And Zakariya and Yahya, and Isa and Ilyas:
all in the ranks of the righteous: And Ismail and Al-Yas'a, and
Yunus, and Lut: and to all We gave favour above the nations: (To
them) and to their fathers, and progeny and brethren: We chose
them, and We guided them to a straight Way. This is the
Guidance of Allah: He giveth that guidance to whom He pleaseth,
of His worshippers. If they were to join other gods with Him, all
that they did would be vain for them." [Surah Al An'am 6:84-
88]

Thus, every Book (Scripture) was given to the Prophets from the
progeny of Ibrahim (a). From Ishaque (a), the second son of
Ibrahim came the Prophets of Israel and their progeny finished
on Isa (a). From Ismail (a), the first son of Ibrahim (a) came only
one Prophet, the superior among them and the seal of them,
which is Prophet Muhammad (s).

Thus, Ibrahim (a) acquires great respect and honour in the


hearts of Muslims. He is the most superior of the Prophets after
Prophet Muhammad (s). Therefore, when we send prayers and
blessings on our Prophet, we are also ordered to mention his
129
name.

Narrated by Abdur-Rahman bin Abi Laila: "Ka'b bin Ujrah met


me and said, "Shall I not give you a present I got from the
Prophet?" 'Abdur-Rahman said, "Yes, give it to me." I said, "We
asked Allah's Apostle saying, 'O Allah's Apostle! How should one
(ask Allah to) send blessings on you, the members of the family,
for Allah has taught us how to salute you (in the prayer)?'He
said, 'Say: O Allah! Send Your Mercy on Muhammad and on the
family of Muhammad, as You sent Your Mercy on Ibrahim and
on the family of Ibrahim, for You are the Most Praise-worthy, the
Most Glorious. O Allah! Send Your Blessings on Muhammad and
the family of Muhammad, as You sent your Blessings on Ibrahim
and on the family of Ibrahim, for You are the Most Praise-
worthy, the Most Glorious.'‖ [Sahih Bukhari, Book #55,
Hadith #589]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Allah (swt) never sent a Rasool [Messenger] for the


guidance of a nation except one who spoke the language of
those people.
2. If every human being becomes a disbeliever, it makes no
difference to Almighty Allah.
3. The message of all Prophets and Messengers was the
same.
4. Allah (swt) increases his blessings if a person shows
gratitude.
5. Allah (swt) has based the creation of the heavens and the
earth on Truth.
6. Shaitan has no power except to seduce human beings.
7. Greeting in paradise will be "Assalam-u-Alaikum" which
means: "peace be upon you."
8. A Good word has firmly fixed roots whose branches reach
the sky, yielding its fruits in every season. Whereas evil
word is like a bad tree which is not stable, devoid of
blessings instead of providing benefits it produces bitter
fruits. Allah (swt) contrasted the oneness of Divine Belief
with the Shirk and Kufr most vividly.
130
9. The purpose of this book al-Qur‘an is to enlighten all of us
from darkness into light towards our Lord. Unbelievers
have coolly considered and weighed the pleasures of this
world against the joys of the Next World, and decided in
favour of this world.
10. Historical events are Signs that serve as warnings and
reminder of blessings to invite towards obedience. Signs
are always there, only those persons learn lessons from
them who remain steadfast in trials and appreciate the
blessings of Allah.

131
15. Surah al-Hijr (The Valley of Stone; The Stoneland;
The Rock; The Rocky Tract)
Concise Tafseer of Surah al-Hijr In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of this Surah is taken from Ayah 80 where the people
of Salih (a) used to live. Its title comes from the Rocky Tract that
is mentioned in ayats 80 to 84. The majority of scholars believe
this refers to the people of Thamud and the rocky tract is an
allusion to their stone cities. Its topics and style are very similar
to Surah 14, Surah Ibrahim. In this Surah we learn about
Almighty God‘s boundless grace and the inherent danger in
Shaitan‘s plans for humankind. The Surah has 99 ayats in 6
Ruku‘ (Section).

Period of Revelation

This Surah is generally believed as the 52nd Surah


chronologically. It was revealed to Prophet Muhammad (s) in
Makkah prior to his migration. It is clear from its topics and style
that the period of its revelation is about the same as that of Surah
Ibrahim, for two things is quite prominent in its background.
This Makki Surah believed to be revealed to our prophet (s)
shortly after the 12th Surah (Yusuf).

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Qur'an is the Book of Allah (swt). He revealed it and He


will guard it.
2. Allah (swt) knows everything in the samawat. He is the
Creator of all.
3. The creation of human being is from a very humble stuff,
4. but Allah (swt) honoured them and asked angels to bow
down to Adam (swt). Shaitan's response was negative.
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5. Allah (swt) is very forgiving, but His punishment is also
severe.
6. Prophet Lut (a) and Prophet Shu'aib (a)'s people.
7. The People of Hijr and what happened to them. Qur'an
and Surah al-Fatihah are special gifts of Allah. Allah (swt)
will take care of those who ridicule His message.
Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah 14 begins with the same combination of letters - Alif,


Lam, Ra. Over the centuries there has been much speculation as
to the meaning of these combinations of letter that begin 29
Surahs of the Qur‘an. Their meaning however is known only to
Allah (swt). The Qur‘an makes the truth manifest on its own.

Most of the discussions in this noble Surah are about the


accusations and scoffs of the pagans unto the Qur‘an and the
blissful Prophet (s), as well as some commandments to him to be
patient and perseverant with forbearance towards them.
It provided some kind of comfort and soothing effect as against
the pressure exerted by the invasion of the opponents after the
death of Khadijah (rh) and Hadrat Abu-Talib, both of whom
were dear to the Prophet (s).

Some of the ayats deal with the origin of the world of existence,
and belief in Him which are brought about by the study of the
secrets of creation. The story of man‘s creation, and the
disobedience of Iblis, as well as his ultimate destiny, is also
exposed.

There are also allusions made to the biography of such tribes as


the people of Lut (a), the people of Salih (a), and the people of
Shu‗ayb (a). The Surah states that Allah (swt) has never
destroyed any people whose term of life was not ordained
beforehand. Allah (swt) declares that it is He Who revealed the
Qur‘an and He will guard it from any corruption.

In the end, Allah (swt) reminds Prophet Muhammad (s) that He


133
gave him great blessings like the seven oft-repeated ayats (the
opening Surah of the Qur‘an) and the Qur‘an, in which there is
light and guidance.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 15): The Qur'an is the Divine Book. On the Day of


Judgment, the unbelievers will wish that they were Muslims.
Allah (swt) Himself has taken the responsibility of preserving the
Qur'an.

Ayats (16 - 25): Allah (swt) created and decorated the heavens.
He also created everything suitable for human life on earth.

Ayats (26 - 44): Story of Adam's (a) creation; prostration of the


angels before him and Shaitan's refusal to prostrate. Shaitan and
his followers are destined for hell.

Ayats (45 - 60): The righteous will be awarded paradise. The


Prophet Ibrahim (a) is given the good news of a son by two
angels.

Ayats (61 - 79): The same angels came to the Prophet Lut (a) and
executed Allah (swt)'s decree of stoning to death the nation of
homosexuals.

Ayats (80 -99): Punishment to the people of Hijr for their


disbelief. Al-Fatiha is also called: "Seven ayats worthy of oft-
recitation." Allah (swt) told Muhammad (s) to proclaim the
commandments of Almighty Allah publicly and turn away from
the Mushrikeen.

Virtue of the Surah

The Expulsion of Iblis from Jannah, and His Reprieve


until the Day of Resurrection

Allah tells us how He issued an unconditional command to Iblis


to leave the position he held among the highest of heights. He
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told him that he was an outcast, i.e., cursed, and that he would be
followed by a curse that would hound him until the Day of
Resurrection. It was reported that Sa`id bin Jubayr said: "When
Allah cursed Iblis, his image into something different from that
of the angels, and he made a sound like a bell. Every bell that
rings on this earth until the Day of Resurrection is part of that.
This was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim.

Iblis said: ―O my Lord! Because You misled me, I shall indeed


adorn the path of error for them (mankind) on the earth, and I
shall mislead them all, except Your chosen (guided) servants
among them.'' (Allah) said: "This is the way which will lead
straight to Me.'' "Certainly, you shall have no authority over My
servants, except those of the astray who follow you.'' And surely,
Hell is the place promised for them all. It has seven gates, for
each of those gates is a class assigned. [Al-Hijr: 15:39-44]

Al-Hijr: capital city of the people of Thamud, and


modern city ruins of Al-Ula

The Thamud are another ancient Arab people, next only to the
'Ad in fame. Legends relating to them were quite popular in pre-
Islamic Arabia. In fact poetry and orations of the pre-Islamic
(Jahiliyah) period abound with references to them. They are also
mentioned in the Assyrian inscriptions and in the Greek,
Alexandrian and Roman works of history and geography.

Some descendants of the Thamud survived to a little before the


birth of Jesus. The Roman historians mention that they entered
into the Roman army and fought against the Nabateans, their
arch-enemy.

The Thamud lived in the north-western part of Arabia which is


still called al-Hijr. In the present time there is a station on the
Hijaz railway, between Madina and Tabuk. This is called Mada'in
Salih, which was the capital town of Thamud and was then
known as al-Hijr, the rock-hewn city. This has survived to this
day and is spread over thousands of acres. It was once inhabited
by no less than half a million people. At the time of the revelation
135
of the Qur'an Arab trade caravans passed through the ruins of
this city.

While the Prophet (peace be on him) was on his way, to Tabuk,


he directed the Muslims to look upon these monuments and
urged them to learn the lessons which sensible persons ought to
learn from the ruins of a people that had been destroyed because
of their evil-doing. The Prophet (peace be on him) also pointed to
the well from which the she-camel of the Prophet Salih used to
drink. He instructed the Muslims to draw water from that well
alone and to avoid all other wells. The mountain pass through
which that she-camel came to drink was also indicated by the
Prophet (peace be on him).

The pass is still known as Fajj al-Naqah. The Prophet (peace be


on him) then gathered all the Muslims who had been directed to
look around that city of rocks, and addressed them. He drew
their attention to the tragic end of the Thamud, who by their evil
ways had invited God's punishment upon themselves. The
Prophet (peace he on him) asked them to hastily move ahead for
the place was a grim reminder of God's severe punishment and
he hence called for reflection and repentance. (See waqidi, al-
maghazi, vol. 3, pp. 1006-8. See also the comments of
Ibn Kathir on verses 73-8 - Ed.)

When Ibn Batutah reached there in the eighth century of Hijrah


on his way to Makkah, he wrote: I have seen the buildings of
Thamud hewed into red mountains; the paintings look so bright
as if they have been put on only recently, and rotten bones of
human beings are found in them even today."

The Gates of Hell are Seven

Then Allah tells us that Hell has seven gates: [Al-Hijr: Ayah
44]

(for each of those gates is a (special) class (of sinners) assigned.)

136
means, for each gate a portion of the followers of Iblis have been
decreed, and they will have no choice in the matter. May Allah
save us from that. Each one will enter a gate according to his
deeds, and will settle in a level of Hell according to his deeds. Ibn
Abi Hatim recorded that Samurah bin Jundub reported from the
Prophet about,
(for each of those gates is a class assigned.) He said,

(Among the people of Hell are those whom the Fire will swallow
up to the ankles, and those whom it will swallow up to the waist,
and those whom it will swallow up to the collarbone.) The degree
of which will depend upon their deeds. This is like the Ayah;
(for each of those gates is a class assigned.)

Truly, those who have Taqwa, will dwell in Gardens and water
springs. (It will be said to them): "Enter it in peace and security.''
And We shall remove any deep feeling of bitterness from their
breasts. (So they will be like) brothers facing each other on
thrones. No sense of fatigue shall touch them, nor shall they be
asked to leave it. Declare to My servants that I am truly the
Forgiving, the Most Merciful. And that My torment is indeed the
most painful torment. [Al-Hijr: Ayah 45 -50]
[Tafsir Ibn Kathir]

The levels of Hell differ according to the extent of their


inhabitants‘ kufr in this world. The hypocrites will be in the
lowest level of Hell, as our Lord has told us (interpretation of the
meaning):
―Verily, the hypocrites will be in the lowest depth (grade) of the
Fire; no helper will you find for them‖ [al-Nisa‟ 4:145]

Lut (a) and his Qawm

Lut (Lot) is the son of Haran the son of Azar (Terah), and he was
the nephew of Ibrahim, peace be upon them both. Lut had
believed in Ibrahim and migrated with him to the Sham area.
Allah then sent Lut to the people of Sadum (Sodom) and the
surrounding villages, to call them to Allah, enjoin righteousness
and forbid them from their evil practices, their sin, and
137
wickedness. In this area, they did things that none of the children
of Adam or any other creatures ever did before them. They used
to have sexual intercourse with males instead of females. This
evil practice was not known among the Children of Adam before,
nor did it even cross their minds, so they were unfamiliar with it
before the people of Sodom invented it, may Allah's curse be on
them. [Tasir Ibn Kathir]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Lessons from the earlier nations: The disbelievers will one


day come to wish that they had submitted themselves to
God Almighty. For the moment they are distracted and
enjoying themselves but one day they will understand.
Allah (swt) has never destroyed a people except at the
time that was previously decreed.

2. The Sustainer: Allah (swt) created the heaven and made it


beautiful by filling it with constellations. He is the One
who protects it from the devils and those who try to
eavesdrop on the inhabitants of the heaven are followed
by a fiery comet. Lord Almighty spread out the earth and
set mountains into it. He caused vegetation of many kinds
to grow in a balanced order. There is a means of
sustenance for every living thing. God Almighty sends the
winds to fertilise the earth, the rain to provide water.
Humankind has no control over this. It is God Almighty
who controls life and death and He knows who has existed
in the past and will exist in the future. In the end Lord
Almighty will gather them all together.

3. God Almighty will guard the Qur‘an: Allah (swt) Himself


has taken the responsibility of preserving and
safeguarding Al-Qur'an.

4. Who is Shaitan?: Humankind was created from clay


(altered black mud) and the jinn were created before
138
humankind from smokeless fire. When God Almighty
created Adam (a) he told the angels to bow down before
him (Adam) and they did. One person called Iblis (also
called Shaitan) refused. Iblis was cast out and cursed
until the Day of Judgment. Shaitan asked for a reprieve
until that Day and God Almighty granted it to him. Iblis
vowed to mislead humankind and make disobedience
attractive to all of them except the ones sincerely devoted
to Allah (swt).

5. Gardens for the righteous: The righteous however will


enter into gardens and springs. They will be told to enter
in peace and security. All resentments and bitterness will
be removed from their hearts. They will treat each other
like close family members. It is a place from which they
will never be turned out and they will never be tired.

6. The angels visit the two Prophets Ibrahim (a) and Lut (a):
The Prophet Ibrahim (a) was given the good news of
having a son by the same two angels who were assigned to
destroy the nation of Lut (a). Lut‘s qawm‘s town was
turned upside down and stones of baked clay rained down
upon them.

7. Forgiveness and kindness: God Almighty created the


heaven and the earth and everything in between with a
purpose. The Hour will come (where the truth will become
apparent), so Prophet Muhammad (s) is advised to
overlook and forgive their misbehaviour. He has been told
not to envy what they have in this world, and not to get
upset about himself with regret for their rejection of him
and their opposition to his message. Almighty Allah is
enough to stand against all those who ridicule the
message. Those who worship something other than Allah
(swt) will soon come to understand their stupidity.

139
16. An-Nahl (The Honey Bee)
Concise Tafseer of Surah An-Nahl In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This Surah is a Makki Surah. It is named after the bee mentioned


in ayats 68 and 69. As a Book of Divine Legislation al-Qur‘an,
―The bee‖ is one of many examples mentioned in this Surah of
God‘s grace towards His creation. Along with this one -An-Nahl
(the bee), others include An-Najm (the star), Ash-Shams (the
sun), Al-Fil (the elephant), and Al-‗‘Ankabut (the spider). An-
Nahl ayah 49 has tilwat-e-sajdah, but the sajdah should be
performed after reading the ayah 50. This Surah has 128 ayats in
16 Ruku‘ (Section).

Period of Revelation

It is the 70th Surah according to the order of revelation. This is


one of the late Makki Surahs revealed sometime before the
Hijrah. This and previous six Surahs (Yunus, Hud, Yusuf, Ar-
Ra'd, Ibrahim and Al-Hijr) were revealed one after another. The
time period and themes are similar.

Incidentally, most of the commentators are of the opinion that


first 40 ayats are revealed at the end of Makki era of Muhammad
(s), and the remaining 88 ayats are revealed during the early
period of Prophet‘s (s) Madani life. Therefore, this Surah is both
Makki and Madani in combination.

According to Sayyid Abu Ala Maududi, this Surah was revealed


during the last stage of Rasul (s)‘s Makki period. He provided the
following reasons for it;
 Ayah 41 clearly shows that persecution had forced some
Muslims to emigrate to Habash before the revelation of
this Surah.
 Ayah 106 gives evidence that the persecution of Muslims
was at its height. Therefore, a problem had arisen in
140
regard to the utterance of a blasphemous word under
unbearable conditions.
 Ayats 112 to 114 clearly refer to the end of seven year
draught/famine that had struck Makkah some years after
the appointment of Prophethood of Rasul Muhammad (s).
Surah Ibrahim, Al-Hijr and An-Nahl – are revealed at a time of
great trials upon the Prophet (s) and the Muslims – which all
then lead to the point of Isra wal-Mi‘raj – where the Loved meets
The Beloved.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The whole creation points to Allah (swt).


2. The truth is that there is only One God Almighty.
3. The reward of the righteous and the disgrace of the
wicked.
4. Allah's message has come. Man is a creature of Allah
(swt), but he argues a lot.
5. Mushrikin's argument and the answer.
6. Prophets were human beings. The mission of the last
Prophet (s). Warnings to non-believers.
7. Prohibition against shirk. Arabs used to call angels the
daughters of Allah but they themselves did not like to have
daughters.
8. Allah (swt) gives time to people to repent and turn to him.
9. Consider the bounties of Allah (swt). Some more signs
mentioned.
10. The comparison between the faithful and the unfaithful.
11. Warnings about the Last Hour. Allah's favours to
humankind.

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12. Prophet Muhammad (s) is a witness over all witnesses.
13. Justice, benevolence, care of the kith and kin are Allah's
commands. He forbids shameful deeds, evil and
aggression.
14. Al-Qur'an is sent by Allah; even the Prophet cannot make
any changes in it.
15. Every soul will be paid in full what it has earned. Halal
and Haram are the authority of Allah the Almighty.
16. The ideal faith of Prophet Ibrahim (a). The best way of
giving da'wah.
Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah speaks about Allah's creative power. Everything in the


samawat points to Allah (swt). There is coherence and balance in
Allah's creation. The issues dealt with in this Surah are: the
Divine blessings, reasons for monotheism and resurrection,
ordinances concerning the war, the threats against the pagans,
the dissuasions of injustice, indecency, breaking of one‘s
promises, innovations, and satanical temptations.

This Surah warns against polytheism, saying that the pagan gods
cannot create anything [16:20], and against comparisons
between Allah (swt) and any created beings [16:74]. All praises
come from Almighty Allah for giving the Earth with all its wealth
to mankind. All wonders of the natural world, like seas, stars,
mountains are proofs of God's infinite power [16:14].

The ayah 66 talks about the miracle in milk formation in cattle:


"From what is within their bodies, between excretions and blood,
We produce for your drink, milk, pure and agreeable to those
who drink it." The ayah 67 talks about miracle of vine: "And from
the fruit of the date-palm and the vine, ye get out strong drink
and wholesome food: behold, in this also is a sign for those who
are wise".

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So, the Surah stresses on the wonders of the Almighty Allah and
deplores the hostile attitude of some men towards the female
child. Allah (swt) enjoins justice, kindness and charity on one‘s
kindred and forbids indecency, wickedness and oppression - in
ayah 90 - which were ordered by the Khalifa Umar Ibn Khattab
(ra), to be regularly recited in every khutbah (sermon) of the
Yaamul Jumu‘ah prayer. The Surah commands believers to call
men to the path of Allah, with kindness, wisdom and gentle
urging.

In the concluding ayats Prophet Muhammad (s) and his


companions are instructed how to act in the face of antagonism
and persecution. We are told to call the people to Lord Almighty
with wisdom and good advice. And reason with them in a
courteous manner. God Almighty knows best who will be guided
and who will go astray. Muhammad (s) is told to be patient and
not to grieve or be distressed by the conspiracies of the
disbelievers. Almighty Allah is with those who are mindful of
Him and have an attitude of righteousness.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 9): Allah (swt) has sent down His revelations to warn
that there is no God except He Himself. He has created cattle for
the benefit of human beings.

Ayats (10 - 21): It is He Who sends down water from the sky for
drinking and agriculture. He set mountains to stabilize the earth.
Allah (swt) has bestowed so many favors, one cannot even count
them.

Ayats (22 - 25): The unbelievers are arrogant and they will be
held responsible for that attitude.

Ayats (26 - 34): On the Day of Judgment, Allah (swt) will


humiliate the arrogant and cast them into hell while the
righteous will be awarded paradise.

Ayats (35 - 40): Allah has sent the Rasools to warn against the
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unbelievers' excuse: "If Allah wanted, we would have not
worshipped anyone else."

Ayats (41 - 50): Allah has promised a good abode for those who
migrate for His sake. Do the unbelievers feel secure against the
wrath of Allah (swt).

Ayats (51 - 60): Whenever unbelievers are in distress they call


upon Allah Alone; no sooner does He relieves them that they
start committing shirk.

Ayats (61 - 65): If Allah were to punish mankind for wrong


doings, He would not leave even an animal around the
wrongdoers. As water gives life to dead land so does the Qur'an
to the human soul.

Ayats (66 - 70): There is a lesson for mankind in the lives of


animals i.e., milk-producing animals and the honeybee.

Ayats (71 - 76): There is a lesson in the process of our own


creation: Why, then, believe in deities who have no power to
create anything and disbelieve in Allah, the Creator?

Ayats (77 - 83): There are also signs of Allah in the lives of the
birds and the animals.

Ayats (84 - 89): On the Day of Judgment a witness will be called


from each nation and the unbelievers will face the reality of their
invented false gods. The punishment of disbelievers has been
mentioned. Witness from every nation will be there and the
Prophet (s) as witness to all.

Ayats(90 - 100): Allah commands to do justice, do good to


others, and give to near relatives; and He forbids indecency,
wickedness, and rebellion. Don‘t break your covenants. What is
with you is transitory; and what is with Allah is everlasting. Good
life for the believers in this world and their reward in the
hereafter. When you recite the Qur'an, seek Allah's protection
against Shaitan.
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Ayats(101 - 110): The unbelievers accused Muhammad (s) of
being taught the Qur'an by a certain man, but the man they
allude to is non-Arab while the Qur'an is in eloquent Arabic.

Ayats(111- 119): Do not declare with your tongue what is Halal


(lawful) and what is Haram (unlawful) - Halal and Haram are
from Allah (swt).

Ayats (120 - 128) Ibrahim (a) was a nation in himself. Call


towards the Way of Allah with wisdom; advice and reason in a
courteous manner.

Virtue of the Surah

Ayats Requiring Sajda-e-Tilawat

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (ra) that when, the


son of Adam (a) recites the Ayat of sajdah (prostration) and then
falls down in prostration, the Satan goes into seclusion and
weeps and says: ‗Alas, and in the narration of Abu Kuraib the
words are: Woe unto me, the son of Adam was commanded to
prostrate, and he prostrated and Paradise was entitled to him
and I was commanded to prostrate, but I refused and am
doomed to Hell.‘ (Sahih Muslim, Book #001, Hadith
#0144)

There are fifteen places in the Qur‘an where we should perform


Sajdah al-tilaawat (prostration of recitation) when reciting them.
It was reported from ‗Amr ibn al-‗Aas that the Messenger of Allah
(sollallahu ‗alaihi wa sallaam) recited to him fifteen ayats in the
Qur‘an where one should prostrate, three of which are in al-
Mufassal and two in Surah al-Hajj. It
was reported by Abu Dawood, Ibn Maajah, al-Haakim and al-
Daaraqutni, and classed as hasan by al-Mundhiri and al-Nawawi.
The fifteen aayat are (interpretation of the meanings):

Sajdah # 1: Surah Al A‟raf (7) Ayah 206

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―Those who are near to thy Lord, disdain not to do Him worship:
They celebrate His praises, and bow down before Him.‖

Sajdah # 2: Surah Al Ra‟d (13) Ayah 15


―Whatever beings there are in the heavens and the earth does
prostrate themselves to Allah (acknowledging subjection), - with
good-will or in spite of themselves: so do their shadows in the
morning and evenings.‖

Sajdah # 3: Surah Al Nahl (16) Ayah 50


―They all revere their Lord, high above them, and they do all that
they are commanded.‖

Sajdah # 4: Surah Al Isra‟ (17) Ayah 109


―They fall down on their faces in tears, and it increases their
(earnest) humility.‖

Sajdah # 5: Surah Maryam (19) Ayah 58


―Those were some of the prophets on whom Allah did bestow His
Grace, - of the posterity of Adam, and of those who We carried
(in the Ark) with Noah, and of the posterity of Abraham and
Israel of those whom We guided and chose. Whenever the
Signs of (Allah) Most Gracious were rehearsed to them, they
would fall down in prostrate adoration and in tears.‖

Sajdah # 6: Surah Al Hajj (22) Ayah 18


―Seest thou not that to Allah bow down in worship all things that
are in the heavens and on earth,- the sun, the moon, the stars;
the hills, the trees, the animals; and a great number among
mankind? But a great number are (also) such as are fit for
Punishment: and such as Allah shall disgrace, - None can
raise to honour: for Allah carries out all that He wills.‖

Sajdah # 7: Surah Al Hajj (22) Ayah 77


―O ye who believe! bow down, prostrate yourselves, and adore
your Lord; and do good; that ye may prosper.‖

Sajdah # 8: Surah Al Furqan (25) Ayah 60

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―When it is said to them, ―Adore ye (Allah) Most Gracious!‖ they
say, ―And what is (Allah) Most Gracious? Shall we adore that
which thou commandest us?‖ And it increases their flight (from
the Truth).‖

Sajdah # 9: Surah Al Naml (27) Ayah 26


―God! - there is no god but He!- Lord of the Throne Supreme!‖

Sajdah # 10: Surah Al Sajdah (32) Ayah 15


―Only those believe in Our Signs, who, when they are recited to
them, fall down in adoration, and celebrate the praises of their
Lord, nor are they (ever) puffed up with pride.‖

Sajdah # 11: Surah Sad (38) Ayah 24


―(David) said: ―He has undoubtedly wronged thee in demanding
thy (single) ewe to be added to his (flock of) ewes: truly many are
the partners (in business) who wrong each other: Not so do those
who believe and work deeds of righteousness, and how few are
they?‖ …and David gathered that We had tried him: he asked
forgiveness of his Lord, fell down, bowing (in prostration), and
turned (to Allah in repentance).‖

Sajdah # 12: Surah Fussilat (41) Ayah 38


―But if the (Unbelievers) are arrogant, (no matter): for in the
presence of thy Lord are those who celebrate His praises by night
and by day. And they never flag (nor feel themselves above it).‖

Sajdah # 13: Surah Al Najm (53) Ayah 62


―But fall ye down in prostration to Allah, and adore (Him)!‖

Sajdah # 14: Surah Al Inshiqaq (84) Ayah 21


―And when the Qur‘an is read to them, they fall not prostrate,‖

Sajdah # 15: Surah Al Alaq (96) Ayah 19


―Nay, heed him not: But bow down in adoration, and bring
thyself the closer (to Allah)!‖

In Man there is a Lesson

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Allah tells us that He is controlling the affairs of His servants. He
is the One Who created them out of nothing, then He will cause
them to die. But there are some of them that He allows to grow
old, which is a physical weakness, as Allah says:

(Allah is He Who created you in (a state of) weakness, then gave


you strength after weakness, then after strength gave (you)
weakness) (30:54)

(so that they know nothing after having known.) (16:71)


meaning, after he knew things, he will reach a stage where he
knows nothing because of weakness of mind due to old age and
senility. Thus Al-Bukhari, when commenting on this Ayah,
reported a narration from Anas bin Malik that the Messenger of
Allah used to pray:
(I seek refuge with You from miserliness, laziness, old age,
senility, the punishment of the grave, the Fitnah of the Dajjal and
the trials of life and death.) Zuhayr bin Abi Sulma said, in his
famous Mu`allaqah: "I became exhausted from the
responsibilities of life. Whoever lives for eighty years, no wonder
he is tired. I saw death hitting people like a crazed camel, and
whoever it hit dies, but whoever is not hit lives until he grows
old.''

(And Allah honored some of you over others with wealth and
properties. Then, those who are so honored will by no means
hand over their wealth and properties to those (captives of war)
whom their right hands possess, so that they may be equal with
them in that. Do they then deny the favor of Allah) (16:71)
[Tafsir ibn Kathir]

There is a Sign and a Blessing in Matters of People's


Livelihood

Allah explains to the idolaters the ignorance and disbelief


involved in their claim that Allah has partners while also
admitting that these partners are His servants. In their Talbiyah
for Hajj, they used to say, "Here I am, there are no partners for
You accept Your own partner, You own him and everything he
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owns.'' Allah says, denouncing them: `You would not accept for
your servant to have an equal share in your wealth, so how is it
that Allah would accept His servant to be His equal in divinity
and glory As Allah says elsewhere:

(He sets forth a parable for you from yourselves: Do you have
partners among those whom your right hands possess (i.e. your
servant) to share as equals in the wealth We have granted you,
those whom you fear as you fear each other) (30:28) Al-`Awfi
reported that Ibn `Abbas mentioned this Ayah, saying, "Allah is
saying - `If they did not want their servant to have a share with
them in their wealth and wives, how can My servant have a share
with Me in My power' Thus Allah says:
(Do they then deny the favor of Allah)'' (16:71) According to
another report, Ibn `Abbas said: "How can they accept for Me
that which they do not accept for themselves''

(Do they then deny the favor of Allah) meaning, they assign to
Allah a share of the tilth and cattle which He has created. They
denied His blessings and associated others in worship with Him.
Al-Hasan Al-Basri said: "Umar bin Al-Khattab wrote this letter to
Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari: `Be content with your provision in this
world, for the Most Merciful has honored some of His servants
over others in terms of provision as a test of both. The one who
has been given plenty is being tested to see if he will give thanks
to Allah and fulfill the duties which are his by virtue of his
wealth...''' It was reported by Ibn Abi Hatim.

(And Allah has made for you mates of your own kind, and has
made for you, from your mates, sons and grandsons, and has
granted you good provisions. Do they then believe in false deities
and deny favor of Allah) (16: 72) - [Tafsir ibn Kathir]

The Unseen belongs to Allah and only He has


Knowledge of the Hour

Allah tells us of the perfection of His knowledge and ability to do


all things, by telling us that He alone knows the Unseen of the
heavens and the earth. No one knows anything about such things
149
except for what Allah informs about as He wills. His complete
power, which no one can oppose or resist, means that when He
wants a thing, He only has to say to it "Be!'' and it is, as Allah
says:
(And Our commandment is but one as the twinkling of an eye.)
(54:50) meaning, whatever He wills happens in blinking. Thus
Allah says in Surah An-Nahl:
(And the matter of the Hour is not but as a twinkling of the eye,
or even nearer. Truly, Allah is Able to do all things.) (16:77) in
elsewhere, Allah says:
(The processes of creating you all and resurrecting you all are but
like that of (the creation and resurrection of) a single person.)
(31:28) - [Tafsir ibn Kathir]

In some quotations narrated from the Prophet Muhammad (s), it


has been confirmed that he said: ―He who recites this Surah,
Allah will not hold him accountable for the blessings which He
has bestowed on him in this world.‖ All means will be made
available to him to go to Paradise. [Tafsir-i-Burhan]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Allah‘s blessings for humankind: The Earth is filled with


things of many different colours; these are signs for those
seeking to learn a lesson from them. Allah (swt) has
provided us with signs in the lives of the bees, birds and
animals. Allah (swt) sends down rain. It provides drinking
water and it nourishes crops and fruit including olives,
date palms and vines. This is a sign for those who ponder.
God Almighty has made the day, the night, the sun, the
moon and stars for the benefit of humankind. These are
signs for those who think. There is sea where ships can
sail through so that humans may seek Allah‘s bounties.
These are all for the benefit of humankind; God Almighty
has also set the mountains firmly into the earth to prevent
it from shaking and He has made rivers and paths with
landmarks and stars to guide people through the lands.
Everything is a gift for us to provide thanks to the Lord
Almighty. If one attempted to count the blessings of God
150
Almighty, one could never complete this task.
2. There is no true deity but God Almighty Allah: For the
benefit of humankind God created cattle for food, clothing
and to carry burdens. He also created horses, mules and
donkeys to ride and other things that are beyond the
comprehension of humankind. The Day of Judgment is
coming one should not be impatient to experience it.
3. A warning to make things clear: If Allah Almighty
punished humankind for the evil that they do there would
not be one person left on the earth. Instead He gives them
respite, until an appointed time. It is a time that cannot be
delayed or bought forward. The followers of Shaitan will
face a painful punishment.
4. God Almighty does not guide the disbelievers: When Allah
(swt) substitute one ayah for another they say that
Prophet Muhammad (s) has invented lies but they do not
understand that angel Jibril (a) [Gabriel] has brought the
ayats down piecemeal in order to gradually strengthen the
believers. They say that a human being has taught Prophet
Muhammad (s) the revelations but this Qur‘an is in clear
Arabic. Allah has sent the Rasools to warn against the
unbeliever's excuse: "If Allah wanted we would have not
worshipped anyone else."
5. Allah's promise to provide a good abode for those who
migrate for His sake: Those who had to leave their homes
in order to worship God will find a home in a good place
but the home they have in the Hereafter will be even
better. A very happy end awaits those who are steadfast
and put their trust in Lord Almighty. All the messengers
God Almighty sent were human beings; the people of the
scripture (Jews and Christians) know this.
6. The disbelievers will feel no respite: The Prophet‘s duty is
only to deliver the message. Most people understand but
are ungrateful and turn away. On the Day of Judgment
there will be a witness (their Messenger) from every
nation. Then it will be too late for excuses. The
disbelievers will see what awaits them and there will be no
respite. When the disbelievers appeal to their false gods,
the gods will call them liars and disassociate themselves
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from the ones who worshipped them.
7. A warning to make things clear: The Qur‘an was revealed
in order to make the things they argue about clear and it is
a guidance and a mercy for those who believe.
8. Eat from the good things provided: Almighty Allah give us
an example of a town that was secure with provisions in
abundance. The people became ungrateful so they were
afflicted with famine and fear. They denied their
Messenger and the punishment overtook them. So eat
from the good things Lord Almighty has provided and be
grateful. Almighty Allah has forbidden only carrion, blood,
pig meat and that which has been dedicated to something
other than God. But if a person must eat these things out
of necessity God will be forgiving.
9. A righteous person uses wisdom and talk about God
Almighty: Prophet Ibrahim (a) is a good example, he was
devout and obedient. And he was a nation in himself too.
He was grateful and did not associate anything with Allah
(swt). He had a good life and will be amongst the
righteous in the Hereafter. The Sabbath day was made
obligatory because they argued and differed about it and
on the Day of Judgment God Almighty will judge between
them. The Jews were prohibited certain things but it was
not a hardship upon them, they turned it into a hardship.
God Almighty is most forgiving to those who do wrong out
of ignorance and then repent.
10. Allah orders Ihsan - i.e. justice (Adl ―‫ )‖عدي‬which is best:
Allah (swt) is One, those who do not believe in the
Hereafter are arrogant and their hearts contain no faith.
God Almighty does not like the arrogant because He
knows what they keep hidden and what they say or do
openly. When they are asked about what God has revealed
they say that it is nothing but fairy tales from the old days.
On the Day of Resurrection they will bear their own
burdens plus some of the burdens of those they led astray.
Allah (swt) commands to do justice, be good to others,
and give to near relatives; and He forbids indecency,
wickedness, and rebellion.
11. The Way to Allah is righteousness: Allah (swt) created all
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things into existence and will cause us to die in His
decreed time. Babies emerge from their mother‘s wombs
knowing nothing, but Almighty God provides them with
hearing, sight and minds so that they can be thankful to
Him. Lord Almighty has made the birds able to fly without
falling. Allah (swt) gives examples: are slaves and those
who have been provided with everything equal? Is a
person unable to care for himself equal to one who is
righteous and dispenses justice? The Day of Judgment is
coming. He provides humankind with shelter and warmth
and everything one tries to achieve in their lives. Human
are provided with garments that protect them from the
heat and the cold and other garments that protect them in
battle. He bestows the favours so that one can submit to
Him.
12. Seek Allah's protection against Shaitan before starting to
recite The Qur'an: Whenever one recites from the Qur‘an
one must seek refuge in God Almighty from the accursed
Shaitan. Shaitan has no power over those who have
submitted themselves to Allah (swt); his power only
affects those who align themselves with Shaitan and
worship something other than God Almighty. One should
call the people to God Almighty with wisdom and good
advice. And he/she reason with them in a courteous
manner. Allah (swt) knows best who will be guided and
who will go astray.

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17. Surah Isra (The Night Journey)/ Bani Israel
(Children of Israel)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Isra In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This Surah is about Isra and the Children of Israel. This Surah is
a Al-Musabbihat Surah because it begins with the glorification of
Allah (swt). The Surah takes the name ‗al-Isra‘ from the first
ayah of the Surah. ―Exalted is He who took His Servant by night
from al-Masjid al-Haram to al-Masjid al-Aqsa‖. The Isra in ‗al-
Isra wal-Mi‘raj‘ – is the first part of the journey which took place
from Makkah to Jerusalem – the ‗Mir‘aj‘ being the ascension
from Jerusalem to the Heavens. The Surah is also referred as
‗Bani Israel‘ – Children of Israel. There is a tilawat-e-sajdah from
Al-Isra ayah 107, but the sajdah should be performed after
reading the ayah 109. The Surah has 111 ayats and 12 Ruku‘
(Sections).

Period of Revelation

This Surah is number 50 according to the order of revelation.


The very first ayah indicates that this Surah was revealed on the
occasion of the ascension (Mi‘raj). According to the narrations
(hadith) on the life of the Prophet (s), this event happened one
year before migration (Hijrah). Thus this Surah was revealed in
the last stage of Prophethood in Makkah.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Isra' journey of the Prophet Muhammad (s) to Jerusalem


and the history of that area.

2. Human beings are hasty. Reward and punishment all have

their time.

154
3. Moral and spiritual principles are emphasized - Worship
of Lord Almighty and respect of parents.

4. Moral principles - children's rights, decency, right of life,


orphans' property, honesty in dealings, humbleness.

5. Tauhid is the basic message of the Qur'an.

6. Gentleness is enjoined.

7. Satan's pride against man and his pledge to mislead


human beings.

8. Everyone will be brought on the Day of Judgment with


his/her own deeds.

9. Emphasis on prayers, and on the reading of the Qur'an.

10. The Qur'an is inimitable.

11. Non-believers have lame arguments against accepting the


Prophets.

12. The attitude of Pharaoh towards Prophet Musa (a) and the
signs that he showed.

Background of the Surah

The Prophet (s) had been propagating Monotheism (Tauhid) for


twelve years now. In spite of all the opposition, Islam had spread
to every corner of Arabia and there was hardly a clan which had
not been influenced by the invitation. In Makkah itself, the true
Believers had formed themselves into a small community. A
large number of the people from the Aws and Khazraj tribes (two
influential clans of Madinah) had also now accepted Islam. Thus
the time had come for the Muslims to emigrate from Makkah to
Madinah.

Subject Matter of the Surah

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The Surah opens with the night journey of the Prophet
Muhammad (s) from sacred Masjid of Makkah to the farthest
Masjid of Jerusalem. The exact location is not specified, although
in Hadith Traditions this is commonly taken to be the Noble
Sanctuary (Temple Mount) in Jerusalem. Some scholars disagree
about this. While the city of Jerusalem (or al-Quds) is not
mentioned by name anywhere in the Qur'an, it is identified in
various Hadith.

The bulk of the Surah Isra deals with two things, the Qur‘an and
Prophet Muhammad (s) and the nature of his prophecy. This
Surah emphasizes that human beings always need divine
guidance. Without the guidance of Allah (swt), humans end up in
evil, sin and misery. So, the primary theme of the Surah is Salah
(daily prayers), whose number is said to have been fixed at five
during the Miraj which it alludes to. In addition, the Surah
forbids adultery, calls for respect for father and mother, and calls
for patience and control in the face of the persecutions the
Muslim community was facing at that time.

The disbelievers of Makkah had been admonished to take a


lesson from the miserable end of the Israelites and other
communities and mend their ways within the period of respite
given by Allah (swt), which was about to expire. They should,
therefore, accept the invitation that was being extended by
Muhammad (s) and the Qur‘an. Incidentally, the Israelites, with
whom Islam was going to come in direct contact in the near
future at Al-Madinah have also been warned that they should
learn a lesson from the chastisements that have already been
inflicted on them.

The unique aspect of the Qur‘an is stressed on, and Allah (swt)
says that even if all humans and jinns combined to write the like
of the Qur‘an, they would surely fail.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 10): Almighty Allah took Muhammad (s) on a tour of


156
the samawat. Allah (swt) fulfilled the prophecy made in the Holy
Book of the Israelites that they will create mischief in the land
twice and each time they will be punished. The Qur'an guides to
the perfect Straight Way.

Ayats (11 - 22): On the Day of Judgment, each individual shall be


given the book of his own deeds. Those who seek guidance do so
to their own good and those who go astray do so to their own
loss. Those who desire the transitory things of this life are given
here, but in the Hereafter they shall be condemned to hell.

Ayats (23 - 30): Some spiritual principles detailing the


commandments of Allah (swt) for the believers including proper
behavior with parents, relatives, and the community at large.

Ayats (31 - 40): The moral guidelines with more spiritual


principles regarding - children's rights, decency, right of life,
orphans' property, honesty in dealings, humbleness.

Ayats (41 - 52): If there were other gods besides Allah, they
would have tried to dethrone Him. Belief in the Hereafter is
necessary to understand the Qur'an. Hereafter is life after death.
The disbelievers ask questions on resurrection.

Ayats (53 - 60): Believers should speak only good words.


Invented gods have no power to relieve us from any distress.
Why the signs are not sent to Muhammad (pbuh) like prior
prophets.

Ayats (61 - 70): Shaitan, his enmity with human beings, and his
vow to seduce them. Almighty Allah has provided conveyance for
us on land and sea.

Ayats (71 - 77): Accountability of every community and its


leaders. No compromise is allowed in matters of law and
principles. Five times daily Salah (prayers) and an extra prayer
(called Tahajjud) are mentioned to Prophet (s).

Ayats (78 - 84): The Qur'an is a healing and mercy for the
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believers.

Ayats (85 - 93): Ar-Ruh (Spirit) is at the command of Lord


Almighty Allah. No one can produce a Qur'an like this. Allah
(swt) has used different methods in the Qur'an to make people
understand His Message.

Ayats (94 - 100): Almighty Allah has sent a human Rasool to


human beings; if the dwellers of earth had been Angels, Allah
would have sent an angel as a Rasool. Disbelievers will be
resurrected as deaf, blind, and dumb. Only disbelievers can
doubt life after death.

Ayats (101 - 111): Musa (a) was given nine signs. The Qur'an is
revealed in truth and with the truth it has come down in sections
to suit each occasion, for easy deliberation. Offer Salah neither
too loud nor in too low a voice, adopt the middle course.

Virtue of the Surah

Abdullah bin Masood (ra) said, ―Surat Bani-lsrael, Al-Kahf (The


Cave), Maryam, Taha, Al-Anbiya' (The Prophets) are amongst
my first earnings and my old property, and (in fact) they are my
old property.‖[ Bukhari no. 4994] . What Abdullah ibn
Masood meant was that these Surahs were amongst the first he
learnt.

Aishah (rh), the Mother of the Believers, said, ―The Messenger of


Allah would fast [so much] that we would say he will not stop
[fasting]. Then he would not fast till we felt he would not fast
[again] and he would recite every night Bani Israeel and
Zumar.‖ [Tirmidhee]
The tree of Zaqqum, which is the food of the people of
Hell

This tree is described in the Qur‘an as (interpretation of the


meaning): "… the accursed tree (mentioned) in the Qur‘an" [al-
Isra 17:60]

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Allah also says about it (interpretation of the meaning):"Then,
moreover, verily, - you the erring-ones, the deniers (of
Resurrection)! You verily will eat of the trees of Zaqqum. Then
you will fill your bellies therewith, and drink boiling water on top
of it, so you will drink (that) like thirsty camels! That will be their
entertainment on the Day of Recompense!" [al-Waqi‟ah 56:51-
56]

"Verily, the tree of Zaqqum, will be the food of the sinners, like
boiling oil, it will boil in the bellies, like the boiling of scalding
water. (It will be said): ‗Seize him and drag him into the midst of
blazing Fire, then pour over his head the torment of boiling
water, taste you (this)! Verily, you were (pretending to be the
mighty, the generous! Verily! This is that whereof you used to
doubt!‘" [al-Dukhan 44:43-50]

"Is that (Paradise) better entertainment or the tree of Zaqqum (a


horrible tree in Hell)? Truly We have made it (as) a trial for the
Dhalimin (polytheists, disbelievers, wrongdoers, etc.). Verily, it is
a tree that springs out of the bottom of Hell-fire, the shoots of its
fruit-stalks are like the heads of Shayatin (devils); truly they will
eat thereof and fill their bellies therewith. Then on the top of that
they will be given boiling water to drink so that it becomes a
mixture (of boiling water and Zaqqum in their bellies). Then,
thereafter, their return is to the flaming fire of Hell." [as-Saffat
37:62-68]

Why the name was Bani Israel initially

The scholars said that this Soorah was better known by the name
Soorat Bani Isra‘eel at the time of the Sahaabah and
Taabi‘een, because the first ayah of Soorat al-Isra‘ speaks of
the Isra‘ (Night Journey) to al-Masjid al-Aqsa, then in the
second ayah it starts to speak of an important stage in the story
of Bani Isra‘eel (the Children of Israel) and their mischief in the
land, which is not mentioned in any of the stories of Bani Isra‘eel
anywhere else in the Qur‘aan. That is in the passage where Allah,
may He be exalted, says (interpretation of the meaning):
―Glorified (and Exalted) is He (Allâh) [above all that (evil) they
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associate with Him]. Who took His slave (Muhammad S.A.W) for
a journey by night from Al-Masjid-al-Harâm (at Makkah) to Al-
Masjid-al-Aqsa (in Jerusalem), the neighborhood whereof We
have blessed, in order that We might show him (Muhammad
S.A.W) of Our Ayat (proofs, evidences, lessons, signs, etc.).
Verily, He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer. And We gave Musa
(Moses) the Scripture and made it a guidance for the Children of
Israel (saying): ‗Take not other than Me as (your) Wakil
(Protector, Lord, or Disposer of your affairs). ‗O offspring of
those whom We carried (in the ship) with Nuh (Noah)! Verily, he
was a grateful slave.‘ And We decreed for the Children of Israel in
the Scripture, indeed you would do mischief in land twice and
you will become tyrants and extremely arrogant!‖ [al-Isra‟ 17:1-
4]

Al-‗Allaamah al-Taahir ibn ‗Ashoor (may Allah have mercy on


him) said:
In many Mushafs it is called Soorat al-Isra‘. Al-Aloosi stated that
it is called by this name, because at the beginning it mentions the
Isra‘ (Night Journey) of the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah
be upon him) and that is the only place where it is mentioned.
But at the time of the Sahaabah it was called Soorat Bani
Israa‘eel, the reason for that being that it mentions things about
Bani Isra‘eel that are not mentioned in other soorahs, namely
their subjugation by those who were given to terrible warfare (cf.
17:4) -- the Assyrians; then their subjugation by another people,
namely the Romans. It is also called Soorat Subhaan, because it
begins with this word. [al-Tahreer wal-Tanweer, 15/5]

The Virtues of Surat Al-Isra'

Imam Al-Hafiz Abu `Abdullah Muhammad bin Isma`il Al-


Bukhari recorded that Ibn Mas`ud said concerning Surah Bani
Isra`il (i.e., Surat Al-Isra'), Al-Kahf and Maryam: "They are
among the earliest and most beautiful Surahs and they are my
treasure.'' Imam Ahmad recorded that `A'ishah said: "The
Messenger of Allah used to fast until we would say, he does not
want to break his fast, then he would not fast until we would say,
he does not want to fast, and he used to recite Bani Isra'il and Az-
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Zumar every night.'' [Tafsir ibn Kathir]

Ar-Ruh(Soul)

Al-Bukhari recorded in his Tafsir of this Ayah that `Abdullah bin


Mas`ud said, "While I was walking with the Prophet on a farm,
and he was resting on a palm-leaf stalk, some Jews passed by.
Some of them said to the others, `Ask him about the Ruh.' Some
of them said, `What urges you to ask him about that' Others said,
`Do not ask him, lest he gives you a reply which you do not like.'
But they said, `Ask him.' So they asked him about the Ruh. The
Prophet kept quiet and did not give them an answer, and I knew
that he was receiving revelation, so I stayed where I was. When
the revelation was complete, the Prophet said: (And they ask you
concerning the Ruh (the spirit). Say: "The Ruh (the spirit) is one
of the things, the knowledge of which is only with my Lord...'')
(17:85)

This context would seem to imply that this Ayah was revealed in
Al-Madinah, and that it was revealed when the Jews asked him
this question in Al-Madinah, although the entire Surah was
revealed in Makkah. This may be answered with the suggestion
that this Ayah may have been revealed to him in Al-Madinah a
second time, after having previously been revealed in Makkah,
or that he was divinely inspired to respond to their question with
a previously-revealed Ayah, namely the Ayah in question. Ibn
Jarir recorded that `Ikrimah said, "The People of the Book asked
the Messenger of Allah about the Ruh, and Allah revealed:
(And they ask you concerning the Ruh...) (17:85) They said, `You
claim that we have only a little knowledge, but we have been
given the Tawrah, which is the Hikmah, (and he, to whom
Hikmah is granted, is indeed granted abundant good.)' (2:269)
Then the Ayah

(And if all the trees on the earth were pens and the sea (were ink
wherewith to write), with seven seas behind it to add to its
(supply),) (31:27) was revealed. He said, "Whatever knowledge
you have been given, if Allah saves you from the Fire thereby,
then it is great and good, but in comparison to the knowledge of
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Allah, it is very little.''

(And they ask you concerning the Ruh.) (17:85) Al-`Awfi


reported that Ibn `Abbas said, "This was when the Jews said to
the Prophet , `Tell us about the Ruh and how the Ruh will be
punished that is in the body - for the Ruh is something about
which only Allah knows, and there was no revelation concerning
it.' He did not answer them at all, then Jibril came to him and
said:(Surah Isra, 17:85)(Say: "The Ruh (the spirit) is one of the
things, the knowledge of which is only with my Lord. And of
knowledge, you (mankind) have been given only a little.'') So the
Prophet told them about that, and they said, `Who told you this'
He said,

(Jibril brought it to me from Allah.) They said, `By Allah, no one


has told you that except our enemy ﴿i.e., Jibril﴾.' Then Allah
revealed:(Say: "Whoever is an enemy to Jibril (let him die in his
fury), for indeed he has brought it (this Qur'an) down to your
heart by Allah's permission, confirming what came before it.)''
(2:97) [Tafsir ibn Kathir]

Lessons and Reflection

1) Isra & Mir‘aj: It is Allah the Almighty who took Prophet


Muhammad (s) on a journey, over one night, from the
sacred House in Makkah to the blessed area in
Jerusalem. This was in order to show him some signs.
Allah (swt) also gave Musa (a), who was a thankful
servant, a book as a guide for the Children of Israel. They
are the descendants of Nuh (a), and were warned not to
take any Protector other than Him.

2) Divine Commandments reminding Bani Israel about their


prophesized punishments: Before Allah (swt) warned the
Children of Israel that twice they would become arrogant
transgressors and that twice they would be punished.
After the promised punishment for the first transgression,
Allah (swt) allowed them to prosper. When the second
transgression came, God Almighty allowed their enemies
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to destroy the temple as punishment. Allah (swt) wants to
be merciful but if the behaviour is repeated the
punishment will be repeated, and Hell will become their
prison in the Hereafter.

3) Worship none but Allah and be kind to the parents: Do


not associate anything with God Almighty or one will be
disgraced and forsaken. Allah (swt) commands us to
worship nothing except Him, and that we are kind to our
parents. As they grow older, one must not be impatient or
harsh rather be humble towards them and pray that Allah
(swt) treats them mercifully as they treated us when we
were young.

4) Humanity is mostly ungrateful: It is God Almighty who


allows humankind to sail ships across the ocean in order
to seek their bounty. And when adversity strikes, whatever
they worship besides Allah (swt) disappears from their
hearts and minds and they call only Him for help. And

when Almighty Allah brings them safely to land, they turn


their backs on Him. Humankind is ungrateful; what
makes them so sure that they will not fall victim to natural
disasters? Who do they think protects them? Humankind
has been honoured and favoured above many of Lord
Almighty‘s creations.

5) Give to relatives and the needy and be not a miser or a


spendthrift: Give your relatives their rights but also spend
on the needy and the travellers. Do not be wasteful,
squandering the money. If one cannot assist needy people
then at least be courteous to them. One would not be
miserly or extravagant, instead should take a middle path.
Allah (swt) gives abundantly to some and sparingly to
others, He knows and observes everyone.

6) Do not kill your children for fear of poverty: Parents

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should not kill their children because they think they
cannot provide for them, it is a great sin. It is Allah (swt)
who provides Rizk (sustenance) for them which comes
from the sky; they cannot cause poverty; that is the will of
Almighty Allah.

7) Do not commit adultery: Allah (swt) warned us not to go


near to adultery. One should abstain themselves from
making relation that would incite further evil from
Shaitan. Allah (swt) has positioned this ayah in between
the ayats those dealt with taking lives of children out of
poverty and rights of killing with its judgment. So, how
can one justify killing one‘s innocent heart which craves to
remember in her entirety?

8) Do not slay without just cause: One should not take a life,
except within the laws of God Almighty. If anyone is
killed unjustly, God has granted a right of retribution but

one should not be vengeful and take things too far.

9) Incident of Iblis refusing to respect Adam (a) in the form


of Sajdah: Allah (swt) has reminded us by mentioning
about the time when God Almighty told the angels to
prostrate before Adam (a). They all obeyed except Iblis.
He was arrogant and gave the reason of why he should
worship someone made from clay. Iblis said that if God
Almighty delayed his death until the Day of Resurrection
he would lead most of the descendants of Adam (a) astray.
Allah (swt) told him to go away because Hell would be the
reward for him and any that follow him. Iblis was told to
do whatever he could to tempt and destroy humankind
but to be aware that he would never have power over the
true believers.

10) There is wisdom in honouring commitments by


safeguarding orphans rights and saying nothing without

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knowledge and not to be arrogant: One should safeguard
the property of orphans which he/she has undertaken as
an obligation to protect with good intentions. One should
honour his/her commitments as he/she is liable to the
Lord Sustainer Allah. So, one should conduct business
fairly, give full measure and balance the scales correctly.
One should not pursue that of which he/she has no
knowledge - using heart, eyes and ears to confirm the
things one hears is the way. One should not walk about
the earth arrogantly. A human being is just a small and
weak creature; is he/she more than that!

11) Allah (swt) does not beget children and those who say
this, utter a monstrous lie: Do not say that God Almighty
has taken the angels as daughters. That is a monstrous
statement with grave consequences.

12) There is a life after death: When one recites the Qur‘an
there is a barrier between him/her and those who do not
believe in the Hereafter. As a result some people turn even
further away by the whisper of Shaitan.
Everything in the heavens and earth glorifies Almighty
God. The unbelievers of Makkah have privately called
Prophet Muhammad (s) a man bewitched as they did not
try to understand the Message themselves. They disputed
that how they would be raised up after they become bones
and dust. Allah (swt) replied to our beloved Prophet (s) in
the Qur‘an to tell them - even if they were stones and iron
they would be bought back. When they ask who would do
that, Allah (swt) replied - the One who created you in the
first place. On the Judgment Day one who would be raised
up would imagine that he/she had been dead for only a
very short time.

13) The Qur'an is a shifa and rahmah for those who want to
believe in it: One should establish the prayer from when
the sun is at its zenith until the darkness of the night (four
obligatory prayers fall during this time) and recite the
Qur‘an at the time of the Morning Prayer. The recitation
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at the time of dawn is always witnessed by the angels.
Truth has come and falsehood has departed. People tried
to entice Prophet Muhammad (s) to fabricate revelations
but Allah (swt) strengthened his heart. If he had inclined
even a little towards them, he would have received a
double punishment in this life and in the Hereafter. It was
that way with all the Messengers. The Qur‘an was sent as a
healing and a mercy for the believers but the disbelievers
gain nothing from it except loss. Everyone does things in
their own way but God Almighty knows who is following
the best way. On the Day of Resurrection, when every
community is gathered with their leader, those who
receive their book in their right hand will read it with
pleasure. Those who pretended to be blind about the
Hereafter will be worse than blind in the Hereafter.

14) Human Rasools are sent to human beings: Almighty Allah


does not send signs for those who demand them because
previously His signs were denied. The people of Thamud
were given the she-camel but they mistreated her. Prophet
Daud (a) was given the book of Psalms. Lord Almighty
made the Night Journey and the accursed tree mentioned
in the Qur‘an as tests. Allah (swt) warned us, but it only
increases the transgressions of the unbelievers. The
deities the unbelievers call upon have no power
whatsoever to help or remove harm. Allah (swt) directs
Prophet Muhammad (s) to tell the believers to speak in
the best way and remind them that Shaitan is their sworn
enemy. Lord Almighty knows everything about them and
will be merciful or punish them according to His will.
There is no community of evildoers that will not be
destroyed or severely punished before the Day of
Resurrection.

15) Soul is a gift of Allah (swt) to humankind and revelation is


guidance: Prophet Muhammad (s) was told to say that the
subject of Ruh (soul) is the concern of Allah (swt), and we
(humankind) have been given very little knowledge about
it. If God Almighty wanted He could take away that which
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has been revealed and then humankind would never be
able to get it back. The revelations are a mercy. Even if all
of humankind and the jinn came together they could not
produce anything like the Qur‘an no matter how much
they helped each other. The Qur‘an is full of different
examples to help people understand the message but still
most people persist in their disbelief. Even then, they say,
we will not believe in your ascension unless you bring
down for us a book that we can read. Allah (swt) says to
tell them that you (Prophet Muhammad) have never
claimed to be anything other than a human being with a
message. Allah (swt) tells us in the Qur‘an - if there had
been angels walking about on earth, then an angel would
have been sent. Almighty Allah is witness to what we say
to each other and He knows and understands everybody
well.

16) Perform Salah in a voice which is neither too loud nor too
soft: Allah (swt) told us to call Him his best names. And
not to speak too loudly nor too softly, but seek a middle
way. One should praise his/her Lord Almighty, the One
with no son or partner.

17) Truth has come in the form of the Qur‘an: The Qur‘an has
been sent down little by little and the righteous people
who were given knowledge before the Qur‘an recognize
the truth of it and weep falling down in prostration.
Likewise, Prophet Musa (a) was sent nine clear signs but
Pharaoh believed it was all magic. When Musa (a) told
him he was doomed, Pharaoh intended to drive him away
along with the Israelites off from the face of the earth.
Allah (swt) drowned Pharaoh and those with him. The
truth has been sent down in the form of the Qur‘an. The
Children of Israel were told to settle down and when the
appointment of the Hereafter comes they will all be
resurrected in a mingled gathering. Prophet Muhammad
(s) was sent only as a bearer of good news that comes with
a warning.

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18. Surah Al-Kahf (The Cave)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al-Kahf In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The Surah takes its name from the story of the people who fell
asleep in a cave, told in ayats 9 to 26. It is the 69th Surah
according to the order of revelation. The name of the Surah, ―Al-
kahf‖ appears in the 9 and 16 number ayats. The Surah was
revealed after the Surah al-Ghashiya but comes after Surah Isra
in order. It has 110 ayats in 12 Ruku‘ (Section).

Period of Revelation

This Surah was revealed at Makkah most probably revealed 4-5


years before the Hijrah. It was also sent down to answer three
questions that had been put forwarded by the Rabbis of Madinah
to Prophet Muhammad (s) in order to test him. It is believed to
have been revealed as a comfort because the fledgling Muslims
were suffering ongoing torment and persecution at the hands of
the ruling classes of Makkah. As it seems the Surah came down
at the beginning of little after the middle period of prophet-hood
in Makkah. So, the revelation occurred before the migration to
Habash had yet to occur.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The straight message of the Qur'an.

2. The Companions of the Cave.

3. The proof of resurrection.

4. Always remember Lord Almighty Allah. Everything


depends on Allah‘s will.

5. The parable of an ungrateful person and a grateful person.

168
6. Wealth and children are only a passing show.

7. Satan and his progeny they are the open enemies of


human beings.

8. Almighty Allah's mercy is available all the time.

9. Prophet Musa (a) search for a teacher.

10. Some strange events and their explanations.

11. The pious ruler Dhul Qarnain. Gog and Magog

12. The real losers and winners.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah answers some questions that the Mushrikin of


Makkah posed to the Prophet (s). The answers came in a very
clear way and also challenged them to accept the message of
Islam. In this Surah we have the stories of: the People of the
Cave, the man who had two gardens and was very proud of
himself, Prophet Musa (a) with an angelic figure, and Dhul
Qarnayn - a pious ruler. These stories are told to emphasize the
value of faith, knowledge and patience, the relativity of time, and
the variety in this world.

The people of the cave, mentioned in the Surah, were among the
wonderful signs of Allah (swt), intended to confirm the faith in
life after death. The youth (mentioned in this Surah) hid in the
cave, but they trusted in Almighty Allah and presented their case
to Him. Then they apparently fell asleep, and knew nothing of
what was happening in world outside. Their faith carried them
higher and higher on the road to truth.

The second story in the Surah is a person who was the owner of
two gardens and was wealthy and rich in every regard. However,
his wealth lead him astray and he started doubting his faith, as a
result of which Allah Almighty deprived him of all the worldly
artifice and bounties, which made him realize the transients
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nature of the things of this world but by then it was too late for
him.

The meeting of Prophet Musa (a) with Al-Khidr shows us that the
manifestation of the highest divine wisdom sometimes takes
place in the form of an apparent loss, and that, the true believer
would never lose heart at such losses.

The story of Dhul Qarnayn (the two-homed one), shows that it is


not necessary to abstain from worldly life, to pursue
righteousness. He was just and righteous, not selfish or grasping.
He protected the weak and punished the unlawful and turbulent.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 12): Those who say Allah (swt) has begotten a son are
uttering a monstrous lie. The Companions of the Cave‘s story
starts from the 9th ayah of the Surah.

Ayats (13 - 17): The companions of the cave were young men who
declared the truth about the Oneness of Allah. They had to run
away and take refuge in a cave.

Ayats (18 - 22): The companions of the cave were made to sleep
by the Divine decree of Almight Allah. They were awakened by
Allah (swt) after hundreds of years. Their identity was disclosed
to resolve the disputed issue of life after death: What a shame
that instead of getting the point, people were disputing about
their numbers.

Ayats (23 - 31): Whenever one promise to do something in the


future, always should say: "Insha Allah (If Allah wills)." No one is
authorized to change the Word of Allah (swt). And one should be
content with those who cry unto their Lord. Allah tells us: "Truth
from Allah has come, choice is yours: believe it or disbelieve."

Ayats (32 - 44): Parable of a believer and a disbeliever. Owner of


the two gardens felt exalted of being in affluence, whereas the
righteous one was content with his little belongings.
170
Ayats (45 - 53): Similitude of worldly life and its relationship
with the life of the Hereafter. Fates of those who follow the
Shaitan and commit shirk.

Ayats (54 - 59): Allah (swt) has given all kinds of examples in the
Qur'an so that the people may understand His Message.
Ayats (60 - 70): The Prophet Musa (a) travelled to find Khizr to
learn some of the knowledge given to him by Allah Almighty and
Khizr warned Musa (a) that he would not be able to bear with
him.

Ayats (71 - 82): The Prophet Musa (a) could not resist
questioning Khidr (a) when he made a hole in the boat, and when
he killed a boy with no apparent reason. The story of Musa (a)
ended when Khidr (a) explained to him the interpretations of his
actions after their mission ended reaching the dwellings of two
orphans.

Ayats (83 – 101): The story of Zul-Qarnain who visited two ends
of the world and a place between two mountain passages.

Ayats (102 - 110): Fates of the Mushrikeen and the believers on


the Day of Judgment. Words of Allah (swt) are countless and
cannot be recorded. Muhammad (s) is but a human being like us,
although he is the last messenger came from Allah Almighty.

Virtue of the Surah

Circumstances of revelation

Arab Muslim historian and hagiographer, Ibn Ishaq, reported in


his traditional Muslim biography of Muhammad (s), Sirah Rasul
Allah that the 18th Surah of the Qur'an (which includes the story
of Dhu l-Qarnayn and the cave) was revealed to the prophet
Muhammad (s) on account of some questions posed by rabbis
residing in the city of Madinah. According to Ibn Ishaq,
Muhammad (s)'s tribe, the powerful Quraysh, were greatly
concerned about their tribesman who had started claiming
prophethood and wished to consult rabbis about the matter. The
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Quraysh sent two men to the rabbis of Madinah, reasoning that
they had superior knowledge of the scriptures and about the
prophets of God Almighty. The two Quraysh men described their
tribesman, Muhammad (s), to the rabbis. The rabbis told the
men to ask Muhammad (s) three questions:

They [the rabbis] said, "Ask him about three things which we
will tell you to ask, and if he answers them then he is a Prophet
who has been sent; if he does not, then he is saying things that
are not true, in which case how you will deal with him will be
up to you. Ask him about some young men in ancient times;
what was their story for theirs is a strange and wondrous tale.
Ask him about a man who travelled a great deal and reached
the east and the west of the earth. What was his story and ask
him about the Ruh (soul or spirit) – what is it? If he tells you
about these things, then he is a Prophet, so follow him, but if he
does not tell you, then he is a man who is making things up, so
deal with him as you see fit."[Tafsir Ibn Kathir]

According to Ibn Ishaq, when Muhammad (s) was informed of


the three questions from the rabbis, he said that he would have
the answers in the morning but did not say "if God wills it". For
fifteen days, Muhammad (s) awaited eagerly for the revelation.
Doubt began to appear amongst the people of Makkah. Then,
after fifteen days, Muhammad (s) received the revelation of Al-
Kahf as an answer to the questions. The answer to the first two
questions appears in this Surah, Allah (swt) set the third one in
the previous one - in Surah Isra. This Surah is a protection from
the fitnah of Dajjal. The Messenger of Allah (s) said: "Whoever
commits to memory the first ten Ayat of the Surat Al-Kahf, will
be protected from (the trial of) Ad-Dajjal (Antichrist)."
[Muslim]

The Messenger of Allah (s) mentioned the Dajjal (Antichrist)


saying: "If he comes forth while I am among you I shall be the
one who will dispute with him on your behalf, but if he comes
forth when I am not among you, a man must dispute on his own
behalf, and Allah will take my place in looking after every
Muslim. Those of you who live up to his time should recite over
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him the opening ayats of Surat al-Kahf, for they are your
protection from his trial. We asked: How long will he remain on
the earth? He replied: Forty days, one like a year, one like a
month, one like a week, and rest of his days like yours. We asked:
Messenger of Allah, will one day‘s prayer suffice us in this day
which will be like a year? He replied: No, you must make an
estimate of its extent. Then Jesus son of Marry will descend at
the white minaret to the east of Damascus. He will then catch
him up at the date of Ludd and kill him."[Muslim]

It was narrated that Ibn ‗Umar (radiyallahu anhuma) said: ―The


Messenger of Allah (salallahu alayhi wasallam) said: ‗Whoever
reads Surat Al-Kahf on the day of Jumu‘ah, a light will shine for
him from beneath his feet to the clouds of the sky, which will
shine for him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be forgiven
(his sins) between the two Jumu‘ah.‘‖ [Al-Mundhiri said,
this was narrated by Abu Bakr ibn Mardawayh in his
Tafseer, with an isnaad with which there was nothing
wrong]

From Abu Sa'eed al-Khudri, who said: "Whoever reads Soorat al-
Kahf on the night of Jumu'ah, will have a light that will stretch
between him and the Ancient House (the Ka'bah)."
[Narrated by al-Daarimi, 3407. This hadeeth was
classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in Saheeh al-
Jaami, 6471]

"Whoever reads Soorat al-Kahf on the day of Jumu'ah, will have


a light that will shine from him from one Jumu'ah to the next."
[Narrated by al-Haakim, 2/399; al-Bayhaqi, 3/249. Ibn
Hajar said in Takhreej al-Adhkaar that this is a hasan
hadeeth, and he said, this is the strongest report that
has been narrated concerning reading Soorat al-Kahf.
See: Fayd al-Qadeer, 6/198. It was classed as saheeh by
Shaykh al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami', 6470]

It was narrated that Ibn 'Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him)
said: "The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be
upon him) said: 'Whoever reads Soorat al-Kahf on the day of
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Jumu'ah, a light will shine for him from beneath his feet to the
clouds of the sky, which will shine for him on the Day of
Resurrection, and he will be forgiven (his sins) between the two
Jumu'ah.'" Al-Mundhiri said, this was narrated by Abu Bakr ibn
Mardawayh in his Tafseer, with an isnaad with which there was
nothing wrong. [al-Targheeb wa'l-Tarheeb, 1/298]

Al-Mannaawi said: Al-Haafiz ibn Hajar said in his Amaali: "In


some reports it says 'the day of Jumu'ah' and in some reports it
says 'the night of Jumu'ah'. They may be reconciled by saying
that what is meant is the day which includes the night and vice
versa." [Fayd al-Qadeer, 6/199]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Al-Qur‘an is a straightforward Book: The Qur‘an has been


revealed as an uncomplicated book; a book that does not
deviate from the straight path and from the aberration of
nonconformity.

2. Story of the Companions of the Cave: Ayats 9 to 26 of the


Surah retells the Christian folktale of the "People of the
Cave". A few young believers lived in a time when they
were tortured for their beliefs. Upon the guidance of Lord
Almighty, they fled from the city, where believers were
persecuted, together with their kalb (Arabic: ٍ ‫و‬, dog),
and took refuge in a cave where they fell asleep. When
they woke they found themselves that the people of the
city had become believers.

3. Wishing Allah‘s favour for future commitments: Saying,


"Insha‘Allah (If Allah so wills)" is an obligation for the
believers whenever they make promise to do something in
the future.

4. Choice of truth and falsehood: Prophet Muhammad (s) is


told to recite what has been revealed to him and there is
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no authorisation to change anything in any way. He was
told to be content to be among those who seek God
Almighty‘s approval and not to let the notable people of
Makkah drive away the weak and humble among his
followers.

5. A moral tale of rich and the poor: In ayats 32 to 44, the


Surah discusses a parable of two men, one of whom had
been given blessings from God and the other poor. The
rich one wronged his soul and started showing off with his
wealth and noble lineage. At the end of the parable God
destroys what he had given the man.

6. Similitude of this worldly life and its relationship with the


life after death: The life of this world is like vegetation that
flourishes but then dries up and withers away, blown in
the wind. Our good deeds hold the promise of everlasting
reward than our wealth and belongings - we adore more
for ourselves. A day will come when the earth will be flat
and bare and all humankind will be gathered together. We
will stand in rows before God Almighty and our book of
deeds will be held out open to us.

7. Story of the Prophet Musa (a) as a student of the Khidr


(a): The third main story within the Surah (ayats 60–82)
is that of Musa (a) traveling to gain knowledge from
another servant of God Almighty who is never mentioned
by name in the Qur‘an, in tafsir of ibn Kathir he is called
Al-Khidr. Musa (a) was a very wise and knowledgeable
person, but there were many things which he did not
know. He was instructed to seek out a servant of Allah
(swt), who would give him further knowledge. Allah (swt)
states three incidents between Musa (a) and Kidhr (a). In
one of them Kidhr (a) made hole in a boat, in another one
he killed an innocent child, and in the last one he and
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Musa (a) helped the two orphans being repaired their wall
that was falling down even though refused to help or feed
them out of hospitality. Initially Musa (a) was said that he
would not be able to be patient with the events that he
would encounter with Khidr (a). And it happened that
way. So, Khidr (a) explained to him the reasons behind his
actions. Khidr (a) said he did not do these things of his
own accord, he was following Lord Almighty‘s plan.

8. Story of King Dhul-Qarnain: Dhul-Qarnain was a


righteous and just king. Allah (swt) bestowed him with
power to achieve great thing traveling through lands. The
Qur‘an mentions three of his journeys from West to East
and then to a mountain passage. He traveled first to the
Western edge of the world where he sees the sun set in a
muddy spring, then to the furthest East where he sees sun
rises from the ocean, and finally northward to a place in
the mountains where he finds a people oppressed by Gog
and Magog.

9. One who loses hard earned efforts of credibility without


knowing them: Prophet Muhammad (s) is told to tell the
people that the person who loses the most, by his or her
actions, is the one whose efforts are lost even though they
think they are doing well. These people disbelieve in God‘s
ayats and signs, and deny that they will ever come face to
face with Him. This disbelief renders their deeds
worthless.

10. The words of God‘s attributes, grandeur, and knowledge


would exhaust if all the oceans were ink for writing: The
favours of Allah (swt) are countless and cannot be
recorded even if all the oceans were to be used as an
inkwell and other such oceans are brought to refill this
ink.
176
11. Prophet (s) is but a human being like us: Prophet
Muhammad (s) is told to say that he is just a human
being, the same as everyone else, and it has been revealed
to him that the Lord God is One. Everyone amongst the
people who fears their meeting with God Almighty Allah
should do good deeds and never let anyone else or
anything share in the worship that is due to Allah (swt)
alone.

12. This Surah contains Many of the Signs of End times: The
core of this Surah is to get protection from Fitna-e-Dajjal.
When head of the state was cruel and the majority of
society was corrupt, some youth took refuge in Cave
(distant from population) by the guidance of Allah with
the fear that society will not leave them alone on the right
path and they may turn them away. Allah (swt) discusses
the concepts/messages which one would adhere to which
are connected to the trials associated to Dajjal.

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19. Surah Maryam (Mary)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Maryam In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This Surah is named after Maryam (Mary), Mother of Isa (a)


[Jesus], who appears in ayats 16–34. Allah (swt) has mentioned
no woman in the Qur‘an directly by her proper name except
Maryam (a) - Mary, and the name ‗Maryam‘ occurs 34 times in
the Qur‘an. The only Surah, which has been entitled by the name
of a woman in the Qur‘an, is this very Surah, Surah Maryam. In
ayah of 58 Surah Maryam there is a Tilawat-e-Sajdah. The Surah
has 98 ayats in 6 Ruku‘ (Section).

Period of Revelation

This Surah was revealed before the migration to Habash


(Abyssinia) during the third stage of the Prophet's residence at
Makkah. Authentic traditions indicate that Sayyiduna J'afar
recited ayats 1-40 of this Surah in the court of Negus, the king of
Habash, when he called the immigrants to his court in the
presence of hostile ambassadors of Quraysh. According to the
earliest Muslims chroniclers, the king and the bishop wept
saying, ‗Indeed, this revelation and that of Moses proceed from
one and the same source.‘

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Prophet Zakaria‘s (a) prayer for a son. Birth of John


(Yahya) and Allah's favours upon him.

2. Maryam (a) - and the miraculous birth of her son Isa (a).

3. Prophet Ibrahim (a) preached the unity of Allah (swt).


His conversation with his father.

4. Other great Prophets and Messengers of Allah.

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5. The Resurrection will surely happen.

6. Criticism of misconceptions about intercession and the


divinity of Isa (a).

Subject Matter of the Surah

Surah Maryam begins with five Arabic letters: Kaf Ha Ya 'Ayn


Sad (The Muqaṭṭaʿāt : ḥurūf muqaṭṭaʿāt, disjoined letters;
disconnected letters). It narrates the account where Prophet
Zakariya (a)‘s [Zachariah] prays to Allah Almighty for a son to
succeed him. And so, Allah (swt) blesses him with Yahya (a). The
Surah gives a detailed account of Maryam (a) and the miraculous
birth of Prophet Isa (a) [Jesus], a cousin of Yahya (a) [John the
Baptist]. The claim that Isa (a) is the son of Lord Almighty is
firmly denied, as is the assertion of the pagans of Makkah that
the angels are God Almighy‘s daughters. So, the Surah goes on to
mention the missions of some earlier prophets, showing that
only human beings are raised to reform the world.

The prophetic figures mentioned in the Surah include Ishaq (a)


[Isaac], Yaqub (a) [Jacob], Musa (a) [Moses], Harun (a) [Aaron],
Isamail (a) [Ishmael], Idris (a) [Idris], Adam (a) [Adam], and
Nuh (a) [Noah].

The Qur‘an makes us believe in the power of God Almighty in


such a way that it enables us to see beyond the inevitability of
cause and effect. Although Allah (swt) has made this samawat in
such a way that for everything there is physical reasoning but at
the same time He has also made miracles happen which
make us realize that God Almighty is not dependent on these
laws. We find in the Qur‘an such examples which make us
"see" this power, so that the closer we come towards Him with
love and submission, the more belief we have in our hopes and
dreams turning into reality.

Interconnection of the Topics


Ayats (1 - 15): The story of Zakariyya (a) and the birth and youth
of Yahya (a) (John).
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Ayats (16 - 40): The story of Maryam; dialogue between her and
the angel. The response of the angel a d the miraculous birth of
Isa (a) is explained. Maryam brought her baby (Jesus) to her
people, and the baby spoke to his people in the cradle to defend
his mother and proclaim his assignment to be their Prophet. Isa
(a) (Jesus) is not the son of God Almighty, it is not befitting to
the Majesty of Almighty Allah that He needs to beget a son.

Ayats (41 - 50): The story of Ibrahim (a) and his idol-
worshipping father.

Ayats (51 - 65): The Prophethood of Musa (a), Isma`il (a) and
Idrees (a). All prophets of Allah (swt) were Divinely Guided and
chosen.

Ayats (66 - 82): Believers' and unbelievers' life in this world and
their life in the Hereafter.

Ayats (83 - 98): No god other than Allah (swt) will be able to save
humans on the Day of Judgment and Those who say Allah (swt)
has begotten a son, preach such a monstrous lie that even the
heavens may crack, earth split and mountains crumble to pieces.
Almighty Allah has made the Qur'an easy for mankind.

Virtue of the Surah

The Virtue of Maryam Over the


Women of Her Time

Allah states that the angels spoke to Maryam by His command


and told her that He chose her because of her service to Him,
because of her modesty, honour, innocence, and conviction.
Allah also chose her because of her virtue over the women of the
world. At-Tirmidhi recorded that `Ali bin Abi Talib said, "I heard
the Messenger of Allah say,
(The best woman (in her time) was Maryam, daughter of `Imran,
and the best woman (of the Prophet's time) is Khadijah (his

180
wife), daughter of Khuwaylid.)''

The Two Sahihs recorded this Hadith. Ibn Jarir recorded that
Abu Musa Al-Ash`ari said that the Messenger of Allah said,
(Many men achieved perfection, but among women, only
Maryam the daughter of `Imran and Asiah, the wife of Fir`awn,
achieved perfection.)

The Six -- with the exception of Abu Dawud - recorded it. Al-
Bukhari's wording for it reads,
(Many men reached the level of perfection, but no woman
reached such a level except Asiah, the wife of Fir`awn, and
Maryam, the daughter of `Imran. The superiority of `A'ishah
(his wife) to other women is like the superiority of Tharid (meat
and bread dish) to other meals.) [Tafsir Ibn Kathir]

Allah's Messenger (s) said, "Many amongst men attained


perfection but amongst women none attained the perfection
except Mary, the daughter of `Imran and Asiya, the wife of
Pharaoh. And the superiority of `Aisha to other women is like the
superiority of Tharid (i.e. an Arabic dish) to other meals."
[Sahih al-Bukhari 3769]

Lessons and Reflection

1) Story of Zakariya (a) and the birth of Prophet Yahya (a):


In the Bible, Zechariah (Zakariya a) is husband of
Elisabeth who is the cousin of Mary. The Qur‘an tells us
that Zakarya (a) was also the guardian of Mary (Maryam
a), the mother of Isa (a) - Jesus. Zechariah was a prophet
of God Almighty whose office was in the temple in
Jerusalem. He was in charge of services at the temple.
Zechariah‘s wife was barren and both were very old.
Zechariah began to worry over who would carry on the
daily services of the temple and preach the message of
God Almighty after his death. In response to Zechariah‘s
earnest prayer to God for a son, an angel announced that
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Allah (swt) will provide him a son whose name will be
John (Yahya a). God Almighty made John (Yahya a)
compassionate, wise, pure, and kind to his parents who
diligently practiced the commandments of the Torah.

2) Story of Maryam (Mary) and the miraculous birth of


Prophet Isa (Jesus): An angel appears to Virgin Mary
(Maryam a) in the form of a man to convey the birth of a
son – a mercy and a miracle from God Almighty Allah.
She goes to Bethlehem fearing reaction from people
toward an unmarried pregnancy. Allah (swt) provides her
with fresh water and ripe dates at the time of delivery
supported by an angel at the time of childbirth.

3) Prophet Isa's address to his people from his cradle: When


Maryam (a) is probed about the child - the baby Jesus (Isa
a) miraculously speaks from the cradle in defense of his
mother. Isa (a) announced that he has been made God‘s
blessed servant and prophet, and has been commanded to
pray, give charity, and be kind to his mother. Later on,
when Isa (a) became mature, a faction from the Bani
Israel disagreed over Isa (a), Allah (swt) reminds all the
sects who still differ about Isa (Jesus) of the dreadful "Day
of Remorse" when all will return to Him.

4) Allah (swt) does not take a son and has no need for one:
The fact that Isa a (Jesus), is not the son of Allah (swt),
and that it is not befitting to the Majesty of Allah that He
needs a son (i.e. for name, fame, help or continuity of
race). The narration of Isa (a) who declared that God is his
Lord, worship belongs to Him - is the truth.

5) Story of Prophet Ibrahim (a) and his mushrik father:


Ibrahim (a) [Abraham] gently reminds his father not to
182
worship idols that cannot hear, see, or benefit themselves.
The truthful prophet was threatened by physical violence
and expelled from home, even after these menaces he did
vow to pray for his father. Ibrahim (a) had fear for his
father's safety and the inevitable punishment should he
die as a disbeliever in Allah (swt). Later on he was told not
to do that as his father contended on doing idol-
worshiping knowingly. In this Surah, Allah (swt)
reminded us that Ibrahim (a) was later gifted with two
prophets by God Almigty – Ishaq (a) [Isaac] and from
Ishaq (a)‘s progeny Yaqub (a) [Jacob].

6) The fact that all Prophets of Allah were divinely guided


and chosen people: Musa (a) was a chosen prophet called
into close communion by Allah (swt) next to Mount Tur
(the burning bush). Ismail (a) [Ishmael] was also a
sincere prophet and messenger of God Almighty who was
true to his word and cared for his family‘s spiritual well-
being; he reminded them to pray and be charitable. Idris
(a) (probably Enoch of the Bible) was a sincere, prophet of

Almighty God, elevated in status. Allah (swt) favoured


other prophets from among the descendants of Adam a,
Nuh a, Ibrahim a, and Yaqub a (Israel) and they would fall
weeping in prostration before Him.

7) Life of the believers and the nonbelievers in this world and


in the Hereafter: A distinctive attribute of those whose
character is molded by the teachings of the prophets, is
that they are no longer slaves of their base desires, but rise
above them. They turn into people who remember
Almighty Allah, the organized expression of which is
prayer (salah). They keep on making acts with the view of
183
afterlife through accumulating his good deeds on and on
without any haste. The generations that came after the
prophets became negligent of God Almighty and started
following their base desires. Being affiliated to a prophet
shall be of no use to them. They shall receive what they
deserve. Of them, only those shall be spared who return to
the original religion and adopt a life of faith and virtuous
deeds.

8) Annulling plurality of the deities and the ascription of


sons to God: Human wants to be able to do as he/she likes
in this world, but he/she does not want to suffer the
consequences of his/her wrongdoings. Therefore, he/she
courts beings supposedly near and dear to God Almighty
who could plead his/her case to Him. Belief in existence of
God‘s children can be explained in one of two ways: that
God needs assistants like ordinary people or He desires
having children. Both propositions are baseless. Those
who say, "Allah has begotten a son," preach such a
monstrous lie that if they could hear it; the heavens would
crack the earth would split and the mountains would
crumble to pieces.

9) Allah (swt) has made the Qur'an easy for mankind: The
Qur‘an has been revealed by Almighty Allah in the Arabic
language, but has been made easy for one to learn and
memorize.

10) Deniers of resurrection, their punishment, and attitudes:


The Arabs, who were first addressed by the Qur‘an,
accepted life after death, but their acceptance was purely
formal and as such had no impact on their lives. This
indifference persists because people do not give serious
consideration to this matter. If they did, they would
184
realize that the initial, first birth is in itself an argument in
support of re-birth.

11) Steadfastness upon faith is one of the ways to achieve the


Love of Allah: God Almighty loves those who believe and
act righteously. Those who oppose the call for Truth err in
thinking that, in doing so; they will not come to any harm.
There is evidence of the opponents of Truth being wiped
out, but they do not take any lesson from it. Total
submission is the real strength in this world and a hope
for everlasting success and happiness in the Hereafter.

185
20. Surah Ta Ha
Concise Tafseer of Surah Ta Ha In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The Surah‘s name appears in the first ayah with Arabic letters,
―TaHa‖ - ‫( طه‬ṭā ḥā) which called as Muqatta‘at (meaning,
"disconnected" or "mysterious"). Out of the 114 Surahs of the
Qur‘an, 29 Surahs are figuring with this type beginning just after
the Bismillah. The letters are also known as fawātiḥ (‫ ) َف َواتِح‬or
"openers" as they form the opening ayah of their respective
Surahs.

This Surah discusses the story of Musa (a) and Adam (a), and
exhorts Prophet Muhammad (s) to patience and prayer, and
reminds us of the consequences of disbelief. This Surah has 135
ayats in 8 Ruku‘ (Section).

Period of Revelation

This Surah was revealed in Makkah. According to well-known


authentic traditions Surah TaHa was revealed before Hazrat
Umar (ra) embraced Islam. When Umar bin Khattab (initially an
arch enemy of Islam), heard the recitation of some portion of this
Surah, from a written copy of his sister Fatima and which was
given to him a sincere thought and that resulted to his
conversion and became the great companion of the Prophet
Muhammad (s). So, the Surah was revealed sometime before the
Hijrah to Abyssinia. This took place sometimes in the 5th year of
Prophet-hood.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Prophet Muhammad (s) is told not to feel distress because


of the denial of the unbelievers. Allah (swt) knows
everything. Remember the story of Musa (a). Allah (swt)
called him to the Prophet-hood and gave him special
186
signs.

2. Prophet Musa's (a) prayer. Allah Almighty commanded


Musa (a) and his brother Harun (a) to go to Pharaoh and
give him the message. Allah (swt) mentions His favours
upon Musa (a).

3. Prophet Musa (a) goes to Pharaoh. The challenged the


Egyptian magicians. The defeat of the magicians and then
their conversion.

4. Allah (swt) saved the Children of Israel from Pharaoh.


Prophet Musa (a) goes to Sinai. Samiri misleads the
Israelites and they worship the calf.

5. The anger of Prophet Musa (a). Samiri confessed his evil


action and he was punished.

6. The Day of Judgment. No intercession will help without


Allah's permission. The opponents of the Prophet.

7. Devil misleads human beings. Some references to the


story of Adam (a) and Shaitan (Iblis).

8. The evil doers will be punished. Be patient and offer


regular prayers.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah TaHa begins by proclaiming that the Qur‘an was


revealed as an admonition to those who fear Allah the Almighty.
Then the Surah abruptly moves on to relate the story of Prophet
Musa (a) without any apparent relevancy and without even
hinting at its applicability to the events of the period. However, if
we read between the lines we realize that the discourse is
addressed very relevantly to the people of Makkah.

The Arabs in general acknowledged Musa (a) as a Prophet of God

187
Almighty. This was because they had been influenced by the
large number of the Jews around them and by the neighbouring
Christian kingdoms.

The story of Prophet Musa (a) was mentioned in detail. Musa (a)
is originally tasked by Allah (swt) to go to Pharaoh and try to
show him the right path, who has got erred already. Musa (a) is
triumphant over Pharaoh by the help of Almighty Allah by
defeating the magicians. After escaping, Musa (a) leaves his
people to confer with God Almighty. During his absence, his
people are led awry by al-Samiri, and begin to worship a golden
calf instead of Lord Almighty. Upon his return, Musa (a) is
furious. He exiles al-Samiri, and chastises his brother Harun (a)
for allowing the people to worship anything other than the one
true God Almighty Allah. The story of Musa (a) has been used to
throw light on all those matters which were connected with the
conflict between the Prophet (s) and the Quraysh.

After this the story of Prophet Adam (a) has been narrated, as if
to tell the Quraysh that they are following the way of Shaitan,
whereas the right way for a man is to follow his father Adam (a).
Adam (a) was beguiled by Shaitan, but when he realized his
error, he plainly confessed it and repented and again turned back
to the service of God Almighty and won His favour.
Scenes of the Day of Judgment are depicted, and the believers
are urged to pray to Allah (swt) for mercy. Lord Almighty
reminds us not to enviously regard the worldly goodness that he
has bestowed on some people; as He only seeks to try them with
it. In the end, the Prophet (s) and the Muslims have been advised
not to be impatient in regard to the punishment to the
disbelievers, since Lord Almighty has His Own plan concerning
them.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 24): The Qur'an is a reminder for those who fear


Almighty Allah, the Creator of the heavens and the earth. The
Prophet Musa (a) went to the sacred valley of 'Tuwa' at mount
Tur. Allah (swt) chose him as His Rasool & assigned him towards
188
Fir‗aun (Pharaoh).

Ayats (25 - 54): The Prophet Musa (a) prayed to Allah (swt) to
open his heart, ease his task and remove the impediment from
his speech so that people may understand what he says. Almighty
Allah granted his request and reminded him about His favours.
This portion has a Dialogue between Musa (a) and Fir‗aun.

Ayats (55 - 76): Human life cycles around soil of earth from
which Almighty God created initially; we would return and
resurrect from it as well. Fir‗aun disbelieved Musa (a) by calling
his miracles a magician's trick and challenged him to confront
his magicians in public - Musa (a) accepted the challenge. The
confrontation took place between Musa (a) and Fir‗aun's
magicians. After witnessing Musa's miracle the magicians
accepted Islam. The dialogue between magicians and Fir‗aun is
presented. End of the criminals and the believers are Hell and
Paradise respectively.

Ayats (77 - 89): Deliverance of the Children of Israel from the


bondage of Fir‗aun. When the Prophet Musa (a) went to Mount
Tur for communion with Allah (swt) - Israelites started
worshipping the calf in his absence.

Ayats (90 - 104): Musa's (a) inquiry about idol worshipping, his
decision about Samiri, Golden Calf and his address to his people.
The Qur'an is but a reminder and the life of this world shall
appear to be no longer than one day in the Hereafter.

Ayats (105 - 115): A scene from the Day of Judgment. The Qur'an
is sent in Arabic to teach and to remind, so read and say: "O my
Rabb, increase me in knowledge."

Ayats (116 - 128): The story of Adam's (a) creation and Shaitan's
temptation. Lord Almighty forgave Adam's (a) sin,
chose him and guided him to the right Way. Those who do not
read the Qur'an and not follow its guidance shall be raised as
blind on the Day of Resurrection.

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Ayats (129 - 135): One shall not envy others in worldly benefits;
rather seek Allah's (swt) pleasure if one wants to attain the
blessed end. The Qur'an is a sign from Almighty Allah so there
can be no excuse for the unbelievers on the Day of Judgment.

Virtue of the Surah

It was narrated that ‗Abd-Allah ibn Mas‘ood (may Allah be


pleased with him) said concerning Bani Israil (al-Isra), al-Kahf,
Maryam, Taha and al-Anbiya: They are among the best of the
earliest ones that I learned by heart. [Narrated by al-Bukhari
(4994)]

It was narrated from Abu Umamah (may Allah be pleased with


him) that the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be
upon him) said: ―The greatest name of Allah appears in three
Surahs of the Quran: in al-Baqarah, Al ‗Imran and Taha.‖
[Narrated by Ibn Majah (3856) and al-Hakim (1/686);
classed as hasan (sound) by al-Albani in al-Silsilah al-
Saheehah (746)]
He (may Allah have mercy on him) said: With regard to the
words of al-Qasim ibn ‗Abd al-Rahman (the one who narrated it
from Abu Umamah) that the greatest name is found in the ayah
(interpretation of the meaning): ―And (all) faces shall be
humbled before (Allah), Al-Hayyul-Qayyum (the Ever Living, the
One Who sustains and protects all that exists)‖

[Taha20:111] in Surah Taha, I could not find anything to support


it. It is more likely in my view that it is in the ayah at the
beginning of the Surah: ―Verily, I am Allah! La ilaha illa Ana
(none has the right to be worshipped but I)‖ [Taha 20:14], and
that is in accordance with some saheeh hadeeths (authentic
narrations. See: al-Fath (11/225) and Saheeh Abi Dawood (1341).

Du‟a while seeking knowledge or feeling tongue-tied

(Rabbishrah lee sadree Wayassir lee amree Wahlul ‗uqdatan min


lisanee Yafqahoo qawlee)
―O my Sustainer! Open up my heart and make my task easy for
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me, and loosen the knot from my tongue so that they might fully
understand my speech.‖ [Surah Taha (Ayats 25-28)]

Who is Samiri in the Qur‟an

Samiri or the Samiri (Arabic: ‫ السامري‬,translit .as-Sāmirī) is a phrase


used by the Qur‘an to refer to a rebellious follower of Moses who
created the golden calf and attempted to lead the Hebrews into
idolatry. According to the twentieth Surah of the Qur‘an, Samiri
created the calf while Musa (a) [Moses] was away for 40 days on
Mount Sinai, receiving the Ten Commandments. In contrast to
account given in the Hebrew Bible, the Qur‘an does not blame
Harun (a) [Aaron] for the calf‘s creation and instead praises him
for trying to stop the worship of it.

Scholars of Islam have linked Samiri to various individuals


mentioned in the Bible. Due to the fact that as-Samiri can mean
the Samaritan, some believe that his character is a reference to
the worship of the golden calves built by Jeroboam of Samaria,
conflating the two idol-worshiping incidents into one. However,
recent research reveal that the Samaritans are the direct
descendants of the Joseph tribes, Ephraim and Manasseh and
that until the 17th century C.E., they possessed a high priesthood
descending directly from Aaron through Eleazar and Phinehas.

Samiri has also been linked to the rebel Hebrew leader Zimri on
the basis of their similar names and a shared theme of rebellion
against Musa‘s (a) authority. Others link him to the
Mesopotamian city of Samarra and suggest that he came from a
cow-worshiping people, giving his name as Musa bin Zafar.
There is no consensus among Islamic scholars on which, if any,
of these identifications is correct.
[Courtesy:https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samiri_(Islam
ic_figure)]

Lessons and Reflection

1. The Qur'an is but a reminder for those who fear Allah:


Allah (swt) informs Prophet Muhammad (s), may the
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mercy and blessings of God be upon him, that He did not
send down the Qur‘an to cause distress to him, but as a
reminder for those who hold God Almighty in awe, a
revelation from the One who created the earth and the
heaven, the Lord of Mercy who is above the Throne.
Everything in the heavens and on earth and between them
belongs to Him. He knows what people keep hidden.

2. In the Hereafter, the life of this world shall appear to be


no more than a day or a part of a day: Whoever turns away
from the Qur‘an will bear a terrible heavy burden on the
Day of Resurrection. When the trumpet is sounded and
God Almighty gathers the sinful, they will murmur to one
another that they stayed only ten days on earth, but the
more perceptive of them will say that their stay on earth
was only a single day.

3. Story of Prophet Musa (a): Musa (a) is the prophet whom


God Almighty has talked of the most in the Qur‘an and
narrated the events of his life from different angles so that
his personality emerges in a different perspective every
time. In this Surah the reference of the journey of Musa
(a) and his family from Madyan to Egypt is made firstly.
When he goes towards the light he hears the voice of God
Almighty calling him. Musa (a) holds a conversation with
his Lord at the sacred valley. Allah (swt) tells him to
establish prayer for His remembrance, and gives him two
miracles. After this God Almighty tells him about the
mission he has been chosen for: call Pharaoh to the path
of Almighty God. Allah (swt) grants Musa (a)‘s wish of
making his brother Harun as prophet. Allah (swt) reminds
Musa (a) of the blessings He bestowed on him since his
birth, and through the various twists and turns of his life
he has been chosen as a Prophet. Pharaoh‘s sorcerers
challenged to Musa (a) upon the request of Pharaoh‘s
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chiefs, and eventually when they got defeated they
submitted themselves to their Lord. After Musa (s) took
Bani Israel out of the slavery of Pharaoh, he went to
Mount Tur to receive the Torah, his people started
worshipping the statue of a calf, being led astray by
Samiri. Musa (a) banished him and burnt the idol.

4. A scene from the Day of Judgment: On the verge of the


Day of Resurrection God Almighty will blast the
mountains into dust and leave a flat plain and people will
follow the caller from whom there is no escape. Every
voice will be hushed for the Lord of Mercy. Only whispers
will be heard. On the Day of Judgment, intercession will
be useless except from those to whom the Lord grants
permission and whose words He approves. All faces will
be humbled before the Living, Ever Watchful One. Those
burdened with evil deeds will despair, but whoever has
done righteous deeds and believed need not to fear of
injustice or deprivation.

5. Du‘a of increasing knowledge: The Qur'an is sent in the


Arabic language for easy understanding, so read it and
say: Rabbi Zidni 'Ilma - "O Rabb, increase my knowledge."

6. The story of Adam's creation and Shaitan's temptations:


Allah (swt) commanded the angels to bow down before
Adam (a) and they did, but Shaitan refused, so God
Almighty told Adam (a) that Shaitan is an enemy to him
and his wife and to not let him drive them out of Paradise.
And as long as he stays in Paradise, he will not go hungry,
feel naked, be thirsty, or suffer from the heat of the sun.
But Shaitan whispered to Adam (a), tempting to lead
Adam to "the tree of immortality and an everlasting
kingdom." Adam (a) disobeyed his Lord; both he and Eve
fell for Shaitan‘s whispers and ate from the tree. They
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became conscious of their nakedness and began to cover
themselves with leaves. Later his Almighty Allah brought
him close, accepted his repentance, and guided him. God
expelled them from Paradise. Allah (swt) told them that
whoever follows His guidance when it comes, will not go
astray nor fall into misery, but whoever turns away from it
will have a life of great hardship. Lord Almighty promises
to raise the one who turns away as a blind person on the
Day of Resurrection.

7. Taking lessons from previous nations: Do they not draw a


lesson from the many generations God Almighty
destroyed before them, through whose dwelling places
they now walk? They are truly signs for those who
understand. If it were not for a preordained Word from
the Lord, they would already have been destroyed. Their
time has been set.

8. Establishing the Prayer is a means to increase Rizq


[sustenance] and for happiness in this world and the here-
after: Prophet Muhammad (s) is told to be patient with
what they say, and celebrate the praise of his Lord before
the rising and setting of the sun, during the night, and at
the beginning and end of the day, so that he may find
contentment. Allah (swt) thus admonished him to order
people to pray and to be steadfast in prayers himself. God
Almighty does not ask anyone to give Him provision, He
provides for everyone, and the rewards of the Hereafter
belong to the devout. So, the believers were reminded not
to envy others for their worldly riches, those who don‘t
care much for the hereafter.

9. The stubbornness of the polytheists and its consequences:


The disbelievers ask - why does Prophet Muhammad (s)
not bring a sign from his Lord? God Almighty tells them
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that they were given clear proof in the earlier scriptures of
the coming of Prophet Muhammad (s). If God would have
destroyed them through punishment before this
Messenger came, they would have complained and asked
if only Allah (swt) had sent them a messenger, they would
have followed His revelations before they suffered
humiliation and disgrace! Prophet Muhammad (s) is told
to say that we are all waiting, so you carry on waiting;
ultimately you will come to learn who has followed the
even path, and who has been rightly guided.

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21. Surah Al-Anbiya‟ (The Prophets)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al-Anbiya‟ In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This Surah is known as Al-Anbiya‘ (pronounced, ―ambiya‘i‖)


meaning, ―The Prophets‖, and is not known by any other name.
It is the 73rd according to the order of revelation. The title of it
comes from the subject matter from 48 to 91 ayats‘ stories, and
lessons from the lives of many of the more notable prophets. The
Surah has 112 ayats in 7 Ruku‘ (Sections).

Period of Revelation

This is a Makki Surah revealed about 5-6 years before the Hijrah.
According to Ibn Attiyah and Qurtubi there is consensus on this
Surah being a Makki Surah - "Both the subject matter and the
style of the Surah indicate that it was sent down in the third stage
of the life of the Prophet (s) at Makkah" [Ref: Tahfim Al-Qur‘an]

Historical Context Present in the Surah

Within the ayats of Surah Al-Anbiya‘ are found numerous traces


of earlier prophets before Prophet Muhammad (s). These
examples help to emphasize and define Muhammad (s)'s role as
a messenger within the Qur'anic context. Additionally, the
incorporation of pre-existing Biblical and Judaic scriptures
integrate Muhammad's (s) prophetic mission into a larger
religious framework, thus broadening the horizons of both the
Qur'an as a text being divinely revealed. The Surah is
thematically and stylistically characteristic of the Second Makki
Period.

The ayats of the Surah identify the religious agency of


Muhammad (s) by relating him to preexisting figures in the
religion of Jews and Christians. So, there are common notional

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doctrines illustrating: Islamic eschatology embodied in the Day
of Judgment, the fates of the disbelievers and the believers, and
the mercy of God Almighty.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The Last Messenger has come. The judgment is coming


closer. All prophets were human beings.

2. Heaven and earth are created for a purpose. All Prophets


preached tawhid.

3. Everything is created for a term. The end will come


suddenly.

4. Allah (swt) cares for human day and night. Musa (a) and
Harun (a) received Allah (swt)'s message and now this
blessed reminder has come to you.

5. Prophet Ibrahim (a) argued against idolatry.

6. Almighty Allah blessed His Prophets and delivered them.

7. The righteous shall inherit the earth.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The basic theme of the Surah is Prophets and Prophethood as


indicated by the name itself. All Prophets were human beings.
They suffered at the hands of their enemies. The last prophet
Muhammad‘s (s) message was the same, the oneness or unity of
God Almighty. This Surah discusses the conflict between the
Prophet (s) and the chiefs of Makkah which was rampant at the
time of its revelation.

So, the chiefs of Makkah have been rebuked for their


conspiracies against the Prophet and warned of the evil
consequences of their wicked activities. It answers those
objections and doubts which were being put forward concerning
197
his Prophet-hood, the doctrines of Monotheism (Tauhid) and the
Hereafter.

A large portion of the Surah deals with describing the lives of


many of the Prophets. Sixteen Prophets are mentioned in this
Surah [directly or indirectly]: Musa (a), Harun (a), Isa (a),
Zakariyyah (a), Yahyah (a), Yunus (a) [Jonah], Ismail (a), Idris
(a), Dhul-Kifl (a), Ayyub (a), Sulayman (a), Lut (a), Ishaq (a),
Yaqub (a), Ibrahim (a) and the Prophet Muhammad (s).
At the end of the Surah they have been told that the person
whom they considered to be a ―distress and affliction‖ had in
reality come to them as a blessing.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 10): The Day of Accountability is getting closer, but the


disbelievers are still heedless to admonition and dispute as to
how Rasool can be a human being?

Ayats (16 - 29): Prior nations were destroyed due to similar


iniquities. The creation of the heavens and earth is not a game. If
there were more than One God, the heavens and earth would
have been in a state of disorder. All Rasools were sent with the
same Message, ―There is no god but Almighty Allah, so worship
Him Alone.‖

Ayats (30 - 41): The skies and earth once were one mass, Allah
(swt) split them asunder, and He created all living things from
water. Allah (swt) has not granted immortality to any human
being. If Rasools are destined to die, how disbelievers are going
to live forever!

Ayats (42 - 50): Invented gods cannot even defend themselves,


how they will defend the unbelievers against Allah? Scale of
justice shall be set up on the Day of Judgment. Musa (a) was
given Al-Furqan (the criterion of right and wrong), so is this
Qur'an.

Ayats (51 - 75): Ibrahim (a) questioned the idol worshiping of his
198
father and his people. Ibrahim (a) broke all their idols to show,
that the gods who cannot even defend themselves, how they can
be of any benefit to them. They decided to burn him alive but
Allah the Almighty commanded the fire to be cool and
comfortable for Ibrahim (a). Allah (swt) blessed Ibrahim (a) with
a son (Ishaq) and then a grandson (Ya'qub) and made each of
them Prophets.

Ayats (76 - 93): Allah (swt) accepted the prayer of Nuh (a)
against the unbelievers. Almighty Allah blessed Prophets Daud
(a) and Sulaiman (a) with wisdom, knowledge and kingdoms.
Allah (swt) accepted the Prophet Ayub's (a) prayer and removed
his affliction. Allah accepted the prayers and blessed Prophets
Isma`il (a), Dhul Kifl (a), Yunus (a), Zakariyya (a) and also
blessed Maryam with Isa (a). Mankind is but one brotherhood.

Ayats (94 – 112): Whoever does good deeds out of belief in


his/her heart (being conscious about Supreme Almighty) – their
endeavor will not be rejected. Here is a scenario from the Day of
Judgment and the fate of the disbelievers and the believers. Allah
(swt) has sent Muhammad (s) as a blessing for all the worlds
(Humans, Jinns and others).

Virtue of the Surah

The Virtues of Surat Al-Anbiya'

Al-Bukhari recorded that `Abdur-Rahman bin Yazid said that


`Abdullah said, "Banu Isra'il, Al-Kahf, Maryam, Ta Ha and Al-
Anbiya' - they are among the earliest and most beautiful Surahs
and they are my treasure.'' [Tafsir Ibn Kathir]

A tradition has been narrated from the Prophet Muhammad (s)


who said:
―Whoever recites Surah Al-‘Anbiya‘ Allah will take his reckoning
easy, (and also On the Day of Hereafter He will not reckon his
deeds strictly), and every prophet whose name has been
mentioned in the Qur‘an will greet him and shake his hands.‖
[Nur-uth-Thaqalayn, the Commentary, P. 412]
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Some key Characteristics of the Prophets of God
Almighty:

- All the Prophets were human beings. They used to eat


and drink like ordinary humans. They were not given everlasting
life [Ayats 8 and 34]
"And We did not make the prophets forms not eating food, nor
were they immortal [on earth]." [21:8]

- All the Prophets were given revelation of 'La ilaha illa


Allah' "And We sent not before you any messenger except that
We revealed to him that, "There is no deity except Me, so
worship Me." [21:25]

- The Prophets were appointed leaders of their people.


"And We made them leaders guiding by Our command. And We
inspired to them the doing of good deeds, establishment of
prayer, and giving of zakah; and they were worshippers of Us."
[21:73]

- The Prophets were foremost in doing good deeds [in


trying to attain closeness to God] - "....And We inspired to them
the doing of good deeds..." [21:73] and "...Indeed, they used to
hasten to good deeds..." [21:90]

- All the Prophets were enjoined to establish Prayer and


Charity - "...establishment of prayer, and giving of zakah;.."
[21:73]

- Allah makes all the Prophets pious - "....and all [of them]
We made righteous." [21:73]
The Prophets pray to Allah Almighty with utmost eargeness and
fear. "...supplicate Us in hope and fear..." [21:90]

Dua of Ayyub (Job, A.S) after he was ill for many


years:

‫( أوي مسىي الضر وأوت أرحم الراحميه‬annee massaniya alddurru waanta


arhamu alrrahimeena)
200
"Verily, distress has seized me, and You are the Most Merciful of
all those who show mercy. (Al-Qur'an, Surah 21.Al-Anbiya,
Ayah: 83)

The drawing close to the end of times is mentioned in


the beginning and end of the Surah

The time of people's reckoning has drawn near, and yet they turn
aside in heedlessness." (21:1)

and the time for the fulfilment of the true promise of Allah draws
near, whereupon the eyes of those who disbelieved will stare in
fear, and they will say: "Woe to us, we were indeed heedless of
this; nay, we were wrongdoers." (21:97)

Lessons and Reflection

1. The main issue for the people to consider is the Message


of Allah rather than disputing about whether a human can
be a Rasool: The disbelievers dispute as to how a human
being can be a prophet yet the previous prophets were all
mortal men. God Almighty fulfilled His promise to them;
they were saved, as were those who believed in them but
many were destroyed for their disbelief. The disbelievers
ask for a sign, but Almighty Allah mentions that all the
cities and towns destroyed previously asked for and
received signs yet they did not believe.

2. The creation of heaven and earth is not a game: God


Almighty warns that the Day of Accountability is getting
closer, yet many people are heedless. They ridicule the
warnings and warners that come to them and continue to
play, their hearts preoccupied with worldly affairs.
Heaven and earth and all that lies between them were not
created to be a playground.

3. Falsehood is blown away by the truth, so woe to those who


201
have created false Gods: Prior nations were destroyed
because of their immoralities. Other communities were
raised up in their place. They tried to escape when they
felt God Almighty‘s wrath upon them. They were told to go
back to their houses and play. They admitted their
wrongdoing and continued to do so until they were
extinguished, just like a fire. Does the false deity have the
power to raise the dead? There is proof and there is the
reminder (the Qur‘an) yet most people do not recognize
the truth and turn away.

4. Every soul will taste death: The skies and earth once were
one mass; Allah (swt) split them asunder and created the
different planets: Do the disbelievers not consider the
world around them? All living creatures have their origin
in water. The earth is covered with firm mountains and
broad pathways and the sky is a canopy. God Almighty
created the night and the day; the celestial bodies move in
their orbits. Every soul will taste death. Everyone is tested
and then they will return to Lord Almighty.

5. Allah (swt) has not granted immortality to any human


being: All the prophets were sent with the same message;
there is no deity but God Almighty, so worship Him alone.
Despite having received the true message people tell lies
against Almighty God. These evil doers are rewarded with
Hell. The previous messengers were ridiculed but in the
end those who ridiculed were overcome by what they
mocked. Invented gods cannot defend themselves so how
will they defend the disbelievers?

6. Prophet Musa (s) was given Al-Furqan, so is this the


Qur'an given to Muhammad (s): God Almighty says He
gave Musa (a) and his brother Harun (a) the scripture that
distinguishes between right and wrong. So, thus the
202
Qur‘an send down by the God Almighty is also a blessed
message. Yet some people continue to deny it.

7. Prophet Ibrahim (s) was not an idol worshipper but an


idol breaker: Long ago right judgment was bestowed upon
Ibrahim (a). He questioned his father and his people
about their clear idolatry but they answered that they only
followed the ways of their ancestors. Ibrahim (a) said to
them that their true Lord was the Lord of the heavens and
the earth that had created them. He made plot against the
idols with the opportunity to destroy all the idols except
the largest one and he did it. When the people returned to
find the carnage, they remembered Ibrahim (a)‘s speech
of resistance, so they called him and questioned him.
When he was asked, he pointed them to the largest idol
that was left unmolested. Even though they admitted their
errors but then they were seized with pride and obstinacy.
They threw Ibrahim (a) into the midst of a fire but Allah
(swt) kept the fire cool. They planned to hurt Ibrahim (s)
but God Almighty made them the losers.

8. Mankind is but a single brotherhood: God Almighty calls


all the prophets a single community and says worship
Him alone. If a believer does righteous deeds the angels
will record it. Towards the end of time the people of Gog
and Magog will be let loose to swarm across the land. On
the Day of Judgment the eyes of the disbelievers will stare
in horror and say, "We were wrong". But the people
destined for Paradise will be kept far away from Hell; they
will not even hear a sound of it. This day of great terror
will not grieve them and the angels will greet them. Surely
this is great news for the believers.

9. Whoever will do good deeds provided he is a believer, his


endeavor shall not be rejected: Prophet Ibrahim (a) and
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his nephew Lut (a) were delivered from harm and sent to
a land that God had blessed for the entire world. Ibrahim
(a) having higher grades of piety was blessed with his
righteous son Ishaq (a) and his grandson Yaqub (a). In the
past Nuh (a) called out to God Almighty and God accepted
his prayer against the unbelievers. Prophet Nuh (a) and
the believers were saved from the great calamity (the
flood) but those who had denied the warnings were
drowned. Allah (swt) blessed Prophet Daud (a) and
Sulaiman (a) with wisdom. It was God Almighty who
made the mountains and the birds sing His praises with
Daud (a). It was also Allah (swt) who taught Daud (a) to
make coats of armour for protection in battle. God
Almighty harnessed the wind for Sulaiman (a) and made
some of the jinn subservient to him. It was Allah (swt)
who answered the du‘a of Ayyub (a) - Job, when he was in
afflicted with distress. God Almighty also mentioned the
names of Ismail (a), Idris (a), and Dhul- Kifl (a). They
were all steadfast and were admitted into Allah‘s mercy.
Allah (swt) talked about Yunus (a): Zun-nun -the man in
the whale. He was angry but admitted his wrong and God
Almighty saved him from his distress. Almighty Allah
blessed Zakariyyah (a) [Zachariah] and accepted his
prayer for a child. He was given Yahya (a) [John (the
Baptist)]. Allah (swt) reminded us of Maryam (a) who
guarded her chastity. Almighty God made her and her son
Isa (a) a sign for all people.

10. Muhammad (s) has been sent as a blessing for all the
worlds: Allah (swt) has sent Muhammad (s) as a blessing
for all the worlds (humans, jinns, and others) and has
been as the last reminder of the prophets and was told to
warn them (humankind) asking them to affirm their belief
that Almighty God is one.

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22. Surah Al-Hajj (The Hajj; The Pilgrimage; Pillar of
Islam; Pilgrim's Journey)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al-Hajj In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

Surah Al-Hajj is the 103rd according to the order of revelation.


The Surah gets its title from the reference to the rite of
pilgrimage that was initiated by Ibrahim (a). It is discussed in the
27th ayah. The obligation of the pilgrimage to Makkah - The Hajj
comes mentioned from divine decrees, "And proclaim to the
people the Hajj [pilgrimage]; they will come to you on foot
and on every lean camel; they will come from every distant pass -
" [22:27]

There are two Ayats of prostration (telawat-e-sujood) in this


Surah: in 18 and 77. This Surah has 78 ayats in 10 Ruku‘
(Sections).

Period of Revelation

Commentators have differed about this Surah‘s period of


revelation, as it contains both the characteristics of both the
Makki and the Madani Surahs. We are of the opinion of that
some are sent down in the last stage of Makki life of Muhammad
(s) (1 - 24), the rest (25 - 78) were revealed during the first stage
of his Madani life. Some authorities consider this a Makki Surah,
but according to the majority it is Madani.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The Shaking of the Last Hour. Arguments for the


Resurrection from the stages of human creation and from
the rain that produces vegetation.

2. The marginal believers and their end.

205
3. The true believers shall be rewarded.

4. Pilgrimage to the House of Almighty Allah.

5. Respect of the Symbols of Allah (swt).

6. The permission of fighting back is granted to those to


whom wrong is done. The real purpose of Jihad.

7. Satan's enticements and Allah's (swt) especial protection


of His words.

8. The reward of those who migrate in the cause of Allah


(swt).

9. Allah's (swt) order prevails in the heaven and earth.

10. The Muslim community is chosen by Almighty Allah for a


special purpose.

Subject Matter of the Surah

Surah al-Hajj is addressed to: (1) The mushriks of Makkah, (2)


the wavering Muslims, and (3) the True Believers. This Surah
begins with the Day of Judgment and repudiates those who
worship idols, later describing them as powerless to even create a
fly.

When the companions of Prophet Muhammad (s) went to


Makkah for the 1st time from Yathrib (Madinah) after the Hijrah
(migration) – for hajj, they were debarred. So, Allah (swt) gave
permission to Muslim to wage war against musrikhs who don‘t
had the right and authority to take possession of Baitul Haram
(al-Ka‘bah) as it was built and made by Ibrahim (a) as a sacred
sanctuary for worshipping true Lord - divinely endorsed by
Almighty Allah.

The wavering Muslims were warned about their state of belief


and condition. Though they had embraced Islam but were not

206
prepared to endure any hardship in its way. They have been
admonished for this wavering attitude; it would be inevitable for
them to avert the punishments metaphysically ordained for them
from Almighty Allah.

The mushrikhs were warned for their ignorant worship of deities


in a forceful manner. They have been admonished time and
again for their creed of shirk (association against Lord Almighty)
which have led them reject the Divine Messenger Muhammad
(s). Thereby, the Surah reminds about the approaching end of
the world. It talks about prayers, humbleness and sacrifice,
respect of the Ka'bah, the House of Almighty Allah, and striving
to defend the truth. So, some advises upon different fields of life
are provided in the Surah – encouraging us to pray, give charity,
uphold trust in consideration to the divine instruction of
Almighty Allah.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 10): A scene from the Hour of Doom. Our Life in this
world cycles through the life in the Hereafter. People invoke
other deities besides Allah (swt), without knowledge and
guidance.

Ayats (11 - 22): Behaviour of those who are standing at the verge
of faith is not ethical. Allah (swt) always helps His Rasools. All
the dwellers of the heavens and the earth prostrate before
Almighty Allah. The disbelievers will have garments of fire,
boiling water to drink and maces of iron to lash them with.

Ayats (23 - 25): Allah (swt) has given equal rights to all believers
at Masjid-al-Haram, whether they are natives or foreigners.

Ayats (26 - 33): Allah (swt) identified the site of Sacred House to
Ibrahim (a), commanded him to build the Ka‗bah, then call
mankind to come for Hajj (Pilgrimage). Committing shirk is as
though he had fallen from the sky and his body is snatched away
by birds.

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Ayats (34 - 38): It is not the meat or the blood of the sacrificed
animals that reaches Allah (swt), it is our piety that reaches Him.

Ayats (39 – 48): Permission is granted to the believers to fight in


self-defense, and for the cause of Allah (swt). Muhammad (s) was
reminded by Allah, "You are not the only one being denied, all
Prophets were denied before you." A day to our Rabb is equal to
one thousand years of our calculation.

Ayats (49 - 57): Acceptors of Truth shall be forgiven, while others


punished. Shaitan tampered with the wishes of all Rasools but
Allah (swt) nullified such interjection and on the Day of
Judgment, Allah (swt) Himself shall be the Judge for all.

Ayats (58 - 64): Those who migrated for the sake of Almighty
Allah shall be generously rewarded and Allah (swt) is the only
One who is real, all other deities are false.

Ayats (65 - 72): Almighty Allah is the One Who has given us life,
cause us to die and will bring us back to life for passing on His
Judgment. Lord Almighty will judge between ourselves
concerning those matters in which we would differ.

Ayats (73 – 78): So-called gods besides Allah (swt) have no


power to create even a creature like a fly. Almighty Allah named
the believers as Muslims in the prior Scriptures and also in this
(Qur'an).

Virtue of the Surah

Uqbah bin Amir narrated: "I said: 'O Messenger of Allah! Surah
Al-Hajj has been esteemed by two prostrations?' He said: 'Yes,
and whoever does not prostrate for them, he should not recite
them.' [Jami` at-Tirmidhi 578]

Earthquake Prelude to Resurrection

(22:1) O mankind, fear the (wrath of) your Lord! Indeed, the
earthquake of the Hour (of Judgement) will be an awesome
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thing.1

1. According to the early commentators, this earthquake will be a


prelude to Resurrection. This will probably take place when the
earth will begin to rotate in the reverse order, and the sun will
rise in the west. In a lengthy tradition reported by Ibn Jarir,
Tabarani and Ibn Abi Hatim from Abu Hurairah, the Prophet
(peace be upon him) has stated that when the first Trumpet will
be blown, there will be a general confusion. At the second all
people will die and at the third they will be brought back to life
and presented before Allah. At the first blowing of the Trumpet,
the earth will begin to rock like a boat which is beaten about by
huge waves, or like a hanging lamp which is moved from side to
side by a strong wind.
This condition has been depicted in the Qur‘an at several other
places. For instance (Surah Al-Waqiah, Ayat 6); (Surah Al-
Haqqa, Ayats 13-14); (Surah Al-Muzzammil, Ayats 14,17-18);
(Surah An-Naziat, Ayats 6-9) and (Surah Al-Zalzalah, Ayats
1-3)

According to other commentators, this earthquake will occur


when the dead will be brought back to life and presented before
their Lord. Though this is supported by some traditions, we
prefer the first interpretation (in spite of the fact that the
tradition reported by Abu Hurairah is weak) because that is
supported by clear ayats of the Qur‘an.
A tradition narrated from the Prophet Muhammad (s) indicates
that he said: ―Whoever recites Surah Al-Hajj, Allah will reward
him both the reward of pilgrimage and lesser pilgrimage of all
those who have done them in the past and all those who will do
them in the future.‖ [Tafsir-us-Safi, Burhan, and Majma„-
ul-Bayan]
Hajj is one of the best righteous deeds and acts of obedience: Abu
Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that the
Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allah exalt his
mention ) was asked: "What is the best deed?" He replied: "To
have faith in Allah and His Messenger." The enquirer asked:
"What next?" The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may

209
Allah exalt his mention ) said: "To perform jihad for the sake of
Allah." The enquirer asked: "What next?" The Prophet
sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention ) said:
"A valid and accepted Hajj." [Al-Bukhari, Muslim, At-
Tirmithi, An-Nasaa‟i, and Ahmad]
The obligation of the Hajj will continue even after the occurrence
of the great trials at the end of time. In a hadith, the Prophet
sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his mention ) said:
"Hajj and ‗Umrah to this House will continue even after the
emergence of Ya‘jooj and Ma‘jooj (Gog and Magog)." [Al-
Albani: authentic]
When Allah will seize the souls of the believers at the end of time
to leave only the evil people to witness the Hour, Hajj will stop.
The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam ( may Allah exalt his
mention ) said: "The (final) Hour will not come unless people
refrain from performing the Hajj." [Al-Albani: authentic]
Thus, it is obligatory on each Muslim who is physically and
financially able to hasten to perform the Hajj before he will be
unable to do so. The Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may
Allah exalt his mention ) said: "Whoever intends to perform the
Hajj should hasten to it; for one could get sick, his mount could
be lost, or he could face poverty and need." [Saheeh Al-
Jaami']

Glad tidings for those who are unable to perform the


Hajj:
There is a reward equal to the reward of Hajj. It was narrated on
the authority of Anas, may Allah be pleased with him, that the
Prophet sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam (may Allah exalt his
mention) said: "Whoever performs the Fajr (dawn prayer) in
congregation, then sits to remember Allah until the sun rises,
and then performs a two-rak‗ah (unit of prayer) prayer, his
reward will be equal to that of Hajj and ‗Umrah, completely,
completely, completely." [At-Tirmithi; Al-Albaani:
authentic]

210
Lessons and Reflection

1. A scene from the Hour of Doom: The Surah begins with an


awesome opening that makes hearts tremble. It addresses
all mankind, calling on them to fear their Lord Almighty
and warning them against what may happen on the
eventful and terrible Day of Judgment. When the details
are given, we find them even more frightening. We have a
picture of every suckling mother completely unaware of
the child she is nursing: she looks but does not see, moves
but only aimlessly. Every pregnant female miscarries
because of the great shock that engulfs her. All people look
drunk, but they are not.

2. Human life cycle - life in this world and life in the


Hereafter: Humans should reflect on how life is initiated.
They should look at themselves, and at the earth around
them. There are numerous indications that tell them that
the whole thing is very close to them, but they pay little
heed to the significance of the indicators within
themselves and on earth. The One who originated life in
the first instance is the One who brings it back in the final
stage. They will then be given their reward for whatever
they did in this first life. Such resurrection is dictated by
the purpose of creation.

3. Behavior of those individuals who were standing at the


verge of faith is identified: This Surah paints a picture of a
type of person who weighs up faith against what profit or
loss he is likely to approach to faith as a business
transaction he/she conducts. How can we make faith a
commercial endeavour which is likely to result into chaos
of misery of hatred? Faith is the mainstay of a believer‘s
life. The world may be swayed and shaken, but the
believer grounds his/her position supported by this
211
mainstay. Events may pull him/her in this or that
direction, but he/she remains firm in his/her resolve.

4. The fact that Allah (swt) always helps His Rasools: Allah
(swt) protects His messengers from Shaitan‘s wicked
scheming, just like He protects them from their
opponents‘ plots. In the Surah, God Almighty reassured
Muhammad (s) about His power to intervene when he
needs ensuring the failure of his enemies. The same power
intervened in the past to support earlier prophets and
messengers, and to punish those who denied and opposed
them. The unbelievers are directed to reflect on the doom
suffered by earlier communities; even though such
reflection benefits only hearts and minds that are open
and receptive. It is not only eyes that can be blind, for real
blindness is that of the heart.

5. Divine law granting equal rights to all believers in Masjid-


al-Haram, whether they are natives or foreigners: The
basis on which Masjid-al-Haram was founded when God
Almighty assigned its building to Ibrahim (a) and ordered
him to call on all people to visit it for pilgrimage.
Ibrahim‘s (a) instructions were very clear: that this masjid
must be established on the clear basis of Almighty Allah‘s
oneness, so as to prevent any form of associating partners
with Him from being practiced in or near it. It must be
kept open to all people, whether they reside nearby or
come from afar. None is to be denied entry, and none is to
claim its ownership.

6. Parable of doing Shirk is like getting snatched by the


flying birds: Someone who commits Shirk is like someone
who falls from the sky and his body is snatched away by
birds.

212
7. The fact that it is not the blood or the flesh of a sacrificed
animal which reaches Allah but the piety of the individual
who is offering the sacrifice: Surah al-Hajj outlines some
of the rituals of pilgrimage and how it enhances people‘s
consciousness and constant remembrance of God
Almighty. It also stresses the need to protect the Sacred
Masjid against any aggression by those who try to turn
people away from it or change the basis on which it is
founded. Those who fulfill their duties of protecting the
purity of the faith are promised victory.

8. The first Commandment of Allah granting permission to


the believers to defend themselves and fight against the
unbelievers and mushrikin: The Surah speaks about the
unbelievers who turn people away from Almighty God‘s
path and from the Sacred Masjid in Makkah. They defied
the Prophet (s) and his Companions debarring their entry
into the Sacred Masjid-al-Haram at the Ka‘bah. So, Allah
(swt) ordained permission for taking arms to confront
those who are in oppression who has sought to prevent
people worshipping their true Lord.

9. On the Day of Judgment, Allah (swt) Himself will be the


Judge for all: On the Day when all dominion will belong to
God Almighty alone, the believers and those who deny
Almighty God‘s message will end up in contrasting
positions. All this is given within the context of Allah‘s
(swt) support of His messengers, protection of His
message and the reward He has in store for those who
believe and those who refuse to believe.

10. Allah's promise to those who migrate for His sake that He
will reward them generously: The community of believers
has an obligation to fulfill their duties as the leaders of
humanity. So, they should prepare themselves for their
213
task with prayer, worship and good action, seeking God
Almighty‘s help and protection. Its ultimate rewards come
when one follows the footsteps of Ibrahim (a) who has
shunned associating with idols. Allah (swt) has set a
perfect legacy by presenting his history in various places
of the Qur‘an.

214
23. Surah Al-Mu'minun (The Believers; Faithful and
submissive ones who understood the essence of faith)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al-Mu'minun In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of the Surah appears in the first ayah of the Surah,
"Certainly will the Believers have succeeded." [23:1] This
Surah is an early Makki Surah revealed about 6-7 years before
the Hijrah, and as the title suggests, it outlines the qualities
expected of true believer which are humility, prayer, zakat,
mindful of one‘s chastity, justness and abstinence from all kinds
of vanity. It has 118 ayats in 6 Ruku‘ (Section).

Period of Revelation

Both its style and theme indicate that it was revealed during the
middle stage of Prophethood at Makkah. Reading between the
lines one feels that a bitter conflict had begun between the
Prophet and the disbelievers of Makkah though the persecution
by them had not yet become tyrannical. It appears that the Surah
was sent down during the climax of the ―Famine‖ in Makkah
(ayats 75 - 76) which according to authentic traditions occurred
during the middle stage of Prophethood.

Moreover, according to a tradition related by ‗Urwah bin Zubair,


Hadarat Umar (ra) who had embraced Islam by that time said,
‗This Surah was revealed in my presence and I myself observed
the state of the Prophet (s) during its revelation. When the
revelation ended the Prophet Muhammad (s) remarked ‗On this
occasion ten such ayats have been sent down to me that the one
who measures up to them will most surely go to Paradise‘. Then
he recited the initial ayats of the Surah. [Ahmad & Tirmidhi]

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

215
1. The character of the Believers. Various stages of human
creation and Allah's signs in the samawat.

2. The Message of Prophet Nuh (a), his people's response


and then the flood.

3. Generations were raised after Prophet Nuh (a). Many


prophets were sent among them. Then came Prophet
Musa (a) and Harun (a) and then came Isa (a).

4. All prophets are one Ummah and preached the same


religion. Those who are affluent think that they are also
the righteous people, but the righteous are only those who
do the good deeds.

5. Everything in the heaven and earth belongs to Almighty


Allah.

6. Prophet's job is to continue presenting the message of


Allah (swt). This life is the only chance. The life has a
purpose.

Subject Matter of the Surah

Surah Al-Mu‘minun begins by stating the character of true


believers and assures that they will be the real successful people.
It draws attention to various stages of human creation, to many
other signs of samawat. Then it takes some of the stories of other
prophets and tells us that they also preached the same message.

The Surah deals with the fundamentals of faith (Aqidah),


Tawheed (Monotheism of Oneness of Almighty Lord), Risalah
(Messengership), Resurrection and the supreme Judgment of
God Almighty. With these themes in the Surah Allah (swt) drives
us to ponder over the creation of man through different stages in
the mother's womb, His creation of the heavens and the earth,
His sending down rains and growing plants, trees and fruits, and
His providing of domestic animals with various

216
benefits for man, all together with an emphasis on the fact that
man shall die and shall be raised up on the Day of Resurrection.

The accounts of Nuh (a), Hud (a), Musa (s) and Isa (a) are
depicted in short who delivered the same message of
monotheism, but were disbelieved and opposed by the people
they preached to, and that all of them were helped and rescued
by Allah (swt). A reference is also made to the similar unbelief
and opposition of the leaders of Makkah, who are rejecting the
message of Muhammad (s).

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 22): Characteristics of true believers. The stage of


human creation is detailed with vivid illustrations. Allah (swt)
has made the heavens, vegetation, trees and animals for the
benefit of human beings.

Ayats (23 - 32): The Prophet Nuh (a) was sent to guide his
people, they disbelieved him, and as a result, Allah (swt)
drowned all disbelievers in great flood. After prophet Nuh (a),
Allah (swt) sent Hud (a) to guide his people.

Ayats (33 - 50): They called Hud (a) an imposter; as a result,


Allah (swt) destroyed them all in a mighty blast. After Hud (a),
Allah (swt) sent Rasools to other people, they also denied and
faced a similar punishment. Musa (a) was sent to Fir‗aun
(Pharaoh) and his chiefs; they also disbelieved and faced
destruction.

Ayats (51- 77): Allah (swt) has said: "In fact, your religion is one
religion; I am your Rabb, so fear Me, Alone." Allah has not
charged any soul with more than it can bear. End of disbelievers;
why are they not following the truth? Those who do not believe
in the Hereafter will stray from the Right Path.

Ayats (78 - 92): Almighty Allah has given us ears, eyes, and
hearts, but we seldom show gratitude. Even the disbelievers
recognize the existence of Almighty Allah. Allah (swt) has never
217
begotten a son, nor is there any other god besides Him.

Ayats (93 - 118): Repel evil with good and seek refuge with Allah
(swt) against the temptations of Shaitan. The wrongdoers will
wish that they could be sent back to this world to adopt the Right
Way, but it will be too late. On the Day of Judgment, it will
appear as if the life of this world was less than a day. The
unbelievers will never attain salvation.

Virtue of the Surah

Importance of Surah al-Mu‟minun

Narrated Umar bin Al-Khattab [may Allah be pleased with him]:


"When revelation came to the Messenger of Allah (‫)ﷺ‬, one
could hear what sounded like the drone of bees before his face.
One day revelation was coming to him; he faced the Qiblah,
raised his hands and said: 'O Allah! Increase us, do not diminish
us. Favour us, do not withhold from us, make us pleased and be
pleased with us.' He (‫ )ﷺ‬said: 'Ten Ayah were revealed to me,
whoever abides by them shall enter Paradise (and they are):
'Successful indeed are the believers...' until the completion of
then Ayat (23:1-10)." [Jami` at-Tirmidhi: Vol. 5, Book 44,
Hadith 3173]

Qualities of the believers (1–11)

The first eleven ayats of Surah Al-Mu‘minun hence mention the


desired qualities of the believers; they are blessed and will attain
victory:
(1) [How] prosperous are the believers!
(2) Those who pray humbly,
(3) who shun idle talk,
(4) who pay the prescribed alms,
(5) who guard their chastity
(6) except with their stated spouses –– with these they are not to
blame,
(7) but anyone who seeks more than this is exceeding the limits–
218
(8) who are faithful to their trusts and pledges
(9) and who keep up their prayers,
(10) will rightly be given
(11) Paradise as their own, there to remain.

Tranquillity of Al-Khushoo

The Arabic word 'Khushoo' encompasses the meanings of


calmness, serenity, tranquility, dignity, and humility.‖, while Ibn
Abbas explains 'Khashi'oon' to mean, with fear and tranquility.
Al-Khushoo is a necessary component of Salaah, however can be
very easily lost. In a hadith, Muhammad (s) said "The first thing
to be lifted up (taken away) from this Ummah will be al-
Khushoo; until you will see no one who has al-Khushoo." [Tafsir
ibn Kathir, Dar al-Sha'ab Edition, (6/414); At-Tabaree
(19:9); Saheeh at-Targheeb, hadith No: 543]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Characteristics of a true believers: In this world of God


Almighty, success is for one who is a true believer - one
who devotes fully to Almighty God and not to anybody
other than Him and who leads a God-oriented life.
Sincerity and seriousness of a believer increases to the
extent that wasting time in useless pursuits appears fatal
to him. Believers set aside a portion of his earnings in the
Name of God Almighty and with that they help the needy.
They exercise control over their sexual desires and give
free rein to them only within the limit prescribed by
Almighty God. They live their lives in this world as a
responsible person and never misappropriate whatever is
entrusted to them. Allah (swt) has kept ready the gardens
of Paradise for those people. After death they will be sent
into this new ‗world‘ so that they may savor its joys
forever.

219
2. Stages of human creation: The young human being grows
in the womb of his mother. The development of the
embryo in the mother‘s womb shows that the Creator of
this world is the most perfect Being. Our knowledge of
human creation compels us to believe that a second
creation is certainly possible. The vivid Qur‘anic
description of the various developmental stages of the
formation and birth of human beings is surprisingly
identical with modern scientific findings. This provides a
clear proof of the fact that the Qur‘an is the Book of God
Almighty.

3. The story of Prophet Nuh (a) and preceding prophets after


him: Prophet Nuh (a) admonished his community for a
long time, but they were not ready to accept his call. When
the limit of human effort has been reached, divine action
begins; it is time for reckoning, not advice. Almighty God‘s
retribution appeared in the shape of a storm which
drowned his entire community with the exception of some
believers. A few who had faith in Nuh (a) entered the ark,
Allah (swt) saved them from the grim consequences of the
Flood which would have been their fate had they rejected
the truth. After being delivered in the ark, the generation
of believers in Nuh (a) flourished, but with the passage of
centuries, they plunged into the same evils in which their
predecessors had indulged.

4. Guidance to repel evil with good and to seek the


protection of Allah against the temptations of Shaitan: In
the Makki period of Islam when the Quraysh rejected
Prophet Muhammad (s), so God Almighty sent famine on
them for several years. In accordance with Almighty God‘s
scheme, when a community adopts an arrogant attitude
and does not accept good advice, He gives a warning
220
punishment in order to soften their hearts and make them
pay attention to the Truth. On the Day of Judgment
consequence of disbelieving is facing penultimate
punishment of fire in hell.

5. Refuge for the believers who are thankful to their Lord


Almighty: Humans are small creatures. Compared to
them, the samawat is so large that it strikes terror into
them. These sun, moon and stars have been made to cater
to all of our needs. For example, one is able to domesticate
a variety of animals and put them to various uses. The
cow‘s belly, for instance, is a wonderful factory that gives
out a valuable commodity – like milk. Humanity‘s
recognition of their Kind and Merciful God Almighty
through gratification would yield success from Him.

6. Polytheists‘ unwariness towards their life where reality


turns into chaos: Those who devote their life to this world
are not interested in any discourse about God Almighty or
the Hereafter. They ignore all such talk and are lost in
worldly pursuits. With the onset of Almighty Allah‘s
retribution, such people forget their recklessness and
arrogance and start pleading humbly. In their self-
indulgence - they want truth to be subservient to their
desires. The truth appears strange to them, and they are,
therefore, unable to recognize the real position of the
preacher and they try to prove him wrong. The samawat
appears to be in perfect harmony, whereas the world of
human beings is in confusion everywhere. That is because
the samawat is running on the basis of truth (laws of
nature).

221
24. Surah An-Nur (The Light; The Clarity of
Illumination; Apparent to the Senses; The One Who
Enlightens)
Concise Tafseer of Surah An-Nur In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This Surah was revealed at Madinah, and contains important


injunctions on the personal and social conduct of the believer,
with emphasis on family life. The title of the Surah is acquired
from a parable from ayah 35 in which Allah (swt) described as
the light of the heavens and the earth wherein He has entitled
guidance to those who seeks it out of His Mercy. The Surah has
64 ayats in 9 Ruku (Section).

Period of Revelation

There is a difference of opinion about the timing in which this


Surah was revealed. The general agreement of scholars is that
this Surah was revealed shortly before or after the Battle of the
Trench in 5 AH. Surah An-Nur got revealed in conjunction and
as sequel to the Surah Al-Ahzab. Ayats 28 to 73 of Surah Al-
Ahzab were concerning the marriage of our beloved prophet
Muhammad (s) with Zainab (rh). This Surah got reveled to repair
the cracks that had appeared, due to rumour of slandering our
mother Aisha (rh).

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Punishment of adultery. Rules of testimony in the case of


adultery.

2. The false rumours against Syidah 'Aisha (rh).

3. Beware of those who slander pious chaste women.

4. Rules about entering others homes, proper dress, help

222
those who are single to get married.

5. The light of Almighty Allah and the struggle between light


and darkness.

6. Everything in the heaven and earth glorifies Allah (swt).

7. Believers must obey Allah (swt) and His messenger. Lord


Almighty's promise to the Believers to establish them in
the land.

8. Rules of privacy for men and women, at home and


outside.

9. Especial respect of the Prophet and Believers' duties


towards him.

Background of the Surah

The false charge against our Mother Aisha (rh) was the occasion
of this Surah‘s revelation. After the victory at Badr, Islam has
spread progressively and gained strength day by day.
Disbelievers have realized the power of Islam with small
numbers, even though they were 10 fold in strength and number;
they couldn‘t able to defeat Muslims in the battlefield due to
their moral front. So, they chose to attack Muslim on the moral
front. They decided to vilify Muhammad (s) amongst Muslims.

The first opportunity came when Muhammad (s) married Zainab


(rh) – daughter of Jahsh. She was the first cousin who was
married to his adopted son Zaid bin Harithah. Malicious slander
was spread by hypocrites, Jews and Mushrikhs both inside and
outside of Muslim community. Cunning fictions were spread like,
―One day Muhammad (s) happened to see the wife of his adopted
son and fell in love with her; he maneuvered her divorce and
married her.‖

Zainab (rh) was never a stranger to Muhammad (s), he knew her


from her childhood as she was the daughter of his real paternal
223
aunt, Umaimah – daughter of Abdul Muttalib. He persuaded her
to marry Zaid (ra) but they could not pull on together.

The second slander happened to Aisha (rh) while she was


returning along with the others from the Campaign of against
Bani al-Muttaliq. This one is the main background of the Surah.
The main culprit of the slander was Abdullah bin Ubayy.

Aisha (rh) was left behind while returning to Madinah by the


outrage remarks made by Abdullah bin Ubayy. On the way
Muhammad (s) halted before entering Al-Madinah and camped
there for the night. When Aisha (rh) came out of the camp to
ease herself off, she noticed her necklace being fallen somewhere,
while in going to search it thereof, the caravan left her not
noticing her presence. So she stayed just there where she was left
in the hope that she would be picked up, but she fell asleep.

In the morning Safwan bin Mu‘attal Sulami passed that way.


When he recognized Aisha (rh), and modestly took her in the
camel to catch the departed caravan. They have managed to
overtaken the caravan by noon. Apparently it was not known that
she was left behind in the camp. But Abdullah bin Ubayy,
foremost slanderer, started rumouring slander against Safwan
and Aisha (rh). So, Almighty Allah revealed the true facts about
Aisha (rh) in Surah An-Nur. The Qur‘an proved her innocence
and exposed the hypocrisy of hypocrites and admonished
believers for not showing good moral in the time of slander.

Subject Matter of the Surah

This Surah and ayats 28 to 73 of Surah 33: Al-Ahzab (The


Confederates), of which this is the sequel - were sent down to
strengthen the moral front, which at that time was the main
target of the attack. Ayats 28-73 of Al-Ahzab were sent down
concerning the Prophet‘s marriage with Zainab (rh), and on the
occasion of the second attack the slander about Aisha (rh) - this
Surah was sent down to repair the cracks that had appeared in
the unity of the Muslim Community.

224
In Surah Al-Ahzab, Lord Almighty sent the following instructions
to strengthen and safeguard the moral front, and to counteract
the storm of propaganda that was raised on the occasion of the
marriage of Zainab (rh). On the occasion of the second attack,
Surah An-Nur was sent down to keep pure and strengthen the
moral fibre of the Muslim society, which had been shaken by the
enormity of the slander.

This Surah contains many rules for the development of a society


based on righteousness and morality. It talks about male-female
relations, rules of proper dress for Muslim women, rules for the
punishment of adultery and punishment of those who accuse
others of adultery or fornication. Thus, the Surah establishes
regulations for marriage, modesty, appropriate household
behaviour, and the manners and necessity of obedience to
Prophet Muhammad (s).

Surah An-Nur flows effortlessly from prescribing mandatory


punishments to gently inviting us to reflect on the signs Lord
Almighty has placed for us throughout the samawat.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 10): This ayats have the instructions concerning the


punishments for rape or fornication, claiming false witness, and
also the matter detailing li'an (accusing wife when there is no
other witness in a case of adultery).
Ayats (11 - 20): slander against a wife of the Prophet (s). Allah
(swt) declared the Prophet's wife to be innocent.

Ayats (21 - 26): Almighty Allah commanded the believers not to


follow Shaitan and not take part in false accusations and
slanders.

Ayats (27 - 34): Etiquette for entering the houses other than
one‘s own. The required behaviour of a believer in mixed traffic
and gatherings of males and females are outlined. Allah (swt)
instructed to help single people to get married when they are in
need. Allah (swt) instructed to grant liberty to those slaves who
225
seek to buy their freedom.

Ayats (35 - 40): Almighty Allah is the Light of the heavens and
the earth. Allah (swt)'s Light is found in the places of worship
which are built for His remembrance by His devotees. Deeds of
unbelievers are like a mirage in a sandy desert.

Ayats (41 - 50): Everything in the heavens and earth glorifies and
praises Almighty Allah. Allah (swt) has created every living
creature from water. Those who claim to be the believers but do
not demonstrate their belief through actions are not true
believers.

Ayats (51 - 57): True believers are those who, when called
towards Almighty Allah and His Rasool, say: "We hear and we
obey."

Ayats (58 - 61): Etiquette of seeking permission to enter the


room of married couple. The etiquette of eating at houses other
than one‘s own is outlined.

Ayats (62 - 64): Requirement to attend meetings which require


collective action.

Virtue of the Surah

Allah is the Nur of this heaven and samawat

Allah is the Light of the heavens and the earth. The example of
His light is like a niche within which is a lamp, the lamp is within
glass, the glass as if it were a gleaming [white] star lit from [the
oil of] a blessed olive tree, neither of the east nor of the west,
whose oil would almost glow even if untouched by
fire. Light upon light. Allah guides to His light whom He wills.
And Allah presents examples for the people, and Allah is
Knowing of all things. (Surah 24.AnNur Ayah: 35)

God is the Light of the heavens and the earth, in other words, He
illumines both of them with the sun and the moon. The likeness
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of His Light, that is, the description of it [as it resides] in the
heart of a believer, is as a niche wherein is a lamp. The lamp is in
a glass — this [glass] is the [case for the] lantern and the misbāh
is the torch, that is, the wick that is lit; al-mishkāt is a recess that
does not penetrate [to the other side], in other words, the tube
inside the lantern, the glass, with the light inside it [is], as it were
a glittering star, that is, a light-giving [star] (read dirrī‘un or
durrī‘un, derived from ad-dar‗, ‗to repel‘, because it repels
darkness; or read durriyyun, derived from ad-durr, ‗pearls‘)
kindled, is this lamp (read past tense tawaqqada; a variant
reading has the imperfect tense of awqada, in the passive voice:
yūqadu; another reading has tūqadu, in which case the reference
is to al-zujāja, ‗the glass‘) from, the oil of, a Blessed Tree, an olive
neither of the east nor of the west, but in between the two, so that
no harmful cold or heat affects it; whose oil would almost glow
forth [of itself], though no fire touched it, because of [the extent
of] its purity. Light, by Him, upon light, by fire; the light of God
is His guidance of the believer, light upon the light of faith.
God guides to His Light, that is, [to] the religion of Islam, whom
He will. And God strikes, He illustrates, similitudes for men, by
approximating [such similitudes] to their comprehension, so that
they might take heed and believe; and God is Knower of all
things, including [knowledge of] how to strike similitudes.
[Tafsir al-Jalalayn: Surah An Nur, Ayat 35 (One of the
Beauties of Allah)]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Compulsory Punishments for rape, fornication and


adultery and for bearing false witness: Allah (swt) has sent
this Surah down from on high and contains
commandments that are obligatory. This emphatic
opening is followed by an explanation of the mandatory
punishment of flogging for a person who commits
fornication. The people are advised not to let compassion
keep them from enforcing this rule. And when the
punishment is administered, it should be witnessed by
others so that is serves as a psychological deterrent for
227
those who have similar tendencies. Believers should not
marry a fornicator or fornicatress just as they would not
marry a polytheist. Illegal sexual intercourse is a severe
crime; however anyone who makes false accusations - are
liable for punishment. If couples accuse each other of
adultery they can be exempted from punishment by taking
prescribed oaths attesting to their good behaviour.

2. Slander against the wife of the Prophet Muhammad (s),


Almighty Allah declared her as innocent by cautioning
those who were involved in that scandal: Having outlined
the rules about accusing women of illegal sexual
intercourse, God Almighty mentions the evil incident
regarding the slander against Aisha (rh), the wife of
Prophet Muhammad (s). It contains a lesson for
humankind; and all who took part in it will be punished
accordingly, some will receive a severe punishment.
Nobody gave Aisha (rh) the benefit of the doubt and
nobody produced witnesses. Still many people passed on
the gossip. Allah (swt) asks why they did not hesitate to
repeat a monstrous slander and warns the believers never
to do this again.

3. Regulations relating to entering houses other than ones‘


own: Allah (swt) tells the believers not to enter homes
other than their own unless they have been granted
permission. However there is no harm in entering
uninhabited places if there is a good reason to do so.

4. Regulations relating to mixed gatherings of males and


females: Men are told to lower their gazes and guard their
modesty and then women are exhorted to do the same
including not revealing their charms, beauty or
adornments to any men except those who are not
strangers to them such as - husband, father, sons,
228
brothers, father-in-law, stepsons and nephews. Women
should also not draw attention to themselves in such a
way that will tempt another person to sin. Only exception
is there for elderly women if they want to lay aside their
outer garments, there is no blame on them, provided they
are not doing wanton display of their natural beauty.

5. Allah's commandment to singles about getting married:


Men and women are encouraged to marry. However they
should abstain from sexual relations until God Almighty
provides them with the means to marry.

6. Allah's commandment to help slaves or who are in


oppression in getting their freedom: A slave wishing to
buy his or her freedom should be encouraged and aided
with some of the wealth God Almighty has provided. One
should not force any slave girl into prostitution. The fate
of earlier communities demonstrates what happens to
those who deviate from Allah‘s laws.

7. The parable of Allah being the Light of this earth and


samawat: God Almighty is the light of the heavens and the
earth. Everything that has formed into existence
illuminates from the light that He has provided believers
to perceive things out from their mind by observing the
samawat, without it there is nothing but darkness. The
parable of it is like a lamp in a niche of a lantern. It burns
brightly but the light becomes even brighter when it
enclosed in a crystal; so bright that it shines light like a
radiant star in the sky. The light is fuelled from the oil of
an olive tree, often called a blessed tree. It is an olive tree
that grows in a central position able to get the light of the
sun throughout the day. For this reason, the oil is pure
and burns as if it has no need for the fire that keeps it
alight. It is light upon light, the light of the pure oil and
229
the light of the fire. The bright light that fills the heart of
the believer glows like nothing else in this vast samawat. It
is light upon light, upon light.

8. The places where Allah‘s radiant light glows: The light


Allah (swt) mentions can be found in the houses and
masjids that have been built for Almighty God‘s
remembrance. God Almighty is remembered and
honoured there and His name is glorified throughout the
day. Those people are not distracted by commerce because
they fear the Day of Judgment. They perform the prayer,
give the obligatory charity and remember that they will be
called to account.

9. The fact that Almighty Allah has created every living


creature from water: The deeds of the unbelievers will
disappear like a mirage in the desert. Lord Almighty‘s
reckoning will be swift. The state of a disbeliever is like
darkness in a bottomless ocean. If Almighty Lord does not
give light there is no light at all. Everything in the heavens
and the earth glorify Almighty Allah in its own way. Each
knowing how to pray and exalt Him, and Allah (swt) is
well aware of all that they do. Our Lord controls the
heavens and earth, drives the clouds, and sends the hail,
diverting it from whomever he wishes. He alternates the
night and the day, and has created every living thing from
water.

10. True believers are those who, when called towards Allah
and His Rasool, say: "We hear and we obey.": The
believers are those who do not incur Allah‘s displeasure
will get the eventual success. If they obey Prophet
Muhammad (s) will be guided for his/her duty is just to
uphold the message clearly. Establish the prayer, pay the
obligatory charity and obey the Messenger (s) and they
230
will be given mercy.

11. Regulations relating to: a) entering the room of a married


couple; b) eating at houses other than one's own: One
should ask permission before entering at three times:
before the dawn prayer, at the midday rest and after the
‗Isha (night time) prayer. There is no blame laid on the
blind, the lame or the sick who wish to eat and mingle
with people, and there is no prohibition on eating at the
houses of members of ones‘ extended family or close
friends. Allah (swt) sends clear revelations and He guides
those who seek His guidance.

12. Allah's commandment for attending meetings which are


called for discussions and decisions about taking collective
actions: With of Prophet Muhammad (s), we are taught
code of conduct in a meeting - to ask permission to leave
when we are in important consultation. Allah (swt)
addressed us to treat Prophet Muhammad (s) with all the
respect due to his lofty station. Some hypocrites declare
their belief but then turn their backs. The believers on the
other hand, hear and obey. Only those who do not incur
God‘s displeasure will be successful. One who establish
the prayer, pay the obligatory charity and obey the
Messenger (s) - will be entitled to mercy.

13. Without God Almighty‘s Favour and Mercy we all would


be subjected to immediate punishments: It is most
commonly believed that it means if not for the mercy of
Allah (swt) and the fact that He bestows favours upon
humankind our lives would be much more difficult. We
would perhaps be punished or even destroyed. Following
in Shaitan‘s footsteps only leads to indecency and evil.
Those who are blessed by Almighty God should not swear
of not helping others, and those who accuse chaste women
231
are cursed in this life and will face a severe punishment.
In the end the corrupt will associate with other corrupt
people while good people will be with other like mined
people. It is the good people who will find forgiveness and
generous provision.

232
25. Surah Al Furqan (The Criterion; The Evidence; The
right and wrong Discriminators; The Proof of al-
Qur‟an)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al Furqan In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of the Surah appears in the first ayah of it, ―The Surah
begins with the phrase, "Blessed is He who sent down the
Criterion upon His Servant that he may be to the worlds a
warner -" [25:1] and it is also used at the end of the Surah as the
first Ayah after the Ayah of Sajdah (prostration - [25:61]).‖

Though it is symbolic like the name of other Surahs, the subject


matter has close connection to the name. The name, ―al-furqan‖
refers to the Qur‘an itself, the word means the Criterion that
judges what is good and what is evil. The Surah has 77 ayats in 6
Ruku‘ (Sections). The ayah number 60 has Sajda-e-Tilawat.

Period of Revelation

This is a Makki Surah revealed around the middle period in


Makkah, about 6-7 years before the Hijrah. Judging from the
mood of style and subject of the Surah, Surah Al-Mu‘minun (23),
and this Surah was also revealed during the third stage of
Prophet Muhammad‘s (s) stay at Makkah. It was revealed eight
years before Surah An-Nisa (tradition related by Ibn Jarir and
Imam Razi).

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Prophet Muhammad (s) came as a Warner for the whole


world. The evil of Shirk. The objections of those who
denied the Prophet (s) and his message.

2. The Punishment of those who deny Almighty Allah and


233
His message.

3. Non-believers' demand to see the angels or Allah. Non-


believers say why the whole Qur'an was not sent down at
once.

4. Examples of the people of Prophets Musa (a)


(Moses),Harun (a) (Aaron), Nuh (a)(Noah) and 'Ad,
Thamud and the People of al-Rass (probably a town in
Yamamah).

5. Examples from the natural world: shadows, night and day,


winds of rain, oceans with two different types of waters,
creation of human beings, creation of the heaven and
earth in six days.

6. The character and qualities of the most faithful servants of


Allah (swt).

Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah emphasizes (25:68–70) that there is no sin, however


great, that cannot be forgiven if sincerely repented, showing faith
and working with righteous deeds.
The al-Furqan includes the Taurah (Torah), given that "We sent
Musa The Book, and appointed his brother Aaron with him as
minister" (Surah 25, ayah 35). In a similar way at ayah 53 of
Surah Al-Baqarah, Allah (swt) says: "And remember We
gaveMusa the Scripture and the Criterion (Between right and
wrong): There was a chance for you to be guided aright."

The Surah deals with the doubts and objections that were being
raised against the Qur'an, the Prophethood of Muhammad (s)
and his teachings by the disbelievers of Makkah.

So this Surah includes subjects and topics with appropriate


answers to those objections are given and the people are warned
about the consequences of rejecting the Truth.

234
At the end of the Surah, a clear picture of the moral superiority of
the Believers has been depicted as in the beginning of Surah Al-
Mu'minun, as if to say, 'Here is the criterion for distinguishing
the genuine from the counterfeit. This is the noble character of
those people who have believed in and followed the teachings of
Prophet Muhammad (s) and this is the kind of people that he is
trying to train. You may yourselves compare and contrast this
type of people with those Arabs, who have not as yet accepted the
Message, and who are upholding "ignorance" and exerting their
utmost to defeat the Truth. Now you may judge for yourselves as
to which you would like to choose."

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 9): Blessed is Allah Who revealed this al-Qur'an, the


criterion to distinguish right from wrong. Wrongdoers are those
who reject the truth and disbelieve a Rasool because he is a
human being.

Ayats (10 - 20): Those who deny the Hour and life after death
will be cast in the blazing fire. On the Day of Judgment, those
deities, whom the Mushrikhs invoke, will deny any claim of
divinity. And Allah (swt) will hold the Mushriks responsible for
their Shirk.

Ayats (21 - 34): The unbelievers who ask for angels today will ask
for a stone barrier between them and the angels of punishment.
Disbelievers shall regret on the Day of Judgment for not
adopting the Right Way. Allah (swt) explains the wisdom behind
revealing the Qur'an in piecemeal rather than all at once.

Ayats (35 - 44): All nations which rejected Allah's revelations and
His Rasools were utterly destroyed. Those who have taken their
desires as their gods are nothing but animals.

Ayats (45 - 60): Almighty Allah has made the night a mantle,
sleep to rest, and the day to work. One should not make appease
with the unbelievers while confronting the truth; rather one
235
should make Jihad against them with the Qur'an. The believer
should put trust in Ever-Living (Allah), Who will never die.

Ayats (61 - 77): Outlines the Characteristics of the True Servants


(believers) of Allah (swt).

The Virtue of the Surah

(25:53) And He it is Who has joined the two seas: one sweet and
palatable and the other saltish and bitter; and He has set a
barrier and an insurmountable obstruction between the two that
keeps them apart.

Notes: This phenomenon has been perceived in many places in


the sea and on the land that sweet water and bitter water has
existed side by side. Turkish Admiral Syedi Ali Rais, in his book
Mirat-al-Mamalik, written in the 16th century, has mentioned a
place in the Persian Gulf, where springs of sweet waver exist
under the bitter waters of the sea, where he could get drinking
water for his fleet. From the same springs The American Oil
Company at first obtained water in the Persian Gulf before they
dug up wells near Dhahran for the supply of the drinking water.
Near Bahrain also there exist springs of sweet water at the sea
bed from which people have been taking water until quite
recently. Besides this apparent meaning which gives a rational
proof of Allah‘s being the One and the only Lord of the universe,
the verse contains a subtle suggestion as well: When Allah wills,
He can raise up a righteous community from among a large
wicked society just as He can cause springs of palatable and
sweet water to gush out from under the salty waters of the sea.
[Tahfim al-Qur‟an]

Lessons and Reflection

1. The Qur'an is the criterion to distinguish right from


wrong: Blessed is Allah the Almighty who has sent down
the criterion of what is right and what is wrong (the
Qur‘an) to his Prophet (s) in order that he may warn the

236
world. God is the One who controls the heavens and the
earth; He has no offspring or partners. He does not share
control in any way. He has created all things and
determined them with precision. Yet the unbelievers have
taken other gods who are unable to create, have no power
over life and death and cannot harm or help in anyway.
Prophet Muhammad (s) is told by God Almighty to reply
that the Qur‘an is sent down by He who knows the secrets
of the heavens and the earth.

2. A fire is prepared for the Disbelievers: Wrongdoers are


those who reject the Truth, disbelieve the Rasool, and
deny the Day of Judgment and life after death. They (the
disbelievers) ask what sort of messenger eats food and
walks about in the markets; why is he not accompanied by
an angel or has treasure or even a garden of his own? The
wrongdoers then declare that Muhammad (s) is affected
by magic. They use their own imagination to discredit
Muhammad (s). Blessed is God Almighty who could if He
willed give Muhammad (s) any number of special things,
even more special then the things the disbelievers ask
about such as gardens under which rivers flow and palaces
too. When they see the Hellfire in the distance they will
hear its fury and roaring and will then be flung into it
pleading for death.

3. On the Day of Judgment those deities whom the


mushrikhs invoke beside Allah (swt) will deny any claim
of divinity and the mushrikhs will be held responsible for
their shirk: On the Day of Judgement, Almighty God will
gather all of humankind with the deities. The deities will
be asked if they tried to mislead the people and they will
answer that they most certainly did not. Disbelievers
punishment will not be ward off as the deities will deny
them. Allah (swt) reminds Prophet Muhammad (s) that all
237
the prophets ate food and walked in the markets and
streets and that some people have been created to be a
trial for others. Those who ask why they do not see
Almighty God or angels - do not really believe in a day
when they will stand before their real Almighty who
formed them into shape initially. They are insolent and
arrogant. The Day they see the angels will not be a good
day for them. The angels will forbid them to cross the
barrier and their deeds will be turned to dust and
scattered in the wind.

4. On the Day of Judgment the disbelievers shall regret not


adopting the Right Path: The Day the clouds are torn
apart will be a hard day for the disbelievers. They will bite
their hands in regret and wish they had chosen better
companions, finally acknowledging Shaitan as a
treacherous enemy. Prophet Muhammad (s) will decry the
people who took the Qur‘an as nonsense and God
Almighty replies that every messenger had a wicked
enemy.

5. The wisdom behind sending the Qur'an through a


piecemeal revelation is explained: The disbelievers of
Makkhah ask why the Qur‘an was not sent down all at one
time and Allah (swt) answers that it was sent gradually to
strengthen the Prophet (s)‘s heart. Prophet Muhammad
(s) is told that Almighty God will help in answering any
arguments put to him. Those who are the furthest away
from the right path will fall on their faces into Hell.

6. The Power of Almighty Allah: Allah (swt) sent


Muhammad (s) as a bearer of good news and a warning,
thus humankind should put their trust in the Living
Almighty God who never dies. Almighty Lord has created
the heavens and the earth and what is between them in six
238
days and established Himself above them upon His
throne. He has created the stars, the sun and the moon so
that some people would choose to be grateful. It is Allah
(swt) who lengthens the shade; the night is a rest and the
day a type of resurrection. He is the One who brings the
wind, and sends down water from the sky to bring life to a
dead land and quenches the thirst of humankind and
animals. Almighty has informed Prophet Muhammad
(s)that He has created two seas, one salty and bitter the
other sweet and fresh; He created humankind from water.
How could some of this people worship something other
than Him knowingly!

7. Allah's commandment to do Jihad with the Qur'an with


those who rejected the revelations: Musa (a) was given the
scripture and he and his brother Harun (a) went to those
who denied Almighty God‘s signs, they disbelieved and
were destroyed. Likewise Nuh (a)‘s people were drowned.
Almighty God also destroyed the people of ‗Aad, Thamud,
the Companions of the Rass, and many other generations.
All were given warnings which they denied, and it led to
their utter destruction.

8. Characteristics of true believers are described: The


believers walk with humility, address ignorant people with
words of peace, and spend the night worshipping their
Lord and asking to be kept safe from the fires of Hell.
They are neither extravagant nor stingy and they never
invoke any deity but Almighty God. They do not kill except
for a just reason, and they do not commit adultery or
fornication. Allah (swt) is able to change the bad deeds
into good for those who repent and become righteous. The
believers do not bear false witness; they pass by frivolity
with dignity and take head of God‘s signs and revelations.
These are the ones whose patience will be rewarded with
239
Paradise, where they will be welcomed with greetings and
salutations and shall live forever.

240
26. Surah Ash-Shu'ara (The Poets)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Ash-Shu'ara In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of the Surah appears in the 224th ayah which means –
the poet. It has 227 ayats with 11 Ruku‘ (Section). This Surah
contains second largest number of ayats after Surah Al-Baqarah.
Another name of the Surah is, ―Ta Sin Mim‖ which is called as
Muqatta‘at (meaning, "disconnected" or "mysterious").

Out of the 114 Surahs of the Qur‘an, 29 Surahs are figuring with
this type beginning just after the Bismillah. The letters are also
known as fawātiḥ (‫ )ف اتح‬or "openers" as they form the opening
ayah of their respective Surahs. Allah (swt) did not reveal any
meaning for these letters; however, many theories have been
suggested by the scholars of Islam.

Period of Revelation

The Surah was revealed during the middle stage of Prophet


Muhammad‘s (s) stay in Makkah about 6-7 years before the
Hijrah. According to Ibn Abbas (ra), Surah 26: ash-Shu‘ara was
revealed after Surah 20: Ta Ha and Surah 56: al-Waqi‘ah (Tafsir
Ruh al Ma‘ani).

At that time disbelievers of Makkah were persistently refusing to


accept the message of Islam. They used to say sarcastically that
only fools, youth or the destitute had embraced Islam.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Allah (swt) has power to bring down the mightiest sign,


but here is a test for people. This wonderful creation is a
sign itself for those who want to learn.

241
2. Signs were shown to Pharaoh.

3. Pharaoh's magicians and Prophet Musa (a).

4. The exodus of the Israelites from Egypt. The sea splitting


and giving the way.

5. Prophet Ibrahim's (a) struggle against idolatry.

6. Prophet Nuh (a) and his people.

7. The 'Ad and the Prophet Hud (a).

8. The Thamud and the Prophet Salih (a).

9. Prophet Lut (a).

10. Prophet Shu'aib (a).

11. The Qur'an is the message from the Lord of the worlds. It
is neither from devils nor do they have any clue of this
message. It is not poetry of the poets. It is a serious
message with eternal consequences.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah begins with words of consolation to the prophet


Muhammad (s), ―Why do you fret for their sake? If these people
have not believed in you, it is not because they are blind not to
any sign, rather they are obstinate.‖

A major portion of the Surah narrates the histories of several


Prophets of the past, and the lessons to be drawn from their lives
and teachings. The non-believers were asking for signs to prove
that the Qur'an was the word of Allah. Lord Almighty
mentioned many signs both in nature and in history. Stories of
many prophets are also mentioned to indicate that all prophets
presented basically the same message.

The story of Musa (a), Ibrahim (a), Nuh (a), Hud (a), Salih (a),
242
Lut (a) and Shu‘aib (a) [the Biblical JETHRO] has been narrated in
this Surah to comfort Rasulullah (s) and to admonish the
mushrikhs (Kuffar) that the mentality of the disbeliever has been
the same throughout the ages. The disbeliever‘s arguments,
objections, and the excuses for not believing have been similar in
the past, and so has been their ultimate fate – severe
punishments on this earth from Allah (swt).

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 9): Dedication of the Prophet Muhammad (s) to the


guidance of mankind.

Ayats (10 - 33): The assignment of Musa (a) as a Rasool and his
dialogue with Fir‗aun (Pharaoh). Musa (a) presents miracles of
his sign as Prophet.

Ayats (34 - 51): Pharaoh took the Prophet Musa (a)'s miracles as
magic and summoned the magicians to compete. After
witnessing a miracle, all the magicians embraced Islam.

Ayats (52 - 68): Deliverance of the Children of Israel and the


destruction of Pharaoh and his chiefs.

Ayats (69 - 104): The story of the Prophet Ibrahim (a) and his
arguments against idol worshipping people. Allah (swt) included
the prayer for this life and the life Hereafter of the Prophet
Ibrahim (a). The mushrikhs and their gods both will be toppled
into hell.

Ayats (105 - 122): The story of the Prophet Nuh (a), his dialogue
with his people; they disbelieved; Nuh (a)‘s prayer to Almighty
Allah. Nuh (a) and believers were rescued and others
drowned.

Ayats (123 - 140): The story of the Prophet Hud (a), his address
to his people; they disbelieved and as a result faced destruction.

Ayats (141 - 159): The story of the Prophet Salih (a), his address
243
to his people; they disbelieved and as a result faced destruction.

Ayats (160 - 175): The story of the Prophet Lut (a), his address to
his people; they disbelieved and as a result faced destruction.

Ayats (176 - 191): The story of the Prophet Shu'aib (a), his
address to his people; they disbelieved and as a result faced
destruction.

Ayats (192 - 207): The Qur'an is revealed in plain Arabic by Allah


through angel Gabriel (Jibril a); those people who do not want to
believe will not believe. The Qur'an is not brought down by
shaitans; it is neither in their interest nor in their power.
Shaitans descend on slandering sinners, who listen to hearsay
and are liars.

Virtue of the Surah

―One who reads this Surah will not get sunk and his home will
be save from burglary and fire; and one who writes this Surah
on a paper and mixes it with water and drinks it, all his
diseases may be healed by Allah. [Majma„ ul-Bayan, Fakhr-
i-Razi, Qurtabi, Tibyan, and Ruh-ul-Ma„ani]

The Qur'an was mentioned in


the Previous Scriptures
Allah says: this Qur'an was mentioned and referred to in the
previous Scriptures that were left behind by their Prophets who
foretold it in ancient times and more recently. Allah took a
covenant from them that they would follow it, and the last of
them stood and addressed his people with the good news of
Ahmad:

(And (remember) when `Isa, son of Maryam, said: "O Children


of Israel! I am the Messenger of Allah unto you, confirming the
Tawrah before me, and giving glad tidings of a Messenger to
come after me, whose name shall be Ahmad.) (61:6) Zubur here
refers to Books; Zubur is the plural of Az-Zabur, which also the

244
name is used to refer to the Book given to Dawud. Allah says:

(And everything they have done is noted in the Az-Zubur.)


(54:52), meaning, it is recorded against them in the books of the
angels. Then Allah says:

(Is it not a sign to them that the learned scholars of the Children
of Israel knew it) (26:197) meaning, is it not sufficient witness to
the truth for them that the scholars of the Children of Israel
found this Qur'an mentioned in the Scriptures which they study
The meaning is: the fair-minded among them admitted that the
attributes of Muhammad and his mission and his Ummah were
mentioned in their Books, as was stated by those among them
who believed, such as `Abdullah bin Salam, Salman Al-Farisi and
others who met the Prophet . Allah said:

(Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither
read nor write ...) (7:157) [Tafsir ibn Kathir]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Prophet Muhammad (s) should not fret himself to death


with grief for the people who disbelief: God Almighty
could have sent the disbelievers with physical sign of
miracle, but in the past they turn away from every
revelation. They just need to look around to see Almighty
God‘s creation; a sign that He is Mighty and Merciful.
Prophet Muhammad (s) is worrying himself to death over
people who refuse to believe but the Qur‘an has come to
make things clear to eyes.

2. Story of Musa (a) and Pharaoh and deliverance of the


children of Israel: Musa (a) was sent to the people of
Pharaoh but feared he would be rejected because of his
speech. Allah (swt) reassured him by making Harun (a)
his helper. Musa (a) asked that the Israelites be released
from bondage. Pharaoh reminded Musa (a) of his time in
245
Egypt and called him ungrateful. Musa (a) demonstrated
the miracles Almighty Allah allowed him to perform. He
threw his staff which became a snake and from his robes
he drew his hand, shining and white. He was called a
sorcerer and Pharaoh and his advisers arranged a
competition with their sorcerers. At the assembly the
sorcerers threw their ropes, but Musa (a)‘s staff devoured
their illusions. The sorcerers prostrated to Lord Almighty.
Allah (swt) inspired Musa (a) to flee at night with all the
Israelites. Pharaoh sent an army to prevent their
emigration. By sunrise Pharaoh‘s people had the Israelites
trapped at the edge of the Red Sea. Musa (a) struck the sea
with his staff and the waves parted allowing them to
escape. The pursuers were drowned.

3. Story of Ibrahim and his arguments against idol


worshipping people: Ibrahim (a) asked his father and his
people about their idol worship. He pointed out that idols
could not benefit or harm them, but his people replied
that they followed the practice of their ancestors. Ibrahim
(a) denounced them all and pledged his allegiance to
Almighty Allah, the one who guides him, sustains him,
cures him and will resurrect him. Ibrahim (a) supplication
to Allah (swt) that join him with the righteous, give him
honour amongst later generations and grant him repose in
the Gardens of Paradise; he also asked that his father be
forgiven. Children and wealth will not avail on that Day.
Only those who come before God with a pure heart will
benefit.

4. The fact that the mushrikhs and their gods will both be
toppled into hell: Paradise will be brought close to the
righteous and Hell will be visible to those who have gone
astray. They will be asked about what they worshipped
apart from Almighty God and will be flung into Hell with
246
their idols including all the armies of Iblis (Satan). They
will argue with one another and wish longingly to return
to their worldly life for another chance. This story reveals
a great lesson. Almighty Lord Allah is Mighty and
Merciful.

5. Stories of Prophets Nuh (a), Hud (a), Salih (a), Lut (a),
Shu'aib (a) and their people: The people of Nuh also
rejected their Messenger. He was gentle and mild, and
asked for no payment, but they considered him and those
who followed him to be poor and worthless. Nuh (a) said
he would never drive away a believer; he was nothing but
a warner. They asked him to desist or he would be stoned.
Nuh (a) called out to Almighty Lord asking for a decisive
judgment. Allah (swt) saved Nuh (a) and the believers in a
ship, the others were drowned. The people of Ad
disbelieved in their Messenger Hud (a). He asked them to
fear the Almighty One and requested no payment. They
built strong, tall buildings as if they expected to live
forever and were cruel tyrants. Hud (a) reminded them
that God Almighty provided them with their sustenance.
Hud‘s (a) people replied that they had no fear of torment
and such talk was nothing but an ancient myth. Allah
(swt) utterly destroyed them. The people of Thamud
denied their Messenger. When Salih (a) asked them to
fear Allah (swt) they accused him of being affected by
magic. He asked for no reward and reminded them of
their provisions from Almighty Allah, and told them to
stay away from transgressors, but it was not enough, they
wanted a sign. Salih (a) brought forth a she-camel who
was to share their water; each drinking on alternate days.
The people were warned not to hurt her, but they
hamstrung her. In the morning they were full of regret
because the punishment fell upon them. The people of Lut

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(a) also disbelieved. He asked them for no reward and
warned them to fear God Almighty. Lut (a) admonished
them and cautioned them not to partake in unnatural acts.
They responded by threatening Lut (a) with expulsion. Lut
(a) asked Almighty God to save him and his family and He
did; all except his wife who was destroyed with the rest. A
rain of destruction poured down on those who had been
forewarned. Shuaib‘s (a) people disbelieved even though
he was a trustworthy Messenger who asked for no reward.
He warned his people to weigh with correct scales, to give
full measure, and not spread corruption, but they accused
him of being bewitched. They called him a liar and asked
him to cause fragments of the sky to fall upon them if he
was truthful. Due to their stubborn denial the torment
seized them, a scourge from the dark clouds. Most do not
learn the lesson and become believers. Lord Almighty is
Mighty and Merciful.

6. The fact that the Qur'an is revealed in the Arabic language


and is not brought by shaitans; as it is neither in their
interest nor in their power to do so: This Qur‘an comes
from Almighty Allah, brought down to Prophet
Muhammad (s) through the Angel Gabriel, as a warning to
the people in plain Arabic language. The former scriptures
foretold this, why is that not sufficient proof? If it was
revealed to a non-Arab who recited to them in Arabic they
would still not believe. The guilty one‘s hearts results into
unbelief. They will not believe until they see the torment,
and at that time they will ask for respite. Past enjoyment
is no protection from the torment. The jinn shaitan did
not bring down this Qur‘an.

7. The fact that shaitans descend on those slandering sinners


who listen to hearsay and are liars: The devils descend
upon the liars and only the lost follow the poets; except
248
the poets who believe and are righteous. One should not
worship anything other than God Almighty. Prophet
Muhammad (s) was told to warn his close kin and show
kindness to the believers. If they disobey then you are not
accountable for their actions.

249
27. Surah An-Naml (The Ants)
Concise Tafseer of Surah An-Naml In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of the Surah appears with the phrase wad-in-naml in


the ayah 18 which mean valley of the ants, whose conversations
were understood by Sulaiman (a). It is also called Sulaiman, and
Ta, Seen. Similar to Surah 13 (The Thunder) or Surah 29 (The
Spider), Ants do hold a privileged status among animals in Islam
on account of the story of Sulaiman (a).

Hadith literature tells of Muhammad (s) forbidding Muslims to


kill the ant, bee, hoopoe, or shrike; it is no coincidence that they
are all featured in Surah 27 and that Surah 16 is entitled The Bee.
Phrase: /bismillah-ir-rahman-ir-rahim/ is repeated two times in
it, one of them is at the beginning of the Surah and the other one
is in ayah 30 at the onset of Sulaiman‘s (a) letter to Saba‘, the
Queen.

There is a requirement for prostration ((telawat-e-sujood) in 25th


ayah of An-Naml, but the sajdah should be performed after
reading the ayah #26 (when the sujood meaning is complete).
The Surah has 93 ayats and 7 Ruku‘ (Section).

Revelation

This Surah is a Makki Surah. It was probably revealed soon after


the previous Surah. It was revealed in the middle of Makki
period. The subject matter and the style bear full resemblance
with that period. There are well supported traditions, according
to Ibn Abbas and Jabir bin Zaid, ―First the Surah As-Shu‘ara was
sent down, then the Surah An-Naml and the Al-Qasas.‖

Tafsir al-Jalalayn notes that some exceptions exist: ayats 52-55

250
are from the period of Madinah; ayah 85 was revealed during the
Hijrah to Madinah.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The Qur'an is from the All Wise and All-knower. How


Prophet Musa (a) did received the message of Almighty
Allah. Allah (swt) gave Musa (a) many signs but Pharaoh
and his people denied them.

2. The knowledge and power that Allah (swt) bestowed on


Prophets Daud (a) [David] and Sulaiman (a) [Solomon].
What kind of character they had.

3. Queen of Saba' and her submission to Prophet Sulaiman


(a).

4. The response of Thamud to Prophet Salih's (a) message.


Also the example of the people among whom Prophet Lut
(a) was sent.

5. The contrast between the tawhid and shirk. Almighty


Allah or the so-called gods of Shirk.

6. The surety of Resurrection.

7. The coming of the Day of Judgment.

Subject Matter of the Surah

Surah An Naml starts with a combination of the letters ta and


seen. They are two letters from amongst various combinations of
fourteen letters that open 29 Surah‘s of the Qur‘an known as
Huroof Muqatta‘at. Allah (swt) did not reveal any specific
meaning attached to them but scholars analyzed those with
Prophetic commentary from Muhammad (s) which performs as a
secret code of security from the Lord Himself.

251
The Surah opens with a description of the Qur‘an as joyful news
for the believers and a severe warning for the non-believers. The
theme of the Surah is divine guidance in history. Allah (swt) sent
His Prophets to different people. Some accepted them and were
guided, while others denied them and they saw the consequences
of their denial.

Surah tells stories of the prophets Musa (a), Suaiman (a), Salih
(a), and Lut (a) to emphasize the message of tawhid in Jewish
and Arabian prophets. The miracles of Musa (a), described in the
Book of Exodus, are mentioned in opposition to the arrogance
and kufr of Pharaoh. So, this Surah was likely revealed to address
the role of the "Children of Israel" among the believers in
Makkah, to emphasize and mention the piety of past prophets,
and to distinguish the present Qur'anic message from past
traditions.

The story of Sulaiman (a) is most detailed: he converted Bilqis to


the "true religion" after a hoopoe reported to him that she was a
sun-worshipping queen. The Surah details about Sulaiman (a)
speaking with the birds, such as hoopoe and some insects like
ants, and the attendance of some jinns in the army and court of
Sulaiman (a), and, finally, bringing the throne of Saba‘ (Sheba)
from Yemen to Syria in a short moment.

There are descriptions of the Day of Judgment and the Surah


ends by reiterating the beginning ayats—the Qur‘an is good news
for the believers but a warning to others. The signs of the Last
Day include the appearance of a beast (dabbah) from the earth.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 14): The Qur'an is a Guide and Good News to the


Believers. The story of the Prophet Musa's (a) selection as a
Rasool. Nine signs were shown to Fir‗aun (Pharaoh) but he still
disbelieved and incurred Allah‘s (swt) punishment.

Ayats (15 - 19): Story of the Prophet Sulaiman (a), to whom


Almighty Allah gave rule over jinns, men, birds and winds.
252
Ayats (20 - 44): The hoopoe brought him the news about the
Queen of Saba‘ (Sheba). Allah (swt) included the Letter of King
Sulaiman (a) to the Queen of Sheba. Queen of Sheba
communicated to Sulaiman (a) through her ambassadors. A man
who had the 'Knowledge of the Book' brought the Throne of the
Queen to king Sulaiman (a) in twinkling of an eye. Queen of
Sheba and her people embraced Islam.

Ayats (45 - 58): Story of the Prophet Salih (a) and his address to
his people. Salih's (a) people plotted to kill him, but Allah (swt)
saved him and destroyed the disbelievers. The Prophet Lut (a)
admonished his people but they paid no heed so they faced the
scourge of Almighty Allah.

Ayats (59 - 66): Praise to Almighty Allah and peace be on His


Rasools. Just think, is there any god besides Allah (swt) Who has
created everything in the samawat, answers the oppressed or
guides to the Right Way?

Ayats (67 - 82): The disbelievers doubt Almighty Allah's power of


creation. The Qur'an clarifies those matters in which the
Israelites differ and A sign from the signs of doomsday.

Ayats (83 - 93): One should not deny Allah's revelations without
gaining his/her comprehensive knowledge. A scene from
Doomsday is depicted with vivid details. Those who accept
guidance, do so to their own good and those who go astray, do so
to their own peril.

Virtue of the Surah

Snippet of Daud (a) and Sulaiman‟s (a) History

And Solomon succeeded David [1] and said: "O people, we have
been taught the speech of birds [2] and we have been endowed
with all kinds of things. [2] Surely this is a conspicuous favour
(from Allah)."

1. Succession here does not mean inheritance of wealth and


253
properties, but the succession to the Prophet David (peace be
upon him) in the prophethood and vicegerency. For the wealth
and possessions, if at all transferred, could not be transferred to
the Prophet Solomon (peace be upon him) only, because Prophet
David (peace be upon him) had other children also. Therefore,
this verse cannot be cited to refute the Hadith reported from the
Prophet (peace be upon him), saying, ―The inheritance left by us,
the Prophets, is not divided as such. Whatever we leave behind is
charity.‖ (Bukhari) And, ―There is no heir to a Prophet. Whatever
he leaves behind is divided among the needy and the indigent of
the Muslims.‖ (Musnad Ahmad).

The Prophet Solomon (peace be upon him) was the youngest son
of the Prophet David (peace be upon him). His Hebrew name
Solomon is a synonym of Salim (rightminded, affable). He
succeeded the Prophet David (peace be upon him) in 965 B.C.
and ruled his kingdom for forty years, till 926 B.C. (For other
details of his life and works. Our commentators have greatly
exaggerated the vastness of his kingdom, and have held that he
ruled over a large part of the world. The fact, however, is that his
kingdom comprised only the present Palestine and Transjordan
and a part of Syria.

2. There is no mention in the Bible that the Prophet Solomon


(peace be upon him) had been taught speech of the birds and
animals, though the Israelite traditions contain a reference to it.
That is, ―Allah has bestowed on us all sorts of things.‖ This,
however, should not be understood literally; it only means the
abundance of the wealth and the means of life granted by Allah.
This was not said proudly by Prophet Solomon (peace be upon
him) but only to express his gratitude to Allah for His grace and
bounty and favors.

It is confirmed by the Bible that Prophet Solomon had developed


sea trade on a large scale. (I Kings, 10: 22). On the one side, his
trade ships sailed from Ezion-geber, through the Red Sea,
towards Yaman and other southern and eastern lands, and on
the other, his naval fleet called Thar-shish, sailed on the
Mediterranean to the western countries. The great furnace which
254
he had built at Eziongeber for melting and molding ores
extracted from the copper and iron mines in the Arabah in
Edom, has been confirmed by modem archaeological researches
as well. This molten iron and copper was used in building ships
besides being put to other uses. The Quran refers to this when it
says: And We made a fountain of molten copper to flow for him
(Solomon). (Surah Saba, Ayat 12)

As regards to the subjection of the wind, it may mean that Allah,


by His special favor, had so arranged that the wind, and sea
voyages in those days depended entirely on wind, was always
favorable for Prophet Solomon‘s fleet. But if we take the literal
meaning of verse 81: It blew at his command, there will be no
harm, for Allah is able to give such powers to any of His servants
He pleases.
[Nur-uth-Thaqalayn, Vol. 4, P. 74] [Courtesy: Tafhimul
Qur'an]

Lessons and Reflection

1. The Qur'an is a guide and good news to the believers: God


Almighty says that this scripture is a guide for the
believers. It is joyful news for those who pray, give charity,
and believe in the Hereafter. One the other hand those
that do not believe wander blindly believing that their
lives will have no lasting consequences.

2. Prophet Musa's (a) nine miracles were shown to Pharaoh


and his people: While travelling with his family Musa (a)
sees a fire. He walks towards the light telling his family
that he will return with either news or burning sticks with
which to make their own warming fire. When He reaches
the fire, Almighty God calls out to him and introduces
Himself. God Almighty orders Musa (a) to throw down his
staff; he complies but runs away in fright when the staff
begins to move like a snake. Almighty Allah tells him to
stop and that the messengers should not be afraid when in
255
God‘s presence because - He is merciful and forgiving.
God Almighty then tells Musa (a) to put his hand inside
his cloak and when he withdraws it, it will be shinning
white. Almighty God explains that these are two from the
nine signs that will be given to Pharaoh to convince him to
submit to the One God. Pharaoh and his advisers call the
signs sorcery. They knew the signs were miracles yet
denied them and thus came to a very bad end.

3. Story of Prophet Sulaiman (a) and the Queen of Sheba:


When Allah (swt) gave knowledge to Daud (a) and
Sulaiman (a) they praised Him. They understood the
language of the birds. Sulaiman (a) inherited the Kingdom
of his father Daud (a). Sulaiman‘s (a) soldiers marched in
rows, jinn, humans and birds. When the armies marched
through the valley of the ants, one ant directed the others
so that they would not be crushed. Sulaiman (a)
understood and smiled, and beseeched Almighty God to
give him the strength and ability to be grateful, the ability
to perform good deeds that He loves, and to be with the
righteous. Sulaiman (a) inspected the birds but could not
find the hoopoe. The hoopoe returned saying that he had
been in Sheba where he found a woman leading the
people. She had a magnificent throne but they all
worshipped the sun instead of God Almighty. Sulaiman
(a) sent the hoopoe with a letter for the Queen of Saba‘
(Sheba). She read the letter to her counselors. It was an
invitation to submit to the will of Almighty Allah. So and
his army had not invaded the city so she decided to send a
gift. When the gift arrived, Sulaiman (a) said that they
could not give him anything that Almighty God had not
already provided for him. Sulaiman (a) sent them away
with a threat to invade their city. Sheba decided to come
in person, and whilst waiting Sulaiman (a) asked his own
256
counselors if someone was able to bring him Sheba‘s
magnificent throne. One of the man of knowlege was able
to produce the throne within the blink of an eye. When
Sheba arrived, she was asked if what she saw was her
throne and although it was disguised she said it looked as
if it was. When Sheba was asked to enter the palace, she
thought she was about to wade through water and lifted
her skirt; however the floor was made of shinning smooth
glass. When she saw for herself what Almighty God had
given Sulaiman (a) and how majestic his position was, she
submitted to the command of God Almighty and
acknowledged that he was a noble Prophet.

4. Stories of Prophets Salih (a) and Lut (a) and their people:
Salih (a) called the people of Thamud to worship One
Almighty God, but they split into rival factions. One group
said that Salih (a) and his followers were an evil omen.
The leaders of some families took an oath that they would
together kill Salih (a) and his family. They planned a
deceitful plan, but God Almighty also planned a plan. The
outcome was that their plan came to nothing and they
were destroyed, and their desolate houses are a sign for
those who think. The true believers were saved. Lut (a)
was sent to his people to ask them why they openly
committed homosexual acts even though they knew it to
be wrong. They had no answer except to try to expel Lut
(a) and his followers from the town. So Almighty Allah
saved Lut (a) and all his family; except his wife who was
destined to be one of those who stayed behind. An evil
rain of stones pelted down on those who chose to ignore
the warning.

5. The disbelievers actually doubt Allah's power of creation:


The unbelievers who say they have heard ancient tales
257
about the dead being raised and do not believe it. They
must therefore travel throughout the land see for
themselves what has happened to those who did not heed
the warnings of a Hereafter. Allah (swt) is bountiful even
though most people are ungrateful. Who created the
heavens and the earth and all that is in them, or another
deity? Clearly it is God Almighty who made rivers flow
and firmly fixed the mountains and other wondrous
things. Why then do they worship something other than
Almighty God? Who answers the calls of the distressed
and removes the burdens of the suffering? Allah (swt) is
the One who is above all that they associate with Him.
There is no one with knowledge of the unseen except
Almighty God. It is He who knows when the dead will be
raised.

6. A sign from the signs, and a scene from the scenes of


Doomsday: A day will come when the disbelievers will be
led before Lord Almighty in groups. The verdict will be
given but they will not speak. Almighty Lord sent signs for
those who believe and those who think. When the trumpet
sounds many will be terrified; the firm mountains will
pass away like clouds. On that Day, a good deed will keep
a person safe, but an evil deed will
see them flung into the Fire.

7. Those who accept guidance do so to their own good and


those who reject and go astray, do so to their own peril:
Muhammad (s) says that he has been commanded to
submit to Almighty Allah, to worship Him and recite the
Qur‘an. Muhammad (s) is only a warner; all praise
belongs only to Lord Almighty, and He is never unaware.
The Qur‘an is guidance and a mercy. Allah (swt) will be
the judge and Prophet Muhammad (s) should not grieve
258
over the people who will not heed his warning. Instead he
should put his trust in Almighty God because he is on the
straight path. He cannot make the deaf or dead to hear;
he cannot lead the blind.

8. When Allah Almighty bless someone with a blessing in


this world he/she should supplicate earnestly with the
following dua: "My Lord, enable me to be grateful for Your
favor which You have bestowed upon me and upon my
parents and to do righteousness of which You approve.
And admit me by Your mercy into [the ranks of] Your
righteous servants." (27:19)

259
28. Surah Al Qasas (The Story; The Narration; The
Narrative)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al Qasas In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

According to Ibn Kathir's commentary, the Surah takes its name


from the 25 ayah in which the word Al-Qasas occurs. Lexically,
―qasas‖ means to relate events in their proper sequence. The
word, thus, from the view-point of the meaning too, the story of
the Prophet Musa (a) has been related in detail. The Surah has
88 yats in 9 Ruku‘ (Section).

Revelation

As already mentioned, Surah 26: ash-Shu‘ara‘ (The Poets), Surah


27: an-Naml (The Ants) and Surah 28: al-Qasas (The Story) were
sent down one after the other (according to Ibn Abbas and Jabir
Zaid). The language, the style and the theme also show that the
period of the revelation of these three Surahs is nearly the same.
Another reason for their close resemblance is that the different
parts of the story of Prophet Musa (a) are mentioned in these
Surahs together to make up a complete story. These Surahs are
revealed during the middle stage of the prophet Muhammad (s)‘s
residence at Makkah.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Story of Musa (a) and Pharaoh is related. Pharaoh was


persecuting the Israelites. Allah (swt) wished to show his
favour to the oppressed people. Birth of Musa (a) and
then his growing up in Pharaoh's own palace.

2. Musa (a)'s encounter with an Egyptian and his escape to


Madyan.

3. Musa (a)'s marriage in Madyan.


260
4. Musa (a) receives Prophethood and especial signs from
Allah (swt). His appearance before Pharaoh. Pharaoh's
denial and then Allah's punishment for him and his
armies.

5. The Prophet relating these stories by inspiration from


Almighty Allah and for a purpose.

6. Allah's guidance is continuous.

7. The message of Islam is tauhid.

8. The story of Qaroon: his character and his end.

9. Allah's promise for the Believers.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah twenty-eight begins with the combination of letters -


ta, sin, mim, like the Surah number ash-Shu‘ara. These three are
amongst various combinations of fourteen letters that open 29
Surah‘s of the Qur‘an known as Huroof Muqatta‘at. Allah (swt)
did not reveal any specific meaning attached to them but
scholars analyzed those with Prophetic commentary from
Muhammad (s) which performs as a secret code of security from
the Lord Himself.

The basic theme of this Surah is the prophet-hood. Some aspects


of the life of Prophet Musa (a) are mentioned to show the
similarity between him and Prophet Muhammad (s). This Surah
and the two preceding it go together to tell the complete story of
Prophet Musa (a).

This Surah features in its longest section the story of Prophet


Musa (a) before his conversation with Almighty Allah at the
mountain. It takes us back to the scene where he was going to be
killed because the armies of Pharaoh were going to come in and

261
slaughter everybody, and his mother had thrown him into the
river. From there, his entire life story leading up to the mountain
is described though this Surah does also cover how he challenges
the Pharaoh and how that transpires, and we learn details of that
as well, but primarily the emphasis is everything leading up to
the mountain.

Just after the middle of the Surah Al-Qasas, Allah (swt)


introduced us with the character Qaroon (korah), who was one of
Musa‘s (a) people but he rebelled against them. Just as Fir‘oun
(Pharoah) is a symbol of arrogance; Qaroon represents the
symbol of materialism. He was the alternative version of Musa
(a); Allah (swt) had given him such treasures that their very keys
were a heavy burden to a band of strong men. But Allah (swt)
sent his wrath on Qaroon for his haughtiness over his wealth,
caused the earth to swallow him together with his dwellings.

There are also answers here to the questions and doubts that
were raised by some non-believers. Allah (swt) contrasted these
events with the group of unlettered Quraysh who say we need to
be impressed like the Pharaoh was impressed, and they don‘t
realize that they are calling themselves Pharaoh in doing so.
Their objection can be paraphrased as, ―He is telling us all these
amazing things that happened with Musa (a), we don‘t see a stick
turning into a snake, and we don‘t see water parting. So why
should we be impressed with Muhammad? Why does he not
show us impressive things like Musa was able to show the
Pharaoh?‖ So, Prophet Muhammad (s) is reminded that he
cannot make the people believe but nevertheless he must remain
steadfast in his mission.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 13): Story of the Prophet Musa (a). Fir‗aun (Pharaoh)


plotted to kill the sons of the Israelites to save his kingship, while
Allah planned to bring up one of them in Pharaoh‘s own
household.

Ayats (14 - 21): Musa's (a) youth, his folly of killing a man, and
262
his escape from Pharaoh's retribution.

Ayats (22 - 28): Musa (a) come to Madyan, acceptance of an


eight or ten years term of employment, and marriage.

Ayats (29 - 42): Musa (a)‘s arrival at Mount Tur, seeing a fire,
conversation with Lord Almighty, his appointment as a Rasool to
Pharaoh and his chiefs. Pharaoh and his chiefs disbelieved; as a
result Allah (swt) destroyed them but saved the Children of
Israel.

Ayats (43 - 50): Information about the destruction of prior


generations is given to teach a lesson.

Ayats (51 - 60): Truth has been conveyed; the true people of the
book believe in it. Righteous Jews and Christians can recognize
the truth of the Qur'an and feel that they were Muslims even
before hearing it. Prophets cannot give guidance; it is Almighty
Allah who gives guidance.

Ayats (61 - 75): On the Day of Judgment, the disbelievers will


wish that they had accepted Guidance. Allah (swt) has not
allowed the Mushrikhs to assign His powers to whomever they
want.

Ayats (76 - 82): Story of Qaroon, the rich man, who was from the
people of Musa (a) but he rebelled against the guidance of
Almighty Allah.

Ayats (83 - 88): Revelation of the Qur'an is the mercy of


Almighty Allah, let no one turn you away from it.

Virtue of the Surah

The Prophet Muhammad (s) in a tradition said: ―The one who


recites Surah Al-Qasas will be given ten rewards as many as the
number of all those who assented Musa (a) and those who
rejected him, and there is no angel in the heavens and the earth
but he will attest to his rightfulness in Hereafter.‖ [Majma„-ul-
263
Bayan, the commentary]

Secrets of The Huroof Muqatta‟at (Disjoined Letters) in


Ahadith of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

About one-quarter of the Quranic Surahs (29 Chapters) are


preceded by mysterious letter-symbols called Huroof Muqatta‘at
(disjoinedletters) or occasionally called Fawatih (openers)
because they appear at the beginning of the relevant Surahs
(chapters of the Qur‘an).
It is related that Abu Bakr as Siddiq said:
For every book there is a secret and all of its secrets are in the
Qur`an
in the opening letters of the chapters

Al Hasan said:
―The Quran has knowledge of everything and the knowledge of
the Quran is in the Huroof, which are the letters in the beginning
of the chapters.
And Ibn Abbas said:
―The beginning opening letters of the chapters are taken from the
names of Allah.
Abu Aliyyah agreed and said:
―There is not a letter except it is a key for one of the names of
Allah.‖
And he quoted from Ibn Abbas:
―Without a doubt, the opening of the chapters using the huroof is
Allah`s Greatest Name.‖
As far as the Huroof that occurs in the beginning of the chapters,
there are 29 which are:
ُ ٌ‫ ا‬ALif Lam Meem,
‫ اٌ ّر‬ALif Lam Meem Ra,
‫ اٌ ّص‬Alif Lam Meem Sad,
‫ اٌ ر‬Alif Lam Ra,
ُ‫ ح‬Ha Meem,
‫ حُ ع س ق‬Ha Meem Ayn Sin Qaf,
‫ وه ي عص‬Kaf Haa Ya Ayn Sad,
‫ ي س‬Ya Seen
‫ طه‬Ta Haa,
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‫ طس‬Ta Seen,
ُ‫ ط س‬Ta Seen Meem,
‫ ق‬Qaf, and
ْ Noon.

Opinions about Huroof Muqatta‘at (Disjoined Letters)


It numbers 14 letters and they are what are called illumination. It
is half of the Arabic alphabet by count the scholars differ in its
interpretation, it is reported that:
• Ibn Abbas said, ―The scholars are unable to grasp its
meanings.‖
• Ash-Sh‘abi said, ―It is the secret of Allah, so don‘t seek it.
[Means unless you are granted it from Allah]
Secret of Huroof Muqatta‘at in Surahs (Chapters) of Quran
a. Three Surahs (Chapters) are pre-fixed with only one letter:
1. Surah ‫ ص‬Sadh (The Letter ‫― ص‬Sadh‖) chapter 38 with‫ص‬
Sadh
2.Surah ‫ ق‬Qaf (The Letter ‫― ق‬Qaf‖) chapter 50 with ‫ ق‬Qaf
3. Surah Al Qalam (The Pen) chapter 68 with ْ Noon

b. The combination of two letters occurs in 10 surahs:


Three of them occur only once each:
1. ‫ طه‬Ta Haa, Ch. 20 – Surah Taha (Ta Ha) (Prophet
Muhammad‘s (s) Name)
2. ‫ طس‬Ta Seen, Ch. 27 – Surah An Naml (The Ant)
3. ‫ ي س‬Ya Seen, Ch. 36–Surah YaSeen (YaSeen) (Prophet
Muhammad‘s (s) Name)

ُ‫ ح‬Ha Meem, occurs in seven consecutive Surahs 40-46:


1. Ch. 40 – Surah Ghafir (The Forgiver)
2. Ch. 41 – Surah Fassilat (Explained in Detail)
3. Ch. 42 – Surah Ash Shura (The Consultation)
4. Ch. 43 – Surah Az Zukhruf (The Ornaments of Gold)
5. Ch. 44 – Surah Ad Dukhan (The Smoke)
6. Ch. 45 – Surah Al Jathiya (The Crouching)
7. Ch. 46 – Surah Al Ahqaf (The Wind-Curved Sandhills)

c. There are three combinations of three letters, each occurring


in 13 surahs.
265
ُ ٌ‫ ا‬Alif Lam Meem, occurs in six surahs
1. Ch. 2 – Surah Al Baqara (The Cow)
2. Ch. 3 – Surah ‗Ali ‗Imran (Family of ‗Imran)
3. Ch. 29 – Surah al ‗Ankabut (The Spider)
4. Ch. 30 – Surah Ar Rum (The Romans),
5. Ch. 31 – Surah Luqman (Luqman)
6. Ch. 32 – Surah As Sajda (The Prostration)

‫ اٌ ر‬Alif Laam Ra, occurs in Five consecutive Surahs 10 – 15:


1. Ch. 10 – Surah Yunus (Jonah),
2. Ch. 11 – Surah Hud (Hud)
3. Ch. 12 – Surah Yusuf (Joseph)
4. Ch. 14 – Surah Ibrahim (Abraham)
5. Ch. 15 – Surah Al Hijr (The Rocky Tract)

ُ‫ ط س‬Ta Seen Meem, occurs in two Surahs:


Ch. 26 – Surah Ash Shu‘ara (The Poets)
Ch. 28 – Surah Al Qasas (The Stories)

d. Combination of four letters occurs twice:


‫ اٌ ّص‬Alif Lam Meem Sadh, Ch. 7 – Surah al A‘raf (The Heights)
‫ اٌ ّر‬Alif Lam Meem Ra, Ch. 13 – Surah Ar Ra‘d(The Thunder)

e. Combination of five letters occurs twice:


‫ وه ي عص‬Kahf Haa Ya Ayn Sadh, Ch. 19 – Surah Maryam (Mary)
‫ حّ ع سك‬Ha Meem Ayn Seen Qaf, Ch. 42 – Surah Ash Shura (the
Consultation)

Surah Ash-Shura chapter 42 has a double combination of


abbreviated letters one set of two letters followed by one set of
three letters.
ُ‫ ح‬Ha Meem – Ch. 42:1 – Surah Ash Shura (The Consultation)
‫‗ ع سك‬Ayn Seen Qaf, Ch. 42:2 – Surah Ash Shura (The
Consultation)
[Courtesy:http://www.nurmuhammad.com/pbuh/?p=2
230]

Lessons and Reflection

266
1. The promise of Allah (swt) to His slaves is fulfilled without
doubt.

2. The story of Pharaoh who plotted to kill all the male


children of the Israelites. How Allah (swt) saved Musa (a)
and arranged for him to be brought up in Pharaoh's own
household.

3. Youth of Prophet Musa (a), his folly of killing a man, his


escape to Madyan, his marriage, his seeing a fire at Mount
Tur, and his assignment as a Rasool to Pharaoh.

4. The stories of prior generations are related in The Qur'an


as an eye opener for the disbelievers to learn a lesson.
Prophet Muhammad (s) does not narrate from himself.
Allah (swt) tells Prophet Muhammad (s) that he was not
present there on the mountain when He gave Musa (a) the
law, nor was he among the people of Madyan. Prophet
Muhammad (s) was also not there when God Almighty
spoke to Musa (a) on the side of Mount Sinai.

5. Unbiased Jews and Christians; when they hear The


Qur'an, can recognize the Truth and feel that they were
Muslims even before hearing it.

6. The Prophets cannot give guidance; it is Almighty Who


gives guidance.

7. The fact that on the Day of Judgment, disbelievers will


wish that they had accepted guidance and became
Muslims.

8. Almighty Allah has not allowed the mushrikhs to assign


His powers to whom they want.

9. The story of Qaroon, the legendary rich man who thought


the treasure and wealth he had was of his own knowledge
267
and abilities. So, God Almighty caused the earth to
swallow him and his house.

10. Allah's (swt) commandment that the revelation of The


Qur'an is His mercy; a believer should let no one turn
away from it.

11. The home of the Hereafter is for those who seek neither
glory nor spread corruption. The best outcome is for those
who are mindful of God. Those who come to God
Almighty on the Day of Judgment with good deeds will be
rewarded with what is better.

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29. Surah Al „Ankabut (The Spider)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al „Ankabut In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The Surah takes its name from the description of the spider‘s
house building skills, ―Al-‘Ankabut - The Spider‖ from ayah 41.
The title is derived from the ayah, which likens the false gods
whom people seek, to the spider‘s cobweb - the weakest of
dwellings. Other Surahs having names of animals are Al-Baqarah
(The Cow), Al-Fil (The Elephant), An-Naml (That Ant), And An-
Nahl (The Bee). This Surah has 7 Ruku‘ (Section) with 69 ayats.

The Surah deals with the life in the Hereafter, and reminds man
that the life of this world is but a pastime, whereas the life in the
Hereafter is the true life. Believers are reminded to be steadfast
in prayer.

Revelation

There are some different opinions about the time this Surah was
revealed. But general consensus is, Surah Al-‗Ankabut was
revealed shortly before the Muslims migration to Habash
(Abyssinia) during which the persecution of Muslims went to
extremes.

Some commentators are of the opinion, since the Surah has the
mention of hypocrites – first ten ayats of the Surah were revealed
in Madinah as hypocrisy appeared from there and rest is of
Makkah. But the facts of hypocrisy mentioned in this Surah came
from the extreme torture by the disbelievers, which subjected
Muslims to fall prey to weak faith.

Some commentators are of the opinion that this Surah was the
last Surah revealed at Makkah – since this Surah exhorts
Muslims to migrate. But this opinion compared to the subject

269
matter of the Surah, the migration of Muslims also occurred
before they did to Madinah. So, based on internal evidence of
many traditions – this Surah was not the last Surah which got
revealed in Makkah.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Tests and trials are part of faith.

2. Examples of Prophets Nuh (a) and Ibrahim (a).

3. Example of Prophet Lut (a).

4. Example of Prophet Shu'aib (a). References to the people


of 'Ad, Thamud, Qaroon and Pharaoh. Message of Prophet
Musa (a). Spider web of Shirk.

5. Give the message of Allah (swt) in the best way.

6. Warnings to the non-believers.

7. The truth will succeed. Almighty Allah guides the steps of


those who follow the right path.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah begins with three separate Arabic letters. Alif, Lam,
Meem. These three are amongst various combinations of
fourteen letters that open 29 Surahs of the Qur‘an known as
Huroof Muqatta‘at.

Allah (swt) did not reveal any specific meaning attached to them
but scholars analyzed those with Prophetic commentary from
Muhammad (s) which performs as a secret code of security from
the Lord Himself.

Like all the Surahs of Makkah, it discusses belief, the


fundamentals of faith and the Oneness of God Almighty. It is
believed that this Surah was revealed to strengthen and

270
encourage the new Muslims who were, at the time, suffering
severe abuse and oppression. A clear link is established between
all the messages and the message of Prophet Muhammad (s).

The Surah teaches a believer to build strong faith, just to say, ―I


believe‖ is not enough – one has to pass to the test and trials in
order to prove his/her believe. Early Muslims had to go through
different stages of trials and tribulations for accepting the truth.
The disbelievers of Makkah persecuted the believers to give up
their faith. But Allah (swt) reminded the believers that faith
means to overcome hardships.

This Surah has the stories of prophets who have gone through
hardships. The Surah relates other past prophets‘ people
condition which is akin to the condition of prophet Muhammad‘s
(a) companions - Nuh (a), Ibrahim (a), Lut (a), Shuaib (a), Hud
(a), Salih (a), and Musa (a) endured hardships but they did not
give up.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 – 13): Allah (swt) tests the believers to see, who is


truthful and who is a liar? Be kind to your parents but do not
obey them in the matter of shirk. Those who say, "Follow us, we
will bear your burden," are liars.

Ayats (14 – 22): Nuh (a) admonished his people for 950 years
not to commit shirk. Likewise, Ibrahim (a) admonished his
people not to commit shirk.

Ayats (23 – 30): The people of Ibrahim (a) even tried to burn
him alive but Almighty Allah saved him. Lut (a) (his nephew) is
the only one who affirmed his belief with him. Lut (a) was
appointed as a Rasool towards the nation of homosexuals.

Ayats (31 - 44): The qawm of Lut (a) rejected Allah's guidance; as
a result Allah (swt) destroyed them all. Likewise the Nations of
'Ad, Thamud, Madyan and Fir‗aun (Pharaoh) rejected the
Rasools of Almighty Allah, which resulted in their destruction.
271
The parables of those who take protectors other than Lord
Almighty dwell in the flimsiest house of spiders-web.

Ayats (45 – 51): Salah (Prayer) keeps one away from shameful
deeds and Do not argue with the People of the Book except in
good taste.

Ayats (52 - 63): Those who believe in falsehood and disbelieve


Allah shall be the losers. How many creatures are there who do
not carry their provisions with them? Allah (swt) provides them
as He provides us.

Ayats (64 - 69): The life of this world is nothing but pastime, the
real life is the life Hereafter. Those who strive in the cause of
Almighty God, He guides them to the straight Way.

Virtue of the Surah

There is a noble tradition from the Prophet Muhammad (s)


which narrates:
―Whoever recites Surah ‗Ankabut will have ten good rewards as
the number of all believers and hypocrites.‖ [Majma„-ul-
Bayan]

Huruf-i-Muqatta„at: Farahi‟s Theory - Qur'anic Exegesis

More than one-fourth of the Qur'anic Surahs begin with certain


abbreviated letters called Huruf-i-Muqatta'at. These letters are
actually the names of the respective surahs, as is evident from
the Qur'an. Many Ahadith as well as the pre-Islamic Arabic
literature endorse this view. However, there remains the
question of why the Surahs are called so. Many scholars have
attempted to answer the question but what they have come up
with is not very satisfactory. Farahi (d: 1930 AD) has presented
an explanation which might hold the key to the problem. We
shall briefly discuss his theory. Those who are aware of the
history of the Arabic alphabet know that it has been derived from
the Hebrew alphabet, which itself has its roots in the alphabet
272
used in ancient Arabia. Farahi is of the view that the letters of
this parent alphabet as English and Hindi do not represent
phonetic sounds only, but as the Chinese alphabet symbolise
certain meanings and objects and usually assume the shape of
the objects and meanings they convey. He goes on to assert that
it was these letters which the early Egyptians adopted and after
adapting them according to their own concepts founded the
hieroglyphic script from them. The remnants of this script can be
seen in the tables of the Egyptian Pyramids.

The science which deciphers the meanings of these letters is now


extinct. However, there are some letters whose meanings have
persisted to this day, and the way they are written also somewhat
resembles their ancient forms. For example, it is known about
the Arabic letter Alif that it is used to mean a cow and was
represented by a cow's head. The letter Ba in Hebrew is called
Beth and means Bayt (house) as well. The Hebrew
pronunciationof Jim is Gimel which means Jamal (camel). Ta
stands for a serpent and is written in a serpent's shape also. Mim
represents a water wave and also has a similar configuration.

Farahi presents Surah Nun in support of his theory. The letter


Nun still denotes its ancient meaning of fish. In this Surah, the
Prophet Jonah (a) has been addressed as Sahibu'l-H~ut that is
he who is swallowed by a whale. Farahi opines that it is because
of this reference that the Surah is called Nun. He goes on to say
that if one keeps in consideration the example given above, it is
quite likely that the abbreviated letters by which other Surahs
commence are placed at the beginning of the Surahs to symbolise
a relation between the topics of a particular Surah and their own
ancient connotations.

Some other names of the Qur'anic Surahs reinforce Farahi's


theory. Surah Taha, for example, begins with the letter Ta which
represents a serpent, as has been indicated before. After a brief
introduction the tale of Musa (a) and his staff which is
transformed into a snake has been depicted in it. Other Surahs as
Tasin and Tasin Mim, which begin with the letter Ta, also
portray this miraculous episode.
273
Surah Baqarah, which begins with the letter Alif, is another
example which further strengthens Farahi's claims. It has been
indicated before that the letter Alif had the meaning of a cow
associated with it and is represented by a cow's head. Surah
Baqarah, as we all know, contains the anecdote of a cow and its
sacrifice.

Another aspect of the Surahs which begin with the same letter is
a similarity in their topics and even in their style and
construction. For example, all Surahs which begin with Alif
basically deal with Tawhid (monotheism). It would be
appropriate here to point out that the letter Alif also stood for
Allah, the One and Alone.

We have presented here Farahi's theory only because it is


substantiated to some extent with sound arguments. It must be
conceded that the theory needs to be developed and verified still
further if it is to be accepted as the only logical explanation of
why the Qur'anic Surahs are so named.(Adapted from Islahi's
'Tadabbur-i-Qur'an') [Courtesy Link:
http://www.almawrid.org/index.php/articles/view/hur
uf-i-muqattaat-farahis-theory]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Almighty Allah tests the Believers to see who is truthful


and who is a liar: The believer‘s faith is assessed by Allah
(swt) with thorough examination of truth to their belief.
The people who came before them were tested and it is
how God Almighty separates the liars from those who are
truthful. It is not enough to claim belief; belief imposes
certain duties. The evil doers will not escape, because God
Almighty knows everything. Those who believe and
behave righteously do so for their own benefit. Lord
Almighty does not need a person to behave well; He is free
from all needs.

274
2. Be kind to parents but do not obey them in matters of
shirk (associating anyone else with Allah): Almighty God
demands that the believers be good to their parents.
However, they should not obey them if they try to make
them worship something other than God Almighty. One
needs to remember that one day he/she will return to God
Almighty and only those with true faith will be among the
righteous of the past who has succeeded to attain nearness
to Almighty Allah.

3. Those who say - "Follow us, we will bear your burden on


the Day of Judgment," are liars: There are people who
waver in their belief whenever they are faced with
difficulties; but then when they are in a position of ease,
they make boastful claims about their belief. Their faith is
easily shaken and God Almighty is well aware of who truly
believes and who is a hypocrite. The disbelievers
encourage disbelief. So, they tell the shaky believers that
they would carry their load of burden in the Day of
Judgment. Allah (swt) informed that they won‘t be able to
carry their own burdens with proper balance with the one
of others they made stray from the right path.

4. Nuh (a) was spreading his message amongst his people for
nearly one thousand years: The Prophet Nuh (a)
admonished his people for 950 years not to commit shirk.
But they were still doing evil when the flood overtook
them. Those saved in the ark are a sign for all those who
came after them.

5. The Prophet Ibrahim (a) admonished his people not to


commit shirk, for which they tried to burn him alive, but
Almighty Allah saved him: Ibrahim (a) tried to warn his
people against idol worship and told them to seek their
provision from Lord Almighty. He warned them with
275
stories from their own past and with logical arguments
about the power and mercy of God Almighty. Their only
response was to be succumbed to idol worship and call for
Ibrahim‘s (a) death. Ibrahim (a) walked out of the fire
which meant to kill him and shunned away from them
rejecting idol worship as fire will be their eternal abode.
Lut (a) witnessed this event and then reaffirmed his faith.
Ibrahim (a) was father to a long line of prophets beginning
with his son Ishaq (a) [Isaac] and then with his grandson
Yaqub (a) [Jacob].

6. The story of Lut (a): Lut (a) tried to counsel his people
asking them to stop their immoral practices, their acts of
highway robbery, and corruption. They hardly responded
except by telling Lut (a) to bring on the punishment. Lut
(a) prayed to God Almighty for help. When the angels
brought the news of a son to Ibrahim (a) they also told
him that they were charged with destroying the town Lut
(a) was living in. Ibrahim (a) feared for his cousin and the
angels said they planned to save Lut (a) along with his
followers. When the angels in the form of guests visited
Lut (a), he was anxious because he could do nothing to
protect them from the unruly and evil townspeople. The
angels were aware of Lut (a)‘s grief. They revealed their
identity and told him why they had come and that he and
his household would be safe from Almighty God‘s
torment. His wife however would not be amongst those
saved. The ruins of the town were left so that people who
think would understand.

7. The Nations of 'Ad, Thamud, Madyan and Pharaoh


rejected the Rasools of Allah, as a result Allah destroyed
them all: The people of Madyan denied Shuaib (a). Allah
(swt) therefore sent an earthquake that overtook them in
the night. The people of Ad and Thamud were also
276
destroyed. Shaitan played on their arrogance and made
their deeds seem fair and thus diverted them from the
right path. They were capable of seeing through his tricks.
Musa (a) along his brother Harun (a) went to Pharaoh,
Qaroon and Haman with clear undeniable signs but they
too were arrogant and refused to believe. They could not
however outrun Almighty God‘s punishment. Lord
Almighty Allah was not unjust; they were unjust to
themselves.

8. Parables of those who take protectors other than Almighty


Allah, are that of the dwelling of a spider and the fact that
the weakest of all the dwellings is the dwelling of a spider:
Those who seek protection from something other than
Almighty God are like spiders who think they are safe in
their flimsy cobweb homes. Allah (swt) knows what they
call on besides Him and even when given examples they
fail to understand. These parables are for the wise, and for
the believers they are a sign. Prophet Muhammad (s) is
told to recite from the Qur‘an and to establish the prayer
because remembrance of Almighty Allah which will keep
people away from shameful deeds and wrongdoings.

9. The signs that make things clear: If one asks the


disbelievers who created the heavens and the earth, or
who sends down the rain, they would answer, God
Almighty. Why then do they continue to deny the signs?
Why do they not use their common sense? This life is
nothing but a diversion, an amusement for a short time. It
is the Hereafter that is the real life. When a person gets
into trouble they call upon Almighty Allah but when he
saves them they forget that they should be grateful and
begin to thank others for their rescue.

277
30. Surah Ar Rum (The Romans; The Constantinople;
The Byzantine)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Ar Rum In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This Surah was revealed in Makkah. It was sent down about 5


years after Prophet Muhammad (s) have received prophethood.
The name of the Surah appears in the 2nd ayah in which words
ghubibatir rum occurred. The title is taken from the prophecy of
Roman victory over the Persians, despite the fact that the
Persians were in a far superior position. The Surah has 60 ayats
in 6 Ruku‘ (Sections).

The Arabic term, ―Ar-Rum‖ translates to English as ―Rome‖.


Today we may refer to the Italian capital city for understanding,
but the tern has been used to mean to direct attention to, ―the
Roman Empire‖. In the time of Muhammad (s), the place was
referred to the Byzantine Greeks (Eastern Roman Empire). The
term "Byzantine" is a modern designation to describe the Eastern
Roman Empire, particularly after the major political
restructuring of the seventh and eighth century. The Arabs,
therefore, naturally called them "the Rum", their territory "the
land of the Rum" and the Mediterranean "the Sea of the Rum".

Revelation

This is a Makki Surah and it was revealed about 5 years after the
Prophethood. The period of the revelation of this Surah is
determined absolutely by the historical event mentioned at the
outset of this Surah. It says: ―The Romans have been defeated in
the neighbouring land.‖

In those days the Byzantine occupied territories adjacent to


Arabia were Jordan, Syria and Palestine and in these territories
the Romans were completely overpowered by the Persians in 615
C.E. Therefore it can be said with absolute certainty that this

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Surah was sent down in the same year and this was the year in
which the migration to Abyssinia took place.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section

1. The defeat of the Romans and then later their victory is


foretold.

2. Creation and Resurrection belong to Almighty Allah.


Glorify Allah (swt) at different times of the day.

3. The signs of Allah (swt) in nature.

4. The true religion corresponds and enhances the nature.


Teachings of the religion of nature: tawhid, care of the
family and relatives, economic justice and charity.

5. Corruption caused by human beings. Evidence of


corruption in history. Evidence of resurrection in nature.

6. The Day of Resurrection.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah number thirty begins with the combination of letters -


Alif Laam Meem. These three are amongst various combinations
of fourteen letters that open 29 Surah‘s of the Qur‘an known as
Huroof Muqatta‘at. Allah (swt) did not reveal any specific
meaning attached to them but scholars analyzed those with
Prophetic commentary from Muhammad (s) which performs as a
secret code of security from the Lord Himself.

The Surah opens with a reference to the defeat of the Byzantines


(also known as the Roman Empire) at the hands of the Persians
(613–14 CE) in Syria, and the subsequent victory of the
Byzantines in 624 CE. This defeat posed a significant theological
and sociological problem for the early Muslim community
because the Byzantines were Christians and considered
monotheists while the state that defeated them was considered
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dualists because the official religion was Zoroastrianism. The
Surah is in part a response to the non-Muslim of MAkkah, who
took this victory as a sign that the traditional polytheistic
practices would win out over monotheism. In the third and
fourth ayats, the Muslim community is promised that the
Byzantines will reverse their defeat into a victory "in a few years'
time".

"The Romans were vanquished in the closer region, and


they, after being vanquished, will prevail within a certain
number of years. To God belongs the command before
and after. And that Day ones who believe will be glad with
the help of God. He helps whom He wills. And He is The
Almighty, The Compassionate."[Quran 30:2–5
(Translated by Laleh Bakhtiar)]

This victory did eventually come during Heraclius' campaign of


622. Muslims cite the fulfilled prophecy of the Roman victory
over the Persians as an example of the miraculous nature of the
Qur‘an.

The Surah urges people to reflect on their own creation and the
heavens and earth. Almighty God‘s power to give life to a barren
land is an indication both of His ability to raise the dead and of
His mercy to mankind. The disbelievers are warned to accept
faith before it is too late, and Prophet Muhammad (s) is urged to
persevere and to ignore the bullying of the disbelievers.

The Surah reminds us that Allah (swt) is in control of everything.


Those who are short sighted they see only what is apparent but
they do not realize that there is a Creator and Master of this
whole samawat and it is He who is governing everything. Final
decision is in Almighty Allah's hand. The Akhirah will take place
and the truth will prevail. So, mention is made of the five daily
prayers. The believer is asked to endure with patience and
fortitude, as Almighty Allah‘s promise is true.

Interconnection of the Topics

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Ayats (1 - 10): The Romans' (Christians) defeat at the hands of
Persia (Pagans) was taken as a sign of the Muslims' defeat at the
hands of Arab unbelievers, so Almighty Allah gave good tidings
for the Roman victory as well as the Muslim victory in a few
years.

Ayats (11 - 19): It is Allah (swt) Who originates creation and then
repeats it and to Him everyone will be brought for final
Judgment.

Ayats (20 - 27): The creation of Man, his consort, heavens, earth,
language, colors, sleep, quest for work, lightening, rain and
growth of vegetation - all are the signs from Allah (swt).

Ayats (28 - 40): The wrongdoers are led by their own appetites
without real knowledge. True faith, and the nature of sects.
When an affliction befalls people, they call upon Almighty Allah,
but when He relieves them, lo! They start committing shirk.
Commandment has provided to give one's relatives their due and
likewise to the poor and the travellers in need.

Ayats (41 - 53): Mischief in the land is the result of Man's own
misdeeds, which is how Allah (swt) lets them taste the fruit of
their deeds. Allah (swt) sent His Rasools for the guidance of
people; some believed while others rejected. Almighty Allah
subjected the guilty to His retribution and helped the Believers.
Allah (swt) said: "O Prophet, you cannot make the dead to hear
you."

Ayats (44 - 60): It is Allah (swt) Who has created us and shall
bring us to justice on the Day of Judgment.

Virtue of the Surah

A tradition narrated from the Prophet Muhammad (s), he has


said:
―Whoever recites Surah Ar-Room, will be rewarded ten rewards
as the number of every angel who glorifies Allah between the
heaven, and the earth, and whatever he has lost in that day and
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night will be recompensed.‖ [Majma„-ul-Bayan, at the
beginning of Surah Ar-Room]

Scientific References

"In the nearest land, but they, after their defeat, will overcome."
(30:3)

Indeed, after around seven years following the revelation of these


verses, against all the odds, the Byzantine Empire defeated the
Persians and the lost territories were returned to them. In
the verse, God describes the geographical location as ‗adna al-
ardh.‘ The word ‗adna‘ can be translated as the ‗nearest‘ or the
‗lowest‘ land. Classic Islamic scholars opted to interpret the word
to concord to the first meaning of ‗nearest‘. However, recent
geological studies have shown that the lowest point on Earth [dry
land], is indeed the region where the main battles took place -
around the Dead Sea. It is now established that there is no land
point on Earth with a lower altitude than the shoreline of the
Dead Sea [which is approx 418m below sea level].
Is it a mere coincidence that region described by God as ‗adna al-
ardh‘ – is actually the lowest point on Earth?

Modern usage of the term Rum

There are differing opinions among Islamic scholars regarding


the identity of Rumm in the modern day. Various books have
been written on the topic and the relevance of the identity of
Rum in Islamic eschatology caused much debate to take place
regarding the issue.

Musa Cerantonio, in his book 'Which Nation does Rum in the


Aḥadith of the Last Days refer to?', suggests that the title of Rum
was passed from the Roman Empire based in Italy to the
Byzantine Empire, then to the Ottoman Empire when the
Ottomans defeated the Byzantines, and openly proclaimed to be
the inheritors of Rome and its leader Mehmed II called himself
the Caesar of Rome (Qaysar al-Rum), and the title of Rum was
then passed to the successors of Rum, the modern Republic of
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Turkey. The book argues that the definition of Rum has never
been defined by ethnicity, geography or religion but that Rum
was always understood to be a political term and that it was only
by conquest and succession that a nation would become the
inheritors of the title of Rum.

According to Imran N. Hosein, Rum - mentioned in the Qur‘an


refers to the Eastern Orthodox Church, which was located in the
Byzantine Empire, with Constantinople as its capital. He argues
that with the disappearance of the Byzantine Empire, the
headquarters of the Eastern Orthodox Church is now located in
Russia and hence is Rum today.

Rum in Geography

Later, because Muslim contact with the Byzantine Empire most


often took place in Asia Minor (the heartland of the state from
the seventh century onward), the term Rum became fixed there
geographically and remained even after the conquest by the
Seljuk Turks so their territory was called the land of the Seljuks
of Rum or the Sultanate of Rum. But as the Mediterranean was
"the Sea of the Rum"- so all peoples on its north coast were called
sweepingly "the Rum".

Lessons and Reflection

1. The Roman's (Christian's of Byzantine) defeat at the


hands of Persians (pagans) was considered by the people
of Makkah a sign of the Muslim's defeat at the hands of
Arab unbelievers. Since the Byzantines at that time were
Christians, and the Persians were Magians, the
unbelievers in Makkah exploited the event, drumming up
the victory of polytheism over monotheism, and seeing in
this Persian victory an omen for their own victory over the
believers.

2. Prophecy of the Roman's victory against Persians heralds


a victory for the people of the Scriptures, the Byzantines,
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within a few years. It says that this victory will bring
much joy to the Muslims because they love the believers of
any divine religion to gain the upper hand.

3. Within 30 years or so after the revelation of Surah ar-Rum


- the Muslims had defeated both the Persian and Roman
armies occupying many towns and cities.

4. Allah (swt) has originated the creation and He will


resurrect the dead for final judgment. If we ponder over
the samawat, the soul within us from Lord Almighty,
people‘s situations and the wonders of nature – we would
surely find ourselves in the confines of time, place and
event, and operative rules of the samawat, history, present
and future being regulated by a divine being Almighty
Allah - Who is the past, present and future of humanity.

5. The spread of corruption on land and sea with by people


resulted into sins which are the reasons behind their
misfortunes and problems. If one reflect on the ends met
by past communities of unbelievers who associated
partners with God Almighty. Their faith turned them into
sects and rivals of each other; eventually lured them to do
shirk.

6. Creation of Man, his Consort, Heaven, Earth, Language,


Colors, Sleep, Quest for work, Lightening, Rain and
Growth of vegetation are all signs from Lord Almighty.

7. Wrongdoers are those who are led by their own appetite


without real knowledge. Their alleged deities can never
provide sustenance, initiate or terminate life. Such people
who wrong their own soul enjoy Almighty God‘s mercy
and when they are afflicted by hardship, as well as in
situations of affluence and poverty they are not sure of the
real cause of it.
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8. Commandment to give relatives their due and take care of
the poor and travellers in need.

9. Allah (swt) told the Prophet (s): "O Prophet! You cannot
make the dead hear you." He was told always to remain
confident that Allah‘s promise will be fulfilled. Hence, he
must not let himself be disturbed by those who lack faith.
So, he was directed to follow the religion of pure human
nature before a day comes when everyone will be
rewarded for their doings.

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31. Surah Luqman (Lokmaan; The Wise; Wise One)

Concise Tafseer of Surah Luqman In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

Surah Luqman is named after a very wise man. This is an early


Makki Surah, revealed perhaps before the Surah al'Ankabut. The
Surah has 34 ayats and 4 Ruku‘ (Section). It is among the six
Surahs which start with Alif-Laam-Mim.

Revelation

An examination of the subject matter shows that it was sent


down in the period when persecution to suppress and thwart the
invitation to Islam had begun. Every sort of plotting had started
being employed for this purpose. This is borne out by the ayah
no.14 in which the young reverts to Islam have been told that
although the rights of the parents are the uppermost after Lord
Almighty they should not listen to them if they prevented them
from accepting Islam or compelled them to revert to the creed of
polytheism (Shirk). The same thing has been said in Surah 29:
al-‗Ankabut (The Spider) which indicates that both these Surahs
were sent down in the same period.

A study of the style and subject matter of the two Surahs on the
whole however shows that Surah Luqman was sent down earlier
for one does not see any sign of the antagonism in its
background, though contrary to this while studying Surah 29: al-
‗Ankabut (The Spider) one can clearly feel that the Muslims were
being severely persecuted during the period of its revelation.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Qur'an is a book of guidance and mercy for all people.

2. The wise man, Luqman‘ advises.

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3. Signs of tawhid in the heaven and earth. Shirk or
polytheism has no basis.

4. In crisis people turn to the Real Almighty God. Let not the
things of this world deceive you. All knowledge belongs to
Almighty Allah.

Subject Matter of the Surah

As said earlier, Surah Luqman starts with the letters - Alif Laam
Meem. These three letters are amongst various combinations of
fourteen letters that open 29 Surah‘s of the Qur‘an known as
Huroof Muqatta‘at. Allah (swt) did not reveal any specific
meaning attached to them but scholars analyzed those with
Prophetic commentary from Muhammad (s) which performs as a
secret code of security from the Lord Himself.

This Surah is named after the sage Luqman, whose advice to his
son features in ayats 13 to 19. It opens with a description of the
believers and strongly condemns those who attempt to lead
others astray. In this Surah Tawhid is emphasized and Shirk and
its ideas are critically examined. It tells us that those who are
following Shirk they are only blindly following their forefathers.
The true wisdom is to believe in Allah. The advices of Luqman
are also given here to support the same principles.
The disbelievers are warned about the consequences of their
actions and Prophet Muhammad (s) is told not to be saddened by
their actions.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 – 11): The Qur'an is the Book of Wisdom, a Guide and a


Blessing for the Righteous.

Ayats (12 - 13): Luqman advised his son not to commit Shirk.
Ayats (14 - 19): Rights of the mother and parents. One must obey
his/her parents but not in the matters of Shirk. Luqman‘s advice
about the moral behavior and interaction are depicted here.

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Ayats (20 - 30): Main reason for being misguided is being
blinded by following one's forefathers. If all the trees were pens
and the oceans were ink, Almighty Allah's words could not be put
into writing. Allah (swt) is the only reality; all others whom
people invoke besides Him are false.

Ayats (31 - 34): O mankind, fear that Day when no father shall
avail his son nor a son his father. Let not the Shaitan deceive you
concerning this fact.

Virtue of the Surah

Who was Luqman?

The tafsir written by the scholar Ibn Kathir places Luqman in


Nubia or Ethiopia and portrays him as a carpenter and a slave.
He states that while Luqman was a "righteous servant" of Allah,
he was not a prophet. One tale recounted in Ibn Kathir's writings
involves Luqman's master ordering him to slaughter a sheep and
to bring its worst parts to him. Luqman slaughtered the sheep
and took its heart and tongue to his master. The master was
confused upon receiving them, but Luqman stated that "There is
nothing better than these if they are good, and there is nothing
worse than these if they are bad", demonstrating his perception
and wisdom.

Other Islamic traditions portray Luqman as an Arab poet and


wise man from the people of Ad who lived in Al-Ahqaf, near
modern-day Yemen.

A large number of stories demonstrating Luqman's sharp mind


have made their way into Islamic tradition, including his
attempts to gain a woman's love. Over time, a large number of
proverbs have been attributed to him, rendering him a sort of
Arabic Aesop figure. One saying attributed to Luqman has him
crediting his success in life to "truthful speech, fulfilling the trust,
and leaving what does not concern me.‖

Ibn Abu Hatim said: I was told by my father after Al-‗Abbas Ibn
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Al-Walid after Zaid Ibn Yahya Ibn ‗Ubaid Al-Khuza‘i after Sa‘id
Ibn Bashir that Qatadah said: Allah Almighty enabled Luqman to
choose between Prophethood and wisdom and he (Luqman)
preferred wisdom to Prophethood. Then, Gabriel came while he
was asleep and poured the wisdom over him. And, he began to
pronounce it the next morning.

Many from among our earlier scholars, foremost among whom


were Mujahid, Sa‘id Ibn Al-Musayyb and Ibn ‗Abbas (May Allah
be pleased with him), were of the viewpoint that Allah‘s
Statement that reads: “And indeed We bestowed upon
Luqman Al- Hikmah (wisdom),” means: discretion and
religious understanding. He was not a Prophet and nothing had
been revealed to him Al- Wahi (Divine Inspiration).

Huruf-e-Muqatta‟at

(The disjointed letters in Qura‘n) by: M. Rashid Hai


The 29 Surah(verses) of Qura‘n start with some disjointed letters
called ‗huruf-e-muqatta‘at‘ – disjointed letters. Some of these
muqatta‘at comprises of simply 1 letter, some of 2 letters, some 3
letters, some 4 letters and a few comprises 5 letters. The Surah
starting with these muqatta‘at are listed below:

There are 3 Surah that start with simply one muqatta (singular of
muqatta‘at)
1- Surah 38, Suad: Suad
2- Surah 50, Quaf: Quaf
3- Surah 68, Al-Qalam: Noon
There are 9 surah that start with 2 muqatta‘at
1- Surah 20, Ta-Ha: Ta Ha
2- Surah 27, Al-namal: Ta Seen
3- Surah 36, Ya-Sin: Ya Seen
4- Surah 40, Al-momin: ha Meem
5- Surah 41, Al-hameem Sejda: ha Meem
6- Surah 43, Al-Zukhruf: ha Meem
7- Surah 44, Al-Dukhan: ha Meem
8- Surah 45, Al-Jaseya: ha Meem
9- Surah 46, Al-Ahqaf: ha Meem
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There are 13 sura that start with 3 muqatta‘at
1- Surah 2, Al-Baqra: Alif Laam Meem
2- Surah 3, Ale-Imran: Alif Laam Meem
3- Surah 10, Yunus: Alif Laam Ra
4- Surah 11, Hud: Alif Laam Ra
5- Surah 12, Yusuf: Alif Laam Ra
6- Surah 14, Ibrahim: Alif Laam Ra
7- Surah 15, Al-Hijr: Alif Laam Ra
8- Surah 26, Al-Sho‟ara: Ta Sin Meem
9- Surah 28, Al-Qasas: Ta Sin Meem
10- Surah 29, Al-ankaboot: Alif Laam Meem
11- Surah 30, Al-Room: Alif Laam Meem
12- Surah 31, Luqman: Alif Laam Meem
13- Surah 32, Al-Sejda: Alif Laam Meem

Following 2 start with 4 muqatta‘at


1- Surah 7, al-A‟araaf: Alif Laam Meem Suad
2- Surah 13, al-Ra'd: Alif Laam Meem Ra

And following 2 start with 5 muqatta‘at


1- Surah 19, Maryam: Kaf Ha Ya Ain Suad
2- Surah 42, al-Shuraa: ha Meem; Ain Seen Quaf

The 14 letters used as muqattaat are as follows:


‫ ل – ا‬- ‫ و‬- ‫ ر‬- ‫ ک‬- ‫ ە‬- ‫ ي‬- ‫ ع‬- ‫ ص‬- ‫ ط‬- ‫ س‬- ‫ ق‬- ٌ- ‫ح‬

1) Some one has coined a phrase by joining these words:


‫سز نحكيى َصه قطعب‬
"A secret of a sage who explained it in piecemeal."
This phrase can be considered as a key to the fawateh of the
Qur'an

2) A shi'ite has joined the 14 letters and formed a phrase:


‫صزاطعهيحقهًُسكه‬
"Ali is on the path of truth and we are also on the same path ".

3) A sunnite formed the following phrase as a counter:


‫صح طزيقك يع انسُة‬
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"Follow the path of Sunnah.‖

A large number of scholarly books have been written over the


centuries on the possible meanings and probable significance of
these disjointed letters the muqatta‘at. Opinions have been
numerous but without a final conclusion. There is no reliable
report of Hazrat Muhammad SWA having used such expressions
in his ordinary speech, or his having thrown light on its usage in
the Qur'an. And, more importantly, none of his Companions
seemed to have asked him about it. This apparent lack of
inquisitiveness is cited as proof that such abbreviations were well
known to the Arabs of the time and were in vogue long before the
advent of Islam. However the use of such letters faded away from
Arabic literature with the passage of time.

These letters- the muqatta‘at fall into the category of


‗mutashabihat‘ and what Qur‘an says about ‗mutashabihat in
surah Aal-e-Imran verse 5-7: ― Nothing in the earth or the
heavens is hidden from Allah, It is He Who shapes you in the
wombs of your mothers as He wills. There is no deity but He,
the All-Mighty, the All-Wise. It is He who sent down this Book
for you. There are two kinds of verses in this Book: muhkamat‘:
they are the essence of the Book, and others, ‗mutashabihat‘.
Those who are perverse of heart, always go after the
‗mutashabihat‘ in pursuit of mischief and try to interpret them
arbitrarily, whereas, in fact none save Allah knows their real
meaning. In contrast to them, those who possess sound
knowledge, say, :We believe in them because all of them are
from our Lord‖. And the fact is that only the people of insight
can learn lessons from such things‖.[1]

There is not a single saheeh (authentic) hadith that could provide


the meanings, details or explanations of these disjointed letters-
the muqatta‘at. ―Allah knows the best‖ could only be the most
proper refrence regarding these letters. However there is a
saheeh hadith in which Allah‘s Rasool SWA says ‗ I don‘t say that
alif, laam, meem ia single word but alif is a letter, laam is a
letter and meem is aletter, and there is a ‗naikee‘ (good-deed) to
recite one letter and each naikee (good-deed) is rewarded ten
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times‘.[2]

Allāh states clearly in the text that the Qur‘ān is, ‗A Book whereof
the Verses are explained in detail – a Qur‘ān in Arabic for
people who know.‘ (Sūrat al-Fuṣṣilat /ha meem sejda – 41:3).
The Qur‘ān is referred to as a ‗clear proof‘ (6:157) ‗a manifest
light‘ (4:174; 42:52) and it has been ‗fully explained to mankind‘
(17:89; 18:54; 39:27) readers are also encouraged to ‗think
deeply‘ (47:24) about the text. In this particular verse, the Arabic
verb ‗‫ ‘ت دب ر‬is used: it means ‗to consider, reflect or meditate
upon‘. In other words, although Allāh has stated categorically
that the Qur‘ān is a comprehensively revealed, unambiguous
text, readers are encouraged to reflect on it. Hence, scholars have
put forward a number of views regarding the significance of the
muqatta‘at, their co-occurrence and placement.[3] Traditional
scholars have their opinions to account for their(muqatta‘at)
meaning as follows:[4]

Opinion-1: These letters contain the names of Allah SWT.


Contradicting this opinion, scholars say that as per saheeh hadith
there are 99 names of Allah SWT and those names have no
relevance with these letters.
Hazrat Ibn Abbas RA has said that in these muqatta‘at the Ism-e-
Azam is hidden and ‗alif laam meem‘ is an Ism-e-Azam.
(Tafseer Ibn Kathir)

Opinion-2: These letters when joined together with different


combinations they emerge as Allah‘s name. For example when
alif, laam,meem and ha, meem are joined with noon, it makes Al-
Rahman. It makes sense in this case but no second name can be
made with any other set of combinations.

Opinion-3: These are the name of Rasool Allah SWA, while


referring to ‗Ta-ha‘ and ‗ya-seen‘. However this can also not be
taken as very correct, because Rasool Allah SWA himself told his
names as Muhammad, Ahmad, Mahi and Hashir (Saheeh
Bukhari).

Opinion-4: These letters represent different names of Qur‘an.


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Whereas Qur‘an has itself named as Al-kitab, Kitab-e-Mubeen,
Qur‘an, Qur‘an majeed, Qur‘an kareem, Qur‘an azeem, Firqan,
Al-zikr, Al-hadith and Ahsanul hadith.

Opinion-5: These letters are the names of different surahs. To


some extent it appears to be correct as ‗Suad‘, Quaf, Taha,
Yaseen are also the names of surahs. Sura ‗Al-Qalam‘ is also
called surah ‗noon‘.

Abdul Rehman bin Zaid bin Aslam is also of this opinion. Allama
Abul Qasim Mehmood bin Umar Zamhashiri in his tafseer has
written that a number of scholars are also in agreement with this
opinion. (Tafseer Ibn Kathir)

Opinion-6: These letters refer to entire Islamic system. For


example, ‗alif‘ stands for Allah, ‗laam‘ stands for Jibraeel
(Gabriel) and ‗meem‘ stands for Muhammad SWA. But this logic
does not seem to be applicable to other letters.

Opinion-7: These letters are challenges to infidels that you


people also start your writings and literature with such letters
but look and realize the difference between your literature and
Qur‘an and that you and all your companions together cannot
present even a single sura like in Qur‘an. Imam Bezavi stands
with this opinion. But this opinion does not seem to be logical
because when the meanings of these letters are not clear then
how these letters could be termed as challenge.

Opinion-8: By counting and summing up the numerical values,


through the science of numerology, of these letters the time for
the dooms day and the age of the humanity can be determined.
This opinion also does not hold ground, as at the first instance to
have faith on numerology is against shariah, and secondly the
humans can never, whatsoever; determine the time the Day of
Judgment will occur. Even Rasool Allah SWA was told about the
timings of this day by Allah SWT.

Opinion-9: These letters stand for words or phrases related to


Allah and His attributes and only the prophet Hazrat
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Muhammad SWA knows their meanings and details. It means
that these letters depict the private conversations between Allah
SWT and Hazrat Muhammad SWA. For this opinion it can be
said that ‗Allah knows the best‘.

Opinion-10: These letters are based upon hard facts and are the
secrets of Allah SWT. It is not possible for the mankind to
explore their realities and factualness. In these such attributes of
Allah SWT are hidden which are beyond human perceptions.

Opinion-11: These letters were used to attract the attention of


the Prophet and later his audience. (Marhoom Dr. Israr Ahmad
of Tanzeem-e-Islami was of this view.)

Opinion-12: Imam Fakhar uddin Al Razi (1149 – 1209) opined


that Arabs used to name things after such letters (for example,
'money' as '‫'ع‬, clouds as '‫'غ‬, and fish as 'ْ').[5]

Opinion-13: These letters are the abbreviations of the names of


‗katib-e-wahi‘ (the companions of Rasool Allah SWA to whom he
SWA used to dictates the ‗wahi‘ – the qur‘anic revealations.

This opinion is also presumptuous and has no authentic basis.


There were not less than 42 ‗katib-e-wahi‘ whereas there are only
14 different muqatta‘at. Moreover the Qur'an was dictated by the
Prophet and the ‗katibs‘ wrote under his direct supervision of
Hazrat Muhammad SWA and they had no more connection with
the text nor there was any reason to permanently relate the text
with their names.

Modern Research

One suggestion offered by an Qur'anic scholar Dr. Hashim Amir


Ali (1903 – 1987) From Hyderabad India deserves consideration.
According to him:
―A simple explanation, but one which has not been offered by a
single commentator, is that each and every one of these 29
openings, without exception, are vocatives or forms of address to
the Prophet similar to ―Ta Ha!‖ (S. 20), ―Ya –Sin!‖ (S. 36), ―O
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thou, who is ordained!‖ (S. 73) or ―O thou, on whom has fallen
the mantle!‖ (S. 74): their general sense can be conveyed by
replacing them with ―O Muhammad!‘‘

The following facts go to prove or support the above thesis

(a) Every one of these 9 instances occur in the beginnings of the


Surahs and have, in fact, been referred to in early commentaries
as al-Fawatih, or ‗openings‘ of the Surahs. It is therefore, logical
to regard them as forms of address. This assumptionis confirmed
by the fact that the text which follows the ‗Fawatih‘ in each of the
29 cases, without exception, is couched in the second person,
singular.

(b) Only with one or two exceptions the immediately following


words consist of one or more of the following four reassuring
statements so often addressed to the Prophet in the Qur‘an:
i. That the Qur‘anic message is Truth manifest
ii. That the Addressee is ordained by the Divine and not by any
other agency;
iii. That the righteous will accept the Message:
the Addressee must not consider his mission in vain and
iv. That failure to convince the hard-hearted must not daunt the
Addressee.

(c) The fact that these letter-openings do not affect the meaning
of the text that follows supports the thesis that they are mere
vocatives.

(d) The thesis is also supported by the fact that, by far the
majority of the Surahs beginning with such openings, 25 out of
29, were revealed during the period when ostracized by people,
the Prophet was sorely in need of reassurance.

This solution does not offer the actual words or meanings which
these letters in each case represent. But that is of secondary or
even negligible importance. Vocation, particles, forms of address,
terms of esteem or appreciation, sobriquets, aliases all these
need have no specific meaning attached to them since they do
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not affect the sense of the message that follows. It is enough to
know that they are only forms of address to Muhammad varying
according to the circumstances and contents of the message.
Perhaps Muhammad himself understood the words which the
letters in each case represented but was too modest to repeat
them to the scribes; perhaps he merely felt their appreciative
import but was too sincere to replace the feeling with words. In
any case this solution does away with the innumerable far-
fetched conjectures each of which has been discountenanced by
the exponents of others and have together contradicted the claim
of the Qur‘an that its contents are clear and explicit to all who
have approach to it. (The message of Quran -1974-by Dr
Hasim Amir Ali)

In 1974, an Egyptian biochemist named Rashad Khalifa claimed


to have discovered a mathematical code in the Qur'an based on
these initials and the number 19, which is mentioned
in Sura 74:30 (―the hell fire ‗saqar‘ is guarded by 19 angles‖) of
the Quran. According to his claims, these initials, which prefix 29
chapters of the Qur'an, occur throughout their respective
chapters in multiples of nineteen. He has noted other
mathematical phenomena throughout the Quran, all related to
what he describes as the "mathematical miracle of the Qur'an."

Amin Ahsan Islahi (1904-1997), a renowned exegete of the


Quran, has mentioned that since Arabs once used such letters in
their poetry, it was only appropriate for Quran to use that same
style. He agrees with Razi and mentions that since these letters
are names for Surahs, they are proper nouns. As such, they do
not necessarily refer to other matters. At the same time, he cites
research from Hamiduddin Farahi (1863-1930), a Quranic
scholar from the Indian subcontinent, on how these letters must
be appropriately chosen according to the content and theme of
the surahs. Farahi links these letters back to Hebrew alphabet
and suggest that those letters not only represented phonetic
sounds but also had symbolic meanings, and Quran perhaps uses
the same meanings when choosing the letters for surahs. For
instance, in support of his opinion, he presents the letter Nun
(ْ), which symbolizes fish and Surah Nun mentions Prophet
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Younus 'companion of the fish'. Similarly, the letter Ta or Tuay
(‫ )ط‬represents a serpent and all the Surahs that begin with this
letter mention the story of Prophet Musa and the serpents.[6]

Western scholars have only occasionally attempted to explain


them. In 1996, Keith Massey[7] proposed new evidence for an
older theory that the muqatta‘at the "Mystery Letters" were the
initials or monograms of the scribes who originally transcribed
the suras . As evidence for this, he demonstrated that these
letters themselves occur in a specific order, suggesting a
hierarchy of importance. This idea has not yet gained wide
acceptance. Other explanations have similarly failed to
satisfactorily explain these letters.[8]

Ibn Kathir in his ‗tafseer‘ while commenting upon these


muqatta‘at says: ‗If Hazrat Muhammad SWA has described some
meanings to these letters, then it is final and
unquestionable. If Rasool Allah SWA has not explained any
meanings to these letters then we should also refrain in giving
any meanings to these letters and will have to believe that these
are the letters from Allah SWT.

For us as mulims and true believers it should be our firm belief


that these letters the muqatta‘at are revealed from Allah SWT,
further neither these letters are extraneously nor carelessly
introduced in Qur‘an, but are based upon absolute realities. It
should be particularly noted that it is neither obligatory for us to
know the meanings and details of these letters nor it is a matter
of shariah.

References
1- English translation of ‗Tafheem ul Qur‘an‘ by Syed Abul Aala
Maududi
2- Tafseer Ibn Kathir
3- Al-huroof Muqattaat by Dr. Zakir A Naik
4- Tafseer ‗Taisurul Quran‘ by Abdul Rahman Kelani
5- ‗Renaissance‘ (july 2003) – A monthly publication of Al-
Mawrid

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6- ‗Renaissance‘ (july 2003) – A monthly publication of Al-
Mawrid
7- Massey, Keith (1996) - "A New Investigation into the Mystery
Letters‖ of the Quran" in 'Arabica', Vol. 43 No. 3. pp. 497–501.
8- wikipedia.com [Courtesy:
https://www.facebook.com/notes/qurani-duaain/huruf-e-
muqattaat/10150653461116868/]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Commandment to obey the parents, rights become invalid


when they ask to commit shirk: God Almighty commands
us to be kind towards our parents, it is our mothers who
carried us in the wombs with great difficulty and fed us for
two years when we are so helpless to maintain our selves.
Almighty tells us to show gratitude towards them and to
obey them at all circumstances, but stresses to not to obey
the parents if they ask us to commit shirk. Associating
others with Lord Almihty Allah is the greatest sin.

2. Wise counsels of Luqman: Luqman advises his son to lead


a moral and upstanding life and tells him how; establish
the prayer, enjoin the good, forbid the evil and bear the
trials and afflictions of life with patience. Nothing can
escape Almighty God‘s knowledge says Luqman to his son.
Even if it is as small as a mustard seed or hidden inside a
rock or is a minute speck in a vast samawat, God Almighty
can see it clearly and is able to expose it. Luqman's advise
to his son not to commit Shirk (to associate anyone else
with Allah (swt) in worship). Luqman also advised his son
not to turn his nose up at people contemptuously; not to
walk about the land arrogantly for Lord Almighty does not
like the boastful. Thus walk at a moderate pace and talk in
a low voice because Lord Almighty does not like harsh
voices like the braying of donkeys.

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3. Misguidance in blind following of one's forefathers: Allah
(swt) asks us whether we see or not that everything in the
heavens and earth is for the benefit of humankind. It is
self-evident but there are still those who would argue
about it. When they are told to follow God Almighty‘s
guidance they respond by saying that they will not but will
instead follow the path trodden by their forefathers. They
say this even when Shaitan is inviting them to step into
the Fire.

4. If all trees were pens and oceans an ink, Almighty Allah's


words could not be put to writing: If all the trees on earth
were pens, and the oceans were ink, replenished by seven
more oceans, the writing of Almighty God‘s Words (signs
and creations) would not be exhausted. It is as easy for
Lord Almighty to create and resurrect every living being as
it is to create and resurrect a single soul. Our Lord is All-
Hearing and All-Seeing.

5. One should need to be aware of Shaitan‘s delusion: Allah


(swt) is the only reality; all others to whom people invoke
besides Him are false. We humans don‘t know what will
happen the next moment; God knows all this and is aware
of everything. The ships sail through the ocean by the
grace of Lord Almighty. Surely there are signs in this for
any grateful person. When the waves loom over them they
call out to Almighty Allah with sincere devotion but when
He brings them safely to land some falter between belief
and disbelief.

6. A truthful promise to the believers: Those who believe and


do righteous deeds will stay in Gardens of bliss. It is a
truthful promise for He is Mighty and Wise. Almighty
Allah created the heavens without visible pillars, set the
mountains upon the earth firmly so that they will not shift
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and spread the animals of all sorts throughout the earth.
He sends rain from the sky that causes all sorts of
vegetable life to grow. The Qur'an is the Book of wisdom
and a blessing for the righteous. It is guidance and a
mercy for those who lead a God-conscious life and with
the Hereafter as their main focus. These are the ones who
will be successful.

7. Advice to the youth: God says that He gave wisdom to


Luqman so that he would be grateful. Whoever is grateful
and gives thanks to God does so for his own welfare.
Those who are ungrateful and deny God‘s favours upon
them should understand that Lord Almighty has no need
of their thanks. Luqman counsels his son saying do not
attribute partners to Almighty Allah, it is a terrible error.
Almighty Allah mentions in the end of the Surah, "And
fear that Day when no father shall avail his son nor a son
his father." [31:33]

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32. Surah As-Sajdah (The Prostration; Bowing forehead
in the ground to Lord Almighty; A state that receives
Vital Energies)
Concise Tafseer of Surah As-Sajdah In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of the Surah Sajdah - "The Prostration", is taken from


the fifteenth ayah, which mentions those who "... fall prostrate
and hymn the praise of their Lord". There is a Sajda-e-Tilawat in
Ayah 15 of this Surah. This ayah is one of fifteen places in the
Qur‘an where the worshippers should bow down, or prostrate
during recitation. Alternative names of the Surah include Alif
Lam Mim Tanzil ("Alif, Lam, Mim, The Revelation"). The Surah
has 30 ayats in 3 Ruku‘ (Section).

Revelation

According to the traditions coming from Muhammad (s), the


Surah was revealed during the Makki phase of the prophet-hood.
Some scholars argue, based on attaching occasions of
revelations, that several ayats (some say ayats 16–20, some say
only 18–20, some say only 16) are from Madani phase, but the
arguments are not widely accepted. For example, Mahmud al-
Alusi opines that the close connection between these ayats and
the preceding ones means that they are likely from the same
period.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The Qur'an is from the Lord of the Worlds. Allah (swt)


created this whole samawat. He created human beings,
but some human beings deny the resurrection.

2. The difference between the Believers and non-Believers.

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3. The Mission of Prophet Musa (a). Take lessons from the
history of other nations. Signs of resurrection in nature.

Subject Matter of the Surah

Like the previous Surah Luqman, Surah As-Sajdah also starts


with the letters - Alif Laam Meem. It is one of six Surahs that
begin with this particular combination of letters. These three
letters are amongst various combinations of fourteen letters that
open 29 Surah‘s of the Qur‘an known as Huroof Muqatta‘at.
Allah (swt) did not reveal any specific meaning attached to them
but scholars analyzed those with Prophetic commentary from
Muhammad (s) which performs as a secret code of security from
the Lord Himself.

The Surah reasserts the fact that the Qur‘an is a direct revelation
from Almighty Allah, and goes on to describe His power of
creation, and Might. The beginning of the Surah emphasizes the
truth of the Qur‘an and at the end of Surah - Prophet
Muhammad (s) is told to pay no attention to those who cannot
see the significance of Almighty God‘s signs. As it is a Makki
Surah its main theme is the Oneness of Lord Almighty.

The Surah discusses some of the doubts and arguments of the


non-believers against the principles of Tawhid, Risalah and
Akhirah. It invites human beings to think and reflect on their
own selves and on the nature surrounding them. Everything
points that there is a Wise and Powerful Creator for this
samawat. He has not created this entire phenomenon in vain.
The creation has a purpose.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 – 11): The Qur'an, which contains no doubts, is revealed


to Muhammad (s), so that he may warn those people to whom no
Warner has come before.

Ayats (12 - 22): On the Day of Judgment, the unbelievers shall


believe but that belief will be of no benefit to them. There is a
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special reward for those who forsake their beds and invoke their
Rabb with fear and hope and spend in charity.

Ayats (23 - 30): The Qur'an is similar to the Book which was
given to the Prophet Musa (a).

Virtue of the Surah

Our beloved Prophet ‫َّللاُ َعلَ ْي ِه َو َسلَّم‬


َّ ‫صلَّى‬
َ has Said:" The person who
reads Tabarakallathi - Biyadihil - Mulk and Alif - lam 'meem
Tanzeel between Maghrib and Esha : The reward ( for the
reading these two Surahs ) will be as though he ( the reader ) had
stood awake during ( the night of ) Laylatul - Qadr " (Ibn
Mardawayh , Ruhul Ma'aani)

The Prophet would not sleep until he recited Surah as Sajdah.


[at-Tirmidhi 5/165; Hakim 2/412 & Dhahabi in Sahih al
Jamiea (22/789)]

Jabir Radiyallahu ‗anhu narrates that Nabi Sallallahu ‗alaihi


wasallam did not use to sleep until he recited Alif Lam Mim
Sajdah, (Surah 32) and Tabarakalladhl biyadihil mulk (Surah
67). [Tirmidhi]

Ayats Requiring Sajda-e-Tilawat

It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira (ra) that when, the


son of Adam (a) recites the Ayat of sajdah (prostration) and then
falls down in prostration, the Satan goes into seclusion and
weeps and says: ‗Alas, and in the narration of Abu Kuraib the
words are: Woe unto me, the son of Adam was commanded to
prostrate, and he prostrated and Paradise was entitled to him
and I was commanded to prostrate, but I

refused and am doomed to Hell.‘ (Sahih Muslim, Book


#001, Hadith #0144)

There are fifteen places in the Qur‘an where we should perform


Sajdah al-tilaawat (prostration of recitation) when reciting them.
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It was reported from ‗Amr ibn al-‗Aas that the Messenger of Allah
(sollallahu ‗alaihi wa sallaam) recited to him fifteen ayats in the
Qur‘an where one should prostrate, three of which are in al-
Mufassal and two in Surah al-Hajj. It was reported by Abu
Dawood, Ibn Maajah, al-Haakim and al-Daaraqutni, and classed
as hasan by al-Mundhiri and al-Nawawi. The fifteen aayat are
(interpretation of the meanings):

Sajdah # 1: Surah Al A‘raf (7) Ayah 206: ―Those who are near to
thy Lord, disdain not to do Him worship: They celebrate His
praises, and bow down before Him.‖

Sajdah # 2: Surah Al Ra‘d (13) Ayah 15: ―Whatever beings there


are in the heavens and the earth does prostrate themselves to
Allah (acknowledging subjection), - with good-will or in spite of
themselves: so do their shadows in the morning and evenings.‖

Sajdah # 3: Surah Al Nahl (16) Ayah 50: ―They all revere their
Lord, high above them, and they do all that they are
commanded.‖

Sajdah # 4: Surah Al Isra‘ (17) Ayah 109: ―They fall down on their
faces in tears, and it increases their (earnest) humility.‖

Sajdah # 5: Surah Maryam (19) Ayah 58: ―Those were some of


the prophets on whom Allah did bestow His Grace, - of the
posterity of Adam, and of those who We carried (in the Ark) with
Noah, and of the posterity of Abraham and Israel of those whom
We guided and chose. Whenever the Signs of (Allah) Most
Gracious were rehearsed to them, they would fall down in
prostrate adoration and in tears.‖

Sajdah # 6: Surah Al Hajj (22) Ayah 18: ―Seest thou not that to
Allah bow down in worship all things that are in the heavens and
on earth,- the sun, the moon, the stars; the hills, the trees, the
animals; and a great number among mankind? But a great
number are (also) such as are fit for Punishment: and such as
Allah shall disgrace, - None can raise to honour: for Allah carries
out all that He wills.‖
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Sajdah # 7: Surah Al Hajj (22) Ayah 77: ―O ye who believe! bow
down, prostrate yourselves, and adore your Lord; and do good;
that ye may prosper.‖

Sajdah # 8: Surah Al Furqan (25) Ayah 60: ―When it is said to


them, ―Adore ye (Allah) Most Gracious!‖, they say, ―And what is
(Allah) Most Gracious? Shall we adore that which thou
commandest us?‖ And it increases their flight (from the Truth).‖

Sajdah # 9: Surah Al Naml (27) Ayah 26: ―God!- there is no god


but He!- Lord of the Throne Supreme!‖

Sajdah # 10: Surah Al Sajdah (32) Ayah 15: ―Only those believe in
Our Signs, who, when they are recited to them, fall down in
adoration, and celebrate the praises of their Lord, nor are they
(ever) puffed up with pride.‖

Sajdah # 11: Surah Sad (38) Ayah 24: ―(David) said: ―He has
undoubtedly wronged thee in demanding thy (single) ewe to be
added to his (flock of) ewes: truly many are the partners (in
business) who wrong each other: Not so do those who believe
and work deeds of righteousness, and how few are they?‖ …and
David gathered that We had tried him: he asked forgiveness of
his Lord, fell down, bowing (in prostration), and turned (to Allah
in repentance).‖

Sajdah # 12: Surah Fussilat (41) Ayah 38: ―But if the


(Unbelievers) are arrogant, (no matter): for in the presence of
thy Lord are those who celebrate His praises by night and by day.
And they never flag (nor feel themselves above it).‖
Sajdah # 13: Surah Al Najm (53) Ayah 62: ―But fall ye down in
prostration to Allah, and adore (Him)!‖

Sajdah # 14: Surah Al Inshiqaq (84) Ayah 21: ―And when the
Quran is read to them, they fall not prostrate,‖

Sajdah # 15: Surah Al Alaq (96) Ayah 19: ―Nay, heed him not: But
bow down in adoration, and bring thyself the closer (to Allah)!‖

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There is a special reward for those who forsake their
beds and invoke their Rabb with fear and hope, and
spend in charity.

Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased with him, said that the
Messenger of Allah said: Allah says: "I have prepared for My
righteous servants what no eye has seen, no ear has heard, and it
has never crossed the mind of man.''(32:17) Abu Hurayrah said:
"Recite, if you wish: "No person knows what is kept hidden for
them of delights of eyes." It was also recorded by Muslim and At-
Tirmidhi. At-Tirmidhi said, "It is Hasan Sahih.''

In another version of Bukhari: "and no body has ever even


imagined of. All that is reserved, besides which, all that you have
seen is nothing.''
It was also reported from Abu Hurayrah, may Allah be pleased
with him that the Prophet said: "Whoever enters Paradise, will
enjoy a life of luxury and never feel deprivation, his clothes will
never wear out, and his youth will never fade. In Paradise there is
what no eye has ever seen, no ear has ever heard, and has never
crossed the mind of man." This was recorded by Muslim.

Lessons and Reflection

1. The Qur'an a book beyond Doubt: There is no doubt that


this Book, the Qur‘an, is from God Almighty, the Lord of
all the worlds. People try to say that Muhammad (s) has
made it up, or forged it but that is not true. It is a Book of
truth from Almighty Allah to Prophet Muhammad (s) in
order that he may warn his people. No warner has come to
them before and from this Book they will receive
guidance.

2. Disbelievers at the day of Judgment: If it had been


Almighty God‘s will He could have given guidance to every
soul. On the Day of Judgment, the disbelievers shall
believe but that belief will be of no benefit to them. They

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ignored the meeting planned for Judgment Day and now
you will be ignored by God. Disbelievers will taste the
punishment for all of eternity. But God‘s word will be
fulfilled and Hell will be filled with jinn and humankind.

3. The Qur'an is similar to the Book which was given to the


Musa (a) (Moses): Allah (swt) told us in the Qur‘an that it
meets same criteria as the Book He gave to Prophet Musa
(a) as a guide for the Children of Israel. When they were
patient and believed in His signs, He raised leaders from
among them who guided according to their Book. And on
the Day of Judgment God Almighty will decide the
matters over which they differed.

4. Unwariness of human mind being unaware of Divine


Almighty Being: Lord Almighty knows everything that is
hidden and everything that is openly revealed. He is
Almighty and He is Merciful, the One who perfected
everything. He created the beginning of humankind with
the creation of Adam from clay. He then made his
descendants from an extract of fluid (semen). He then
fashioned him in perfect proportions and breathed life
into him, giving him hearing, and sight, and a mind. Even
so humankind is seldom grateful.

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33. Surah Al-Ahzab (The Allies; The Clans; The
Coalition; The Combined Forces; The Conferates)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Al-Ahzab In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This Surah is a Madani Surah revealed in the 5th year of Hijrah.


In this year, The Jews of Madinah, pagans of Makkah and the
hypocrites hidden amongst the Muslims united to fight against
the Muslims. This battle was designed by the different groups, so
that was called, ―The Battle of Clans.‖ Since Muslims dug a ditch
in order to defend them; so this battle became known as, ―The
Battle of Ditch‖. The Surah has 73 ayats and 9 Ruku‘ (Section).

Revelation

This Surah discusses 3 important events:- the Battle of the


Trench which took place in the Shawwal 5 AH; raid on Bani
Quraizah happened in Dhul-Qa‘dah, 5 AH; Prophet‘s (s)
marriage with Zainab (rh) was contracted in the same month of 5
AH too. These timing of events nicely determine the period when
the Surah got revealed.

Background History of the Surah

After the setback of the Battle of Uhud (3 AH), the pagan Arabs
morale boosted up, Jews and hypocrites started to entertain their
hope of destroying Islam completely soon.

Bani Asad of Najd started preparing to raid against Madinah,


hardly two months had passed. Muhammad (s) sent companions
to instruct them to Islam. Upon reaching Raji (place between
Rabigh and Jeddah) 4 companions were killed by Hudhail, other
two were sold to the enemy in Makkah (Khubaib bin Adi and
Zaid bin ad-Dathinnah radi‘allahu ‗anhum).

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In the same month of Safar, on the request of a chief of Bani
Amir, Prophet Muhammad (s) sent another deputation of 40
(according to others, 70) preachers, consisting of the Ansar
young men, to Najd. But they were also betrayed. The people of
Usayyah and Ri'l and Dhakwan, tribes of Bani Sulaim,
surrounded them suddenly at Bir Maunah and slew all of them.
Meanwhile the Jewish tribe of Bani an-Nadir of Madinah, getting
encouragement, continued to commit breaches of the treaties; so
much so that in Rabi'ul Awwal 4 AH, they plotted against the life
of Prophet Muhammad (s) himself.

After the Battle of Uhud, Muslims were deeply wounded by the


martyrdom of Hamzah (ra), uncle of Prophet Muhammad (s).
Quraysh retreated without taking advantage of the victory. They
would certainly regret their folly when they would halt and
consider the whole matter coolly on the way, and would return to
attack Madinah again.

Then as soon as the Bani Asad started making Preparations for a


raid on Madinah, Prophet's (s) secret agents gave him timely
information about their intention. Muhammad (s) sent 150
strong men army under Abu Salamah (ra) [1st husband of Umm
Salamah (rh)] to punish them. They took Bani Asad by surprise;
in panic they fled leaving their possessions behind in the hands
of Muslims.

Bani Nadir plot was disclosed. They have been ordered to leave
Madinah within ten days, if they remain after that they would be
put to death. After ten days, although they were encouraged to
defy the order of Muhammad (s) by Abdullah bin Ubayy, no one
came to help them. So, they surrendered under one condition,
―every three of them would be allowed to carry whatever load
they could in camel.‖ Bani an-Nadir‘s gardens and fortresses and
other properties left in the hand of Muslims. And the people of
this treacherous tribe became scattered in Khyber, Wad il Qura
and Syria.

Then Bani Ghatafan was taken by surprise who were preparing


for a war against Madinah. He took 400 of the Muslims and
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overtook them at Dhat ar-Riqa. They fled from their houses and
took refuge in mountains.

At the end of the Battle of Uhud, Abu Sufyan challenged the


Prophet (s) and the Muslims, saying, "We shall again meet you in
combat at Badr next year." Muhammad (s) announced through a
Companion: "All right: we accept your challenge." In Sha‘ban 4
AH, he (s) went to Badr with 1500 Muslims. The other side, Abu
Sufyan left Makkah with an army of 2,000 men, but could not
have the courage to march beyond Marr-az-Zahran (modern,
Wadi Fatimah).

Prophet Muhammad (s) waited for him at Badr for eight days;
the Muslims during these days did profitable business with a
trading party. This incident helped more than restore the image
of strength of the Muslims that had been tarnished at Uhud. It
also made the whole of Arabia realize that the Quraysh alone
could no longer resist Muhammad (s).

Another event strengthened the image and position of the


Muslims further. Dumat al-Jandal (modern, Al-Jauf) was an
important place at the border between Arabia and Syria. When
the caravans of the Arabs, trading between Iraq in the south and
Syria and Egypt in the north, passed that way, they were
harassed and looted by the natives.
In Rabi al- Awwal of 5 AH, the Prophet (s) himself went to
punish them with an army of 1,000 men. They could not muster
up courage to come out and fight him and, therefore, fled the
place. This caused the whole of northern Arabia to dread the
power of Islam, and the tribes began to realize that the great
power emerging from Al-Madinah.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The custom of adoption and instructions about it.


Prophet Muhammad (s) is dearer to the believers than
their own selves.

2. The Battle of Ahzab and the way of the hypocrites.


310
3. The excellent role model of the Prophet Muhammad (s).

4. The household of the Prophet, his pious wives.

5. Almighty Allah's rewards for the Believing men and


women. Prophet's (s) marriage with Zainab (rh). The
finality of the Prophet-hood.

6. Prophet Muhammad (s) is sent as a witness, a bearer of


glad tidings and Shining Lamp. The marriages of the
Prophet (s): certain privileges and restrictions.

7. Rules of conduct in domestic relations.

8. Rules of Hijab, Warnings to the hypocrites, the Last Hour.

9. Believers must speak right. The burden of trust assumed


by the human being.

Subject Matter of the Surah

Surah Al-Ahzab mentions what happened at the Battle of the


Trench to remind believers the mercy and power of Allah (swt).
Almighty Allah made the various tribes to leave Madinah who
attacked it earlier.

In the fifth year of Hijrah the Jews of Makkah, pagans of


Makkah, and the hypocrites hidden amongst the Muslims united
to fight against the Muslims. Then the Prophet (s) and his
followers dug a deep ditch around Madinah to defend against
their attack. As the battle was designed by different groups so it
was called ‗The Battle of Clans‘, and since the Muslims dug a
ditch in order to defend themselves, this battle became known as
‗The Battle of Ditch‘.

A perusal of the theme and the background shows that the Surah
is not a single discourse which was sent down in one piece but it
consists of several injunctions, commandments and discourses.
These were sent down one after the other in connection with the
311
important events of the time and then were put together in one
Surah. Its following parts stand out clearly distinguished from
one another.

Since this Surah is a Madani Surah, it also contains instructions


regarding treatment of the Prophet (s) and his wives and warns
the hypocrites of their bad behavior. According to some scholars,
Madani ayats are concerned with the legal matters in a society
which forms Shariah. These Surahs generally contain rules and
regulations for the believers to follow.

The Surah deals with a number of social and political issues. It


talks about the practice of child-adoption, some marriage
customs, battle of Ahzab and Bani Quraizah, social issues related
to Hijab of Muslim women. It also talks about the hypocrites
and their conduct in the society.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 8): Allah (swt) told us to be conscious of him out fear


and hope and not to obey the unbelievers and hypocrites. By
word of mouth neither wives become mothers, nor do adopted
sons become real sons. The Prophet's wives are the believers'
mothers. Blood relations have greater claims than others in the
Book of Almighty Allah.

Ayats (9 - 20): Favours of Allah (swt) during the battle of Trench.


The hypocrite‘s attitude was observed by Allah (swt) during the
battle of Trench which was mentioned vividly. Those who
discourage others from participating in the fight against the
unbelievers and don't participate in such a war themselves have
no faith and all their deeds will be void.

Ayats (21 - 27): The life of Rasool of Allah Muhammad (s) is the
best model for us. Allah (swt) helped the Muslims gain victory
over the unbelievers and the Jewish tribes in Madinah and
Khaiber.

Ayats (28 - 34): Admonition to the wives of the Prophet


312
Muhammad (s). The believers were told to maintain proper
conduct with Muhammad (s) and his household. The prophet's
wives are called the Mothers of the Believers and thus have to
follow certain rules and regulations as women who are "unlike
other women."

Ayats (35 - 40): It is not fitting for believers to have an option in


what has been decided by Almighty Allah and His Rasool. Allah
commanded the Prophet Muhammad (s) to marry the divorced
wife of his adopted son Zaid. Muhammad (s) is not the father of
any of the men but a Rasool and Seal of the Prophet-hood.

Ayats (41 - 52): The Prophet (s) is sent as a bearer of good news,
a Warner and a lamp spreading light. No women has to do Iddat
(waiting period for remarriage) is required if divorced before
sexual intimacy. Prophet Muhammad (s) was given special
permission to marry more than four wives.
After this commandment Allah (swt) ordained restriction on the
Prophet to marry or divorce any further.

Ayats (53 - 58): Do not enter the houses of the Prophet without
permission, and if invited, do not seek long conversation. Do not
marry the Rasool's wives after his death. Allah Himself and His
angels send blessings on the Prophet, O Believers invoke Allah's
blessings for him.

Ayats (59 - 68): Commandment of Hijab (dress code) for women.


The punishment for the hypocrites and scandal mongers as
specified by Almighty Allah. In Hell the unbelievers shall ask
double punishment for their leaders.

Ayats (69 - 73): O Believers! Fear Allah and always say the right
thing. The heavens, earth and mountains refuse to take Allah's
(swt) Trust but Man took it.

Virtue of the Surah

In the commentary of Majma‘ul Bayan it is narrated from the


Prophet Muhammad (s) that whoever recites Surah Al-Ahzab
313
and also teaches it to his family members, he will be saved from
the torment of the grave. [Majma„-ul-Bayan, Vol. 8, P. 234]

Human Individuals Don't have two hearts at the same


time

Allah has never put two hearts within one person's body;[1] nor
has He made your wives, whom you compare to your mothers'
backs (to divorce them),[2] your true mothers; nor has He made
those whom you adopt as sons your own sons.[3] These are only
words that you utter with your mouths. But Allah proclaims the
Truth and directs you to the Right Path. (33:4)

1. That is, one and the same person cannot be a believer and a
hypocrite, truthful and false, wicked and righteous, at one and
the same time. He does not have two hearts in this chest that one
should have sincerity in it and the other fearlessness of God.
Therefore, a man can have only one kind of character at a time:
either he will be a believer or a hypocrite, a disbeliever or a
Muslim. Now if you call a believer a hypocrite, or a hypocrite a
believer, it will not change the reality. The true character of the
person will inevitably remain the same.

2. Zihar is a term in Arabic. In old days when an Arab; in the heat


of a domestic quarrel, would say to his wife: ―Your back for me is
as the back of my mother,‖ it was thought that the woman was no
longer lawful for him because he had compared her to his
mother. About this Allah says: ―A woman does not become a
man‘s mother just because he has called her his mother or
compared her to his mother. His mother is the
woman who bore him. Only his calling his wife his mother
cannot change the reality.‖

3. This is what is intended to be said. The two preceding


sentences are meant to support and emphasize this same point.
[Tafhimul Qur‟an]

Lessons and Reflection

314
1. The order to have taqwa of Allah (swt) with fear and hope,
and not to obey the unbelievers and the hypocrites.

2. Among the pillars of Iman is depending on Allah (swt)


and turning to him in submission in all times and all
situations.

3. Almighty Allah stated laws to abolish the evil and


unbelievable tradition of Jahiliyah have no room in Islam
and Islam warns of them.

4. Believing a wife can be like a mother in relationship is


haram and of the Jahiliyah.

5. It is haram to adopt by attributing the child to you or to


other than his real father. But one can take care of them
and give them their real name.

6. Prophet's wives are declared to be the mothers of all

believers.

7. Blood relations have greater claims than others in the


Book of Allah.

8. One who claims he/she has two hearts is a liar.

9. Allah (swt) does not make a person accountable for


mistakes or what they do unintentionally.

10. Non-participants are declared to have no faith at all and


that all their deeds are void.

11. The life of Prophet Muhammad (s) is declared to be a


model for all believers.

12. Admonition to the wives of the Prophet Muhammad (s).

13. It is not befitting for the believers to have options in what


315
has been decided by Allah and His Rasool Muhammad (s).

14. Almighty Allah's commandment Muhammad (s) to marry


the divorced wife of his adopted son.

15. The Prophet Muhammad (s) is not the father of any of the
men but a Rasool and Seal of the Prophethood.

16. The Prophet Muhammad (s) is given special permission to


marry more than four wives along with restriction of
neither to marry any more nor to exchange any present
wife after this commandment.

17. Etiquettes concerning the visits to the Prophet's


household. Believing muslimat (female believers) were
told to maintain good appearance with jilbab so that they
don‘t show their beauty to foreign men.

18. Allah (swt) Himself and His angels send blessings on the
Prophet (s), and the believers are commanded to do the
same.

19. The trust of Allah was presented to the heavens, the earth
and the mountains: they refused to take that
responsibility but the human took it.

316
34. Surah Saba‟ (The Sabaeans)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Saba‟ In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of the Surah ―sabayin‖ appears in the ayats fifteen to


twenty-one which refers to the Region of Saba, in Yemen where
the community of Sheba is punished for their ingratitude.
Reference is made in the Surah to the Prophets Dawud (a) and
Sulaiman (a), and their superior knowledge of things unknown to
us, and their conquest of evil, through wisdom and power. The
Surah has 54 ayats and 6 Ruku‘ (Section).

Revelation

This is a Makki Surah revealed to the Prophet (s) sometime in


the early or middle of Makki period about 7- 8 years before the
Hijrah. All Surahs revealed in Makkah tend to concentrate on the
fundamentals of faith and pay particular attention to belief in the
Day of Judgment and the Hereafter.

Some commentators of the Qur‘an, including Ahmad ibn Ajiba,


Mahmud al-Alusi, Ibn al-Jawzi, and Al-Qurtubi opined that the
sixth ayah was an exception and was revealed in the Madani
period.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The Day of Judgment will surely come.

2. Allah's (swt) favours on Prophets Daud (a) [David] and


Sulaiman (a) [Solomon]. Almighty Allah's judgment on
the people of Saba'.

3. Shirk will be of no use on the Day of Judgment. Prophet


Muhammad (s) is sent for all people.

317
4. The wrong leaders will leave their followers on the Day of
Judgment, the discussion of their mutual recrimination.

5. Material riches do not necessarily bring anyone closer to


Allah (swt).

6. The truth will prosper.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah began with the phrase Alhamdulillah ("Praise be to


Almighty Allah"), one of the five Surahs where this word do
occur - the others are Al Fatiḥah, Al-An'am, Al-Kahf and Fatir.
The Surah answers some of the objections raised by the non-
believers about Tawhid, Risalah and Akhirah. These responses
were mostly in the form of absurd allegations, taunts and
mockery. These objections have been answered sometimes by
citing them and sometimes without citing them while the
discourse itself shows which objection is being answered at a
particular place. The answers mostly take the form of instruction
and admonition and argument but at some places the
disbelievers have been warned also of the evil consequences of
their stubbornness. In this connection the Surah speaks about
Prophets Daud (a) and Sulaiman (a) and the Sabaeans to remind
people about the consequences of evils as well as righteousness.

On the one hand, there were the Prophets Daud (a) and
Sulaiman (a) had been blessed by God Almighty with great
powers, such grandeur and glory as had been granted to hardly
any people before them. In spite of this they were not proud and
arrogant but remained grateful servants of their Lord. They were
never rebellious. On the other hand, there were the people of
Saba who when blessed by Almighty God became proud and
were consequently so thoroughly destroyed and dispersed as to
be remembered only in myths and legends.

The rest of the Surah discusses various topics, including the


nature of Iblis (the Devil), challenges to those who reject the
message of Islam, warnings of the consequences which will come
318
to them in the Day of Judgment, as well as the nature of
Muhammad's (s) mission.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 – 9): The Hour is surely going to come and the Day of
Judgment shall be established to reward the believers and
punish those who discredit Allah's revelations. Those who do not
believe in the Hereafter are doomed.

Ayats (10 - 21): The mountains and birds used to sing Allah's
(swt) Rhymes with the Prophet Daud (a). Almighty Allah
subjected the winds and jinns to Sulaiman (a). Claim of people
that Jinns know the unseen, is wrong. The people of Saba'
rejected Allah's (swt) blessings and disbelieved in the Hereafter,
so Almighty Allah made them merely a tale of the past.

Ayats (22 - 30): No intercession before Almighty Allah can avail


anyone except for whom He permits it. The Prophet Muhammad
(s) is for the entire mankind.

Ayats (31 - 36): Those who disbelieve in the Qur'an and prior
scriptures will have yokes placed around their necks before being
tossed into hell.

Ayats (37 - 45): Wealth and children are not the indications of
Allah's (swt) pleasure. It is belief that brings one close to
Almighty Allah not the wealth or children. Whatever we spend in
charity, Allah (swt) will pay us back. About the prophet and the
Qur‘an, unbeliever states, ―We are more [than the believers] in
wealth and children, and we are not to be punished.‖

Ayats (46 - 54): The unbelievers are asked to ponder upon their
wrong statements – the Truth has come, falsehood neither
originates nor restores anything. On the Day of
Judgment the unbelievers will want to believe but it will be of no
avail to them.

Virtue of the Surah


319
The Story of Saba'

The Story of Saba', as told in,

 Indeed there was for Saba‘ (Sheba) a sign in their


dwelling-place – two gardens on the right hand and on the
left; (and it was said to them:) ―Eat of the provision of your
Lord, and be grateful to Him.‖ A fair land and an Oft-
Forgiving Lord!

 But they turned away (from the obedience of Allah), so


We sent against them Sail Al-‗Arim (flood released from the
dam), and We converted their two gardens into gardens
producing bitter bad fruit, and tamarisks, and some few
lote-trees.

 Like this We requited them because they were


ungrateful disbelievers. And never do We requite in such a
way except those who are ungrateful (disbelievers).
 And We placed, between them and the towns which We
had blessed, towns easy to be seen, and We made the stages
(of journey) between them easy (saying): ―Travel in them
safely both by night and day.‖

 But they said: ―Our Lord! Make the stages between our
journey longer,‖ and they wronged themselves; so We made

 them as tales (in the land), and We dispersed them all


totally. Verily, in this are indeed signs for every steadfast,
grateful (person). [Surah Saba' (34:15-19)]

It is the story of how people invited devastation and destruction


upon themselves when, after receiving abundance from Allah,
they denied His Graces. The name Saba' pertains to the tribes
inhabiting Yemen and Syria at that time, to whom Allah sent
many prophets. As long as they were righteous and followed the

320
Straight Path, they enjoyed happiness and ease.

According to scholars of genealogy, among them being


Muhammad Ibn Ishaq, the name of Saba‘ is `Abd Shams Ibn
Yashjub Ibn Ya`rub Ibn Qahtan. He was the first to take captives
and he was very generous to the people. As-Suhaili said: It is said
that he was the first person to be crowned, and some scholars
said he was Muslim and that he composed poetry in which he
brought good news of the advent of Prophet Muhammad
(S.A.W.S.). This last saying was attributed to Ibn Didya in his
book titled [At-Tanwir fi Maulid Al-Bashir An- Nadhir]

Imam Ahmed said: I have been told by Abu `Abdur Rahman,


after `Abdullah Ibn Luhai` ah, after `Abdullah Ibn Da`lah: I
heard `Abdullah Ibn Al-`Abbas saying: A man asked Allah‘s
Messenger (S.A.W.S.) about Saba‘, whether it was a man, a
woman, or a name of a land? He (S.A.W.S.) said:
“Verily, he was a man to whom ten sons were born. Six
of them inhabited the Yemen and four Sham (Syria).
Those in Yemen were: Madhhaj, Kindah, Al-Azd, Al-
Ash `ariyun, Anmar and Himyar. And those who
inhabited Syria were: Laghm, Judham, `Amilah and
Ghassan.” The Questioner was Farwah Ibn Musaik Al-Ghatifi.

This means that the term Saba‘ covers all these tribes; among
them also were At- Tababi `ah (Sing. Tubba) in the Yemen. Bilqis
was from among the Himyar kings who ruled the Yemen. They
lived in happiness and ease, with abundance of sustenance:
fruits, plants, etc., and they were righteous people who followed
the straight path, but when they denied the Grace of Allah they
inevitably incurred upon themselves and their peoples
destruction and devastation.

Muhammad Ibn Ishaq narrating from Wahb Ibn Munabah said:


Allah the Almighty sent them thirteen Prophets. And, As-Sadi
claimed that Allah the Almighty sent them twelve thousand
Prophets. Allah knows best!

The main point is, they replaced guidance with misguidance and
321
prostrated before the sun instead of Allah the Almighty. This
practice was seen during the era of Bilqis and her ancestors and
continued till Allah sent over them a flood released from the
dam. Allah the Almighty says:
―But they turned away (from the obedience of Allah), so We sent
against them Sail Al-`Arim (flood released from the dam), and
We converted their two gardens into gardens producing bitter
bad fruit, and tamarisks, and some few lote trees. Like this We
requited them because they were ungrateful disbelievers. And
never do We requite in such a way except those who are
ungrateful (disbelievers)‖ (Saba‟, 34:16,17)

Many scholars mentioned that the Dam of Ma‘rab was built to


keep water behind two great mountains, and when the water
rose, the people began to plant orchards and fruit trees and many
kinds of vegetables. It is said that the building of the dam was
started by Saba‘ Ibn Ya` rub but he died before completing it. So,
the tribe of Himyar perfected it and it was of the space of one
square league. People were living in happiness and abundance.
Qatada and others said: ―The woman (from among them) would
go putting a basket on her head, and it would be filled with fresh,
ripe fruits, and they said that the air they breathed was so clean
and pure that neither flies, nor harmful germs were found in
their land.‖ Allah the Almighty says:
―Indeed there was for Saba‘ (Sheba) a sign in their dwelling
place – two gardens on the right hand and on the left; and it
was said to them: Eat of the provision of your Lord, and be
grateful to Him. A fair land and an Oft-Forgiving Lord!‖
(Saba‟, 34:15)
―And (remember) when your Lord proclaimed: If you give
thanks (by accepting Faith and worshipping none but Allah), I
will give you more (of My Blessings); but if you are thankless
(i.e. disbelievers), verily My punishment is indeed severe‖
(Ibrahim, 14:7)

They worshipped other than Allah the Almighty and dealt with
His Grace arrogantly. Allah had made the stages of their journey
easy and they used to travel safely by night and day, but they
asked Allah to make the stages between their journeys longer and
322
severer. Thus, they asked for the good to be turned into what is
bad like the Children of Israel who asked Allah the Almighty to
turn Manna and quails into herbs, cucumbers, Fum (wheat or
garlic), lentils and onions. They were deprived of that great
blessing and comprehensive grace; their land was destroyed and
they themselves were scattered all over the globe. Allah the
Almighty says:
―But they turned away (from the obedience of Allah), so We sent
against them Sail Al-`Arim (flood released from the dam)‖
(Saba‟, 34:16)

Many scholars said that Allah the Almighty sent mice or rats on
the bases of the dam, and though they tried to get rid of the rats
by bringing cats to eat them up, it was in vain. The bases became
very weak and finally the dam collapsed and the water drowned
everything. Their good fruit trees turned into – as explained by
Allah the Almighty – bad ones: “And We converted their
two gardens into gardens producing bitter bad fruit,
and tamarisks and some few lote-trees.”

Allah the All Mighty sends His severe punishment to only those
who disbelieve in Him and belie His Messengers, disobey His
Orders, and violate His Boundaries. Allah says:
―So We made them as tales (in the land), and We dispersed them
all totally‖ (Saba, 34:19)

After the destruction of their gardens, properties and land, they


needed to move away. Thus, they got scattered in different parts
of the land as some of them moved to the Hejaz, and Khuza‘ah
moved to Makkah. Some of them also moved to Al-Madinah Al-
Munawwarah, and they were the first to inhabit it. Then, they
were followed by three tribes from the Jews: the Banu Qainuqa‘,
Banu Quraizah, and Banu An-Nadir. The Jews made coalitions
with the Aus and Khazraj and lived there (till the time of Prophet
Muhammad (S.A.W.S)). Some of them moved to Sham (Syria)
and afterwards they converted to Christianity. These were
Ghassan, Amilah, Bahra‘, Lukham, Judham, Tanukh, Taghlub,
and others.

323
Muhammad Ibn Ishaq, in his The Prophet‟s Biography
[Kitab As-Sirah], said that the first to quit Yemen before the Sail
Al-‗Arim (the flood released from the dam) was Amr Ibn ‗Amir
Al-Lukhami. Lukhami was the son of ‗Adyi Ibn Al-Harith Ibn
Murrah Ibn Azd Ibn Zaid Ibn Muha‘ Ibn ‗Amr Ibn ‗Uraib Ibn
Yashjub Ibn Zaid Ibn Kahlan Ibn Saba‘.

Ibn Ishaq said that he was told by Abu Zaid Al-Ansari that Amr
Ibn ‗Amir Al-Lukhami saw a rat digging beneath the dam of
Ma‘rab and realized that the dam would not stand long.

However, he tricked his people by ordering his youngest son to


slap him on the face before the people. The son did as he was
ordered and ‗Amr said: ―I will never live in a place where my
youngest son slapped me on the face.‖ And he offered to sell his
property. The noblemen of Yemen seized the opportunity of
‗Amr‘s rage and bought all his property. Hence, he moved along
with his children and their offspring. The Azd said: ―We will not
leave ‗Amr Ibn ‗Amir,‖ so they sold their properties and
accompanied him in his fleeing (without knowing his real
intentions). They arrived at the land of `Ak who fought against
them. Finally, they departed from the land of ‗Ak and dispersed
in the lands. Ibn Jafnah Ibn ‗Amr Ibn ‗Amir went to Sham
(Syria), Al-Aus and Al-Khazraj went to Yathrib (Al-Madinah Al-
Munawwarah), Khuza‘ah went to Marran, Azd As-Sarah went to
As-Sarah, and Azd ‗Amman went to ‗Amman.

Then Allah the Almighty sent the flood against the dam and it
collapsed. The Glorious Qur‘an bears witness to this incident.
As narrated by As-Sadi and later stated by Muhammad Ibn
Ishaq, ‗Amr Ibn `Amir was a priest. Others said that his wife was
Tarifah Bint Al-Khair Al-Himyariyah and that she was a
priestess. It was she who foretold the destruction of their country
as they saw an indication in the rat, and hence they moved away.
Allah knows best! His whole story was mentioned in the Exegesis
on the authority of `Ikriamh after Ibn Abu Hatim. However, not
all the people of Saba‘ moved from Yemen after the collapsing of
the dam, but the majority stayed there. Only the people of the
Dam (Ma‘rab) went away and dispersed in the land.
324
It is stated in the Hadith, that was narrated by `Abdullah Ibn
`Abbas, that the majority of the Yemenites did not move from
Yemen. Only four tribes quitted but six tribes stayed. They
continued to live there and kept their rule – for about seventy
years – till they were deprived of their own self-rule by the army
sent by the Negus under the command of Abraha and Aryat.
Then, it was regained by Saif Ibn Dhi Yazan AI-Himyari shortly
before Prophet Muhammad‘s birth. Then, Allah‘s Prophet (Peace
be upon him) sent to Yemen `Ali Ibn Abu Talib and Khalid Ibn
Al-Walid, then Abu Musa Al- Ash`ari and Mu`adh Ibn Jabal to
invite the people to embrace Islam. Al- Aswad Al-`Ansi seized
the Yemen and drove out the deputies of Allah‘s Messenger
(S.A.W.S). During the era of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq, Al-Aswad Al-
`Ansi was killed and the Muslims had the upper hand in Yemen.

Lessons and Reflection

1. The Day of Resurrection is sure to come for Almighty


Allah's Judgment to reward the believers and punish the
disbelievers.

2. Those who do not believe in the hereafter are doomed.

3. The mountains and birds used to sing Allah's praises with


the Prophet Dawud (a). Almighty God made iron pliable
for Daud (a) and commanded him to make chain mail and
armour from it.

4. Almighty Allah subjected the winds and Jinns to the


Prophet Sulaiman (a). The jinn worked for Sulaiman (a)
making palaces, statues, water fountains and other
amazing things. If they disobeyed, Lord almighty
punished them severely.

5. Intercession before Almighty Allah can not avail anyone


except for whom He permits.

325
6. Muhammad (s) is sent as a Rasool for the whole of
mankind.

7. Wealth and children are a test to whom they are given.

8. Whatever one spends in charity, Allah (swt) will provide


blessings in full both here and hereafter.

9. The truth has come; falsehood neither originates nor


restores anything.

10. On the Day of Judgment disbelievers will wish that they


were believers.

326
35. Surah Fatir (The Originator; The Creator; The
Origantor of Creation)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Fatir In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

This Surah is also named, ―Al Malayika‖ – the angels. Both words
(Al Fatir and Al Malyika) appear in the 1st ayah. ―Fatir‖ is one of
the attributes of Allah (swt) which means, ―the originator‖. This
Surah has 45 ayats and 5 Ruku‘ (Section).
In this Surah Allah (swt) warns the non-believers on their
negative attitude towards Islam and Prophet Muhammad (s).
The basic message is also explained to them.

Revelation

This is a Makki Surah. The internal evidence found in the style of


the Surah suggests revealed sometimes in the middle period of
Prophet's (s) residence in Makkah. At that time the antagonism
had grown quite strong to frustrate the mission of Prophet
Muhammad (s).

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Almighty Allah's creative power and His angels. None can


stop the mercy of Allah (swt). Be aware of Shaitan.

2. The success of the truth over falsehood will surely come.

3. Almighty Allah has power to remove men and bring


another group in their place. Every people had a Warner.

4. The true believers in the sight of Allah (swt).

5. Almighty Allah's plan cannot be changed or altered. Allah


(swt) gives time to people to repent.

327
Subject Matter of the Surah

Allah (swt) mentions the wings of the angels in the first ayah. His
power is confirmed and contrasted with the powerlessness of
idols. The polytheists of Makkah claimed these to be Allah‘s
daughters and so they worshipped them in the form of statues.
Angels are a creation of Allah (swt), and have been employed by
Him; to perform various tasks but they have no power of their
own.

Although Surah Fatir was primarily addressed to the disbelievers


of Makkah, it stands as an open invitation to all generations of
people, of all times, to look around carefully and use their
intellect to understand that there is no basis for ―shirk‖
(associating partners with Allah) and that there is no being
besides Allah, which might possess divine attributes and powers.
Thus, in this Surah Allah (swt) warns the non-believers on their
negative attitude towards Islam and Prophet Muhammad (s).

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 7): None can withhold or award blessings besides Allah


(swt). Shaitan is the enemy of human: so they better consider
him as such.

Ayats (8 - 14): That person, who considers his evil deeds to be


good, cannot be guided to the Right Path. Let all those who are
seeking honour know that real honour is in the obedience of
Almighty Allah. Allah (swt) has created water, day, night, the sun
and the moon, all for man's benefit. Deities besides Almighty
Allah can neither hear, nor response. They do not own even
equal to a thread of a date-stone.

Ayats (15 - 26): Mankind is in need of Almighty Allah, while


He is not in need of any one. The living and the dead are not
alike. One cannot make those who are buried in the grave hear
him/her.

Ayats (27 - 37): Those who recite the Qur'an, establish Salah
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(prayer) and give charity may hope for Allah's (swt) blessings
and rewards. A painful punishment in the hellfire forever has
been prepared for the disbelievers.

Ayats (38 - 45): Almighty Allah has not sent any Book which has
a provision of Shirk (worshipping anyone else besides Almighty
Allah). Plotting evil recoils none but the author of it. If Allah
(swt) was to punish people for their wrong doings, He would
have not left even an animal around.

Virtue of the Surah

Abu Hamza al-Thumal recorded from a parchment containing a


speech on asceticism given by Imam Ali ibn Husayn Zayn al-
Abidin in which the following verse from Surah Fatir was
referenced: (35:28)"Those truly fear Allah, among His Servants
who have knowledge: for Allah is Exalted in Might, Oft-
Forgiving." Concerning this ayah, Zayn al-Abidin comments that
the knowledge by Allah, and the deeds are nothing but two
harmonious matters. The one who recognizes Allah fears him,
and the fear urges him to the deeds in obedience to Allah; the
heads of knowledge follow him, recognize Allah, and strive to do
good deeds. [Kitab al-Kafi]

Excuse of Not Being able to do Taubah

They will cry out in Hell and say: ―Our Lord, let us out so that we
may act righteously, different from what we did before.‖ (They
will be told): ―Did we not grant you an age long enough for
anyone to take heed if he had wanted to take heed? 1 Besides,
there came a warner to you. So have a taste of the torment now.
None may come to the help of the wrong-doers.‖ (35:37)

1. This implies every such age of life in which a person may be


able to distinguish between good and evil, truth and falsehood, if
he likes to, and turn to right guidance instead of deviation, if
he/she wishes. If a person has died before attaining such an age,
he/she will not be called to any account according to this ayah.
However, the one who has attained this age will certainly be held
329
answerable for his actions. Then, as long as he/she lives after
attaining this age and gets more and more opportunities for
choosing and adopting the right path, his/her responsibility also
will increase accordingly; so much so that the one who does not
adopt right guidance even in old age will have no chance left for
making any excuse. This same thing has been reported by Abu
Hurairah and Sahl bin Saad as-Saidi in a Hadith, saying: The one
who lives a short life has an excuse to offer, but there is no room
for making an excuse for him/her who lives for 60 years or
more.‖ (Bukhari Ahmad, Nasai, Ibn Jarir, Ibn Abi
Hatim)

Lessons and Reflection

1. The many blessings of Allah upon His creatures in this


world: Allah (swt) sends down rain from the sky and from
it the earth brings forth fruits and vegetables and plant
life. The mountains are made up of streaks and tracts of
various hues and colors. Humankind and animals are also
made up of different colours, shades and hues. Those who
have knowledge stand in awe of God Almighty. Those who
recite from the Book, establish the prayer and give
generously from what God Almighty has provided them
with should expect a reward that does not perish.

2. The greatest of blessing is the sending the Revelation to


the Messenger: The Qur‘an is the truth and it confirms the
scriptures that came before it. Lord Almighty has given
the Qur‘an as an inheritance for those He has chosen. The
believers will enter Paradise and they will praise God.
However, those who reject the truth will be in the Hellfire
where they will never find relief. They will cry out to be
given another chance but they have already had many
chances.

3. Shaitan is men‘s enemy, so one should take him as such:


by Allah told (swt) Prophet Muhammad (s) not to be upset
330
if the people call him a liar and deny him. Many
messengers before him were treated in this way. Then
Almighty Allah addresses the people saying that His
promise is true and warning them not to be deceived by
Shaitan who is the great Deceiver. Shaitan is the enemy of
men, so one should treat him as an enemy. He only wants
us to follow him into the Fire.

4. Real honour is in being obedient to Almighty Allah: All


praises belong to Allah (swt). He is the one who created
the heaven and the earth. He also created angels, with
two, four, or six pairs of wings, to be His messengers.
Almighty God creates whatever He pleases. When He
wants to give blessings no one can withhold them but if
He wants to withhold His blessings no one is able to
release them. Almighty Allah graces us with the
sustenance of food provision when we require out of His
mercy we cannot create them but seek for them. Why
should we be deluded about this matter?

5. Mankind is in need of Allah while He is not in need of


anyone: Humankind needs God Almighty but He does not
need us. He is free of all wants or needs. If Allah (swt) so
desired He could destroy us and replace us with a new
creation. No one can carry another person‘s burden.
Prophet Muhammad (s) is only able to warn those who
already fear their Lord and establish the prayer. Those
who purify themselves do so for their own benefit, not to
benefit Lord Almighty.

6. No one can make those who are buried in the grave hear
him/her: The seeing and the blind are not the same, nor
are darkness and light, or heat and shade. The living and
the dead are not equal. Prophet Muhammad (s) is a
warner who has been sent with the truth. Every
331
community was sent a warner, and many of them were
called liars even though they came with clear signs,
scriptures and enlightening revelations.

7. Almighty Allah has not sent any Book which has a


provision of shirk (worshipping anyone else besides
Allah): Allah (swt) who created humankind; first from
dust and then from a drop of fluid. He made us into pairs,
and no female conceives or gives birth without His
knowledge. And no person grows old or has his/her life
cut short except that it is in accordance with what is
written in Almighty God‘s record. There are two bodies of
water but they are not alike. One is sweet and pleasant to
drink but the other is salty and bitter. From both of those
two bodies of water we can extract food and ornaments.
And the ships move through them. Allah (swt) makes the
night and the day and they merge into each other, and the
sun and the moon rise and fall at appointed times. The
things one worship other than God Almighty cannot even
control something as small as the skin on a date stone. If
they invoke them they would not hear and if they heard
they would not respond. And on the Day of Judgment
theywill deny them.

8. Plotting evil recoils none but the author of it: Evil plots
only entrap the plotters. All power belongs to Lord
Almighty and a severe torment belongs to those who plot
and plan. Their plans will come to nothing. Muhammad
(s) is told he would not be able to guide the people whose
evil deeds are made alluring to them. The truth is that God
Almighty chooses who will be guided and who will be left
to wander in the dark, so better not feel regret. Allah (swt)
is aware of everything they do. He is the one who revives
the earth with winds and clouds after it has been dead; in
much the same way the Resurrection will take place.
332
9. If Almighty Allah was to punish people for their wrong
doing, He would have not left even an animal around
them: Disbelievers of Makkah swore that if a warner came
to them they would have believed. The warner did come
but they treated him with hostility. Are they waiting for
the same end as the end that came to previous more
superior nations? Allah‘s (swt) methods have not changed.
If God Almighty were to punish the people for their sins,
there would not be a single person left on the planet. But
He gives them respite, and on the Day of Resurrection
mankind will be brought to account. Each person will be
rewarded or punished according to what they did.

10. The person who considers his/her evil deeds to be good


deeds cannot be guided to the right path: Allah (swt)
knows the unseen and all our secrets. We forget that He
made us vicegerent on this planet. We are a representative
of God Almighty and should act accordingly. Those who
deny the truth will bear the consequences. Have we
thought about those who invoke others besides Lord
Almighty? What have they created? Do they have a Book?
No, they do not; their promises are delusions. It is Lord
Almighty who holds the heavens and the earth together. If
they should slip no one could hold them in place except
Almighty Allah.

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36. Surah Ya Sin
Concise Tafseer of Surah Ya Sin In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of the Surah appears in the first ayah with Arabic
letters, ―‫( ‖يس‬yā sīn) which called as Muqatta‘at (meaning,
"disconnected" or "mysterious"). Out of the 114 Surahs of the
Qur‘an, 29 Surahs are figuring with this type beginning just after
the Bismillah. The letters are also known as fawātiḥ (‫ )ف اتح‬or
"openers" as they form the opening ayah of their respective
Surahs. The Surah has 83 ayats and 5 Ruku‘ (Section).

The Surah explains some of the basic beliefs of Islam, especially


the belief in life after death and the Akhirah.

Revelation

A study of the style shows that it was either sent down during the
last stage of the middle Makki period, or it is one of those Surahs
which were sent down during the last stage of the Prophet‘s stay
at Makkah.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The truth of the Qur'an and the truth of Prophet


Muhammad (s).

2. Allah's messengers were sent to other people. The


response of those to whom the prophets were sent and the
result of their denial.

3. Allah's (swt) signs in nature to remind about the day of


Resurrection.

4. The scenes of the day of Resurrection.

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5. Reminders about death and the Day of Judgment.

Subject Matter of the Surah

Like all Makki Surahs, Surah Ya Sin focuses primarily on the


belief in the Oneness of God Almighty and the consequences of
either believing or disbelieving in that basic principle. There are
three main themes of this Surah: Tawhid, the oneness of God;
Risala, that Muhammad is a messenger sent by God to guide His
creations through divine revelation; and the reality of Akhirah,
the Last Judgment.

The Surah focuses on establishing the Qur'an as a divine source,


and it warns of the fate of those who mock Almighty God's
revelations and are stubborn. The Surah tells of the punishments
that plagued past generations of nonbelievers as a warning to
present and future generations. Additionally, the Surah reiterates
Almighty Allah's sovereignty as exemplified by His creations
through signs from nature.

Various signs of Allah, in nature, including scientific facts, which


were only recently discovered, unknown to man during the time
of the Prophet Muhammad (s) are indicated. Surah Ya Sin has
many short ayats and its recitation with short pauses is very
emotional.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 12): The Qur'an is revealed by Allah (swt) to warn


people. The Prophet (s) is told that he could warn only those
people who have the fear of Almighty Allah.

Ayats (13 – 32): The example of three Prophets who were sent to
a town; all the people denied them except one man who came
from across the town. Almighty Allah blessed the man who
believed with Paradise and destroyed the disbelievers.

Ayats (33 - 50): Allah (swt) has created all things in pairs. The
day, night, sun and moon; all are being regulated by Almighty
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Allah. The depiction of disbeliever's attitude towards spending in
the way of Allah is noted.

Ayats (51 - 67): A scene from the Day of Judgment. Allah's


greeting to the residents of Paradise. How Almighty Allah will
address to the criminal sinners is mentioned. On the Day of
Judgment, hands and feet shall testify.

Ayats (68 - 83): The Qur'an is to warn those who are alive and to
establish charge against the disbelievers. Allah (swt), who has
created man, shall give him life again for accountability on the
Day of Judgment.

Virtue of the Surah

Ya Sin is also one of the names of the Prophet Muhammad (s), as


reported in a saying of Ali (ra), ―I heard the Messenger of Allah
say, ‗ Verily Allah has named me by seven names in the Qur‘an:-
Muhammad (3:144; 33:40; 47:2; 48:29), Ahmad (61:6), Ta Ha
[20:1], Ya Sin (36:1), al-Muzzammil (the enshrouded one; 73:1),
al-Muddassir (cloaked one; 74:1), and Abdullah (servant of
Allah; 72:19). [Tafsir al-Jalalayn]
Narrated Anas: that the Messenger of Allah (‫ )ﷺ‬said: "Indeed
for everything there is a heart, and the Qur'an's heart is Ya Sin.
Whoever recites Ya Sin, then for its recitation, Allah writes for
him that he recited the Qur'an ten times." [Tirmidhi, Vol. 5,
Book 42, Hadith 2887]

Ma‘qil ibn Yasar (radiyallahu‘anhu) reports that Rasulullah


(sallallahu‘alayhi wasallam) said: ―Surah Yasin is the heart of the
Qur‘an. When anyone who intends the Akhira recites it Allah will
forgive him. Recite it upon your deceased.‖ [Sunan Abi
Dawud - Imam Hakim has classified this tradition as
sahih (authentic); Mustadrak Hakim vol.1 pg.565 – see
al-Targhib vol.2 pg.376]

Sayyiduna Jundub ibn ‗Abdullah (radiyallahu‘anhu) narrates


that Rasulullah (sallallahu‘alayhi wasallam) said, ―Whoever

336
recites Surah Yasin at night seeking the pleasure of Allah, His
sins will be forgiven.‖ Muwatta Imam Malik, Sahih ibn Hibban
vol.6 pg.312 (see al-Targhib vol.2 pg.377) A similar narration is
reported by Sayyiduna Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu‘anhu) and has
been recorded by Imam Abu Ya‘ala in his Musnad. Hafiz Ibn
Kathir has classified its chain of narrators as good (jayyid).
[Tafsir ibn Kathir vol.3 pg.570]

Jundub ibn Abdullah narrates that the Messenger of Allah said,


"Whoever recites Surah Ya Sin in the night seeking the pleasure
of Allah will be forgiven." [Saheeh ibn Hibban no. 2574]

Imam Ahmad has narrated in his Musnad from Safwan that, ‗The
scholars use to say that when it is recited by the deceased, Allah
creates ease for him/her.‘ [See Tafsir ibn Kathir vol.3
pg.571]

Who are the Messengers to Antioch in Surat Ya Sin


36:13-15?

"Recite to them, as a case in point, the story of the people of the


town when the Messengers came to them. We sent to them two
Messengers and they rejected both of them as liars. Then We
strengthened them with a third (Messenger). They said: 'We have
been sent to you as Messengers.' The people of the town said:
'You are only human beings like ourselves, and the Merciful Lord
has revealed nothing. You are simply lying.' " (Surat Ya Sin
36:13-15)

"The town" has not been clearly defined in the Qur'an nor in any
authentic Hadith. The identity of the messengers or the time
when they sent is also not known through any authentic Hadith.
The people of `Ad had said the same about the Prophet Hud:
"This person is no more than a human being like yourselves, for
he eats of what you eat and drinks of what you drink. Now if you
submit to a human being like yourselves, you will indeed be the
losers. ―(AI-Mu'minun: 33-34)

The people of Thamud also said the same about the 'Prophet
337
Salih: `Shall we follow a man from among ourselves?" (AI-
Qamar: 24). And the same thing happened with almost every
Prophet that the disbelievers said: "You are no more than a
human being like ourselves," and the Prophets always replied: It
is true that we are no more than human beings like you, but
Allah SWT shows His favour to anyone of His servants He
pleases." (Ibrahim: 10-11)

Ibn Ishaq cites Ibn Abbas, according to what had been narrated
through Ka‘ab Al-Ahbar, and Wahb Ibn Munabbah: "It is
Antioch city, which had a king named Antiochus Ibn Antiochus
Ibn Antiochus, and he used to worship idols. Then Allah SWT
sent him three messengers called: Sadiq, Sadouq and Shalom.
But the king belied them. This was also narrated by Buraida Ibn
Al-Khasib, ‗Ikrimah, Qatadah, and Az-Zuhri, all said "it was
Antioch" (Ibn Kathir)

Ibn Kathir goes on to say "And from what has preceded, and
according to many of our salaf, this village is Antioch, and that
these three were messengers of 'Isa (pbuh)", but he raises these
objections: 1) the simple reading is that these were Messengers of
Allah's SWT, not of Isa' (pbuh) 2) in this verse the messengers
are rejected and the town punished, which doesn't appear to
have happened to Antioch after the time of the 'Isa (pbuh). 3)
After the revelation of the Torah, Allah SWT required believers
not only to warn idolaters, but to fight them (which we don't see
by the disciples).

Also it can be noted that during 'Isa's (pbuh) time, the Romans
controlled Antioch, and there had been no Seleucid king there
since 65 BCE. Unlike the city in our ayah, Antioch eagerly
accepted the message of Christianity and thrived as a city.
Further ahaddith provide additional details:
Salmah Ibn Al-Fadl reported that Muhammad Ibn Ishaq told
him when they were discussing Ya-Sin chapter 36 of the Noble
Qur'an and through a chain of narrators; Ibn Abbas, from Ka'ab,
from Wahb Ibn Munabbah, say that it was a man from Antioch
people, and his name was Habib, his craft was weaving silk, and
he was a sick man; leprosy spread in his body. He lived in a
338
house nearby the city doors where he conducted his trading
business; he was a charitable righteous person. He used to earn
his living, split his earnings, gives half of it to his children and
the rest to charity. There used to live a Pharaoh in this same city
of Habib, and his name was Antiochus Ibn Antiochus. He used to
worship idols; he was a polytheist. Allah SWT sent his three
messengers for this Pharaoh; they were called Sadik, Masdouk
and Shalom. Allah SWT sent the first two messengers and when
the Pharaoh belied them Allah re-enforced them with a third.
(Mohamed Ibn Isacc Narration)

Al-Rbee‘ Ibn Anas narrated from Abul-‗Aliya about Allah's SWT


saying " tell them the example of the peoples of the town when
the messengers were sent to them, and when we sent them two
whom they denied, then we reinforced them with a third
messenger " chapter 36.13: To strengthen the proof of their
denial for the messengers Allah SWT sent a third. When they
approached the village people, they called them to monotheism,
but they denied them, so they approached a man who lived in a
farm, he then asked them who are you? They answered that they
are Allah's SWT messengers, they are sent for the people of this
village to invite them to monotheism, so he asked them: are you
getting paid for doing this? They said no. So he threw what he
had in his hand and accompanied them. He then approached the
city people and said: "O my people! Follow those who have been
sent! Minded (of the truth)? Nay, but ye are froward folk. Follow
those who ask of you no fee, and who are rightly guided" (Al-
Rabee‟ Ibn Anas)

Some historical details:


During the times of the Seleucid kings, who all styled themselves
with the title Antiochus, there was a monotheistic "missionary"
movement headed by the Jewish High Priest Shimon Ha Saddik -
grandson of the High Priest Yehoshua - and his children also
called Onias and Shimon with the honorary titles Saddik and
Sadok. Seleucus I Nicator made the Jews citizens in those cities
which he built in Asia, and in the lower Syria, and in the
metropolis itself, Antioch. He granted them privileges equal to
those of the Macedonians and Greeks, honours that lasted well
339
into Roman times. His grandson married the Bernice, the
daughter of Ptolemy II. Thus Antiochus III the Great was the
first Seleucid king that could be called a "Pharaoh" (his grandson
Antiochus IV actually conquered Egypt). His son, Seleucus IV
Philopator defrayed all the expenses connected with the
sanctuary and was friendly to the Jews. He invited the High
Priests to teach in Antioch and other cities in the kingdom. All of
these High Priests followed the teachings of their ancestor,
Yehoshua the High Priest who lived during the time of the
Prophet Zecharias (pbuh).

Conclusion: It is possible that both the early and later


commentaries are correct. These are not the disciples 'Isa (pbuh)
but the "disciples" of the High Priest Yehoshua, which is the
same name as Jesus. All of these High Priest bore the title of
their ancestors Saddik and Sadok. Under the patronage of the
Antiochus III the Great, who was Antiochus son of Antiochus son
of Antiochus and a "Pharaoh", and his son Seleucus IV
Philopator, the Jewish High Priests were invited to preach
monotheism in the Seleucid kingdom. They invited the High
Priests Onias III (185-175 BCE, murdered 170 BCE in Daphne,
near Antioch), Simon/Jason (175-172 BCE, died in Sparta), and
Onias/Menelaus (171-161 BCE, executed in Antioch). These High
Priest were known for their silk robes. (Menahot 109a) Although
invited to speak in Antioch, the population would not abandon
idol worship. Even the king was more interested in their tax
revenue than their preaching. Twelve years after Antiochus V
Eupator executed Menelaus, in 148 BCE, the city of Antioch
suffered a great earthquake that did immense damage and
flattened the town. [Courtesy:
https:/www.facebook.com/notes/ben-
abrahamson/who-are-the-messengers-to-antioch-in-
surat-ya-sin-3613-15/200593079966740/]

Lessons and Reflection

1. The Qur‘an is revealed by Allah (swt) to warn people and


establish a charge-sheet against the disbelievers: Almighty
God swears by the wise Qur‘an that Prophet Muhammad
340
(s) is indeed a messenger on the straight path sent to warn
those who are unaware. The Qur‘an is full of wisdom, and
those who do not follow its guidance are indeed
unfortunate. However only those who believe in God
Almighty and fear His punishment will take heed of the
warning. Almighty Allah keeps a clear record of
everything.

2. Everything here on this samawat is created and regulated


by Allah (swt): Almighty Allah gives life to the lifeless
earth. There is produce and springs of fresh water. They
have not produced these things themselves so why are
they not grateful. All glory is for God Almighty who
created all species in pairs, and humankind itself and
many other things that humankind knows nothing about.
It is Almighty Allah who strips away the daylight
transitioning day into night. The sun runs on a fixed
course and the moon waxes and wanes according to
Almighty God‘s command. The sun does not reach the
moon and the night does not overtake the day as Lord
Almighty has determined the course on which they run.

3. Scenes from the Day of Judgment: The people will ask


who has raised us from our sleeping place (generally
agreed to be the grave) and they will be told that this is the
promise made to them by the Most Merciful (God
Almighty) and what the messengers warned about. It will
be but one single blast and lo and behold, all of
humankind will be brought before God Almighty. On that
Day no one will be wronged, everyone will be
recompensed for what they did; all will be repaid for their
deeds.

4. Allah's greetings to the residents of Paradise: The people


of Paradise will be rewarded handsomely; they will be
341
with their spouses seated on couches in the shade. They
will have therein all kinds of fruits and whatever they wish
for. And in addition to this their Lord will greet them with
"peace".

5. Allah's address to the criminal sinners: After


distinguishing disbelievers from the ranks of the believers
on the Day of Judgment God Almighty will address, "Did I
not enjoin upon you, O children of Adam, that you not to
worship Shaitan – for he is a clear enemy to you. And that
you worship [only] Me?" This is a straight path, says
Almighty God and he (Satan) has led great numbers of
you astray, could you not use your reason to see this? The
disbelievers are told to enter Hellfire because of what they
denied and refused to believe and because they refused to
heed Almighty God‘s commands. Almighty Allah will seal
their mouths but their hands and feet will speak and bear
witness to all.

6. All human beings shall be raised back to life again on the


Day of Judgment for accountability of their deeds:
Humankind seems to forget their origin so Almighty God
reminds us that we were created from a drop of fluid. Yet
even then they dispute openly asking who could give life
back to bones after they have decayed? Almighty God says
that the One who gave them life in the first place will bring
them back; it is only He who has knowledge of every act of
creation. It is He who produced fire so that humankind
can benefit from it; it is He who created the heavens and
the earth so is it not then easy for Him to bring back the
people? Of course it is! When God wills something to be,
He says "Be" and it is. All glory belongs to Almighty Allah,
who controls everything and it is to Him that humankind
will be resurrected.

342
7. The Qur‘an is a warning, a gauge between right and
wrong: Allah (swt) could have left humankind without
guidance but because of His mercy he did not. They could
have been left blind without the means to see, or
deformed without the means to move either forward or
backward but He did not. Prophet Muhammad (s) is not a
poet; he was not given mere poetry; rather, he was given a
clear book of guidance, the Qur‘an. Out of the many
blessings Lord Almighty has bestowed upon us: livestock.
He created it for our general use, to be used as a means of
transportation, for food and milk, and for other benefits.
Instead of giving thanks to Lord Almighty for this
blessing, the disbelievers have taken other deities besides
Him for worship and even call upon them for help but
they cannot help! The Qur'an does not benefit except
those who are alive, "To warn whoever is alive and justify
the word against the disbelievers." (36:70)

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37. Surah As-Saffat (Those who set the ranks; Those
Lined Up; Those Ranged in Rows; The Rangers)
Concise Tafseer of Surah As-Saffat In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of the Surah appears in the first ayah, "By those lined
up in rows." (37:1). This Surah is the first Surah in the Qur‘an
which begins with an oath by Saaffat, a group of angels who are
in array to perform the command of Allah (swt). Three groups
are mentioned in the form of an oath confirming Almighty
Allah‘s Oneness. The first are angels standing in rows, the second
are the angels that reprimand and thirdly those angels that recite
Allah‘s (swt) words. The Surah has 182 ayats in 5 Ruku‘
(Section).

Revelation

The subject matter shows that this Surah was probably sent
down in the middle or last stage of the middle of Makki period.
This was the time when the Prophet (s) and his companions (ra)
were passing through very difficult and unfavourable
circumstances.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The Lord of the heaven and earth is one God. The mockers
at the Prophet of God Almighty will one day see the truth.
The Day of Judgment will dawn suddenly.

2. The guilty shall be punished and virtuous will be


rewarded.

3. Allah delivered Prophet Nuh (a) from his enemies.


Prophet Ibrahim's (a) encounter with idolatry. The test of
Prophet Ibrahim (a). His willingness to sacrifice his son.
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4. How Allah (swt) delivered Prophets Musa (a), Harun (a),
Ilyas (a) and Lut (a) and punished their enemies.

5. How Prophet Yunus (a) was delivered from the belly of the
whale. Angels are not Almighty Allah's daughters; they are
Allah's (swt) servants. Allah's messengers will succeed.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The disbelievers of Makkah are warned of their mockery and


derision to Almighty God‘s message of Monotheism (Tawhid)
and the Hereafter, and their refusal to acknowledge the Prophet
Muhammad (s). The Surah affirms his Prophet-hood and refutes
pagan beliefs. The Oneness of Almighty Allah, and the certainty
of the Day of Judgment is stressed to provide warnings to the
non-believer.

The Surah deals with the subject of angels and jinns, and the
stories of Prophets - Nuh (a), Ibrahim (a), Musa (a), Harun (a),
Ilyas (a) and Yunus (a), to show us how peace and victory came
by these Prophets, against their conflict against evil.
In the end the disbelievers have been plainly warned that the
Prophet, whom they are mocking and ridiculing, will overwhelm
them in spite of their power and wealth and they will find the
army of Lord Almighty encamping in the very courtyards of their
houses.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 – 21): Almighty Allah testifies that He is the one


Almighty and that shaitans do not have an access to the exalted
assembly of angels. Life in the Hereafter and the Day of
Judgment are real.

Ayats (22 - 74): A scene from the Day of Judgment and a treat for
the wrongdoers. A dialogue between the followers and the
leaders is included here. A scene from the scenes of Paradise is
depicted here. An example of conversation of a resident of
Paradise is presented. A scene from the scenes of Hell has been
345
vividly portrait.

Ayats (75 - 113): The Prophet Nuh (a) prayed and Almighty Allah
responded to his prayers. The story of the Prophet Ibrahim (a),
"The Friend of Allah" is here. The Prophet Ibrahim (a) was asked
to offer his only son in sacrifice as a test and he fulfilled it.

Ayats (114 - 138): Allah bestowed His favours on Prophets Musa


(a) and Harun (a). Ilyas (a) [Elias] was one of the Rasools of
Almighty Allah. Lut (a) was also a Rasool of Allah (swt).

Ayats (139 - 182): Story of the Prophet Yunus (a) [Jonah].


Describing his fall in the ocean and how Allah (swt) saved him by
making him swallowed by a big fish. Mushrik's claim of Angels
being daughters of Allah and Jinns having blood relations with
Allah are utterly false. Almighty Allah has promised to help His
Rasools and His devotees.

Virtue of the Surah

Angels in Ranks Obeying the Command of Allah

(37:1) By those who range themselves in rows;


(37:2) by those who reprove severely,
(37:3) and those who recite the Exhortation;1

1. The majority of the commentators agree that all these three


groups imply the groups of the angels, and the same explanation
of it has been reported from Abdullah bin Masud, Ibn Abbas,
Qatadah, Masruq Said bin Jubair, Ikrimah, Mujahid, Suddi, Ibn
Zaid and Rabi bin Anas. Some commentators have given other
commentaries also, but this commentary is more in keeping with
the context. The words ―range in ranks‖ refers to the fact that all
the angels who arc administering the affairs of the universe, are
the humble servants of Allah, and are ever ready to carry out any
service and implement any of His commands. This theme has
been further repeated in [(ayah - 37:165: Verily we range our-
selves in rows (as humble servants)], where the angels say with
regard to themselves: ―We are the ranged servants (of Allah).‖
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As for ―drive away with strength‖, some commentators think that
it refers to those angels who drive the clouds and arrange the
rainfall. Although this meaning is not incorrect either, the
meaning which is more relevant to the following context is that
among these angels there is also a group of those, who scold and
curse the disobedient people and the culprits, and this scolding
and cursing is not merely verbal but it rains on human beings in
the form of natural disasters and calamities.
―To recite the reminder‖ implies that among these angels there
are also those, who perform the service of admonition in order to
draw the people‘s attention to the truth. This, they do by bringing
about natural calamities from which the heedful take heed, and
by bringing down the teachings to the Prophets, and in the form
of revelations with which the pious men are blessed through
them. [Tafhimul Qur‟an]

An-Nasa'i recorded that `Abdullah bin `Umar, may Allah be


pleased with him, said, "The Messenger of Allah used to
command us to make our prayers short and he used to recite As-
Saffat when he lead us in prayer.'' This was recorded by An-
Nasa'i only. [Tafsir Ibn Kathir]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Allah Himself testifies that men‘s Lord is one and the


shaitans do not have any access to the exalted assembly of
angels: Allah (swt) Himself verifies His Oneness that He is
the Lord of the heavens and the earth, and all that is in-
between including every point from which the sun rises.
God Almighty has fortified the sky closest to the earth
with celestial bodies that guard against the devils who try
to eavesdrop on the conversations of the angels. They are
attacked from all sides with flaming meteors.

2. Life in the hereafter and the Day of Judgment are real:


The happiness and bliss that Almighty God‘s true servants
will experience in the gardens of delight is described,

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including flowing rivers of wine and beautiful
companions. The inhabitants of Paradise will converse
with each other. One person will ask about a friend who
did not believe and will be able to see him in the midst of
the Fire. To contrast the difference between Paradise and
Hell, Almighty Allah asks what is better this (the Gardens
of Delight) or the Zaqqum tree? This tree growing devils‘
heads in the midst of the Fire will be the food of those in
Hell together with scalding water to drink. The
disbelievers made fun of a tree growing in a fire but it will
become their reality because they followed their
forefathers into disbelief even though they were warned.

3. Dialogue between the followers and the leaders who


mislead them: The angels are ordered to gather the
disbelievers and wrongdoers together and drive them
towards Hell. Along the way they will be questioned about
why they did not help each other towards the truth. The
disbelievers will accuse their deities who are also being
ushered along but they will deny any power over the
disbelievers. It does not matter because on this day they
will be partners in the punishment meted out. They
denied Lord Almighty and the message and will get what
they deserve.

4. Prayer of the Prophet Nuh (a) and Almighty Allah's


response: Prophet Nuh (a) is given as an example of how
well Allah (swt) rewards the righteous. Nuh (a) was a
believer and Almighty God saved him and his people from
great distress. The non-believers were warned but they
made the wrong choice, then they were drowned.

5. The Story of the Prophet Ibrahim: Prophet Ibrahim (a)


was a man of faith. One day, he asked his father and his
people why they worshipped false gods. When his people
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were going for the festival, Ibrahim (a) said he felt ill and
stayed behind. He went to their temple and asked the
carved gods questions - why do you not eat; why do you
not speak. They did not reply so he pushed them over.
Ibrahim‘s (a) people were angry and intended to burn him
in fire but God Almighty had a different plan and kept him
safe. Prophet Ibrahim (a) left trusting Almighty Allah to
guide him to a better place. He asked for more, a righteous
son which Almighty God provided. When the boy (Ismail)
was old enough to work with his father, Ibrahim (a) had a
troubling dream in which he was called upon to sacrifice
Ismail (a). He told his son about it, and they both were
willing to submit to Almighty God‘s will. When Ibrahim
(a) put Ismail upon the stone but Allah (swt) called out for
him to stop. It was a test and Ibrahim (a) passed it due to
his complete submission to Almighty God‘s command.
Ibrahim (a) is remembered by the following generations
as a righteous man. He was given news of another
righteous son called Ishaq - Isaac. The story of Ibrahim (a)
and the dream of him sacrificing his son is a demonstra-
tion that the Prophets are tested the most.

6. Risalat (Prophethood) of Musa, Haroon, Ilyas and Lut


(‗alaihimus salam): God Almighty favoured and supported
Prophet Musa (a) and his brother Harun (a). They too
were delivered from distress and guided on the straight
path. Almighty God gave them the Taurat (Torah).
Prophet Ilyas (a) was one of those devoted to Almighty
Allah. He questioned his people about the false god Ba‘l
but they ignored him and faced the consequences. Lut (a)
was another Prophet who was delivered from harm along
with his whole family, except his wife; she was left to face
the punishment with the wrongdoers. Their city is a
constant reminder but many people do not take heed.

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7. Story of Prophet Yunus a (Jonah): Prophet Yunus (a) fled
from his disbelieving people to an overloaded ship where
they drew lots in order to stay on board. Being swallowed
by a whale was his just punishment but he was delivered
from harm because he had been one of Almighty God‘s
devoted believers. He was cast ashore and Allah (swt)
protected him from the elements and a serious illness.
God Almighty then provided him with a large nation who
believed in him and they were permitted to live out their
lives.

8. Allah has promised to help His Rasools and His devotees:


The Prophet was instructed to question the disbelievers of
Makkah about whether they considered their own creation
to be more difficult or the creation of the heavens, earth
and all creation in the samawat. Previously the
disbelievers asked for a Messenger and said they would
follow the guidance, yet when the best Messenger and the
best revelation are sent to them they resort to disbelief.
But they will come to know and understand. Allah (swt)
assures Prophet Muhammad (s) that he will see their
downfall as sure as they will see his victory. Almighty God
is far above what they attribute to Him.

9. Superstitions regarding angels and jinns being denied by


Allah (swt): Many people from Makkah claimed that the
angels were the daughters of Lord Almighty. Allah (swt)
refutes this superstition. Next they claim that Lord
Almighty is akin to the jinn. How could this be possible
when the jinn themselves have to appear before Allah
(swt) and account for their deeds? Almighty Allah is far
above these superstitions and only those destined for the
Hellfire would believe such things.

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38. Surah Sad
Concise Tafseer of Surah Saad In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The Surah takes its name from the letter 'Sad' which is in the first
ayah, "Sad. By the Qur'an containing reminder..." (38:1). This
type of letter is called as Muqatta‘at (meaning, "disconnected" or
"mysterious"). Out of the 114 Surahs of the Qur‘an, 29 Surahs
are figuring with this type beginning just after the Bismillah. The
letters are also known as fawātiḥ (‫ )ف اتح‬or "openers" as they form
the opening ayah of their respective Surahs.

There is a requirement for prostration ((telawat-e-sujood) in


ayah 24 of Surah Saad. The Surah has 88 ayats and 5 Ruku‘
(Section).

Revelation

This Surah was sent down when Muhammad (s) started calling
people to Islam in Makkah according to some traditions. If this
true it was revealed in the 4th year of Prophethood. To some
other traditions this Surah was revealed after Umar (ra)
embraced Islam which happened after the migration to Habash
in about 5th year of Prophethood. Another chain of traditions
indicate that it was send down during the last illness of Abu
Talib, uncle of the Prophet, i.e. 10th or 11th year of Prophethood.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Warnings to the disbelievers. The arguments of the


disbelievers against the Qur'an and the Prophet (s). The
defeat of the disbelievers.

2. Remember Almighty Allah's servant Prophet Daud (a) -


David. Allah's (swt) blessings upon him. He was tested
and he turned to Almighty Allah.
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3. Allah's (swt) blessings upon Prophet Sulaiman (a) -
Solomon. He was also tested, but he repented and was
forgiven by Almighty Allah.

4. Allah (swt) tested Prophet Ayub (s) - Job and he was


rewarded for his patience. Remember Almighty Allah's
servants: Ibrahim (a) - Abraham, Ishaq (a) - Isaac, Yaqub
(a) - Jacob, Ismail (a) - Ishmael, al-Yasa‗(a) - Elisha and
Zulkifl (a) - Ezekeil. The warnings for the wicked.

5. There is only one God Almighty. The great message. Allah


(swt) created Adam (a), but Iblis became his enemy. He
vowed to mislead human beings. Almighty Allah's curse
came upon him and upon those who follow him.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah talks about the basic message of all the Prophets and
Messengers of Allah (the Lord Almighty). They came to preach
Tawhid. The Prophets suffered and went through a lot of
hardship in presenting Allah's message. Their enemies attacked
them and persecuted them, but then finally it was the truth that
prevailed and falsehood was defeated. Power and riches all come
from Almighty Allah.

Making the dialogue between the Prophet and the disbelievers


the basis, God Almighty says that the actual reason with those
people for their denial is not any defect in the message of Islam
but their own arrogance, jealousy and insistence on following the
blind. They are not prepared to believe in a man from their own
clan as a Prophet of Almighty God and follow
him. They want to persist in the ideas of ignorance which they
have found their ancestors following. And when a person exposes
this ignorance and presents the truth before them, they are
alarmed and regard it as an oddity, rather as a novel and
impossible thing.

Then describing nine of the Prophets, one after the other, Nuh
352
(a), Ibrahim (a), Lut (a), Musa (a), Harun (a), Ilyas (a), Ayyub (a)
and Yunus (a) with greater details of the story of the Prophets
Daud (a) and Sulaiman (a); God Almighty has emphasized the
point that His Law of Justice is impartial and objective, that only
the right attitude of man is acceptable to Him, that He calls to
account and punishes every wrongdoer.

In conclusion, mention has been made of the story of Adam (a)


and Shaitan (Iblis), which is meant to tell the disbelieving
Quraysh that the same arrogance and vanity which was
preventing them from bowing before Muhammad (s) had
prevented Shaitan also from bowing before Adam (a). Satan felt
jealous of the high rank Almighty Allah had given to Adam (a)
and became accursed when he disobeyed His Command.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 14): The Qur'an is full of admonition. Unbelievers are


in sheer arrogance for calling the Prophets, liars.

Ayats (15 - 26): The story of the Prophet Daud (a) with whom
mountains and birds used to sing the rhymes of Almighty Allah.
Here includes the story of the two petitioners who came to Daud
(a) for a decision.
Ayats (27 - 40): Allah (swt) has not created the heavens and the
earth in vain. The story of Sulaiman's (a) inspection of steeds to
be used in Jihad. The Prophet Sulaiman's (a) prayer of granting
him a kingdom, similar of which may not be granted to anyone
else.

Ayats (41 - 64): The story of Ayub (a) - Job, his sickness and
relief. The Qur'an is but a reminder about the reward of Paradise
and punishment of the hellfire.

Ayats (65 – 88): The mission of a Rasool is to warn people and


declare that there is no divinity except Almighty Allah. Mention
of the story of the creation of (a) Adam and disobedience of
Iblees (Shaitan).

353
Virtue of the Surah

A tradition narrated from the Prophet Muhammad (s) that he


said: Whoever recites Surah Saad, will Allah give him reward
as much as the weight of every mountain that Allah had
subjected it for David (as), and He protects him from persisting
in committing sins whether minor or major. [Majma„-ul-
Bayan]

Secret of Huroof Muqatta‟at in Surahs (Chapters) of


Quran

a. Three Surahs (Chapters) are pre-fixed with only one


letter:
1. Surah ‫ ص‬Sadh (The Letter ‫― ص‬Sadh‖) chapter 38 with ‫ص‬
Sadh
2.Surah ‫ ق‬Qaf (The Letter ‫― ق‬Qaf‖) chapter 50 with ‫ ق‬Qaf
3. Surah Al Qalam (The Pen) chapter 68 with‫ ن‬Noon

b. The combination of two letters occurs in 10 surahs:

Three of them occur only once each:


1. ‫ طه‬Ta Haa, Ch. 20 – Surah Taha (Ta Ha) (Prophet
Muhammad‘s (s) Name)
2. ‫ طس‬Ta Seen, Ch. 27 – Surah An Naml (The Ant)
3. ‫ يس‬Ya Seen, Ch. 36–Surah YaSeen (YaSeen) (Prophet
Muhammad‘s (s) Name)

‫ حم‬Ha Meem, occurs in seven consecutive Surahs 40-


46:

1. Ch. 40 – Surah Ghafir (The Forgiver)


2. Ch. 41 – Surah Fassilat (Explained in Detail)
3. Ch. 42 – Surah Ash Shura (The Consultation)
4. Ch. 43 – Surah Az Zukhruf (The Ornaments of Gold)
5. Ch. 44 – Surah Ad Dukhan (The Smoke)
6. Ch. 45 – Surah Al Jathiya (The Crouching)
7. Ch. 46 – Surah Al Ahqaf (The Wind-Curved Sandhills)

354
c. Thereare three combinations of three letters, each
occurring in 13 surahs.

‫ الم‬Alif Lam Meem, occurs in six surahs


1. Ch. 2 – Surah Al Baqara (The Cow)
2. Ch. 3 – Surah ‗Ali ‗Imran (Family of ‗Imran)
3. Ch. 29 – Surah al ‗Ankabut (The Spider)
4. Ch. 30 – Surah Ar Rum (The Romans),
5. Ch. 31 – Surah Luqman (Luqman)
6. Ch. 32 – Surah As Sajda (The Prostration)

‫ الر‬Alif Laam Ra, occurs in Five consecutive Surahs 10


– 15:
1. Ch. 10 – Surah Yunus (Jonah),
2. Ch. 11 – Surah Hud (Hud)
3. Ch. 12 – Surah Yusuf (Joseph)
4. Ch. 14 – Surah Ibrahim (Abraham)
5. Ch. 15 – Surah Al Hijr (The Rocky Tract)

‫ طسم‬Ta Seen Meem, occurs in twoSurahs:


Ch. 26 – Surah Ash Shu‘ara (The Poets)
Ch. 28 – Surah Al Qasas (The Stories)
d. Combination of four letters occurs twice:
‫ المص‬Alif Lam Meem Sadh, Ch. 7 – Surah al A‘raf (The
Heights)
‫ المر‬Alif Lam Meem Ra, Ch. 13 – Surah Ar Ra‘d(The
Thunder)

e. Combination of five letters occurs twice:


‫ كهيعص‬Kahf Haa Ya Ayn Sadh, Ch. 19 – Surah Maryam
(Mary)
‫ حمعسق‬Ha Meem Ayn Seen Qaf, Ch. 42 – Surah Ash
Shura (the Consultation)

SurahAl-Shura chapter 42 has a double combination of


abbreviated letters oneset of two letters followed by one
set of three letters.

355
‫ حم‬Ha Meem – Ch. 42:1 – Surah Ash Shura (The
Consultation)

‫„ عسق‬Ayn Seen Qaf, Ch. 42:2 – Surah Ash Shura (The


Consultation)
[Courtesy Link:
http://www.nurmuhammad.com/pbuh/?p=2230]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Al-Qur'an is full of admonition. The disbelievers are in


sheer arrogance for calling the Prophet a liar: Almighty
God swears an oath by the Qur‘an, the book that serves a
reminder to all of humankind. Those who disbelieve are
occupied with nothing but arrogance and defiance.
Almighty Allah has destroyed many generations before
them for such arrogance and every one of them cried out
in despair but it was too late. A warner has come to them
(to disbelievers of Makkah) from among themselves but
they do not accept this, and call him a liar or a magician.
The people of Nuh (a), and Aad and Pharaoh denied their
messengers. The people of Thamud, and Lut (a) and
Madyan formed alliances against their messengers. They
all called their messengers liars; Almighty God‘s
punishment was justified.

2. Story of the Prophet Daud (a): The mountains and birds


used to sing the rhymes of Almighty Allah with the His
chosen servant Daud (a). Allah (swt) strengthened his
kingdom and gave him wisdom, sound judgment and
discerning speech. There is a story of two litigants who
climbed over a wall alarming Daud (a) in his prayer
chamber. They asked him to judge between them. Daud
(a) passed judgment and realized that he had been put
into this position as a test from God Almighty. He sought
356
forgiveness for any errors, such as fear and suspicion of
the two men at the outset, and any mistakes in judgment
he might have made, such as not being impartial in his
judgment. Almighty Allah forgave Daud (a) and reminded
that he was a vicegerent on earth, who should rule with
justice and not follow his own desires.

3. Story of the Prophet Sulaiman (a): Allah (swt) gave David


a son, Sulaiman; he was an excellent servant to Almighty
God. He became obsessed with his beautiful racehorses
and became distracted from remembering Almighty Allah.
He realized his mistake and sent the horses from his sight.
(Some scholars say that he slaughtered them). Sulaiman
(a) was tested and he became so ill that he was like a
walking skeleton. Sulaimon (a) repented and turned back
to God Almighty. Allah (swt) gave him power over the
wind and the jinn which Sulaiman (a) of his Kingdom,
made du‘a not to give this power to anyone after him.

4. Story of Ayyub (a), his sickness, patience and relief: Ayyub


(a) [Job] called out in distress to Almighty because
Shaitan had afflicted him with suffering. Allah (swt) gave
him cool water and restored and multiplied the family
members that had deserted him. God Almighty relieved
Ayyub (a) of the oath he made to beat his wife by
instructing him to strike her with blades of grass.

5. The mission of the Prophet: Prophet Muhammad (s) is


here to convey that he is only a warner and that there is no
deity but Lord Almighty. The Prophet is here to tell the
people that the Qur‘an is a reminder and that he does not
ask for any payment. This is a reminder, the gates of
Paradise will open to the righteous and their provision will
never end. In contrast, the rebellious and wrongdoers will
burn in Hell with other punishments of various kinds.
357
6. Story of Adam (a) and disobedience of Iblis (Shaitan):
Lord Almighty told the angels that He was going to make a
human being out of clay and that when he was done they
should bow down before it. They all bowed except Shaitan
(Iblis). Shaitan thought himself better than Adam (a)
because he was made from fire rather than clay, so God
Almighty banished and cursed him until the Day of
Judgment. Shaitan asked for respite until that Day and he
was granted. He swore to God Almighty that he would use
the time to mislead all human beings except the ones that
are sincerely devoted to Him. Almighty Allah told Shaitan
to listen to the truth; He intended to fill Hell with Shaitan
and all of his followers.

358
39. Surah Az-Zumar (The Troops; The Groups; The
Throngs)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Az-Zumar In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The mention of the Surah name, ―Az-Zumar‖ appears in ayats 71


and 73. The mention of this word – zumar – in the whole Qur‘an
occurs only here. The title refers to the groups of believers and
non-believers that will be formed on the Day of Judgment. The
Surah has 75 ayats and 8 Ruku‘ (Section).

Revelation

This is a Makki Surah. Ayah 10 is abundant evidence this Surah


was revealed before the Hijrah of Abyssinia (Habash). Some
traditions provide the explanation that this ayah was sent down
in respect of Ja‘far bin Abi Talib and his companions when they
make their mind to emigrate to Habash (Ruh al-Maani, vol.
XXII, p. 226)

Background Reasons for Revelation

The entire Surah was sent down in a time when the environment
was filled with tyranny and persecution. And that time was
before the emigration to Habash. The Believers were told not to
despair and lose heart. Giving up Tauhid and accepting Shirk has
terrible consequence. In order to return to the mercy of Rabb one
must avoid wrong way of life and avoids Shirk, if it is difficult for
them to practice their religion in one place, they can migrate
from the land. The unbelievers are told that they can do whatever
they wish, but they cannot turn the Believers away from the path
of faith.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

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1. To Almighty Allah belongs the pure and sincere religion.
The principle of Tauhid and its benefits. The evil of Shirk
and its consequences.

2. The reward of those who are steadfast in their faith.

3. The perfect guidance of the Qur'an. It is straight without


any crookedness.

4. Allah (swt) is sufficient for the Prophet Muhammad (s).


The rejecters will be abased.

5. The futility of Shirk and its evil consequences.

6. Almighty Allah's mercy is available for all.

7. Ye ignorant people, do you invite me to worship someone


other than Allah? The Judgment of Allah (swt).

8. The reward of Believers and the punishment of the


unbelievers.

Subject Matter of the Surah

Surah Az-Zumar is also one of the Surahs of the Makki period,


the majority of Surahs revealed in the Makki period dealt with
the fundamentals of faith and this one is no exception. This
Surah contrasts the believers with those who ascribe partners
with God. People are free to choose, we are told, however
choosing the right path before it is too late is urgently
recommended.

The people of Makkah who were the first recipients of this


magnificent revelation, believed in Allah as the creator of the
world but they had appointed various idols as partners of
Almighty Allah, and believed them to be the masters of their
destiny. They couldn‘t accept the message of Tauhid, even
though it was being presented to them in the Qur‘an, which
was their own language.
360
Tauhid brings the blessings of Almighty Allah, while Shirk has
terrible consequences. The Believers are told not to despair and
lose heart. If it is difficult for them to practice their religion in
one place, they can migrate from that land. The unbelievers are
told that they can do whatever they wish, but they cannot turn
the Believers away from the path of faith.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 9): The mushrikhs try to justify their worship of saints


saying that it may bring them closer to Allah. On the Day of
Judgment, no bearer of burden shall bear the burden of another.

Ayats (10 - 21): Believers who cannot practice their faith (Islam)
should migrate to other places where they can do so. The real
losers are those who shall lose their souls and their families on
the Day of Judgment. No one can rescue the one against whom
the sentence of punishment has been decreed.

Ayats (22 - 31): The Qur'an is consistent in its ayats though it


repeats its teachings in different ways. Allah (swt) has cited every
kind of parable in the Qur'an so that people may learn a lesson.

Ayats (32 - 41): Who can be wicked than the one who invents a
lie against Almighty Allah? If Allah (swt) intends to harm one, no
one can save him/her and if He intends to bestow His blessings
on someone, no one can withhold it.

Ayats (42 - 52): It is Almighty Allah Who recalls the souls of


people upon their death and of the living people during their
sleep. If the wrong doers possess all the treasures of the earth
and much more besides it, they will gladly offer it as a ransom to
redeem themselves on the Day of Judgment.

Ayats (53 - 63): Those who have transgressed against their souls
should not despair of Almighty Allah's mercy; they should repent
while they can.

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Ayats (64 - 70): Worship Allah (swt) and be among His thankful
servants and On the Day of Judgment, the Book of Deeds will be
laid open and justice will be done with all fairness.

Ayats (71 - 75): After Judgment, unbelievers will be driven to


Hell and the righteous will be led to Paradise.

Virtue of the Surah

Aishah (rh) reports. "The Prophet (‫ )ﷺ‬would not sleep until he


recited Surat Bani Isra'il and Az-Zumar." [Tirmidhi Vol. 5,
Book 42, Hadith 2920]

―One who recites Surah al-Zumar shall not lose hope of Divine
Mercy and shall be recompensed the rewards of the God
fearing.‖ [Majma‟ al-Bayan, the opening of the Surah]

An-Nasa'i recorded that `A'ishah, may Allah be pleased with her,


said, "The Messenger of Allah used to fast until we would say,
`He does not want to break fast,' and he would not fast until we
would say, `He does not want to fast.' And he used to recite Bani
Isra'il (Al-Isra') and Az-Zumar every night.'' [Tafsir Ibn
Kathir]

Lessons and Reflection

1. The mushrikhs try to justify their worship of saints saying


- ―It brings us closer to Allah‖: The religion acceptable to
Lord Almighty is that none be associated with Him in both
worship and obedience. Those who justify their actions
saying we only worship others to make them closer to
Almighty God will be judged by Lord Himself and find
that He does not guide those who lie and disbelieve. If
Lord Almighty intended to have offspring, He could have
chosen anyone from the creation, but he is far too exalted
for such a thing. He created the heavens and the earth for
a purpose; the night and the day wrap over one another
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and the sun and the moon run in their orbits for a
specified time. He created humankind from a single cell –
firstly Adam (a) and then his wife Hawa (a) - Eve.
Almighty Allah created livestock in pairs and creates
people in their mother‘s wombs one after the other in
threefold darkness (the stomach, the uterus, and the
amniotic membrane). Almighty God has control; there is
no deity but Him. How could we turn away?

2. On the Day of Judgment no one shall bear the burden of


others: When adversity touches humankind, they call
upon their Lord, but when He bestows blessings, they turn
away and forget Him. Almighty God does not need the
disbelievers, and He does not like ingratitude. He likes to
see gratitude, and no soul will ever bear another‘s burden.
When we would return to Almighty Allah for our account,
He will tell us the truth about what we did in this life.

3. The real losers are those who lose their souls and families
on the Day of Judgment: The losers are those who lose
themselves and their families on the Day of Judgment;
they will be under layers of fire. Those who shun the
worship of false gods are the people of understanding, and
they will have dwellings built for them in gardens under
which rivers flow. This is the promise of Almighty Allah.

4. Ignorant and knowledgeable people can never be equal:


This revelation - the Qur‘an, is from God Almighty, sent
down to Prophet Muhammad (s). Is the person who prays
in the night and fears the Hereafter like the person who
does not? Are those who know equal to those who do not
know? Those who do good will have a good reward.
Almighty God sends down rain, it brings forth vegetation
which later withers and dies at His command. This is a
reminder - every rise has a fall, therefore do not be
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charmed by this world and its glitter and forget God and
the Hereafter. Some walk in the light, others have hearts
that have hardened, and they have completely lost their
way. Al-Qur'an is consistent yet it repeats the teachings in
different ways. Allah (swt) has cited every kind of example
in Al-Qur'an so that people may learn a lesson.

5. Allah (swt) promises those who adopt taqwa and do good,


goodness in this world as well as the Hereafter: Many in
the past denied Lord Almighty, but the punishment came
upon them suddenly, and the punishment in the Hereafter
will be far worse. Everyone will die, and on the Day of
Resurrection, many will dispute with one another in
Almighty God‘s presence. Who is more unjust than the
person who lies about Almighty Allah? Hell is the abode of
the disbelievers, and the righteous will have whatever they
desire. They will be led to Paradise in groups. The gates
will be opened, and they will be greeted with words of
peace. They will praise God Almighty.

6. None except Allah can save those who have been doomed
to the Fire: The disbelievers threaten Prophet Muhammad
(s) with what they worship other than Lord Almighty. If
He allows a person to stray none can guide him, but if He
guides someone none can lead him astray. They say that
Almighty God created the heavens and the earth, so ask
them why do they invoke something other than Almighty
Allah! Can they remove harm; can they give or withhold
mercy!? Why worship something other than Almighty
Allah when we have been warned both now, and in the
past, about the danger of ascribing partners to God
Almighty. Our work will become worthless, and we will be
among the losers. On the Day of Resurrection, Lord
Almighty will roll up the heavens in His right hand, the
trumpet will sound, and everyone will fall down senseless
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except those who Lord Almighty spares. The trumpet will
sound again causing everyone to stand upright. The earth
will shine, the book of deeds will be opened, and the
prophets and witnesses will be called. On the Day of
Judgment everyone's Book of Deeds shall be laid open and
justice shall be done with all fairness.

7. Those who have transgressed against their souls should


not despair of Allah's mercy; they should repent while
they can: When adversity touches a person, he calls on
Almighty Allah, but when he receives a blessing, he/she
attributes it to his own knowledge. It is a test, and people
in the past were tested in the same way. Today‘s
wrongdoers will be hit in the same way the people of the
past were hit by the evil effects of their deeds. One can
always turn back to Lord Almighty, so no one should
despair mercy of Him. He forgives all sins of those who
repent and correct themselves.

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40. Surah Al Mu'min (The Believer), also known as
Surah Al Ghafir (The Forgiver)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Az Zumar In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of Surah Al-Mu‘min appears in the ayah 28 and the


word Al-Ghafir appears in ayah 3. The Surah starts with the
letter, ―‫ – ‖حم‬Ha and Mim. This type of letter is called as
Muqatta‘at (meaning, "disconnected" or "mysterious"). Out of
the 114 Surahs of the Qur‘an, 29 Surahs are figuring with this
type beginning just after the Bismillah. The letters are also
known as fawātiḥ (‫ )فَ َىاتِح‬or "openers" as they form the opening
ayah of their respective Surahs. This Surah has 85 ayats in 9
(Ruku‘) Sections.

Revelation

This is a Makki Surah. There are seven Surahs (al-Mu'min,


HaMim al-Sajdah, al-Shura, al-Zukhruf, al-Dukhan, al-Jathiyah,
al-Ahqaf) that begin with the word "HaMim". Thus these seven
Surahs are also called "al-Hawamim". All these are Makki
Surahs and they were revealed one after another after the
previous Surah al-Zumar, in the middle Makki period before the
Hijrah to Abyssinia.

This Surah was revealed after Surah Az-Zumar, and its present
position in the order of the Surahs in the Qur‘an is the same as
its chronological order.

Background Reasons for Revelation

There are clear indications in the subject matter of this Surah to


the conditions in which it was revealed. The disbelievers of
Makkah at that time were engaged in two kinds of the activities
against the Prophet Muhammad (s).

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First, the disbelievers of Makkah were creating all kinds of
suspicion and misgiving in the minds of the people about the
teachings of the Qur‘an, the message of Islam and the Prophet.
Prophet (s) and the believers were sick of trying to answer them.
Second, they were also preparing the groundwork for the
assassination of the Prophet Muhammad (s). They were devising
one plot after the other.

Bukhari has related a tradition on the authority of Abdullah bin


Amr al-As (ra), saying that, one day when Prophet (s) was
offering his prayers in the precincts of the Ka‘bah, suddenly
Uqbah bin Abi Mu‘ait, rushed forward and putting a piece of
cloth round his neck started twisting it so as to strangle him to
death. Abu Bakr (ra), who happened to go there in time, pushed
him away. Abdullah (ra) says that when Abu Bakr (ra) was
struggling with man, he was saying words to the effect, ―Would
you kill a man only because he says: Allah is my Lord?‖ With a
little variation this event has also been mentioned in Ibn
Hisham, Nasa'i and Ibn Abi Hatim.

The story of a Believer from the people of Pharaoh has been cited
to answer the conspiracy of murder. The disbelievers were
warned to desist themselves from wrangling against the
revelation of Allah (swt). Hey would surely be doomed and face
the same fate of the nations of the past, worst punishment in the
hereafter awaiting. At that time, if they repent will be of no avail.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. The Qur'an is from Allah (swt) who is both Merciful and


Severe in Punishment. Warnings to the nonbelievers and
comfort to the believers.

2. The failure of the disbelievers. The Day of Judgment


belongs to Almighty Allah.

3. A lesson from the history of Prophet Musa (a). Even the

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mighty Pharaoh and his army could not help him against
the wrath of Almighty Allah.

4. A Believer from the Pharaoh's people declared his faith.


His conversation with his people.

5. The false leaders will take their people to hell.

6. Almighty Allah helps the Prophets and their followers.

7. The Glory of Almighty Allah. Almighty Lord has power


over life and death.

8. The fate of the unbelievers will be bad.

9. Take lessons from the past history. After the judgment


comes, repentance makes no difference.

Subject Matter of the Surah

There are seven Surahs (al-Mu'min, HaMim al-Sajdah, al-Shura,


al-Zukhruf, al-Dukhan, al-Jathiyah, al-Ahqaf) that begin with the
word "HaMim". Thus these seven Surahs are also called "al-
Hawamim". These are Surahs of Da'wah, inviting people to
believe in Almighty Allah, take advantage of the mercy of Allah
(swt). There is solace and comfort in these Surahs for the
Believers who were persecuted because of their faith and they are
given the good news that the truth will prevail.

The account of the person in question, known as the believer


among Pharaoh‘s people (mu‘min al Fir‘awn) may be found in
ayats 28 onwards. Besides the accounts of Musa (a), Nuh (a),
‗Ad, and Thamud, the Surah resurfaces the points of Divine
Unity, Resurrection, and Divine Wisdom.

In all the nations which came one after the other since the
creation of the world, Almighty Allah has sent His messengers

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to guide the people to the truth but they all faced rejection from a
majority of the people. We human beings are so perceptive of
profit and loss in all areas of life. We don‘t do anything for free.
Even a child evaluates what he will gain out of any situation. So
how strange it is if we are not bothered about gaining any benefit
from our entire life? Lord Almighty has blessed each one of us
with unique talents and capabilities and to attain the highest
level of success we need to use these talents and live a productive
wholesome life.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 9): No one disputes the revelations of Almighty Allah


except the kuffar (unbelievers). The angels who bear the Throne
of Allah (swt) pray for those who repent and follow the Right
Way.

Ayats (10 - 20): A scene from the Day of Judgment. Furtive looks
and the secret thoughts of the unbelievers are depicted that cling
into the heart. Allah (swt) judges with truth, while those they
invoke besides Him judge not with anything.

Ayats (21 - 27): Those who denied the Prophets and Almighty
Allah's revelations were all destroyed. The Prophet Musa (a) was
sent to Fir‗aun (Pharaoh), Haman and Qarun. Pharaoh intended
to kill the Prophet Musa.

Ayats (28 - 37): An excellent speech of one of the relatives of


Pharaoh in favour of the Prophet Musa (a).

Ayats (38 - 50): The speech of one of relative of Pharaoh


continued here. He talked about this life and the hereafter,
paradise and hell. He also mention about shirk and its
baselessness. So, Allah (swt) saved that believer from the plots of
Pharaoh and destroyed the people of Pharaoh. Now, they are
presented before the fire of Hell morning and evening
(punishment of the graves).

Ayats (51 - 60): Allah (swt) does help His Rasools and the
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believers in this world's life and will help them in the life
hereafter. Our Rabb says: "Call on Me; I will answer your
prayers".

Ayats (61 - 68): No one has the right to be worshipped except


Almighty Allah, the Creator and the Rabb of the worlds.

Ayats (69 - 78): Those who argue about the revelations of


Allah (swt), will soon find out the Truth. Almighty Allah has sent
many Rasools before Muhammad (s); some are mentioned in the
Qur'an and some are not.

Ayats (79 - 85): Cattle are the signs of Allah (swt) for the people
of understanding. Belief after seeing the scourge of Allah (swt) is
of no avail to the disbelievers.

Virtue of the Surah

There are seven consecutive Qur‘anic ayats opening with Ha


Mim; and interestingly what is common to all of them is their
mentioning of the Prophet Musa. These Surahs are;

- Surah 40: al-Ghafir


- Surah 41: Fussilat
- Surah 42: Shurah
- Surah 43: Zukhruf
- Surah 44: Dukhan
- Surah 45: Jathiyah
- Surah 46: al-Ahqaaf

According to a Prophetic tradition Hawamim constitute the gist


of the Holy Qur‘an. The series is the crown of the Holy Qur‘an
and its fragrant flowers. God bestows His Bounties upon the
reciter of these Ayats as well as his neighbors, relatives, and
friends and Divine Throne ask for his forgiveness. [Tafsir
Nimuna]

According to a number of traditions and many a words of its


exeget, the first two letters of the opening of the Chapter in
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question are interpreted as Divine Names beginning with these
two letters. As per a tradition narrated from Imam Sadiq (as), the
twain letters in question are interpreted as Hamid
(―Praiseworthy‖) and Majid (―All-Glorious‖). [Ma‟ani al-
Akhbar by Saduq, p. 22]

“H” and “M” might as well allude to Divine Hakimiyya


(―Sovereignty‖) and Malikiyyat (―Lordship‖). It is narrated from
Ibn ‗Abbas that Ha Mim is one of the Most Beautiful Divine
Names. [Tafsir Qurtubi]

Al-Ghafir

The word is translated as "The Forgiver". It is derived from the


root gh-f-r (‫) فر‬. The basic meaning of the root is "to cover, to
shield, to protect", besides "to forgive".

The root gh-f-r has given rise to three names in the Qur'an:
Ghaffar, Ghaffur and Ghafir. However, only Ghaffar and Ghaffur
were included in the list of 99 names narrated by Tirmidhi. The
difference between Al-Ghaffar and Al-Ghafur has been explained
by various means. Traditionally, Al-Ghaffar is translated as "The
Forgiving". This type of forgiveness is a continuous and
repetitive action. No matter how many times a person may sin,
God can continually forgive him/her for his/her sins.

Al-Ghafur, on the other hand, is understood as forgiving a sin no


matter how large the sin may be. A way to make a distinction
between the two names is to consider Al-Ghaffar as dealing with
the quantity of sins, while Al-Ghafur deals with the quality of a
sin. In his book, Al-Maqsad Al-Asna fi Sharah Asma' Allahu al-
Husna (The best means in explaining God's Beautiful Names),
Imam Al Ghazali translates Al-Ghaffar as "The Very Forgiving
One" and Al-Ghafur as "The Most Forgiving One".

It has been transmitted from Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim


that Ibn Umar reported that he heard the Prophet Muhammad
(s) say, "A Mumin will be brought close to his Rabb on the Day of
Resurrection and enveloping him in His Mercy, He will make
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him confess his sins by Saying, 'Do you remember (doing) this
sin and this sin?' He will reply, 'My Rabb, I remember.' Then He
will Say, 'I covered it up for you in the life of the world, and I
forgive it for you today.' Then the record of his good deeds will be
handed to him."

Lessons and Reflection

1. Angels make du‘a for the righteous who tries to believe:


The angels who carry and surround the Throne celebrate
the praise of their Lord Almighty Allah and ask for
forgiveness for the believers, and that they be admitted to
Paradise and kept safe from the Fire.

2. Signs and revelations that came from Almighty Allah:


Allah (swt) shows His signs such as sending water down to
sustain life, yet no one learns a lesson from this except
those who turn to Him. So be sincere no matter how
much the disbelievers dislike it. He is the Lord of the
Throne and sends revelations to whomever He wills. On
the Day of Judgment each soul will account for their
actions and no injustice will be done.

3. Allah knows the furtive looks and secret thoughts of the


disbelievers: This Book is sent down by God the Almighty,
the Forgiver of sins, the Accepter of repentance, and the
One Who Bestows blessings. None has the right to be
worshipped but Him. Only the disbelievers dispute His
revelation, so do not be deceived by their prosperity and
luxurious life. In the past, the people of Nuh (a) and other
communities tried to destroy their messengers and refute
the message. But it was God Almighty Who destroyed
them with a terrible punishment, condemning them to the
Fire.

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4. Story of the Prophet Musa (a), and an excellent speech of
one of the relatives of Fir'aon (Pharaoh): Musa (a) was
sent to Pharaoh, Haman, and Qarun with Almighty God‘s
authority but they called him a magician and a liar. They
rejected the truth and ordered the sons of the believers to
be killed. Finally, Pharaoh said he wanted to kill Musa (a)
himself. And Musa (a) sought refuge with God Almighty.
A believer among the relatives of Pharaoh advised him to
think carefully about why he would kill a man who might
be speaking the truth. Pharaoh knew Musa (a) was right
but lied and said he was only saying what he believed to be
right and that he was guiding to the right way. The
believing advisor warned his people against how previous
disbelieving nations were destroyed. He reminded them
about Yusuf (a) –Joseph, who came with clear signs, but
their doubt remained. Rejecting the truth with clear signs
is a despicable attitude, and God Almighty seals the heart
of the arrogant ones. The believing advisor urged people
to follow the right way. He said that this life was only
temporary while the home in the Hereafter was
permanent.

5. No one has the right to be worshipped except Allah, the


Creator and the Rabb of the world: Almighty Allah made
the night for rest and the day bright to make our day to
day activities easy. He is the Creator of all things; none
has the right to be worshipped except Him. Why then are
you deluded? The earth is a settlement place and the sky a
canopy. Lord Almighty has molded our form and
perfected it, then provided us with good things. He
created us from dust (referring to Adam a), then from a
sperm-drop, then developed us into a clinging clot, then
we are born from the womb of our mother, and He allows
us to grow to our full strength and maturity before we
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reach old age and the appointed term of our life, although
some of us may die sooner. Almighty Lord gives life and
death. He only says ‗Be‘ and it is. Almighty Allah says;
"Call me; I will answer your prayers."

6. Those who argue about the revelations of Allah will soon


find out the Truth: On the Day of Judgment, the people of
Pharaoh will enter the severest part of the Fire. They will
argue with each other about who led who to destruction
and beg for relief. They will be reminded about their
messengers and told their pleas would be in vain. Lord
Almighty supports the messengers and the believers.
Certainly the creation of the heavens and the earth is a
much greater creation than the creation of humankind.
Yet most people do not understand.

7. Almighty Allah has sent many Rasools before Muhammad


(s): Prophet Muhammad (s) is advised to be patient
because Almighty Allah‘s promise is true. There are stories
of the messengers he (s) knows and stories he does not
know. But all messengers could not bring a sign unless it
was by the permission of Lord Almighty. The people of the
past who were destroyed were mightier than us in
strength and numbers. Their power was of no avail. When
Lord Almighty‘s scourge overcame them, they cried out
that they now believe! But it was of no use to them.

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41. Surah Ha Mim As-Sajdah, also known as Surah
Fussilat (Explained in Detail)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Ha Mim As-Sajdah/ Surah
Fussilat In Summarized Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of the Surah is composed of two words, Ham-Mim and


As-Sajdah, which implies that it begins with Ha-Mim and in
which there is a ayah of Sajdah (prostration) in the Surah. The
other name appears in the third ayah. The Surah has Sajdah-e-
Tilawat from ayah 37, but the sajdah should be performed after
reading the ayah #38 (when the sujood meaning is complete).
The Surah has 54 ayats in 6 Ruku‘ (Section).

Revelation

This Surah was revealed after Hamza (ra) embraced Islam &
before Umar (ra) embraced Islam during the early stages of
Prophet‘s life at Makkah after Prophet-hood – according to
authentic Traditions. (Ibn Hisham, vol. I, pp. 313-314)

Background Reasons for Revelation

Muhammad bin Ishaq, the earliest biographer of the Prophet


Muhammad (s), has related on the authority of Muhammad bin
Ka'b al-Qurzi, the famous follower of the Companions, that one
day some of the Quraysh chiefs were sitting in their assembly in
the Masjid al-Haram, while in another corner of the Mosque
there was the Prophet (s) sitting by himself.

This was the time when Hadrat Hamzah had already embraced
Islam and the people of the Quraysh were feeling upset at the
growing numbers of the Muslims. On this occasion, Utbah bin
Rabi'ah (the father-in-law of Abu Sufyan) said to the Quraysh
chiefs: "Gentlemen, if you like I would go and speak to
Muhammad (upon whom be Allah's peace and blessings) and put

375
before him some proposals; maybe that he accepts one of them,
to which we may also agree, and so he stops opposing us."

They all agreed to this, and Utbah went and sat by the Prophet
(s). When the Prophet (s) turned to him, he said: "Nephew, you
know the high status that you enjoy in the community by virtue
of your ancestry and family relations, but you have put your
people to great trouble: you have created divisions among them
and you consider them to be fools: you talk ill of their religion
and gods, and say things as though all our forefathers were
pagans. Now listen to me and I shall make some suggestions.
Consider them well: maybe that you accept one of them." The
Prophet (s) said: "Abul Walid, say what you want to say and I
shall listen to you." He said, "Nephew, if by what you are doing,
you want wealth, we will give you enough of it so that you will be
the richest man among us; if you want to become an important
man, we will make you our chief and will never decide a matter
without you; if you want to be a king, we will accept you as our
king; and if you are visited by a jinn, whom you cannot get rid of
by your own power, we will arrange the best physicians and have
you treated at our own expense." 'Utbah went on speaking in this
strain and the Prophet (s) went on listening to him quietly.

Then he said, "Have you said, O Abul Walid, what you had to
say?" He replied that he had. The Prophet (s) said: "Well, now
listen to me.‖ Then pronouncing Bismilah ir Rehman-ir-Raihm
he began to recite this very Surah, and Utbah kept on listening to
it, putting his hands behind his back and leaning on them as he
listened.

Coming to the ayah of prostration (v. 38) the Prophet (s)


prostrated himself; then raising his head, said, "This was my
reply, O Abul Walid, now you may act as you please." Then
Utbah arose and walked back towards the chiefs, the people saw
him from afar, and said: "By God! Utbab's face is changed. He
does not look the same man that he was when he went from
here."

Then, when he came back and sat down, the people asked, "What
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have you heard?" He replied, "By God! I have heard something
the like of which I had never heard before. By God, it's neither
poetry, nor sorcery, nor magic. O chiefs of the Quraysh, listen to
what I say and leave this man to himself. I think what he recites
is going to have its effect. If the other Arabs overcome him, you
will be saved from raising your band against your brother, and
the others will deal with him. But if he overcame Arabia, his
sovereignty would be your sovereignty and his honour your
honour." Hearing this, the chiefs spoke out:" You too, O father of
Walid, have been bewitched by his tongue." Utbah replied, "I
have given you my opinion; now you may act as you please."
(Ibn Hisham, vol. I, pp. 313-314)
This story has been narrated by several other traditionists also
on the authority of Hadrat Jabir bin Abdullah in different ways,
with a little variation in wording.

In some traditions it has also been related that when during the
recitation the Prophet (s) had come to ayah 13, viz."If they turn
away, say to them: I warn you of a thunderbolt the like of which
had visited the Ad and the Thamud," Utbah had spontaneously
placed his hand on the Prophet's (s) mouth, and said: "For God's
sake, have mercy on your people." Afterwards he justified his
action before the Quraysh chiefs, saying: "You know that
whatever Muhammad says is always fulfilled; therefore, I feared
lest a torment should descend on us." (For details, see Tafsir Ibn
Kathir, vol. IV, pp. 90- 91; Al Bidayah wan-Nihayah, vol. III, p.
62).

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Invitation to the truth of the Qur'an. The Qur'an is a book


that explains everything.

2. Almighty Allah created the heaven and earth. Warnings to


those who turn away from Allah.

3. Those who deny Allah (swt), their own body will witness
against them.

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4. The disbelievers‘ plan to suppress the message of the
Qur'an will fail. Almighty Allah gives strength to the
Believers.

5. The best people are those who invite to Allah. The effect of
the revelation on the Believers. The signs of Allah (swt).

6. Allah (swt) gives time to people to repent. What good or


evil we do is for and against our own selves individually.
The truth will gradually succeed.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The subject matter of this Surah is Da'wah. It invites to the truth,


gives warnings to those who reject the truth, and tells us that the
appeal to the truth is within our nature. It tells us also that the
Believers receive strength from Almighty Allah's revelation. The
revelation gives life to those who were spiritually and morally
dead at one time. The Surah contains both good news and
warnings.

The people, who deny the true religion of Tauhid, should be


made to realize that even if their excuses can be accepted, that
they don‘t have time for the Qur‘an, or they find it too difficult to
understand, still they cannot say that they can‘t see any proof of
it. An endless variety of living creatures on the land, in the air
and under the oceans - all requiring specific food at specific
times and Allah ( swt) provides for them all, day and night
throughout their lives.

Almighty Allah has strongly forbidden ―takabbar‖ (feeling of


superiority) because the only one who is superior is Allah
Himself. No one else has the right to assume that he is better
than others. Quraysh were given examples of ‗Ad and Thamud.
‗Ad was destroyed by a strong chilly wind and Thamud was
destroyed with furious hurricane containing thunderbolts which
lasted for a few days. How terrible is the punishment for those
who think that they can bypass Allah‘s commands by making
excuses, and are deluded into a false satisfaction that by finding
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fault with the religion and religious people, they can find
justification for their own faults.

Anyone who has faith in Akhirah and accountability cannot sit


purposelessly, but will do all he/she can to prepare to look good
for that encounter with the Creator and King of the Worlds. The
hope of being accepted into Almighty Allah‘s Mercy and the fear
of possible rejection and humiliation in front of whole mankind
on that decisive Day has enough force to open our eyes.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 8): The Qur'an is a giver of good news and an


admonition. Response of the disbelievers included, woe to those
who deny the Hereafter and do not pay Zakah.

Ayats (9 - 18): The story of the creation of the earth, mountains,


seasons, skies and heavens. Warning has been provided to the
disbelievers and the example of Allah's scourge upon the nations
of ‗Ad and Thamud.

Ayats (19 - 25): On the Day of Judgment, people's own ears, eyes
and skins will bear witness against them relating to their
misdeeds.

Ayats (26 - 32): Those who do not listen to the Qur'an shall be
sternly punished and those who say our God is Allah and then
stay firm on it, angels are assigned for their protection.

Ayats (33 - 44): The best in speech is the one who calls people
towards Lord Almighty Allah, does good deeds and says: "I am a
Muslim." Repel evil with good. Examples of Allah‘s signs are
detailed. Nothing is said to Muhammad (s) which was not said
to the prior Prophets. The Qur'an is a guide and healing for the
believers.

Ayats (45 - 54): The Book given to the Prophet Musa (a) was
similar to the Qur'an. On the Day of Judgment all other gods to
whom people worship besides Allah (swt) shall vanish. Have any
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of us ever considered that if the Qur'an is really from Almighty
Allah and we deny it, what will happen to us.

Virtue of the Surah

According to a Prophetic tradition, ―One who recites HM sajdah,


God Almighty will bestow upon him ten good deeds for each of
its letters.‖ [Majma‟ al-Bayan]

According to another tradition, the Messenger of God (s) recited


the Surah every night before going to bed. [Tafsir Ruh al-
Ma‟ani]
There are seven consecutive Qur‘anic ayats opening with Ha
Mim; and interestingly what is common to all of them is their
mentioning of the Prophet Musa. These Surahs are;

- Surah 40: al-Ghafir


- Surah 41: Fussilat
- Surah 42: Shurah
- Surah 43: Zukhruf
- Surah 44: Dukhan
- Surah 45: Jathiyah
- Surah 46: al-Ahqaaf

According to a Prophetic tradition Hawamim constitute the gist


of the Holy Qur‘an. The series is the crown of the Holy Qur‘an
and its fragrant flowers. God bestows His Bounties upon the
reciter of these Verses as well as his neighbors, relatives, and
friends and Divine Throne ask for his forgiveness. [Tafsir
Nimuna]

According to a number of traditions and many a words of its


exeget, the first two letters of the opening of the Chapter in
question are interpreted as Divine Names beginning with these
two letters. As per a tradition narrated from Imam Sadiq (as), the
twain letters in question are interpreted as Hamid
(―Praiseworthy‖) and Majid (―All-Glorious‖). [Ma‟ani al-
Akhbar by Saduq, p. 22]

380
“H” and “M” might as well allude to Divine Hakimiyya
(―Sovereignty‖) and Malikiyyat (―Lordship‖). It is narrated from
Ibn ‗Abbas that Ha Mim is one of the Most Beautiful Divine
Names. [Tafsir Qurtubi]

There are 15 sajdas in Quran, as comes in this Hadith:

Narrated Amr ibn al-'As: The Prophet (s) taught me fifteen


prostrations while reciting the Qur'an, including three in al-
Mufassal and two in Surah al-Hajj. Abu Dawud said: Abu al-
Darda' has reported eleven prostrations from the Prophet (s), but
chain of this tradition is weak. [Sunan Abi Dawud Book 7,
Hadith 1] They are in the following Ayat (in order):

Sajdah # 1: Surah Al A’raf (7) Ayah 206: “Those who are near to
thy Lord, disdain not to do Him worship: They celebrate His
praises, and bow down before Him.”

Sajdah # 2: Surah Al Ra’d (13) Ayah 15: “Whatever beings there


are in the heavens and the earth does prostrate themselves to
Allah (acknowledging subjection), - with good-will or in spite of
themselves: so do their shadows in the morning and evenings.”

Sajdah # 3: Surah Al Nahl (16) Ayah 50: “They all revere their
Lord, high above them, and they do all that they are
commanded.”

Sajdah # 4: Surah Al Isra’ (17) Ayah 109: “They fall down on


their faces in tears, and it increases their (earnest) humility.”

Sajdah # 5: Surah Maryam (19) Ayah 58: “Those were some of


the prophets on whom Allah did bestow His Grace, - of the
posterity of Adam, and of those who We carried (in the Ark)
with Noah, and of the posterity of Abraham and Israel of those
whom We guided and chose. Whenever the Signs of (Allah)
Most Gracious were rehearsed to them, they would fall down in
prostrate adoration and in tears.”
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Sajdah # 6: Surah Al Hajj (22) Ayah 18: “Seest thou not that to
Allah bow down in worship all things that are in the heavens
and on earth,- the sun, the moon, the stars; the hills, the trees, the
animals; and a great number among mankind? But a great
number are (also) such as are fit for Punishment: and such as
Allah shall disgrace, - None can raise to honour: for Allah carries
out all that He wills.”

Sajdah # 7: Surah Al Hajj (22) Ayah 77: “O ye who believe! bow


down, prostrate yourselves, and adore your Lord; and do good;
that ye may prosper.”
Sajdah # 8: Surah Al Furqan (25) Ayah 60: “When it is said to
them, “Adore ye (Allah) Most Gracious!”, they say, “And what
is (Allah) Most Gracious? Shall we adore that which thou
commandest us?” And it increases their flight (from the Truth).”

Sajdah # 9: Surah Al Naml (27) Ayah 26: “God!- there is no god


but He!- Lord of the Throne Supreme!”

Sajdah # 10: Surah Al Sajdah (32) Ayah 15: “Only those believe
in Our Signs, who, when they are recited to them, fall down in
adoration, and celebrate the praises of their Lord, nor are they
(ever) puffed up with pride.”

Sajdah # 11: Surah Sad (38) Ayah 24: “(David) said: “He has
undoubtedly wronged thee in demanding thy (single) ewe to be
added to his (flock of) ewes: truly many are the partners (in
business) who wrong each other: Not so do those who believe
and work deeds of righteousness, and how few are they?” …and
David gathered that We had tried him: he asked forgiveness of
his Lord, fell down, bowing (in prostration), and turned (to
Allah in repentance).”

Sajdah # 12: Surah Fussilat (41) Ayah 38: “But if the


(Unbelievers) are arrogant, (no matter): for in the presence of thy
382
Lord are those who celebrate His praises by night and by day.
And they never flag (nor feel themselves above it).”

Sajdah # 13: Surah Al Najm (53) Ayah 62: “But fall ye down in
prostration to Allah, and adore (Him)!”

Sajdah # 14: Surah Al Inshiqaq (84) Ayah 21: “And when the
Quran is read to them, they fall not prostrate,”

Sajdah # 15: Surah Al Alaq (96) Ayah 19: “Nay, heed him not:
But bow down in adoration, and bring thyself the closer (to
Allah)!”

Also note that performing the sajdah is not obligatory but is


a stressed (confirmed) sunnah (‫ )ِؤو دة س ٕة‬that is highly
recommended to follow. Here is a hadith:
Narrated Rabi'a: 'Umar bin Al-Khattab recited Surat-an-Nahl on
a Friday on the pulpit and when he reached the verse of Sajda he
got down from the pulpit and prostrated and the people also
prostrated. The next Friday 'Umar bin Al-Khattab recited the
same Sura and when he reached the verse of Sajdah he said, "O
people! When we recite the verses of Sajda (during the sermon)
whoever prostrates does the right thing, yet it is no sin for the
one who does not prostrate." And 'Umar did not prostrate (that
day). Added Ibn `Umar "Allah has not made
the prostration of recitation compulsory but if we wish we can do
it."[Sahih al-Bukhari Book 17, Hadith 11]

Also here is a hadith about how good performing sajdah is:


It is narrated on the authority of Abu Huraira that when, the son
of Adam recites the Ayat of Sajdah (prostration) and then falls
down in prostration, the Satan goes into seclusion and weeps and
says: Alas, and in the narration of Abu Kuraib the words are:
Woe unto me, the son of Adam was commanded to prostrate,
and he prostrated and Paradise was entitled to him and I was
commanded to prostrate, but I refused and am doomed to Hell.
[Sahih Muslim Book 1, Hadith 151]
Courtesy:https://islam.stackexchange.com/questions/2
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267/how-many-sajdas-are-in-quran

Lessons and Reflection

1. The Qur'an is revealed to give admonition.

2. Woe to those who deny the Hereafter and do not pay


Zakah (charity).

3. Story of the creation of earth, mountains, seas, skies and


heavens.

4. Example of Almighty Allah's scourge upon the nations of


'Ad and Thamud.

5. On the Day of Judgment, man's own ears, eyes and skin

will bear witness against him relating to his misdeeds.

6. Those who say their God is Allah (swt) and stay firm on it,
have angels assigned for their protection.

7. The best in speech is the one who calls people towards


Almighty Allah, does good deeds and says, "I am a
Muslim."

8. The message which is revealed to the Prophet Muhammad


(s) is the same message which was revealed to prior
Prophets.

9. The Qur'an is a guide and healing for the believers. It is


similar to the Book given to the Prophet Musa (a).

10. On the Day of Judgment, all those gods to whom people


worshiped besides Almighty Allah shall vanish.

11. Have we considered that if The Qur'an is really from


Almighty Allah and we deny it, what will happen to us!

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42. Surah Ash-Shura (The Consultation; Dialogue;
Discussion; Talk in the Meeting)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Ash-Shura In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The title is taken from Ayah 38, which calls for ―shura
baynahum‖ (mutual consent), which is the basic principle that
ought to characterize any community of believers. This is a
Makki Surah and it belongs to the seven HaMim Surahs. This
Surah Has 53 ayats in 5 Ruku‘ (Section).
The Surah concentrates on the fundamentals of faith, in this
case, Almighty Lord‘s all prevailing power and wisdom. Prophet
Muhammad (s) is reminded that he cannot force people to
believe and that he is only required to deliver the message.

Revelation

This Surah‘s period of revelation is not known from any


authentic traditions, but it appears to be send down after Hamim
As-Sajdah/Surah Fussilat, as it seems to be supplement to it in a
way.

Background Reasons for Revelation

To every person who first studies Surah 41: Fussilat carefully and
then goes through this Surah. They will see that, in that Surah
the Quraysh chiefs had been taken to tack for their deaf and
blind opposition. The chiefs of the people in Makkah were
unreasonably opposing Muhammad (s), who had every sense of
morality and nobility left in him. How serious he was in
everything he said, how rational was his standpoint and how
noble his character and conduct.

Immediately after that warning this Surah was sent down, which
did full justice to teaching and instruction, and made the truth of

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the Prophet‘s (s) message plain in such an impressive way that
anyone who had any element of the love of the truth in him and
who had not been blinded by the errors of ignorance, could not
help being influenced by it.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. Allah (swt) revealed His message to His Prophets. The


purpose of revelation is to warn people about the Day of
Judgment. Had Almighty Allah willed, He would have
forced all people into one Ummah, but the wrong-doers
will see the consequences of their deeds.

2. The judgment is in the hand of Allah (swt). He gave the


same religion to all His Prophets. Muslims must invite
people to Almighty Lord.

3. Allah (swt) deals justly with all people. Almighty Allah


accepts the repentance. Allah's (swt) mercy is manifest in
the samawat.

4. Believers should avoid sins, be patient, work with each


other in consultation and practice forgiveness.

5. The Prophet guides to the right path, the path of Almighty


Allah.

Subject Matter of the Surah

The Surah stresses the authenticity of the Divine revelation to the


Prophet Muhammad (s), and through him, to all mankind to
propagate the message of Islam.

Whatever calamity befalls man is the doing of his own self. Allah
(swt) is Ever-Forgiving and surely all things will ultimately
return to Him. Those who act righteously will enjoy eternal bliss,
while the wrongdoers and unbelievers will suffer everlasting
torment, in the Hereafter.
386
Due to our ever increasing involvement with the world and its
affairs, we fail to realize the true worth of Allah Almighty. It was
for this purpose that since the beginning of time Allah (swt) sent
down His chosen Messengers, one after the other, and sent to
them His revelations, according to which they called people to
the way of their Creator and Master. If we truly grasp this reality
and act accordingly, there will be no arrogance. We will know
just how tiny and powerless we are, so how can we oppress
anybody else when we know that the All-Mighty King is watching
us.

The fact is that no matter how many different gods or theories we


might invent in this world, and create countless groups on their
basis; there are going to be only two groups in the hereafter: one
in Paradise and the other in Hell-Fire. That is why Allah (swt)
sent the Qur‘an to our beloved Prophet Muhammad (s), in order
to give warning to us about the day of recompense, when all of us
will be gathered and our reports will be handed out to us,
according to which it will be decided which group we belong to.

All the Prophets had come to this world with the same message
of Tauhid. The spirit of our religion is to submit ourselves to the
will of one Almighty Lord Allah. Paradise is the place in which all
our dreams will come true and all our wishes will be granted. It is
foolishness to expect this world to become a paradise. Most
people keep mourning about all that they have been deprived of.
The more they have, the more is their dissatisfaction.

After everything has been so clearly explained in the Qur‘an, if


someone persists in denying its truth then Almighty Allah will
not guide that person. Whom Allah (swt) leaves to go astray,
none can do much in hope to find any other support. In the
illusion of this world and its glitter and glamour, it might be hard
to imagine the hereafter – so thus the disbelievers constantly
used to blame the Prophet (s) that he was a liar or a magician
and challenged him that how could the Qur‘an be a message from
Almighty Allah. What they failed to realize was that if Almighty
Allah could create this whole samawat and create such a variety
387
of living creatures, created man and inspired it with life, then
why could He not inspire his words to His Chosen Last
Messenger Muhammad (s).

If Almighty Allah wanted He would have made all people into


one Ummah, but He has given freedom to people to make their
own choice by their free will. Allah (swt) will judge all people on
the Judgment Day. In the Surah it is also mentioned that the
followers of this message are those who avoid major sins and
who manage their affairs with mutual consultation.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 – 9): The heavens might have broken apart from above
those who elevate Almighty Allah's creatures to His rank, if the
angels were not begging forgiveness for the residents of earth.

Ayats (10 - 19): Islam is the same Deen (way of life) which was
enjoined on Nuh (a) - Noah, Ibrahim (a) - Abraham, Musa (a) -
Moses and Isa (a) - Jesus. They were all ordered to establish
Deen-al-Islam and not to create division (sects) in it.

Ayats (20 - 29): Allah (swt) says one who desires the harvest in
the Hereafter shall be given many folds, but one who desires the
life of this world only shall be given a portion here but shall have
no share in the Hereafter.
Ayats (30 - 43): Whatever afflictions befall upon people are the
result of their own misdeeds. True believers are those who
establish Salah, give charity and defend themselves when
oppressed.

Ayats (44 – 53): The real losers are those who will lose on the
Day of Resurrection. It is Almighty Allah Who gives daughters
and sons as He pleases. It is not vouchsafed for any human being
that Allah (swt) should speak to him face to face.

Virtue of the Surah

According to a tradition narrated from the Noble Prophet (s):


388
―One who recites Surah ash-Shura is among those on whom
angels send down Divine Mercy and for whom they ask
forgiveness‖. [Majma‟ al-Bayan, opening of this Surah]

From amongst the twenty-nine Surahs opening with detached


letters, the longest series of detached letters is attested in this
Surah. The first ayats are:‖ ُ‫ ‖ع سك ;ح‬The detached letters in ayah
2 allude to the Divine Beauteous Names: the All-Wise (hakim),
the All-Glorious (majid), the Omniscient (‗alim), the All-Hearing
(sami‘), the Omnipotent (qadir) making reference to Divine
Favors and Bounties bestowed upon His Messenger Muhammad
(s).

Detached letters are to be attested elsewhere in the Surah. The


ones mentioned in the first and the second Surahs, numbering
five, are the most detailed of all. The detached letters HM open
seven Qur‘anic Surahs. [Majma‟ al-Bayan 40 - 46]

Narrated 'Aisha:(the mother of the faithful believers) Al-Harith


bin Hisham asked Allah's Messenger (s) "O Allah's Messenger
(s)! How is the Divine Inspiration revealed to you?" Allah's
Messenger (s) replied, "Sometimes it is (revealed) like the
ringing of a bell, this form of Inspiration is the hardest of all and
then this state passes off after I have grasped what is inspired.
Sometimes the Angel comes in the form of a man and talks to me
and I grasp whatever he says." 'Aisha added: Verily I saw the
Prophet (s) being inspired divinely on a very cold day and
noticed the sweat dropping from his forehead (as the Inspiration
was over). [Sahih al-Bukhari Book 1, Hadith 2]

Huruf-i-Muqatta„at: Farahi‟s Theory - Qur'anic Exegesis

More than one-fourth of the Qur'anic Surahs begin with certain


abbreviated letters called Huruf-i-Muqatta'at. These letters are
actually the names of the respective surahs, as is evident from
the Qur'an. Many Ahadith as well as the pre-Islamic Arabic
literature endorse this view. However, there remains the
question of why the surahs are called so. Many scholars have
attempted to answer the question but what they have come up
389
with is not very satisfactory. Farahi (d:1930 AD) has presented
an explanation which might hold the key to the problem. We
shall briefly discuss his theory.

Those who are aware of the history of the Arabic alphabet know
that it has been derived from the Hebrew alphabet, which itself
has its roots in the alphabet used in ancient Arabia. Farahi is of
the view that the letters of this parent alphabet as English and
Hindi do not represent phonetic sounds only, but as the Chinese
alphabet symbolise certain meanings and objects and usually
assume the shape of the objects and meanings they convey. He
goes on to assert that it was these letters which the early
Egyptians adopted and after adapting them according to their
own concepts founded the hieroglyphic script from them. The
remnants of this script can be seen in the tables of the Egyptian
Pyramids.

The science which deciphers the meanings of these letters is now


extinct. However, there are some letters whose meanings have
persisted to this day, and the way they are written also somewhat
resembles their ancient forms. For example, it is known about
the Arabic letter Alif that it is used to mean a cow and was
represented by a cow's head. The letter Ba in Hebrew is called
Beth and means Bayt (house) as well. The Hebrew pronunciation
of Jim is Gimel which means Jamal (camel). Ta stands for a
serpent and is written in a serpent's shape also. Mim represents a
water wave and also has a similar configuration.

Farahi presents Surah Nun in support of his theory. The letter


Nun still denotes its ancient meaning of fish. In this Surah, the
Prophet Jonah (sws) has been addressed as Sahibu'l-H~ut that
ishe who is swallowed by a whale. Farahi opines that it is because
of this reference that the Surah is called Nun. He goes on to say
that if one keeps in consideration the example given above, it is
quite likely that the abbreviated letters by which other Surahs
commence are placed at the beginning of the Surahs to symbolise
a relation between the topics of a particular Surah and their own
ancient connotations.

390
Some other names of the Qur'anic Surahs reinforce Farahi's
theory. Surah Taha, for example, begins with the letter Ta which
represents a serpent, as has been indicated before. After a brief
introduction the tale of Moses (sws) and his staff which is
transformed into a snake has been depicted in it. Other Surahs as
Tasin and Tasin Mim, which begin with the letter Ta, also
portray this miraculous episode.

Surah Baqarah, which begins with the letter Alif, is another


example which further strengthens Farahi's claims. It has been
indicated before that the letter Alif had the meaning of a cow
associated with it and is represented by a cow's head. Surah
Baqarah, as we all know, contains the anecdote of a cow and its
sacrifice.

Another aspect of the Surahs which begin with the same letter is
a similarity in their topics and even in their style and
construction. For example, all Surahs which begin with Alif
basically deal with Tawhid (monotheism). It would be
appropriate here to point out that the letter Alif also stood for
Allah, the One and Alone.

We have presented here Farahi's theory only because it is


substantiated to some extent with sound arguments. It must be
conceded that the theory needs to be developed and verified still
further if it is to be accepted as the only logical explanation of
why the Qur'anic Surahs are so named. (Adapted from Islahi's
'Tadabbur-i-Qur'an') [Courtesy Link: http://www.al-
mawrid.org/index.php/articles/view/huruf-i-
muqattaat-farahis-theory]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Three ways of Revelation have been explained in (42:51) -


Inspiration, behind a Veil, or via a messenger Angel.

2. Hasad [jealousy] is the reason behind splitting into sects


(42:14)

391
3. Virtue of noble intentions in seeking the abode of the
after-life (42:20)

4. Sin is the cause for evil and trials (42:30)

5. The Sunnah [practice] of Almighty Allah in Faraj [help] is


that it occurs after severe Bala [tests]. (42:28)

6. The Heaven might have broken apart from above those


who elevate Almighty Allah's creatures to His level if
angels were not begging for forgiveness for the residents
of Earth.

7. Islam is the same religion which was enjoined on Nuh (a),


Ibrahim (a), Musa (a), and Isa (a). They were all ordained
to establish Deen-al-Islam and they did not create
divisions in it.

8. Those who would desire the harvest in the Hereafter shall


be given manifold and those who would desire the life of
this earth only shall be given a portion here but shall have
no share in the Hereafter.

9. Whatever inflictions befall upon people, are the result of


their own misdeeds.

10. True believers are those who establish Salah, give charity
and defend themselves when oppressed.

11. The real losers are those who will lose on the Day of
Resurrection.

12. It is Almighty Allah who gives daughters and sons as He


pleases.

13. It is not vouchsafed for any human being that Allah (swt)
should speak to him face to face.

392
43. Surah Az-Zukhruf (Golden Ornaments; The
Ornaments of Gold; The Luxury)
Concise Tafseer of Surah Az-Zukhruf In Summarized
Form

‫ بسى هللا انزحًٍ انزحيى‬: In the name of Allah, the Most


Gracious, the Most Merciful

The name of the Surah is found in the ayah 35, from where the
word, ―zukhruf‖ has been derived, "And gold ornament. But all
that is not but the enjoyment of worldly life. And the Hereafter
with your Lord is for the righteous." (43:35) - which indicates
that people are lured away from the truth, in pursuit of material
goods like gold and silver.

This is a Makki Surah and it is the fourth among the group of


Surahs that begin with the word Hamim. The Surah has 89 ayats
in 7 Ruku‘ (Section).

Revelation

The period of revelation of this Surah is not known from any


authentic tradition. But it appears that it was revealed in the
same time the Surahs Al-Mu‘min, As-Sajdah and As-Shura got
revealed. This series of Surahs started descending down when
the disbelievers of Makkah were planning to put an end to the
life of Muhammad (s). At the end of this Surah at ayats 79-80
Allah (swt) mentions it.

Background Reasons for Revelation

When the disbelievers of Makkah became more and more


antagonistic in their attitude and conduct, the Prophet (s)
prayed: O Allah, help me with a famine like the famine of Yusuf.
He thought that when the people would be afflicted with a
calamity, they would remember God Almighty, their hearts
would soften and they would accept the admonition. Allah (swt)
granted his prayer, and the whole land was overtaken by such a

393
terrible famine that the people were sorely distressed.

At last, some of the Quraysh chiefs among whom Abdullah bin


Masud (ra) has particularly mentioned the name of Abu Sufyan
came to the Prophet (s) and requested him to pray to God to
deliver his people from the calamity. On this occasion Almighty
Allah sent down this Surah.

Topics discussed in Ruku‘ (Section)

1. This revelation is given to people in Arabic so that they


may understand. The revelation is a mercy from Allah
(swt).

2. Shirk and blind following of ancestors are major problems


of non-believers.

3. Allah (swt) chooses the Prophets and Messengers


according to His wisdom. The worldly riches do not mean
much in the sight of Almighty Allah.

4. Those who forget Lord Almighty come under the influence


of the Shaitan.

5. Pharaoh's response to Prophet Musa (a). Almighty Allah's


punishment came against Pharaoh and his people.

6. Isa‘s (a) Message was also changed by some of his people.

7. The Believers will succeed in the Hereafter.

Subject Matter of the Surah

This Surah begins with a strong affirmation of the revelation.


Surah Az-Zukhruf tells us that the revelation is a mercy from
Almighty Allah. Allah (swt) chooses whosoever He wills to give
His revelation. The initial few ayats of the Surah emphasizes the
Scripture as being ―clear‖ and ―truly exalted and authoritative.‖
These ayats present a pronounced declaration of the truth and
394
certainty of the revelation and also include the first of the two
times that the word ―Qur‘an‖ is specifically used throughout the
Surah.

The word ‗Qur‘an‘ is only used 70 times throughout the entirety


of the Qur'an. ‗Qur‘an‘ is a verbal noun in Arabic meaning ‗to
recite.‘ As it appears in ayats 3 and 31 of this Surah, it is
confirming the Qur'an as an oral revelation, the spoken word of
God recited to Muhammad (s). The word ‗Qur‘an‘ instead of, for
example, the word ‗Kitab‘ (book), reveals not a written but a
recited, spoken and oral nature of the Qur'an.

In this Surah, a forceful criticism has been made to Quraysh and


to other creeds of Arab for their superstitions and ignorance.
Disbelievers admit that the Creator of earth, heavens, themselves
and their deities is Almighty Allah and they also admit that the
blessings they receive surrounding the earth is also from Allah
(swt) - yet they make association with Almighty Lord Himself in
Godhead. They believed angels are goddesses, so they curve them
as females and adorn them with female dresses and ornaments
and call them to fulfill their needs. Did they have answer to the
question as to how they knew that the angels were females?

Those who don‘t appreciate the guidance of Allah (swt) face a


terrible end. Almighty Allah gives us the example of Pharaoh who
made fun of Musa (a) when he presented to him the message of
Almighty Lord. Pharaoh‘s biggest hurdle that prevented him
from accepting the truth was his arrogance.

Next, Allah (swt) tells us about the Prophet Isa (a), who came to
the people of Bani Israel, with the same message of Tauhid that
they should submit to the worship of one Almighty Allah.
But various groups formed their own versions of the one true
religion. Thus they lost the true guidance. People‘s opinions
cannot change the fact that Lord Almighty is only one, He does
not have any partner, or son, or daughters.

When the disbelievers of Makkah were asked, ―In whose


authority you are associating with Almighty Allah, apart from the
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polytheism of yours?‖ They replied, ―The same has been the
practice since the time of our forefathers.‖ Their argument fails
to rational when the case of Ibrahim (a) is put forwarded for
argument. They pride themselves to be a descendant of Ibrahim
(a) yet they are imitating their forefathers blindly, whereas
prophet Ibrahim (a) rejected the elders and left home.
After criticizing the ignorance of the disbelievers who rejected
rational arguments, this Surah give answer, ―Allah (swt) has no
offspring, no separate gods for earth or heavens, no intercessor
to protect the disbelievers from Almighty Allah‘s punishment.
Allah (swt) is far above from having a child. He alone is the Ilah
of the whole samawat, and all others are His servants.‖

Surah Az-Zukhruf acts as a reminder to believers that the


goodness of God Almighty cannot be found within wealth and
material power. The Surah rejects the claim of disbelievers that
prophets, leaders and worthy figures should be marked by their
riches and thereby empowers them to refrain from temptations,
indulgences and distractions. The disbelievers were warned for
their mental affection to succumb to the ―mere enjoyments of
this life‖.

Interconnection of the Topics

Ayats (1 - 15): The Qur'an is a transcript from the Mother Book


which is in Almighty Allah's keeping. Even the Mushrikhs
believe that the heavens, earth and all therein are created by
Allah (swt). Supplication before riding a conveyance is here in
the ruku‘.

Ayats (16 - 25): Some Mushriks regard the angels to be female


divinities, being the daughters of Allah.

Ayats (26 - 35): The Prophet Ibrahim (a) recognized the Oneness
of Almighty Allah and rejected Shirk (associating someone else
with Almighty Allah). If it were not that all mankind will become
one race of unbelievers, Allah (swt) would have given the
unbelievers houses made with genuine gold.

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Ayats (36 - 45): One who turns away from the remembrance of
Almighty Allah, the Lord Almighty appoints a Shaitan to be his
intimate friend. One should hold fast to the Qur'an if one wants
to be rightly guided.

Ayats (46 - 56): The Prophet Musa (a) was sent to Fir‗aun
(Pharaoh) and his chiefs with signs but they ridiculed him and
the signs; as a result, Almighty Allah drowned them all.

Ayats (57 - 67): The Prophet Isa (a) – Jesus, was no more than a
mortal whom Allah (swt) favoured and made him an example for
the Children of Israel (Bani Israel).

Ayats (68 - 89): On the Day of Judgment believers will have no


fear or regret; they will be awarded paradise and made happy.
Prophet (s) was told to tell the Christians: if Allah (swt) had a son
- he would have been the first one to worship him.

Virtue of the Surah


―One who recites Surah al-Zukhruf is among those who are thus
addressed on the Day of Resurrection: ‗O My servants, you are
to entertain neither fear nor grief on this day as you shall be
admitted to Paradise.‘‖ [Majma‟ al-Bayan, the opening of
the Surah]

The following Surahs all have the letters, Ha-Meem as their


opening Ayah and interestingly what is common to all of them is
their mentioning of the Prophet Musa. These Surahs are:

- Surah 40: al-Ghafir


- Surah 41: Fussilat
- Surah 42: Shurah
- Surah 43: Zukhruf
- Surah 44: Dukhan
- Surah 45: Jathiyah
- Surah 46: al-Ahqaaf

Narrated Abu Umamah (s) that the Messenger of Allah (s) said:
―No people go astray after having been guided, but they resort to
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arguing.‖ Then the Messenger of Allah (s) recited this Ayah:
‗…They quoted not the above example except for argument. Nay!
But they are quarrelsome people… (43:58)‘ [Jami` at-
Tirmidhi Vol. 5, Book 44, Hadith 3253]

Narrated Abu Hurairah (ra) that the Prophet (s) said: ―A caller
will call out: ‗You shall have life and never die; you shall be
healthy and never be ill; you shall be young and never grow old;
you shall live in favor and never suffer difficult circumstances.‘
That is the saying of Allah Most High: This is Paradise, which
you have been made to inherit because of your deeds that you
used to do (43:72).‖ [Jami` at-Tirmidhi Vol. 5, Book 44,
Hadith 3246]

Ali ibn Rabiah (ra) says, ―I was present when a conveyance (A


horse or something) was brought to Hazrat Ali (ra) (in the period
of his khilafah). He recited Bismillah and put his leg in the
stirrup. After he had mounted he said Alhamdulillah and recited
this dua: Glorified be He Who hath sudued those unto us, and
we were not capable (Of subduing them); And lo! Unto our Lord
we are returning. (43:13-14)

(The ulama say that a conveyance could be a means of death.


Therefore subjugation of a conveyance with gratitude towards
Allah for His Mercy and death are mentioned together. After all,
a person has to return to Allah after death).

Ali (ra) then said Alhamdulillah three times, Allahu Akbar three
times, then recited: Glorified be Thou! Behold, I have wronged
myself. So forgive thou me. Indeed, none forgiveth sins but Thou.

Then [Sayyidina Ali (ra)] laughed (smiled). I said to him, ―What


is the reason for laughing, O Ameerul Mumineen?‖ He replied,
―Rasoolullah (s) also recited these duas in this manner and
thereafter laughed (smiled). I also inquired from Rasoolullah (s)
the reason for laughing (smiling) as you have asked me.
Rasoolullah (s) said, ―Allah Ta‘ala becomes happy when His
servants say, ‗No one can forgive me save You.‘ My servant
knows that no one forgives sins besides me. [Shama‟il
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Muhammadiyah Book 34, Hadith 223; Mishkat]

Lessons and Reflection

1. Al-Qur'an is a transcript from the Mother-Book which is


in Allah's keeping.

2. This Surah has supplication for us before riding a


conveyance: Subhana-alladhi sakh-khara la-na hadha wa
ma kunna la-hu muqrinin. Wa inna ila R