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ASSESSMENT OF SANDSTONE RESERVOIR FOR

HYDROCARBON IN TANGA BASIN


BY
DEUSDEDIT J. MAHUNDA

Email: deusdeditmahunda1@gmail.com
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ©2019

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

I have taken efforts in this project. Nonetheless, it would not have been promising without the kind
support and help of many individuals and organizations. I would like to extend my heartfelt thanks
to all of them.
I am heartily thankful to the Almighty God for He only made everything possible till this day.
In a special way I have to appreciate the guidance given by my supervisor as well as my field
coordinator Late Mr. Ismail Ikhasi whose wise advice and encouragement has improved my skills
thanks to his comment and advices.
I would like to express my deepest gratitude to my tutors Mr. Seleman Silingi, Mr. Geofrey
Msumari, Mr. Jean frank Mayagilo and Miss Evaline Munisi, who’s their encouragement,
guidance and support from the initial to the final level enabled me to develop an understanding of
the practical field, and who were very cooperative and did a lot in shaping me in various ways
through guidance, lectures, and encouragement.
Also my sincere thanks to my field mates, for their guidance provided during the course of this
project. Their encouragement, criticisms, patience and support have been invaluable throughout
the course of the project.
I also owe my deepest gratitude to my colleagues’ fellow students whom we interned together at
the field for the sacrifices they made during our stay at the training. May God bless you all.

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ABSTRACT

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary reservoir rock composed of mainly quartz and/or feldspars, and
typically deposited by relatively high-energy processes, which winnow out much of the fine
particle size fraction while transporting and depositing the coarser (sand-sized) particles. Like
sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey,
pink, white and black depending on the mineral composition. Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary
reservoir rock composed of mainly quartz and/or feldspars, and typically deposited by relatively
high-energy processes, which winnow out much of the fine particle size fraction while transporting
and depositing the coarser (sand-sized) particles. Like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the
most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey, pink, white and black depending on the
mineral composition. The sandy texture of sandstones at Tanga basin were easy to see because the
sand grains were highlighted by different colors. Some of the sandstones had grains which were
harder to see in the lower, rust-stained part of the rocks. The upper part of the rocks showed faint
horizontal layering, whereas the bottom shows faint cross beds. We observed the tiny sand grains
that made up the rock.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT ............................................................................................................................ 2
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................. 3
TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................................................................................................... 4
LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................... 6
CHAPTER ONE ......................................................................................................................................... 7
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................... 7
1.0. Background to the Problem ............................................................................................................ 7
1.1. Location and accessibility............................................................................................................... 7
1.1.1. Location .................................................................................................................................... 7
1.1.2 Accessibility ................................................................................................................................ 7
1.2 Climate condition and physiography .............................................................................................. 8
1.2.1 Climate condition ....................................................................................................................... 8
1.2.2 Physiographic ............................................................................................................................. 8
1.3 Drainage System................................................................................................................................ 8
1.4 Geological setting .............................................................................................................................. 8
1.4.1 Regional geology......................................................................................................................... 8
1.4.2 Local geology .............................................................................................................................. 9
1.5 Tectonic setting.................................................................................................................................. 9
1.6 General objective ............................................................................................................................ 10
1.6.1 The main objective ................................................................................................................... 10
1.6.2 The specific objects .................................................................................................................. 10
1.7 Statement of problem ..................................................................................................................... 10
CHAPTER TWO ...................................................................................................................................... 11
LITERATURE REVIEW ........................................................................................................................ 11
CHAPTER THREE .................................................................................................................................. 12
METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................... 12
3.0 Method used .................................................................................................................................... 12
3.1 Traverse ........................................................................................................................................... 12

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3.1.1 Randomly rock sampling......................................................................................................... 12
3.1.2 Geological measurements of the orientation.......................................................................... 12
3.1.3 Observation of the rocks.......................................................................................................... 12
3.2 Geological Field Tools..................................................................................................................... 12
CHAPTER FOUR..................................................................................................................................... 16
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ......................................................................................................... 16
4.1 Sand and sandstone......................................................................................................................... 16
4.1.1 Distribution, past and present of sand in Tanga basin ......................................................... 17
4.2 Classification of sandstones ............................................................................................................ 17
4.2.1 Types of sandstones in Tanga basin ....................................................................................... 18
4.3 The properties of sandstone reservoir rocks ................................................................................ 24
4.3.1 Textural characteristics of sandstone reservoir: ................................................................... 25
4.3.1 Methods determining rock properties. ............................................................................ 26
4.3.2 Reservoir rock properties calculation formula. .................................................................... 26
4.4 Transgression and regression events during deposition of sandstone in Tanga Karoo beds. .. 27
4.5 Deposition environment of Sandstone in Tanga basin................................................................. 31
4.5.1 Lacustrine environment .......................................................................................................... 31
4.5.2 Marine environment ................................................................................................................ 33
4.6 Petroleum system; Sandstone reservoir in Tanga basin .............................................................. 34
CHAPTER FIVE ...................................................................................................................................... 36
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION. ........................................................................... 36
5.1 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 36
5.2 RECOMMENDATION .................................................................................................................. 36
CHAPTER SIX ......................................................................................................................................... 37
6.0 REFERENCE .................................................................................................................................. 37

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Geological compass....................................................................................................................... 13


Figure 2 Geological hammer ....................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 3 Digital camera ............................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 4 Field notebook .............................................................................................................................. 13
Figure 5 Tape measure................................................................................................................................ 14
Figure 6 Ruller ............................................................................................................................................. 14
Figure 7 Hand lens ...................................................................................................................................... 14
Figure 8 Gps Global Positioning System...................................................................................................... 14
Figure 9 Sample bag .................................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 10 First aid kit ................................................................................................................................... 15
Figure 11 Sands in Tanga Karoo basin......................................................................................................... 16
Figure 12 Quartz arenites sandstones in Mbuta quarry ............................................................................. 18
Figure 13 Quartz arenites sandstones in Umba river ................................................................................. 19
Figure 14 Arkose sandstone in Kakindu area .............................................................................................. 20
Figure 15 Lithic arenite sandstone in Mrinji bridge .................................................................................... 21
Figure 16 graywacke, sandstones in Kilulu hill........................................................................................... 22
Figure 17 Shoreline, nearshore and offshore environment ....................................................................... 27
Figure 18 Transgression in Tanga Karoo basin............................................................................................ 28
Figure 19 Regression in Tanga Karoo basin ................................................................................................ 29
Figure 20 Comparing regression and transgression in Tanga Karoo basin ................................................. 30
Figure 21 Arkosic Sandstone beds at Kakindu ........................................................................................... 31
Figure 22 Arkosic Sandstone beds in Pangarawe quarry ............................................................................ 32
Figure 23 wackes Sandstone beds in Kombe Bridge ................................................................................. 33
Figure 24 wackes Sandstone beds in Kiomoni quarry................................................................................ 34

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0. Background to the Problem


Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary reservoir rock composed of mainly quartz and/or feldspars, and
typically deposited by relatively high-energy processes, which winnow out much of the fine
particle size fraction while transporting and depositing the coarser (sand-sized) particles. Like
sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red, grey,
pink, white and black depending on the mineral composition.
Sandstone is most significant type of petroleum reservoir rock in over 60% of the world’s giant
fields. About 60% of all petroleum reservoirs are sandstones; outside the Middle East, carbonate
reservoirs are less common and the percentage is even higher. The most important reservoir
properties are porosity and permeability, but pore geometry and wetting properties of the mineral
surfaces may also influence petroleum production. Sandstones provide reservoirs for oil and gas,
but also for groundwater which is a fluid that is becoming increasingly valuable.
Sandstones at Tanga basin were made of sand grains that where cemented together. Like
sandpaper, these sandstones had a rough, granular texture. We identified sandstones by peering
closely at their surface and looked for individual sand grains. Most of sandstone at Tanga basin
had grain diameters range from 2 mm all the way down to only 0.06 mm, we used magnifying lens
to see the sand grains in a fine-grained sandstone.
The sandy texture of sandstones at Tanga basin were easy to see because the sand grains were
highlighted by different colors. Some of the sandstones had grains which were harder to see in the
lower, rust-stained part of the rocks. The upper part of the rocks showed faint horizontal layering,
whereas the bottom shows faint cross beds. We observed the tiny sand grains that made up the
rock.

1.1. Location and accessibility


1.1.1. Location
Tanga basin is found at the coastal of Tanzania and it separated by Indian Ocean an East and
metamorphic basement in west. Tanga region is situated at the extreme north-east corner of
Tanzania between 40 and 60 degrees below the Equator and 370-39010'degrees. east of the
Greenwich meridian. It starts from Somalia basin which connected to the natal basin in south
Africa through the Mozambique channel to Ruvuma basin in south Tanzania, but the western
margin of coastal basin is characterized by vertical fault extended from Tanzania through Kenya,
Somalia to Ethiopian.
1.1.2 Accessibility
Tanga basin can be accessed by main road from Dar es Salaam to Mombasa Kenya via Holoholo
border by bus means of transport and can be accessed through navigation by bolts or ship through

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Indian ocean. The Tanga basin crossed by three main rivers which are Umba river, Sigi river and
Pangani river. But some areas (field sites) were not well accessible by bus but it will be easy to
reach the location of outcrop by walk.

1.2 Climate condition and physiography


1.2.1 Climate condition
Tanga climate is classified as tropical, the summers are much rainier than the winters in Tanga
region. The average temperature in Tanga region was 25.9 °C. About 1295 mm of precipitation
falls annually, precipitation was the lowest in February, with an average of 29 mm. The greatest
amount of precipitation occurs in May with an average of 296 mm between the driest and wettest
months the difference in precipitation was 269 mm, and the variation in temperatures throughout
the year is 4.4 °C. Useful hints about reading the climate average and for every month you will
find data about precipitation (mm).
1.2.2 Physiographic
Tanga basin extends inland in a varying width of between 20 km and 30 km and its west part is
bordered by a small escarpment rising up to 200 m. The Umba plains extended far into Kenya is
featured in northern part of Tanga basin. It has gentle slopes from north to south towards the Umba
River, which originates from the northern part of the West Usambara Mountains and drains the
entire plain. The Southern part of the Umba Plains and the Usambara Mountains form a massive
mountain range rising in the north-west to south-west of Tanga basin an altitude of more than
2,000 m.
1.3 Drainage System
The Tanga basin have the major main rivers which pass through are Sigi river, Pangani river and
Umba river and all these rivers end up in Indian Ocean respectively where by Sigi river rise from
Usambara Mountain and Pangani river rises from Lumi at Kilimanjaro passes through lake Jupe,
and Umba river which also rises from Shagayu in Usambara mountain at 2000m.

1.4 Geological setting


1.4.1 Regional geology
According to the law of supper position which based on strati graphically and sequentially from
oldest (basement) to the youngest, the geology of Tanga basin characterized by different types of
sedimentary rock. The geology of Tanga basin on its basement occur at Mbuta area near the Umba
river, this basement is dominated by dolomitic marbles, this means that most rocks found at Tanga
basin were depended on the natural of originality and environment deposition of sediments which
made the rocks to be formed at particular period. The Tanga bed thickness dips uniformly to east
or south of east and estimated to be at least 10000 feets. The Karoo rifting created a zone of
weakness that led to the fragmentation of the gondwana supercontinent. Tanga basin was
completely under marine conditions in most areas due to restricted to shallow marine in which
coral reefs could grow, the stability of the shelf was later affected by the reactivation of the Tanga
fault pattern which trend North North East.
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1.4.2 Local geology
Tanga Karoo beds local geology was divided as, Lower, middle and upper Karoo beds where most
of them contained the bands of rocks. Ridges in different areas of Tanga Karoo beds, for example
Kilulu area dominated by different ridges with different elevation from the sea level, these caused
by up lifted and tilted of some parts of Kilulu area due to tectonic activity.
In southern part of Tanga Karoo basin there were coarse sand stone with some bands of mudstone
at Ng’ole bridge area (0626865,9450342) and at Kilulu hill area (0513910,9472482), this lithology
occurs in upper Tanga Karoo bed (lower upper bed and upper upper Karoo bed. In northern part
of Tanga Karoo beds at the basement of Tanga basin which extended up to some parts of Kenya
and massive dolomitic marble exist there and the Umba river occur in northern part of Tanga Karoo
basin, also at older part of Tanga Karoo beds there coarse- medium grained feldspars sandstone
especially conglomerate sandstone which occur along the Umba river (049650,9472783). The
eastern part of Tanga Karoo beds there siltstone,clay stone and mudstone and these lithology occur
in lower Tanga Karoo bed which extended in Visinge area and Ndoyo area (0511428,9459627).At
a middle part of Tanga Karoo basin there silt-shale which occur at Pangarawe quarry and a dark
shale at 5 Kakindu river area and Kivundo area, this lithology occur in middle Tanga Karoo.
1.5 Tectonic setting
The tectonic regime during Karoo period was defined by compression and accretion along the
southern margin of Gondwana coeval with extension propagating into the supercontinent from its
margin. This unique combination of tectonic stresses sourced from the convergent and divergent
margins of Gondwana resulted in the formation of Tanga coastal basin, with accommodation
generated by tectonic and dynamic loads in the south, and rifting to the north. Accumulation of
Karoo sediments aged successions in Africa corresponds to the Pangean first-order cycle of
supercontinent assembly and breakup.
The extensional field in central and northern Tanzania during Karoo time is explained by the
updoming caused by the self-induced Pangean heat anomaly that followed the onset of
supercontinent assembly around. Tensional regimes initiated during that time resulted in the
formation of the early Tethyan spreading centre, and continued to govern the Karoo deposition
until the breakup of Gondwana in the Middle Jurassic. Starting with the onset of the Late
Carboniferous, tensional stresses propagated gradually to the south from the tethyan margin,
controlling the deposition of Karoo sediments in northern Tanzania and subsequent rift structures.
The age of the extensional structures in east Africa is thus inferred to be older than in central and
south Africa.

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1.6 General objective
1.6.1 The main objective
To evaluate reservoir properties for hydrocarbon potentiality in Tanga basin.

1.6.2 The specific objects


i. To describe sandstone reservoir rocks in terms of color, texture, mineral composition and
structures in Tanga basin.
ii. To study the reservoir rock properties (porosity and permeability) significance on
petroleum system
iii. To describe transgression and regression events and study the environmental deposition of
sandstones rocks in Tanga basin.

1.7 Statement of problem


The biggest challenge for hydrocarbon explorers and producers in Tanzania, now and in the future
is to significantly improve: hydrocarbon recovery from newly and previously discovered
reservoirs. A key to achieving this goal is to compile detailed reservoir description of a sandstone
reservoir. Assessment of sandstone reservoir for hydrocarbon potentiality in Tanga basin has not
yet been broadly studied. Reservoir descriptions on Tanga basin will provide a comprehensive
picture of distribution and continuity of the sediments, rocks and pores of the reservoir.

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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary reservoir rock composed of mainly quartz and/or feldspars
(Jackson, 2009). Sandstone has been seen abundant in Tanga basin, they were deposited by
relatively high-energy processes, which sort out much of the fine particle size fraction while
transporting and depositing the coarser (sand-sized) particles.
Like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, brown, yellow, red,
grey, pink, white and black depending on the mineral composition (Dott, 1964). Sandstones in
Tanga basin had grey, pink brown and white color but the most abundant color was grey.
Classification scheme, sandstones are classified into: quartz arenite, sublithic arenite, lithic arenite,
arkosic arenite and arkose based on the mineralogy of framework grains (Spearing, 1999). The
sandstones in Tanga basin were generally well sorted arkosic arenites with limited quartz cements
and had excellent porosity and permeability properties.
Arenites are the best known petroleum reservoir rock with good porosity and high permeability
mainly dependent on reservoir fluid and rock properties (Thomas, 2005). Arenites sandstones at
Tanga basin were abundantly seen at Kakindu, Pangarawe quarry and Kivundo river mainly
influenced and modified by the depositional environment and burial history diagenetic processes.
The depositional environments associated with sandstones are very important and they range from
terrestrial to deep marine (Scholle, 2002). Deposition of Tanga basin was characterized by
deposited sequences and fining-upward megacycles of coarse proximal, high and low energy
fluvial, floodplain, deltaic and lacustrine deposits with occasional marine incursions which vary
of energy in different direction and places.
Depositional conditions at any instant vary from one location to another which results in lateral as
well as vertical changes within the reservoir and within individual rock units (Hemphill, 2010). At
Kilulu the deposition environment was lacustrine with high energy level that’s why we observed
sandstone composed of coarse grains particles. Also we observed cyclists which indicate the lower
energy level.
A Marine Transgression is a geologic event during which sea level rises relative to the land and
the shoreline moves toward higher ground, resulting in flooding. (Hopkins, 1958) The Pangarawe
quarry was composed of massive sandstone which indicates transgressive and the change of energy
level.
Potential depositional settings for reservoir rock formation is the marine environment (Hennig,
2003). Some of reservoirs in Tanga basin were formed in deep marine environments, for example
brown grey sandstone to muddy sandstone, with fine to medium sediment were deposited under
low deposition energy, preferably during transgressive relatively deep marine.

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CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.0 Method used


The methods and techniques used during field work depended on the nature and physiographic of
the basin. During the field work at Tanga coastal basin the methods and techniques that were used
to collect geological data in the field area is;
3.1 Traverse
Traverse method which included measuring and recording orientation or features, taking pictures
with camera, rock sampling and observation, were used to collect data during our field work. All
if these methods were done through random traversing, walking by feet while collecting data.
3.1.1 Randomly rock sampling.
This technique was applied in the field area during the field work at Tanga Karoo basin to take a
rock sample when the huge and well exposure rocks in such the understanding gained was
representation of data that collected in the particular area. The rock sample that taken during the
field work they were help to describe the outcrops in more details.
3.1.2 Geological measurements of the orientation.
A major geological measurement relative to geology structure, the measurement of lineaments,
thickness of lithology bands and stick and dip which help us to determine the inclination of the
rock at the field area. The tools that used in this method were tape measure, rule and geological
compass, and through this factor the dip amount of lithology on certain locality area were differ as
shown clearly of the geological feature at Tanga Karoo basin.
3.1.3 Observation of the rocks.
Observation method in Tanga basin was used this enabled us to determine the color, texture,
mineral composition and how the rock are exposed either poor or well. This was done through
obtaining and marking samples and describing and measuring rocks where they originate in an
outcrop. It requires observational skills and patience to record all information that might be
obtained at one outcrop.
3.2 Geological Field Tools.
During the field work at Tanga Karoo beds north eastern Tanzania the most geological tools were
used to collect geological data such as;
a) Geological compass, the compass is geological tool that was used during the field work at
Tanga Karoo beds for orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic (cardinal
directions) and also it used to measure the dip and strike of particular lithology and to show
the dip direction of lithology (rock trending) in the field area.

b) Geological hammer, also the geological hammer was used during the field work in Tanga
coastal basin for smash the rocks for getting the fresh rock samples or digging the soils for

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marking the rock to be well exposure. Geological hammer was basic tool for our field work
in the field area.

Figure 1 Geological compass Figure 2 Geological hammer

c) Field note book, the field note book was very essential tool during the field work at Tanga
coastal basin was used to record or documents all observations and collected data in the
field area during the field work, the drawing and labeling of different geological features
and structures shown in field note book in order to help the project report writing.
d) Digital camera, this digital camera was used in the field area during the field work at Tanga
coastal basin for taking different pictures of outcrops, geological features The pictures
which taken through digital camera are important in the project report writing as seen in
the different chapter of this project work as really references.

Figure 3 Digital camera Figure 4 Field notebook

e) Ruler, the ruler was used for plotting the coordinate or data especially in drawing and
measurements of the long straight line in the lithological maps and lithological sections.

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Also ruler used to measure the thickness of lamination layers of rock especially in shale at
Kakindu river.
f) The tape measure is the geological tool that was used for measuring the height (thickness)
of lithology especially bands and total thickness of massive lithology and lengths of
lineaments that observed in the field area.

Figure 5 Tape measure Figure 6 Ruller

g) GPS (Global Positioning System), the GPS is the another important geological tool that
was used during the field work at Tanga Karoo beds to locate the specific area, position,
point, to record the real coordinates of particular area and it used for tracking an interested
site by walking with the specific time and directions.
h) Hand lens, the hand lens is the geological tool that was used during the field work at Tanga
Karoo beds when it used to identify or magnify the texture of rocks the grain sizes and
some really colors of the rock sample as well which cannot be seen by naked eye of human
beings so hand lens was very important tool during field work.

Figure 7 Hand lens Figure 8 Gps Global Positioning System

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i) First aid kit and rock sample bag, the first aid kit was very important geological tool during
the geological field work because it was carrying the immediately and temporally aids that
given to the injured person before sent him or her to the hospital or seen the physician or
doctor when we walk in the field area during the field work.

j) Sample bag, the sample bag is the bag that was used during the field work at Tanga coastal
basin for carrying the rock samples after collected from the field area and has been
approved for more analysis not greater than 500g

Figure 10 First aid kit


Figure 9 Sample bag

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CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Sand and sandstone


Sand is loose, non-cohesive granular material, the grains or framework elements of which must by
definition be sand-sized. "sand," both as a size term and as a deposit, is defined without reference
to composition or to genesis. Sand in Tanga basin could be a quartz sand or a carbonate sand. It
could arise as the indestructible residue from decomposition of a granite (quartz sand) or the
product of chemical precipitation (oolitic sand). However, many tend to restrict the term
"sandstone" to those indurated sands of siliceous character. The lithified carbonate sands would be
termed limestones - not sandstones. Even the term "sand" without adjectival modifiers tends to
imply a siliceous composition.

Figure 11 Sands in Tanga Karoo basin

Sandstone is a sedimentary rock formed from a variety of different minerals and rock grains. The
stone gains its name due to its formation from a base of sand that compacts and cements into large
rock formations. Because small grains of sand can be made up of any type of rock or mineral, there
is incredible variety in sandstones. Sandstone is usually made up of quartz and feldspar, sandstone
were most common rocks on the Tanga basin.

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4.1.1 Distribution, past and present of sand in Tanga basin
Just where is sand in the Tanga basin today and where did the sand accumulations of the past take
place? Where is sand found in the Tanga basin today? The most obvious places are the rivers and
beaches and to a lesser extent the dunes and shallow shelf seas. The fluvial sands include those
found on alluvial fans, in river channels and on floodplains, and those of the deltas of lakes and
the oceans. In Tanga basin a little sand also escapes the river channel and finds its way into the
backwater swamps and bayous. Shoreline sand includes not only that of the beaches found in
Tanga basin but also that found on offshore bars, in lagoons and on tidal flats. Marine sands are
largely shelf sands.
Although sandstone is made up of very common minerals, this does not in any way decrease its
value or visual appeal. The colour and appearance of each different type largely depends on its
original environment, with many sandstones being singularly distinctive to their locale.
4.2 Classification of sandstones
We used two type of system in classifying sandstones in Tanga basin, these systems used schemes
incorporate both texture (the presence and amount of either interstitial matrix i.e., clasts with
diameters finer than 0.03 millimeter or chemical cement) and mineralogy (the relative amount of
quartz and the relative abundance of rock fragments to feldspar grains).
Sandstones are first subdivided into two major textural groups, arenites and wackes. Arenites
consist of a sand-size framework component surrounded by pore spaces that are either empty (in
the case of arenite sands) or filled with crystalline chemical cement (in the case of arenites).
Wackes consist of a sand-size framework component floating in a finer-grained pasty matrix of
grains finer than 0.03 millimetre whose overall abundance exceeds 15 percent by volume.
Further subdivision of both arenites and wackes into three specific sandstone families is based on
the relative proportions of three major framework grain types: quartz (Q), feldspar (F), and rock
fragments (R for rock fragment, or L for lithic fragment).
 Quartz arenites are rocks whose sand grains consist of at least 95 percent quartz.
 If the sand grains consist of more than 25 percent feldspar (and feldspar grains are in
excess of rock fragments), the rock is termed arkosic arenite or “arkose,” although such
sandstones are also somewhat loosely referred to as feldspathic sandstones.
 In subarkosic arenite (or subarkose), feldspar sand grains likewise exceed rock fragments
but range in abundance from 5 to 15 percent.
 Lithic arenites have rock fragments that exceed feldspar grains; the abundance of rock
fragments is greater than 25 percent.
 Sublithic arenites likewise contain more rock fragments than feldspar, but the amount of
rock fragments is lower, ranging from 5 to 25 percent.

Three major types of wackes or graywackes that are roughly analogous with the three major arenite
groups: quartz wacke, feldspathic wacke (with the subvariety arkosic wacke), and lithic wacke.
The three major arenite sandstone families are separately described below, but the varieties of
wacke can be conveniently considered together as a single group.

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4.2.1 Types of sandstones in Tanga basin
Quartz arenites
Quartz arenites were found at Mbuta quarry longitude 0494849, latitude 9495556 and Umba river
at longitude 0496646, latitude 9495052, they are usually white, but they may be any other color;
cementation by hematite, for example, makes them red. They are usually well sorted and well
rounded (supermature) and often represent ancient dune, beach, or shallow marine deposits.
Characteristically, they are ripple-marked or cross-bedded and occur as widespread thin blanket
sands. On chemical analysis, some are found to contain more than 99 percent SiO2 (quartz). Most
commonly they are cemented with quartz, but calcite and iron oxide frequently serve as cements
as well in Mbuta quarry.

Figure 12 Quartz arenites sandstones in Mbuta quarry

Greenish quartz arenites sandstone at Umba river contained the pebbles and dropped stones that
were not there this is due to high energy, transported and became compacted with quartz arenites
sandstone to form pebble quartz arenites sandstone.

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Umba river is a stratotype (selected area in geology where all sediments of certain phenomena are
taken to be the source). It explains better about quartz arenites sandstones with dropstones
cemented by Silica. Umber river was formed during upper carboniferous. Its grain size varied from
coarse grains to medium grains. The matrix being greenish quartz arenites sandstone while the
cement was silica. Deposition environment was glacial deposition fresh water environment,
moving material by glacial. This is also the lower part of the Lower Tanga beds. Dropstones of
different angularity (did not come from the same source, dropped in sand before cemented by
silica).

The quartz arenites sandstone was also acted by tectonic activities due to some fractures which
trends North North East with the same characteristic of fractures that are found on the coastal
basin. Dropstones at Umba river were classified as dimicrites (larger dropstone) and micrites
(smaller dropstones). The fault was represented by water, exposed to the surface by the river, the
fault trends North North East. Quartz arenites sandstones at Umba river could represent a poor to
fair reservoir due to silica cementing materials due to dissolution (it could not dissolve a silica
cement if it were in liquid before its solidification)

Figure 13 Quartz arenites sandstones in Umba river

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Arkosic sandstones
Arkosic sandstones is a mixture of quartz, potash feldspar, and granitic rock fragments they were
mostly found in Kakindu area at longitude 0442991, latitude 9359822, Kakindu river at longitude
0489996, Latitude 9449809 and Pangarawe quarry longitude 0497605, latitude 9448205.
Chemically, these rocks are 60–70 percent silica (or silicon dioxide) and 10–15 percent aluminum
oxide (Al2O3), with significant amounts of potassium (K), sodium (Na), and other elements. This
type of arkosic sandstone, or arkose, can form wherever block faulting of granitic rocks occurs,
given rates of uplift, erosion, and deposition that are so great that chemical weathering is
outweighed and feldspar can survive in a relatively unaltered state. These rocks are usually reddish,
generally immature, very poorly sorted, and frequently interbedded with arkose conglomerate;
alluvial fans or fluvial aprons are the main depositional environments.

Figure 14 Arkose sandstone in Kakindu area

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Lithic arenites
Lithic arenites occur in several subvarieties in Tanga basin, but they are normally gray or of salt-
and-pepper appearance because of the inclusion of dark-coloured rock fragments. Most commonly,
fragments of metamorphic rocks such as slate, phyllite, or schist predominate, producing
phyllarenite. Lithic arenites were mostly observed in Kibaoni doda longitude 0510533, latitude
9458410, Mrinji bridge at longitude 0509538, latitude 9450726 and Ndoyo bridge at longitude
0511428, latitude 9459623.

Figure 15 Lithic arenite sandstone in Mrinji bridge

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Wackes
Wacke, or graywacke, are dark-coloured, very strongly bonded sandstones that consist of a
heterogeneous mixture of rock fragments, feldspar, and quartz of sand size found in Kilulu hill at
longitude 0513729, latitude 9472870, together with appreciable amounts of mud matrix. Almost
all wackes originated in the sea, and many were deposited in deep water by turbidity currents.
Wackes typically are poorly sorted, and the grain sizes present range over three orders of
magnitude—e.g., from 2 to 2,000 micrometres (8×10−5 to 8×10−2 inch). Commonly, the coarsest
part of a wacke bed is its base, where pebbles may be abundant.
At Kilulu hill we observed wacke sandstones of greyish with ting yellowish sandstones. The grain
size of the wacke sandstones varied from the bottom of the hill to the top of the hill, from fine to
medium, medium to coarse and course to medium grains. Most sandstone were weathered partially
but cemented together by silica, some of these sandstones were compacted and had poorly sorting
due to high energy while other wacke sandstones had well compacted with good sorting. At the
center of the hill the grain size of wacke sandstones became homogeneous (having same grin size)
this is due to low energy.

Figure 16 graywacke, sandstones in Kilulu hill

The Kilulu hill is divided into two parts the lower part and the upper part. The upper tanga beds
are divided into two parts the lower U1 and upper U2. We noticed that it is not very easily to find

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and say the lower part is completely fine grains and the upper top part is completely coarse grain.
This is because during the deposition of wackes sandstones which were coming in the lake at a
given period of time, there was a condition which was known as cyclic deposition which varied
with the energy level. When the lake is deep we get fine grained cemented together and when it
becomes shallow we get coarse grains. The lake varied with the amount of water and energy level
repeatedly deposition creating a phenomenon of cyclist. The cyclic deposition due to sorting
formed the layer of sediment to have more fine than coarse at the lower part U1 and coarser than
fine at the upper part U2. We could have a phenomena known as coarsening up sequence, the fine
material deposit at the bottom while coarse material at the top.
Kilulu upper beds are definitely reservoir sandstones they would represent a reservoir if they were
buried deeper and are still insitu and wet. The fractures represented the uplifting of fault block and
tilting from the dip of 9° very highly tilted. There were fractures and fault which were the
indications of activities that took place in the Kilulu hill. The upper sandstone were very porous
and had very coarse grains similar to the sandstone at Ngole Bridge.
Some wackes sandstones in Kombe bridge at longitude 0510533, latitude 9458410 contained much
mud, typically 15–40 percent, and this increases as the mean grain size of the rock decreases. The
particles forming the rock are typically angular. This, and the presence of the interstitial mud
matrix, has led to these rocks being called “microbreccias.” The fabric and texture indicate that the
sediments were carried only a short distance and were subject to very little reworking by currents
after deposition.
The most widespread internal structure of wackes sandstones are graded bedding, although some
sequences display it poorly. Sets of cross strata more than three centimeters thick are rare, but
thinner sets are very common in Ngole bridge at longitude 0509527, Latitude 9450752. Parallel
lamination is widespread, and convolute bedding is usually present. These internal structures are
arranged within wacke beds in a regular sequence. They appear to result from the action of a single
current flow and are related to changes in the hydraulics of the depositing current.
The wackes had variegated colors; some were green, blue, and purple. There was inclusion of
pebbles in the wackes and holes formed when the pebble changed from iron 2 to iron 3. Another
geological structure includes the fault which was brought about during rising up of displacement
of upper beds, for upper beds to be raised the faults are responsible. These wackes sandstones are
definitely reservoirs because of their grain size. They would represent a reservoir if they were
buried deeper and are still insitu and wet.
The beds were not even, the beds decreased in size of the layers from larger to smaller thickness;
this is also due to variation of depth during deposition. The sandstones were very porous with
coarse grain size and highly compacted similar to the top of Kilulu hill (upper Karoo U2). During
deposition there was a time on little water flow bringing in materials at a low energy. Wackes
sandstone in Ngole bridge had layers of mudstone this is due to variation in the depth of the lake
during deposition.

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4.3 The properties of sandstone reservoir rocks

A reservoir rock is a rock containing porosity, permeability, sufficient hydrocarbon accumulation


and a sealing mechanism to form a reservoir from which commercial flows of hydrocarbons can
be produced.
Porosity and permeability are the reservoir rock most significant physical properties. A
fundamental property of a reservoir rock between them is porosity. However, for explorationists,
an effective reservoir rock, the most fundamental reservoir rock property is its permeability. Both
of them are geometric properties are the result of its lithological, structural and compositional
behavior (composition).
Porosity determines reservoir storage capacity. It is defined as the ratio of void space, commonly
called pore volume, to bulk volume and is reported either as a fraction or a percentage. Almost all
sandstones reservoirs in Tanga basin have porosity values generally vary from 10 to 40%.
Permeability is the capacity of a rock layer to transmit water or other fluids, such as oil. The
standard unit for permeability is the Darcy (d) or, more commonly, the millidarcy (md). Relative
permeability is a dimensionless ratio that reflects the capability of oil, water, or gas to move
through a formation compared with that of a single-phase fluid, commonly water. If a single fluid
moves through rock, its relative permeability is 1.0. Two or more fluids generally inhibit flow
through rock compared with that of a single phase of each component.
These physical compositions of a rock and the textural properties are geometric such as sizes and
shapes of the rock grains, their arrangement system and packaging. The efficiency of reservoir
rock account on different important properties. Petroleum system is made of different elements
which encompass reservoir rock. Moreover, it is found in a sedimentary basin whereby
explorationists are able to study its stratigraphy and its sedimentology (rock history) to determine
if there is a likeliness of the existence of petroleum system. After they (explorationists) come up
with concluding the existence of a petroleum system, they go for further scientific tests-collecting
different data and analyzing them to be able to decide about drilling and completion of a petroleum
system. Significant part of their scientific studies on particular petroleum system is on estimating
the possible quantity of hydrocarbons (crude oil) that may be present there.
The reservoir content is estimated by means studying rock properties which can be determined in
a direct way or indirectly. The indirect are done through laboratory measurements on core samples
of reservoir rock of interest which constitutes direct methods of porosity data acquisition. This is
done by measuring a bulk and their pore (empty spaces in a rock). Its bulk volume is
gravimetrically determined when a core-sample is having an irregular shape. A petroleum system
may have one or more reservoir rocks, and reservoir rocks may have different property basing on
their types. Types of reservoir rock depend on kinds of their contents, composition, morphology
and sedimentology.

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Texture
Texture refers to the size, shape and arrangement of grains that make up a sedimentary rock, of
which there are two fundamental types: clastic and crystalline:
 Clastic: When rocks contain clasts - fragments of pre-existing rocks or minerals that were
transported as discrete solid particles they are known as clastic [from klastos, Gk. For
broken].
 Crystalline: On the other hand, when sedimentary grains are interlocked or intergroup the
texture is called crystalline.

4.3.1 Textural characteristics of sandstone reservoir:


 Grain size of clasts or crystals are characterized by maximum grain diameters. Particle size
is the primary basis for classifying clastic sediments and sedimentary rocks, regardless of
the mineralogy of the clasts. Grain size and pattern arrangement: Apart from the
arrangement pattern of grains size which effect rock properties, the actual size of the grains
does not affect the permeability of a neither reservoir rock nor porosity.
 Sorting: The distribution of grain size. The degree of sorting is often a function of the mode
of transport of the materials. Sorting or uniformity of size of the grains: size of grains has
an effect on reservoir properties; the more uniform the grains are sized, the great proper
volume of voids spaces. Thereby mixing grains of different sizes tends to decrease total
volume of void space.
 Subsequent action to the sediments (compaction): The more grains are compacted, more
the volume of void spaces decreases. However, the compaction of sand is less effective
than the way clay does.
 Grain shape: can also be a diagnostic tool (e.g. sphericity, roundness or angularity), which
usually implies something about the distance and mode of transport. Shape of the grains:
grains with high sphericity tend to pack themselves well to make a minimum pore space,
the fact which increases angularity and hence pore space volume increases.

At Umba river there were sandstones pebbles, some mudstones, which were at the river banks.
The material in the river were specifically glacial deposits which had greenish sandstones with
pebbles and drop stones that were called diamictites, micrites and tillites due to their glacial deposit
and some of them were coming from the basement (the angularity and sphericity were observed).
Sandstones at Umba river could represent a poor to fair reservoir due to silica cementing materials
due to dissolution (it could not dissolve a silica cement if it were in liquid before its solidification).
The Umba river sediment are are initial strata which start with coarse materials, high energy
deposits very shorter time, deposited during glacial time.
The Kilulu hill is divided into two parts the lower part and the upper part. The upper tanga beds
are divided into two parts the lower U1 and upper U2. We noticed that it is not very easily to find
and say the lower part is completely fine grains and the upper top part is completely coarse grain.
This is because during the deposition of sandstones which were coming in the lake at a given
period of time, there was a condition which was known as cyclic deposition which varied with the
energy level. When the lake is deep we get fine grained cemented together and when it becomes
shallow we get coarse grains. The lake varied with the amount of water and energy level repeatedly

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deposition creating a phenomenon of cyclicity. The cyclic deposition due to sorting formed the
layer of sediment to have more fine than coarse at the lower part U1 and coarser than fine at the
upper part U2. At Kilulu hill we observed porous sandstones of greyish with ting yellowish
sandstones. The grain size of the sandstone varied from the bottom of the hill to the top of the hill,
from fine to medium, medium to coarse and course to medium grains. Most sandstone were
weathered partially but cemented together by silica, some of these sandstones were compacted and
had poorly sorting due to high energy while other sandstone had well compacted with good sorting.
At the center of the hill the grain size of sandstones became homogeneous (having same grain size)
this is due to low energy. We could have a phenomena known as coarsening up sequence, the fine
material deposit at the bottom while coarse material at the top. Kilulu upper beds are definitely
reservoir sandstones they would represent a reservoir if they were buried deeper and are still insitu
and wet. The upper sandstone had very coarse grains and very porous similar to the sandstone at
Ngole Bridge. After the Ngole Bridge there was a contact between upper karoo U2 and the
Mesozoic that overlaid the karoo sediments, due to coarse grain sandstone being deposited at high
energy it means the contact also contained conglomerate sandstones.
At Ngole bridge, the sandstones had porous coarse grain size and highly compacted similar to the
top of Kilulu hill (upper karoo U2). These sandstones are definitely reservoirs because of their
grain size. They would represent a reservoir if they were buried deeper and are still insitu and wet.
The sandstone had variegated colors; some were green, blue, and purple. There was inclusion of
pebbles in the sandstone and holes formed when the pebble changed from iron 2 to iron 3. Ngole
sandstones are definitely reservoir sandstones they would represent a reservoir if they were buried
deeper and are still insitu and wet.
4.3.1 Methods determining rock properties.
Reservoir rock properties such as porosity and permeability are directly or indirectly measured.
The direct methods consist of measuring the core sample taken from the parallel lithological area
of the reservoir rock to assess them while the indirect methods consist of using data collection,
well logs, seismic, production tests, etc., the porosity data are used in the basic reservoir to evaluate
volumetric calculation of fluids in the reservoir and calculating fluid saturations and geologic
characterization of the reservoir
4.3.2 Reservoir rock properties calculation formula.
Porosity: ф=, Vp=VB-VS ,
Ф symbolizes porosity, Vp (volume of all pores), Vs represents volume occupied by other particles
(Matrix materials), VB represents the total volume, ƿ represents their respective densities.
Permeability: the permeability of a reservoir reckons on the determining the flow of a fluid which
depends on constant, k, Darsey constant. With q representing flow rate, the area section of pores,
µ represents viscosity constant of fluid and dp/ dL represents the infinitesimal change of flowing
pressure.

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4.4 Transgression and regression events during deposition of sandstone in Tanga Karoo
beds.

Transgression: Is a geologic event where sea levels rise and the shoreline moves toward higher
ground. Transgression in marine is a natural geological event and occurs naturally without the
interference of human beings. When the sea level keeps rising as compared to the land and the
seashore starts getting higher, it brings the flood. The process of rising up the sea level as compared
to the land is known as Transgression. Transgression occurs when the ocean basins have more
quantity of water than their capacity. It can also occur when the land starts sinking into the sea. It
results in a flood that is known as transgression.
Regression: Is the process of submerged seafloor being exposed above the sea level. In the same
way, the term regression works oppositely. When the water level in the ocean basins is at a lower
level than their capacity, the sea starts to expose the previously covered lands. The submerged
seafloor is exposed as a result. This process is known as regression. All the changes we see are
horizontal rather than vertical.

Figure 17 Shoreline, nearshore and offshore environment

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Transgression in Tanga Karoo basin
Tanga upper Karoo basin was accumulated with sandstones which were deposited due to high
energy, siltstones and mudstone due less energy causing finer particles, and limestones which were
formed in low energy environment mostly by corals, sponges and shells. Transgression had
occurred which resulted into increasing of sea level, causing these sediments of sand, silt, mud and
mineral calcite to shift towards the shoreline because these sediments were once found in deeper
ocean. This created a sequence of facies (a body of rocks with specified characteristics), of
limestone at the top, mudstone and siltstone below the limestone and sandstone at the bottom. This
sequence showed the presence of transgression in Tanga Karoo basin meaning that sea level was
rising.

Figure 18 Transgression in Tanga Karoo basin

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Tanga upper Karoo is the period when difting occur as intercalated of fine to coarse grain size. At
Ndoyo bridge there was fine grain material to coarse with lithic arenites and massive bed of 55°
strike05° dip/145° dip direction wich composed of sandstone bed. There was ripple mark of fine
to coarse grain where claystone found inlarger content than sandstone.
Regression in Tanga Karoo basin
But also in Tanga lower basin the sea level was dropping (sea regressing). The same rocks present
were sandstone near the shoreline followed by siltstone, mudstone and limestone. This created a
sequence of facies of sandstone at the top, mudstone and siltstone above the limestone and
limestone at the bottom because the sea level was dropping. The coarse materials sandstones at the
top, followed by the fine material of siltstones and mudstone, and very finer material of limestone
at the bottom.

Figure 19 Regression in Tanga Karoo basin

Lower Karoo consist of coarse to fine grains size and some of fine grain size. At Umba river there
are various lithology encounter of coarse grain in texture with some amount of quartz and soft wall
which cuted by water, also boulder which are elongated and round in shape of yellow brown color
termed as conglomeratic sandstone, wacke sandstone and arkosic sandstones that contain feldspar
with gneiss boulder. Also in other place there is reddish brown to dark grey for weathered sample
due to iron content as also quartz and feldspar observed which probably carbonaceous shale,
sandstone, and the interbedded of shale and sandstone layer.

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Comparing transgression and regression in Tanga Karoo basin
Comparing the transgression and regression of Tanga Karoo beds, the transgression cause rocks
to shift to the right, while regression to the left. Transgression caused the presence of finer layers
on top coarse layer on bottom; limestone, siltstone then sandstone, while regression is the opposite,
the finer layers on bottom and coarse layer on top; sandstone, siltstone, limestone. Through these
sequence we were able to know whether the sea level was rising or falling during creation of these
rocks.

Figure 20 Comparing regression and transgression in Tanga Karoo basin

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4.5 Deposition environment of Sandstone in Tanga basin
Deposition of Tanga basin was characterized by deposited sequences and fining-upward
megacycles of coarse proximal, high and low energy fluvial, floodplain, deltaic and lacustrine
deposits with occasional marine incursions which vary of energy in different direction and places.
The deposition environment of Tanga basin is describes as follows;
4.5.1 Lacustrine environment
At Kilulu the deposition environment was lacustrine with high energy level that’s why we
observed sandstone composed of coarse grains particles. Also we observed cyclists which indicate
the lower energy level. These sandsheets formed between alluvial flood events associated with
the lake. Similar strata also are preserved in braided stream deposits on the tops of coarse,
erosional-based, fining-upward cycles. Sandsheets developed from reworking of fluvial channel
macroforms and thin overbank deposits between flood events.

Kakindu River contained lacustrine deposition of sandstones and the energy level was low resulted
to deposition of sandstones. Also the ripple marks were observed due to energy level. The massive
sandstone passes upward into plane-bedded to ripple cross-laminated to small-scale trough cross-
bedded sandstone. The upper bounding surface is flat, erosive and extends laterally for at least
several hundred metres. The Kivundo has also sandstone and shales which were deposited at low
energy level the shales contained organic matters.

Figure 21 Arkosic Sandstone beds at Kakindu

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Pangarawe is along the middle Tanga karoo beds with accumulations of sandstone along other
rocks like siltstones and shale. These sandstones beds progrades into upper Tanga bed. The
deposition environment is mainly lacustrine with series of very thin bedded sandstones. The
sedimentary feaures includes dessication marks trending in variety of degrees and the dewatering
marks. Dewatering fractures/marks are sediments frakes in small pieces due to dewatering
fractures being subjected to shallow lake deposit results into thin layers of sandstone and marks of
dewatering fractures, these fractures trends North North East.

Figure 22 Arkosic Sandstone beds in Pangarawe quarry

In Vijinga the deposition environment was lacustrine the energy level was varying which resulted
to dewatering fracture found in sandstone, also the drop stone where indicated as a result of high
energy a shallow sea not far from shore, dry, windy conditions and the piling-up of sand by wind,
the previous existence of lakes receiving sand from near-by lands.
At Ndoyo bridge the deposition environment was lacustrine. There was presence of layers of
sandstone because during the deposition there was a time where less water flew and brought in
materials at a low energy. A phenomena of repetition due to changing of energy level, the decrease
of water leads to increase of coarseness of materials but increasing of water leads to fine sediments.
So the river went through cyclic deposition by increasing and decreasing of water in it. This can
also be seen at Kilulu hills. The river was shallow and materials were brought by high energy there
was no slow deposition leading to formation of reservoir.

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4.5.2 Marine environment

At Kombe Bridge the energy level was low due to presence of sandstones. And the Ngole bridge
was at upper upper Tanga beds composed of high energy level which resulted to deposition of
coarse grain sandstone, both of the bridges had the deposition environment which was marine
mainly the deep sea and sandstones changed in color on beds was caused by weathering and iron
oxic in the mineral.

Figure 23 wackes Sandstone beds in Kombe Bridge

Amboni river the deposition environment was marine and it had low energy level which resulted
to deposition of fine grained sandstones, due to transgressive movement cause the deposition of
massive sandstones at Amboni.

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Also Kiomoni quarry the deposition environment was marine mainly the deep sea, composed of
massive sandstone porous and very permeable, which indicates transgressive and the change of
energy level resulting to a vein containing sandstone rich. The sandstone beds in deep marine,
including: Fluvial (alluvial fans, river sediments.

Figure 24 wackes Sandstone beds in Kiomoni quarry

4.6 Petroleum system; Sandstone reservoir in Tanga basin


Petroleum system it comprises reservoir, seal (cap rock), source rock, trap as the elements of
sedimentary basin, the processes involved are maturation and migration that related to events about
space for accommodation and timing in case of geological time. Some of sandstone reservoir rock
where porous enough for hydrocarbon to be preserved example in Kilulu hill and Ngole bridge
which is due to digenesis for primary porosity and secondary porosity due to chemical reaction

34
example sandstone. Also we encountered sandstone reservoir which were permeable enough
example in Kiomoni quarry. But for the case of clays stone have high porosity but no
interconnected pore while sandstone have low porosity but high interconnected pores because of
the way sediments compacted. Migration of hydrocarbon is the process of oil/gas to shift from one
place to another which can be primary migration as the hydrocarbon from the source to the
reservoir and secondary migration is about from the reservoir to the cap rock. In Tanga basin the
porous and permeable reservoir due to migration were found mostly at lower division of upper
Karoo which consists of sandstones by observing the grain size, sorting, grain packing and grain
shape.

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CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.
5.1 CONCLUSION

This work is about Assessment of sandstone reservoir for hydrocarbon in Tanga basin, and the
influence of transgression and regression events, and depositional environment of sandstones rocks
in Tanga basin. It is aimed at describing the different type of sandstone and their relation to
hydrocarbon, their past and present distribution in Tanga basin, the regression or transgression
event that lead to formation and deposition of sandstones and lastly the deposition environment of
these reservoir sandstone. Tanga basin is classified with good reservoir found in places like
Kakindu, Kilulu hill and Ngole due to their grain size and good cementing materials but we
observed poor to fair reservoir due to silica cementing materials due to dissolution (it could not
dissolve a silica cement if it were in liquid before its solidification) in places like Umba river,
Mbuta quarry and Mrinji bridge. Some of sandstone reservoir rock where porous enough for
hydrocarbon to be preserved example in Kilulu hill and Ngole bridge which is due to digenesis for
primary porosity and secondary porosity due to chemical reaction example sandstone. Also we
encountered sandstone reservoir which were permeable enough example in Kiomoni quarry. This
was known by classifying the sandstones by observing the grain size, sorting, grain packing, and
grain shapes.

5.2 RECOMMENDATION
The Tanga Karoo basin is very typical of many sandstones, particularly arkose sandstones. The
study of these sandstones will provide knowledge on reservoir rocks, but this work does not cover
everything, therefore there is a need of further studying basing on different kinds of information
available: such as outcrop and subsurface core samples, extensive subsurface stratigraphic data,
and surface paleocurrent mapping. Problems, such as the relation of composition to near and
distant sources and any correlation between that and minor tributaries and major channels, remain
to be studied. A detailed analysis of the history of the sequence in relation to diagenetic effects has
yet to be made. Such detailed studies will give an inductive base for future understanding of Tanga
basin sandstones reservoirs.

36
CHAPTER SIX
6.0 REFERENCE

Jackson, . H.: Origin and classification of Cretaceous Paleocene and Eocene sandstones of
western Venezuela. Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists Bull. 42, 734-763 (2009).
Dott,M.J.: Geology and petrology of the Trivoli sandstone in the Illinois Basin. Illinois Geol.
Survey Circ. 316, 31 p. (1964).
Spearing J. M.: Graphical aids for determining reliability of sample means and an adequate
sample size. Jour. Sed. Petrology 32, 743-750 (1999). Thomas,R.L.:(2005), the founder of
petrography.
Scholle, Education 8, 43-47 (2002). - Petrology of sedimentary rocks, 170 p. Austin: Hemphill's
Bookstore 1968.
Hemphill,,F.F.: Petrography and petrology, 552 p. New York: McGraw-Hili 2010.
Hopkins, M. E.: Geology and petrology of the Anvil Rock Sandstone of southern Illinois. Illinois
Geol. Survey Circ. 256, 49 p. (1958). Hennig,H.D.: Biometrika tables for statisticians, Vol. 1,
238 p. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press 2003.
Powers,M.e.: A new roundness scale for sedimentary particles. Jour. Sed. Petrology 23, 117-119
(1953).
Rusnak,G.A.: A fabric and petrologic study of the Pleasantview Sandstone. Jour. Sed. Petrology
27,41-55 (1957).
Siever, Raymond: Trivoli sandstone of Williamson County, Illinois. Jour. Geology 57, 614-618
(1949).
Sorby, Henry Clifton: On the microscopical structure of the calcareous grit of the Yorkshire
coast. Geol. Soc. London, Quart. Jour. 7, 1-6 (1851). - On the structure and origin of the non-
calcareous stratified rocks. Geol. Soc. London Proc. 36, 46-92 (1880).

37
ASSESSMENT OF SANDSTONE RESERVOIR FOR
HYDROCARBON IN TANGA BASIN
BY
DEUSDEDIT J. MAHUNDA

Email: deusdeditmahunda1@gmail.com
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ©2019

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