Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38

STUDY OF GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF RUVU BASIN AND

ITS HYDROCARBON POTENTIALITY


BY
DEUSDEDIT J. MAHUNDA

Email: deusdeditmahunda1@gmail.com
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ©2019

i
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I have taken determinations in this project, nevertheless, it would not have been conceivable
without the kind support and help of many individuals and associations. I would like to extend my
earnest thanks to all of them
Above all, my sincere thanks go to the almighty God whose blessing and guidance have made this
project work possible. He is God indeed, His words are true and made this fair promise to his
servant.
Also I must express my profound and sincere indebtedness and gratitude to my supervisor, Mr.
Geofrey Msumari for his genuine support and patience in making a thorough and critical review,
guidance, comments and useful suggestions
Am grateful to all my teachers; Mr. Jean-Frank. Mayagilo, Late Mr. Ismail Ikhasi and field
coordinator Mr Seleman Sillingi (department of Geology), staff of Earth Science Institute of
Shinyanga (ESIS). Without their dedications, this work would not have become a reality.
I thank the staff and students of department geology for providing a rewarding and sociable
scientific environment in which to study area and conduct data for this project.
More importantly and admittedly, I deeply appreciate my parents for their financial support to me
during the period of my field work study at coastal basin of Tanzania. My sincere appreciation and
commendations goes to all members of my family for their moral and material support, prayers
and encouragement for my general progress and making me what I am today.

ii
ABSTRACT

The Ruvu coastal basin of Tanzania, which is characterized by an extensional tectonic style, is
located along the passive continental margin of the western Indian Ocean. The present study of
geological evolution of Ruvu basin and its hydrocarbon potentiality as the coastal sedimentary
basin of Tanzania. In the time interval from late Paleozoic to Recent, the passive margin of the
region was subjected to a three-fold geological development, namely the Karoo rifting phase (1)
which is characterized by extensional tectonics, the Gondwana break-up and opening of the Somali
basin (2) which was contemporaneous with the movement of Madagascar off the east African coast
in the Mesozoic, and the Cenozoic East African rift system (3). This structural framework made
provision to the basin deposition history. The development started with the deposition of the
continental, terrigenous, Karoo sequence in the Upper Permian to Lower Jurassic. The Karoo
deposition was followed by a series of transgressions and regressions under full marine conditions
which started in the Middle Jurassic and continued into the Tertiary. The deposits include marine
marls, detrital limestones, fossiliferous shales and calcareous sandstones, reaching in places
thicknesses of more than 4000 m of Mesozoic, and more than 6000 m of Cenozoic, sediments.

iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ....................................................................................................................... ii
ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................ iii
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................................... iv
LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................................................... vi
LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................. vii
CHAPTER ONE ......................................................................................................................................... 1
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................... 1
1.0. Background to the Problem ............................................................................................................ 1
1.1. Location and accessibility............................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1. Location .................................................................................................................................... 1
1.1.2 Accessibility ................................................................................................................................ 2
1.2 Climate condition and physiography .............................................................................................. 2
1.2.1 Climate condition ....................................................................................................................... 2
1.2.2 Physiographic ............................................................................................................................. 2
1.3 Drainage System................................................................................................................................ 2
1.4 Geological setting .............................................................................................................................. 2
1.4.1 Regional geology......................................................................................................................... 2
1.4.2 Local geology .............................................................................................................................. 4
1.5 Tectonic setting.................................................................................................................................. 4
1.6 Statement of problem ....................................................................................................................... 5
1.7 General objective .............................................................................................................................. 5
1.7.1 The main objective ..................................................................................................................... 5
1.7.2 The specific objects .................................................................................................................... 5
CHAPTER TWO ........................................................................................................................................ 6
LITERATURE REVIEW .......................................................................................................................... 6
CHAPTER THREE .................................................................................................................................... 7
METHODOLOGY ..................................................................................................................................... 7
3.0 Method used ...................................................................................................................................... 7

iv
3.1 Traverse ............................................................................................................................................. 7
3.1.1 Randomly rock sampling........................................................................................................... 7
3.1.2 Geological measurements of the orientation............................................................................ 7
3.1.3 Observation of the rocks............................................................................................................ 7
3.2 Geological Field Tools....................................................................................................................... 7
CHAPTER FOUR..................................................................................................................................... 11
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ......................................................................................................... 11
4.1 The geological evolution of Ruvu basin......................................................................................... 11
4.2 Stratigraphy and Sedimentation.................................................................................................... 13
4.2.1 Karoo Sequence ........................................................................................................................ 13
4.2.2 Middle Jurassic sequence ........................................................................................................ 14
4.2.3 Late Jurassic Sequence ............................................................................................................ 16
4.2.4 Cretaceous Sequence................................................................................................................ 16
4.3 Correlation of sedimentary rock strata in Ruvu. ......................................................................... 17
4.3.1 Description of correlation of sedimentary rock strata in Ruvu. .......................................... 20
4.4 Lithological section of Msolwa quarry .......................................................................................... 24
4.4.1 Lithostratigraphy description ................................................................................................. 24
4.5 Dip and strike measurements......................................................................................................... 24
4.6 Significance of sedimentary rocks in relation to hydrocarbon potentiality ............................... 26
CHAPTER FIVE ...................................................................................................................................... 29
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ............................................................................ 29
5.1 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................... 29
5.2 RECOMMENDATION .................................................................................................................. 29
CHAPTER SIX ......................................................................................................................................... 30
6.1 REFERENCE .................................................................................................................................. 30

v
LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 Correlation of sedimentary rock strata in Ruvu. ............................................................................ 18


Table 2Dip and strike measurements ......................................................................................................... 25

vi
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Generalized geology of Tanzania ................................................................................................... 3


Figure 2 Geological compass......................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 3 Global positioning system GPS........................................................................................................ 8
Figure 4 Hand lens ........................................................................................................................................ 8
Figure 5 Geological hammer ......................................................................................................................... 8
Figure 6 Notebook ........................................................................................................................................ 9
Figure 7 Digital camera ................................................................................................................................. 9
Figure 8 First aid kit ....................................................................................................................................... 9
Figure 9 Sample bag ...................................................................................................................................... 9
Figure 10 Ruler ............................................................................................................................................ 10
Figure 11 Tape measure.............................................................................................................................. 10
Figure 12 Tracing papers ............................................................................................................................. 10
Figure 13 Marker pens ................................................................................................................................ 10
Figure 14 Geological map of Coastal Tanzania ........................................................................................... 12
Figure 15 Siltstone ...................................................................................................................................... 13
Figure 16 Red conglomeratic sandstone..................................................................................................... 14
Figure 17 Generalized stratigraphy of Tanga basin .................................................................................... 15
Figure 18 Mudstone and shale ................................................................................................................... 16
Figure 19 Correlation of sedimentary rock strata ...................................................................................... 17
Figure 20 Stratigraphic of Ruvu basin ......................................................................................................... 19
Figure 21 Granite at Msolwa in Ruvu basin ................................................................................................ 20
Figure 22 Granite at Umba in Tanga basin................................................................................................. 20
Figure 23 Sandstone at Msolwa quarry in Ruvu basin ................................................................................ 21
Figure 24 Sandstone at Kilulu hill in Tanga basin ........................................................................................ 21
Figure 25 fossiliferous limestone in Kikumbi cha mkulu in Ruvu basin ...................................................... 21
Figure 26 fossiliferous limestone in Magomeni in Tanga basin ................................................................. 21
Figure 27 Sandstone at Masuguru in Ruvu basin........................................................................................ 22
Figure 28 Sandstone at Kombe bridge in Tanga basin ................................................................................ 22
Figure 29 Bioclastic limestone at Mindukeni quarry .................................................................................. 23
Figure 30 Bioclastic limestone at Sigi river ................................................................................................. 23
Figure 31 Sandstone at Mbwigu ridge in Ruvu basin.................................................................................. 23
Figure 32 Sandstone at Ngole bridge in Tanga basin .................................................................................. 23
Figure 33 Lithological section of Msolwa quarry ........................................................................................ 24
Figure 34 Layers of siltstone and mudstone ............................................................................................... 26
Figure 35 Sponge fossil ............................................................................................................................... 27
Figure 36 Bivalves fossil .............................................................................................................................. 27
Figure 37 Petrified wood fossil ................................................................................................................... 27
Figure 38 Oolites fossil ................................................................................................................................ 27
Figure 39 Shales .......................................................................................................................................... 28

vii
CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.0. Background to the Problem


Tanzania is one of countries with most complex and unique geological setting on earth. Tanzania
has grown both politically and geologically since independence. The geology and related mineral,
oil and gas and mining industry have resulted in the economic development of Tanzania.
The geology of the Ruvu basin can be categorized into the following five major divisions:
Precambrian, Karoo, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary rocks. Actually Ruvu basin
contains sediments vary in age from middle Jurassic to upper Jurassic or low cretaceous.
Precambrian rocks, which are mainly meta-sedimentary, occur mostly in the Uluguru Mountains
and in the western part of the Ngerengere sub-basin and can be divided into three major lithological
groups: acid gneisses, granulites and crystalline limestone, which seem to have been thrust and
uplifted by the upward movement of the basic gneisses, thus giving rise to distinct fault zone in
the rocks. The Karoo rocks that occupy the south-eastern area of the Uluguru Mountains consist
mainly of sandstone and shale, which was originally deposited in shallow fresh to brackish water.
Their ages may vary from Permian to Triassic.
Jurassic rocks occur in the eastern margin of the Uluguru Mountains and elevated rolling hills
between the Ruvu and Wami rivers. They consist of course sandstone, mudstone and oolitic
limestone deposited under the marine environment. Cretaceous rocks, which lie on the elevated
rolling hills, consist of clay, shale, calcareous sandstone, sandy limestone and mudstone.
Sediments of Tertiary and Quaternary ages (youngest strata in the basin) occur in the catchment
area of the Ngerengere sub-basin River near Morogoro Municipality and in the elevated rolling
hills and floodplains along the Ruvu River and extend up to Dar es Salaam. The Tertiary deposits
consist of sandy clay, clayey sand with lenses of pure sand or clay, gravel and calcareous
fragments. The Quaternary deposits were formed in the alluvial fan and are subject to swampy
condition during the wet season; they consist of clay, silt, sand and rarely gravel.

1.1. Location and accessibility


1.1.1. Location
The Ruvu Basin extends from Morogoro to the west of Dar es Salaam through the Coast and Dar
es Salaam Regions, covering an area of about 18,000 km2 of catchment which lies between
latitudes 60° 05’ and 70° 45’ south and longitudes 37° 15’ and 39° 00’ east. Ruvu basin is found
in Pwani region where it divided into six (6) districts namely Kibaha, Bagamoyo, Kisarawe, Mafia,
Mkuranga and Rufiji. Pwani Region covers an area of about 33,539 square kilometers and shares
border with region of Tanga to the immediate north and Dar es salaam in south while in East covers
the Indian Ocean and in West Morogoro region.

1
1.1.2 Accessibility
The Ruvu basin lies on the eastern part of Tanzania Mainland along the Indian Ocean coastal belt.
Ruvu basin shares borders with Tanga Region on the North, Morogoro Region to the west, and
Lindi Region in the South. On the Eastern part, the Region shares borders with Dar es Salaam
region and can be accessed by the main road from Dar es Salaam through Morogoro, Bagamoyo
and Tanga region. This can either be by bus or personal car and also marine Transportation (TPA)
from Dar es Salaam to Bagamoyo and then to Msata

1.2 Climate condition and physiography


1.2.1 Climate condition
Ruvu basin has a tropical type of climate. In the highlands, temperatures range between 10°C and
20°C during cold and hot seasons respectively. The hottest period spreads between November and
February (25ºC 33 ºC) while the coldest period occurs between May and August (15 ºC 20 ºC).
One is unimodal (December - April) and the other is bimodal (October -December and March -
May). Average monthly minimum and maximum temperatures in Ruvu basin are almost the same
throughout the basin; the coldest month is August (about 18°C) and the hottest month is February
(about 32°C). The annual average temperature is about 26°C.
1.2.2 Physiographic
Ruvu basin is mostly composed of low-lying areas along the Ruvu River and a slightly elevated
hilly area with moderate undulation, which extends from west to east around Morogoro town.
Isolated rolling hills are in the middle reach of the Ruvu River. The lowermost part of the river is
the extreme eastern edge of the Basin, where low-lying alluvial flood-plains about 5–10 km wide
are found at an elevation below 10 m above mean sea level. Upper Ruvu basin fall in the Morogoro
Region, while the Middle Ruvu and Lower Ruvu fall in the Coast Region extending
southeastwards to cover the Dar es Salaam Region. Except for the Uluguru Mountains in the
extreme west, which has an altitude of 2000 m above mean sea level.
1.3 Drainage System
Generally, Ruvu basins have the major catchment area of the two main rivers; wami and Ruvu
with an approximately area of 43,742 km2 and 17,789 km2 respectively and it has coastal rivers
located to the Eastern part of the basin flowing into Indian ocean, most of which are located in Dar
es salaam

1.4 Geological setting


1.4.1 Regional geology
The development of fully marine conditions in the Ruvu basin took place in this period and the
middle Jurassic sediments overlain the late Jurassic marls marking a transgressive phase which
continued into early Cretaceous. This transgression was followed by a series of transgression and
regression phases which characterized the middle part of Cretaceous before it was followed by
another transgression towards the end of Cretaceous continuing into early Tertiary. Mid-Tertiary
regression, marked by the absence of Oligocene were seen in some of the wells, followed by late
2
Oligocene/Miocene transgression accompanied with intensive tectonic activities related to the
rifting activities inland at time. This was followed by a regressive phase (which and) where the
present coastlines are formed. Being a passive continental margin, subsidence was controlled by
isostatic subsidence during the rifting stage, and by the thermal subsidence as a result of cooling
of the newly generated oceanic crust.

Figure 1 Generalized geology of Tanzania

3
1.4.2 Local geology
The sedimentary bedrock column commences with the continental Karoo sequence, spanning in
time from Permo Carboniferous to Lower-Jurassic. In the Ruvu basin, this Karoo unit is
represented largely by fluvial arkosic sandstones to conglomerates and shales, characterizing the
Ruvu basin. In the Middle-Jurassic, a continental shelf was established with deposition of shallow
water oolitic to oncolitic limestone’s of Aelenian age (Ruvu-Tanga fault sub-basin), detrital
conglomeratic to Corraliferous limestone of the Bojacian age and graded, detrital conglomeratic
sandstones of the post-Bojacian. The local geology of Ruvu basin comprises of sedimentary rocks
bordered by the Indian Ocean in the Eastern side and a metamorphic belt in the Western side. The
area lies within the Coastal basin of Tanzania as a part of Ruvu-sub-basin which also lies in NNE-
SSW.
This coastal basin of Tanzania lies in the Southern part of Somali basin which is connected to
Natal basin of South Africa. The opening up of Somali basin took place during the Middle Jurassic
times which resulted from drifting apart of Gondwana that started with rifting in Triassic. Most of
the tectonic movements which caused the fragmentation of the Eastern Gondwana were vertical
displacements related to extensional rifting and drifting which facilitated the development of the
present coastal basin encompassing a narrow belt along the main land. These marine sediments are
either overlying uncomformably the metamorphic terrain in the vicinities of Msata and Lugoba or
separated from the basement complex by continental sequence of the Karoo facies. The marine
transgression continued into the upper Jurassic with the deposition of shales, clay and ammonite
bearing septarian marls. From the Middle Jurassic to Cenozoic, several transgressions and
regressions had occurred resulting to thick accumulations (4000m and 6000m) of Mesozoic and
Cenozoic sequences respectively.
1.5 Tectonic setting
During the Late Paleozoic to recent times, the Tanganyika-Rukwa-Malawi TRM segment of the
western branch of the East African rift system was affected by repeated rifting cycles. The western
rift branch displays a sigmoidal geometry and is superimposed on the Proterozoic mobile belts,
which surround the Archean Tanzanian craton. In particular, the North Malawi, Rukwa and South
Tanganyika rift basins developed in the NW trending Ubende belt.
The TRM zone shows evidence of Permo-Triassic and Late Mesozoic and/or Early Tertiary
rifting, prior to a major Late Cenozoic rifting cycle. The Rukwa rift basin is located in the relay
zone between the Tanganyika and Malawi(Nyasa) rift valleys, which together form the NW-
trending Tanganyika Rukwa-Malawi (TRM) lineament. The TRM lineament is as an
intracontinental transform fault zone, along which the Rukwa rift basin opened as a pull-apart
basin in response to oblique, NW-SE extension.

In contrast, favour an opening of the Rukwa rift basin in a NE-SW direction, sub-orthogonal to
its general trend. a sub orthogonal opening of the Tanganyika and Malawi rift basins. All these
models generally do not consider explicitly the possible existence of older rift basins along the
TRM trend, although their occurrence has been demonstrated. They largely influenced the

4
geometry and location of the Late Cenozoic rift basins by the classical process of tectonic
reactivation. It was shown recently that the NW-trending Ubende belt is a zone of repeated
reactivations since the Palaeo Proterozoic, controlling successive stages of sedimentary basin
formation.

1.6 Statement of problem


The geology of Ruvu basin is classified into five major divisions where by sedimentary rocks are
also classified by them. These divisions are Precambrian, Karoo, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary
and Quaternary rocks. The study about geological evolution of Ruvu basin and its hydrocarbon
potentiality has not yet been deeply studies. This work will provide information which will help
to understand the evolution of sedimentary rocks and their significance in hydrocarbons for future
exploration activities at Ruvu basin.

1.7 General objective


1.7.1 The main objective
To evaluate sedimentary rocks basing on geologic time in relation to petroleum system at Ruvu
basin.

1.7.2 The specific objects


i. To describe geological evolution (history) of sedimentary rocks present at Ruvu basin.
ii. To describe the correlation of Ruvu basin with Tanga basin..
iii. To describe the significance of sedimentary rocks in relation to hydrocarbon potentiality.

5
CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

The Cretaceous is one of the most important stratigraphic intervals for hydrocarbon source rocks.
(Bowler, 2000) In Ruvu basin source rocks were formed in marine or transgressive environments
during both the Upper and Lower Cretaceous.
Ruvu basin contains Kerogen type III: Gas-prone organic matter. Kerogen type III within these
source rocks have sufficient hydrogen to be gas generative but not enough hydrogen to be oil prone
(Burek, 2007). The majority of Cretaceous source rocks are located in Msolwa river, Msolwa
quarry, Masuguru and Mbwigu ridge.
Cretaceous source rocks in Ruvu basin can be mainly divided into lower cretaceous and upper
cretaceous. The majority of Ruvu basin source rocks were formed in the lower Cretaceous, whereas
the most productive source rocks are developed in the Upper Cretaceous, such as those within
Kimbiji East-1 in Mkuranga contains TOCs up to 12%. (Shihata, 2010)
Cretaceous source rocks are formed in four distinctive ways: during Oceanic Anoxic Events and
associated global sea-level rises, in Black Sea-type retention basins, during transgression and
during periods of significant terrestrial input (Arthur, 1980). Formation of these source rocks is
controlled by four factors: paleoclimate, paleo topography, transgression, and Oceanic Anoxic
Events. These four major controlling factors indicate that Ruvu’s hydrocarbon exploration within
the Cretaceous should focus on two key areas with extremely low exploration levels.
Practical application of petroleum system study is optimizing oil and gas exploration, further
researches and evaluations of the geographical area in which it is found. Mapping and studying a
system in Ruvu basin has help explorationists to predict if the trap of interest in seal and reservoir
has gas or not. (Dawson, 2005)
Exploration in Ruvu basin has help in locating the most likely accumulations of the petroleum
province (region). The best mapping and study of petroleum system is done by linking all elements
such as source rock, reservoir rock, seal and overburden rock to the processes of petroleum
geology, generation-migration-accumulation. (Frank, 2006)
Karoo sediments in Tanzania are entirely of continental origin, to the north, and locally marine, to
the south (Kapilima, 2001). The Karoo sediments in Ruvu basin consists predominantly of coarse
sandstones, shales and siltstones, deposited during a long period of uplift and continental erosion.
Hydrocarbons generated in the Karoo basins may have accumulated in reservoirs of the same age,
or migrated into Lower Cretaceous sandstone (Christopher, 2009). The Ruvu basin Upper
Cretaceous sandstone of the Msolwa quarry is equivalent to that in the Lower Cretaceous
sandstone of Masuguru areas, could be expected to migrate laterally and updip into the younger
Cretaceous and Tertiary sequences.

6
CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.0 Method used


The methods and techniques used during field work depended on the nature and physiographic of
the basin. During the field work at Ruvu coastal basin the methods and techniques that were used
to collect geological data in the field area is;
3.1 Traverse
Traverse method which included measuring and recording orientation or features, taking pictures
with camera, rock sampling and observation, were used to collect data during our field work. All
if these methods were done through random traversing, walking by feet while collecting data.
3.1.1 Randomly rock sampling.
This technique was applied in the field area during the field work at Ruvu basin to take a rock
sample when the huge and well exposure rocks in such the understanding gained was
representation of data that collected in the particular area. The rock sample that taken during the
field work they were help to describe the outcrops in more details.
3.1.2 Geological measurements of the orientation.
A major geological measurement relative to geology structure, the measurement of lineaments,
thickness of lithology bands and stick and dip which help us to determine the inclination of the
rock at the field area. The tools that used in this method were tape measure, rule and geological
compass, and through this factor the dip amount of lithology on certain locality area were differ as
shown clearly of the geological feature at Ruvu basin.
3.1.3 Observation of the rocks.
Observation method in Ruvu basin was used this enabled us to determine the color, texture, mineral
composition and how the rock are exposed either poor or well. This was done through obtaining
and marking samples and describing and measuring rocks where they originate in an outcrop. It
requires observational skills and patience to record all information that might be obtained at one
outcrop
3.2 Geological Field Tools.
During the field work at Ruvu basin Tanzania the most geological tools were used to collect
geological data such as;
1. Geological compass, the compass is geological tool that was used during the field work at
Ruvu basin for orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic (cardinal
directions) and also it used to measure the dip and strike of particular lithology and to show
the dip direction of lithology (rock trending) in the field area.
2. GPS (Global Positioning System), the GPS is the another important geological tool that
was used during the field work at Ruvu basin to locate the specific area, position, point, to
record the real coordinates of particular area and it used for tracking an interested site by
walking with the specific time and directions.
7
Figure 2 Geological compass Figure 3 Global positioning system GPS

3. Hand lens, the hand lens is the geological tool that was used during the field work at Ruvu
basin when it used to identify or magnify the texture of rocks which acquired in the specific
field area, the hand lens was helping to know the grain sizes and some really colors of the
rock sample as well which cannot be seen by naked eye of human beings so hand lens was
very important tool during field work.
4. Geological hammer, also the geological hammer was used during the field work in Ruvu
basin for smash the rocks for getting the fresh rock samples or digging the soils for marking
the rock to be well exposure. Geological hammer was basic tool for our field work in the
field area.

Figure 4 Hand lens Figure 5 Geological hammer

8
5. Field note book, the field note book was very essential tool during the field work at Ruvu
basin was used to record or documents all observations and collected data in the field area
during the field work, the drawing and labeling of different geological features and
structures shown in field note book in order to help the project report writing.
6. Digital camera, this digital camera was used in the field area during the field work at Ruvu
basin for taking different pictures of outcrops, geological features The pictures which taken
through digital camera are important in the project report writing as seen in the different
chapter of this project work as really references.

Figure 6 Notebook Figure 7 Digital camera

7. First aid kit and rock sample bag, the first aid kit was very important geological tool during
the geological field work because it was carrying the immediately and temporally aids that
given to the injured person before sent him or her to the hospital or seen the physician or
doctor when we walk in the field area during the Ruvu basin.
8. Sample bag, the sample bag is the bag that was used during the field work at Ruvu basin
for carrying the rock samples after collected from the field area and has been approved for
more analysis not greater than 500g

Figure 8 First aid kit Figure 9 Sample bag

9
9. Ruler, the ruler was used for plotting the coordinate or data especially in drawing and
measurements of the long straight line in the lithological maps and lithological sections.
Also ruler used to measure the thickness of lamination layers of rock especially in shale at
Ruvu basin.
10. The tape measure is the geological tool that was used for measuring the height (thickness)
of lithology especially bands and total thickness of massive lithology and lengths of
lineaments that observed in the Ruvu basin.

Figure 10 Ruler Figure 11 Tape measure

11. Trace paper. Mostly we used trace paper in our field work for present lithological section,
geological map and cross-section, in two dimensional for geological map and three
dimensional for cross-section and lithological section of mapped area in a paper.
12. Marker pens were used for labeling samples before they are put into the sample bags.
Marker pens were of different colors such as red, blue and black

Figure 13 Marker pens


Figure 12 Tracing papers

10
CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 The geological evolution of Ruvu basin.

The Ruvu basin occured at the southern tip of the Somali basin, which is connected to the Natal
basin in South Africa through the Mozambique Channel. To the south east, the Davie Fracture
Zone that represents a right-lateral drift of Madagascar bound the basin. The western margin of is
characterized by the vertical faults extending from Ruvu basin, through Kenya, Somalia to
Ethiopia. In Ruvu basin, these faults are represented by two major trends: NNE to SSW Tanga
Fault and NNW to SSE Lindi Fault. The two fault patterns distinguish two other major sub-basins
in coastal Tanzania: Selous, Tanga rift along which the NNE- SSW Tanga Fault is predominant
and Ruvuma- Mandawa basin containing the NNW-SSE Lindi Karoo fault trend.
The opening of the Somali basin took place during Middle Jurassic times. The opening resulted
from the drifting apart of the Gondwana that started with rifting in Triassic. Most of the tectonic
movements which caused the fragmentation of the eastern Gondwana were vertical displacements
related to extensional rifting and drifting which facilitated the development of the present Ruvu
basin encompassing a narrow belt along the mainland.
In Ruvu basin, the sedimentary bedrock column commences with the continental Karoo sequence,
spanning in time from Permo-Carboniferous to Lower Jurassic. In the Ruvu basin, this Karoo unit
is represented largely by fluviatile arkosic sandstones to conglomerates and shales characterizing
Ruvu basin. During the Middle Jurassic period, there was an establishment of a continental shelf
in Ruvu basin with deposition of shallow water oolitic to oncolitic limestones, detrital (clastic)
conglomeratic to coralliferous limestones and graded, detrital conglomeratic sandstones.
These marine sediments of Ruvu basin were either overlying unconformably the metamorphic
terrain in the vicinities of Msata and Lugoba. The marine transgression continued into the Upper
Jurassic with deposition of shales, clay and ammonite—bearing septarian marls. From the Middle
Jurassic to Cenozoic, several transgressions and regressions had occurred resulting into a thick
accumulation of more than 4000m and 6000m of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sequences respectively.
The present paper attempts a review and updates of the existing palaeontological, stratigraphical
and structural information on the coastal basin of Tanzania in light of recent the field.

11
Figure 14 Geological map of Coastal Tanzania

12
4.2 Stratigraphy and Sedimentation
The following is the compiled general stratigraphical successions of the sedimentary rock units in
Ruvu basin of Tanzania, it was made by following the recent lithological investigations. The
Jurassic sequence in the area has been renamed in accordance with more recent lithostratigraphical
nomenclature. The first onset of sedimentary rocks in Ruvu basin was marked by the deposition
of the continental Karoo sediments. The sediments were mainly deposited in low relief areas and
in a direct contact with the basement as well as with old faults which came to act as dividers
between the sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The deposition of the continental Karoo
sequence was succeeded by the marine transgression, which embraced the entire Ruvu basin
during Mesozoic times.
4.2.1 Karoo Sequence
The Triassic to Lower Jurassic sediments in the Ruvu basin consist of fluviatile arkosic sandstones
which are of the continental Karoo origin. Its unconformably overlie the basement complex in
Ruvu basin. The tectonic structure accommodating these Karoo deposits was formed as a result of
occasional subsidence followed by the down- faulted low relief depressions which were infilled
with the elastic sediments. In the Ruvu basin, the sequence is represented by fluviatile arkosic
sandstones and siltstones resting on basal conglomerates. These sediments around Ruvu basin,
have an eastward dip which increases from 50 to 10° inland to as much as 30", at the coast. Total
thickness of the sediments is about 2240m. The lithofacies in Ruvu basin reflects difference in
rates of subsidence and sedimentary depositional environments. The evaporitic sequence
developed in a very rapidly subsiding part of the basin, in which a restricted marine incursion took
place and, a complete sequence of the continental Karoo sediments accumulated in a very slowly
sinking part of the basin.

Figure 15 Siltstone

13
4.2.2 Middle Jurassic sequence
The stratigraphic interval corresponding to early part of the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian) is missing
in many areas in Ruvu basin. However, from the borehole, described ammonite species from the
Posidonia shale of Aalenian age, also described ammonite species of Aalenian age from the marls
sequence overlying the oolitic limestone. Associated with the oolites is occasional occurrence of
gypsum suggesting sabkha environment. Between Msata and Lugoba, the Bajocian sediments
comprising detrital, conglomeratic limestone at the base and coralliferous limestone at the top
(Lugoba Formation) in Ruvu basin unconformably overlie the Usagaran basement complexes.
The Middle Jurassic sediments are also represented by the allochthonous, medium to coarse
grained thick-bedded litharenites at the base and intercalations of fine grained, thin- bedded
bioclastic sandstones and marls at the top (Msolwa — Formation). The sediments are probably of
post—Bajocian. They rest unconformably on the red conglomeratic sandstone of the Karoo facies.

Figure 16 Red conglomeratic sandstone

14
Figure 17 Generalized stratigraphy of Tanga basin

15
4.2.3 Late Jurassic Sequence
Between Callovian and Tithonian periods, a large part of Ruvu basin was under the influence of
neritic environment. The deepening of depositional environments is evidenced by the occurrence
of more predatory marine organisms such as ammonites and nautilus. During these times there was
much improvement of open marine influence as reflected by a large diversification of marine fauna
including brachiopods and molluscans. The low energy depositional environments are suggested
from thick accumulation of fine- grained deposits (mudstones, shales and marls) in the Ruvu
basins.

Figure 18 Mudstone and shale

4.2.4 Cretaceous Sequence


The Lower Cretaceous interval was marked by regressive phase; whereby continental red
sandstones series was well developed in the Ruvu basin. Fine to medium grained, cross-bedded,
porous sandstone of Neocomian age crops out around Chalinze, which may be correlated to the
gas-bearing sandstone at Songo Songo (Kipatimu - Formation). The correlation has been based on
lithological similarities between the outcrop at Chalinze and borehole data from Songo Songo. The
Middle Cretaceous unconformity and deposition of thick platform carbonates culminated the
regressive episode and initiated another major marine transgression in the Late Cretaceous. This
transgression led to the deepening of the ocean as supported by thick accumulation of clays rich
in planktonic foraminifera in the Ruvu basin.

16
4.3 Correlation of sedimentary rock strata in Ruvu.
Through correlation we have fit together sedimentary rocks found in Tanga basin and comparing
them with Ruvu basin. We also determined layers in separate strata that are exactly the same age.
We used different methods in correlating rocks. Correlation of sedimentary rocks by looking for
similarity of rock type, characteristics (grain size, composition, cements, sorting and rounding)
and sequence of beds; as sea level rises and falls, or as the climate changes in a Ruvu basin, all
deposited strata experienced the same changes of conditions. All might record a transgression
followed by a regression. Correlation of sedimentary strata by comparing the type of fossils
found in various strata (fossil correlation). Fossils are very important for doing long distance, or
even global, correlation of sedimentary strata, especially if the strata contain fossils of organisms
that had wide geographic ranges.

Figure 19 Correlation of sedimentary rock strata

17
Table 1 Correlation of sedimentary rock strata in Ruvu.

RUVU ROCK TYPE TEXTURE PERIOD TANGA BASIN


BASIN (LITHOLOGY)

Msolwa river Pink granites Coarse grained Permian Umba area


(bridge) crystal. basement

Msolwa Sandstones Fine to medium Middle Kilulu hill


quarry grains, Medium to Jurassic
coarse grains

Kikumbi cha Grey massive oolitic Fine to medium Middle Magomeni


mkulu fossilferous grain Jurassic
limestone

Masuguru Grey colariferous Fine to medium Middle Tanga karsts


sand limestone grain Jurassic

Pinkish sandstone Fine to medium Lower Kombe bridge


with mudstone grain Cretaceous
inclusion
Mindukeni Grey mud bioclastic Fine to medium Upper Sigi river
quarry fossilferous grain Jurassic
limestone

Mbwigu Sandstone which Medium to coarse Lower Ngole bridge


contained large sand grain Jurassic
concretion

18
Figure 20 Stratigraphic of Ruvu basin

19
4.3.1 Description of correlation of sedimentary rock strata in Ruvu.

We observed coarse grained crystals granites with pinkish in color at Msolwa bridge which was
the basement. These granites where formed during Permian period and they correlate with granites
at Umba area in Tanga basin. The correlation between Ruvu and Tanga basin granites was based
upon their textures, they all had phaneritic textures, made up of crystals large enough to be
distinguished with the unaided eye, they were mainly composed of quartz, mica amphibole and
feldspar mineral, and they were found at Permian period.

Figure 21 Granite at Msolwa in Ruvu basin Figure 22 Granite at Umba in Tanga basin

The Msolwa quarry was occupied with variety grain size of sandstones formed at middle Jurassic.
We observed different sandstone with different grain size equivalent to sandstones observed at
Kilulu hill in Tanga basin formed at the same period of middle Jurassic. These sandstones had fine
to medium grains, medium to coarse grains, and fine to coarse grains, they exhibit the fining and
coarsening up sequence (the fine material deposit at the bottom while coarse material at the top).
The Kilulu hill is divided into two parts the lower part and the upper part.
The upper Tanga beds are divided into two parts the lower U1 and upper U2. We noticed that it
is not very easily to find and say the lower part is completely fine grains and the upper top part is
completely coarse grain at Kilulu hill in Tanga basin. The sandstone at both basins experienced
condition which was known as cyclic deposition which varied with the energy level. these
sandstones are definitely reservoir sandstones would represent a reservoir if they were buried
deeper and are still in situ and wet.

20
Figure 23 Sandstone at Msolwa quarry in Ruvu basin Figure 24 Sandstone at Kilulu hill in Tanga basin

Grey massive oolitic fossiliferous limestone were formed at lower Cretaceous period, at Kikumbi
cha mkulu correlated with limestone at Magomeni in Tanga basin. The limestone was present on
the wind ward side of the hill which was gentle. There was a basement which was so highly
extended on one side. The hill was uplifted by a fault and the steep ward side was formed due to
basement rock which was uplifted. On top of the hill there was grey massive oolitic fossiliferous
limestone by comparing the composition of limestones which were colar, sponges and oolites we
noticed that the same type of limestone with specific characteristics was observed at Magomeni in
Tanga basin

Figure 25 fossiliferous limestone in Kikumbi cha mkulu in Ruvu Figure 26 fossiliferous limestone in Magomeni in Tanga
basin basin

21
At Masuguru there was two lithology which correlated with with lithology of Tanga basins. We
first encountered Grey colariferous fine to medium sand limestone, which was surrounded with
ammonites fossil similar to the ones in karst found at Tanga basin. Through fossil correlating we
concluded that this types limestone was formed at the same period which was middle Jurassic.
Another lithology observed in Ruvu basin was fine to medium grain pinkish sandstone with
mudstone inclusion which were equivalent to pinkish sandstone at Kombe bridge, these were
cretaceous age sediments and had the same porosity with the sediment that make Songosongo gas
reservoir. Through studying the sequence of beds as sea level rises and falls, or as the climate
changes in a Ruvu basin, and all deposited strata experienced at Kombe bridge we were able to
correlate them.

Figure 27 Sandstone at Masuguru in Ruvu basin Figure 28 Sandstone at Kombe bridge in Tanga basin

The Mindukeni quarry was occupied with grey mud bioclastic fossiliferous limestone of upper
Jurassic equivalent to those present at Sigi river at Tanga basin. Their porosity was tempered by
mud limestone. A lot of colar and shells depended on mudstone for survivor, used it as food. It
was sheltered (not opened to wave action) with a high energy shallow marine.
The limestone was composed of big bio vibes shells, abundant shells, sponges and abundant colars
all cemented by calcite under a marine environment. The limestone was somehow massive; the
corals were highly present at the wall. This limestone was characterized as a poor reservoir due to
mudstone presence which reduced the porosity, mudstone behaves like the cement.

22
Figure 29 Bioclastic limestone at Mindukeni quarry Figure 30 Bioclastic limestone at Sigi river

The Mbwigu ridge is characterized by large amount of reservoir than source rock and cap lock, from the
fine to coarse grain (coarsening up sequence). This layer consists of medium to coarse grain sandstone
which contained large sand concretion where their grain size would make very good reservoir if they were
buries deeply, equivalent to sandstones present at Ngole bridge which are rich in gas hydrocarbon.

Figure 31 Sandstone at Mbwigu ridge in Ruvu basin Figure 32 Sandstone at Ngole bridge in Tanga basin

23
4.4 Lithological section of Msolwa quarry

Figure 33 Lithological section of Msolwa quarry

4.4.1 Lithostratigraphy description


Msolwa quarry was located at UTM 05184811/9466840.Msolwa quarry was characterized by
faults structures which tends NNE and results the lithologies to bend and dip at measurements of
223/76SW, 228/38SE, 242/90NE.The quarry contains sediments vary in age from middle Jurassic
to upper Jurassic Low cretaceous includes sandy limestone, mudstone and claystone.

4.5 Dip and strike measurements


The orientation discontinuity lithology of the coastal basin can be defined by its dip values
(maximum inclination to the horizontal) and dip direction (direction of the horizontal trace of the

24
line of dip) of outcrops. The strike is at right angles to the dip direction of certain outcrops, and
they’re very important relationship between the strike and the dip direction.
Table 2Dip and strike measurements

AREA STRIKE DIP


MSOLWA BRIDGE 860 SW 080 SE
760 SW 120 SE
360 SW 160 SE
580 SW 120 SE
500 SW 180 SE
900 SW 060 SE
MSOLWA QUARRY 46° NE 14° SE
30° NE 10° SE
86° NE 26° SE
76° NE 05° SE
76° NE 03° SE
90° NE 07° SE
82° NE 20° SE
KIKUMBI CHA MKULU 30° NW 10° SW
24° NW 19° SW
20° NW 28° SW
69° NW 05° SW
69° NW 11° SW
MASUGURU 44° SW 12° NE
73° SW 02° NE
86° SW 21° NE
76° SW 13° NE
68° SW 20° NE
33° SW 23° NE
MINDUKENI QUARRY 24° SE 20° SW
18° SE 05° SW
43° SE 11° SW
33° SE 02° SW
31° SE 21° SW
23° SE 13° SW
17° SE 20° SW

25
4.6 Significance of sedimentary rocks in relation to hydrocarbon potentiality

Stratigraphy is a geological field of specialty that seeks to comprehend the spatial distribution of
different rocks and their provenance. It allowed us to understand the sequence of events in Ruvu
basin, the principal behind stratigraphy of Ruvu is that younger sediments are deposited on top of
older sediments. Stratigraphy has also helped us in correlation of different rocks and strata found
in the basin with other rocks in other basins as well as knowing their comparative time period of
Genesis. Lastly the stratigraphy has helped us in understanding paleo environment on Ruvu basin
as well as in prospecting of oil and gas.

Figure 34 Layers of siltstone and mudstone

26
Sedimentary rocks are the only type of rocks that preserves fossils. All other rocks do not have
fossils. A fossil is the evidence or remains (usually in rock) of previously existing life, fossil in
Ruvu basin have helped us in understanding the environments and organisms of long ago, and
about the climate and weather. It is through fossil we were able to decipher current flow in ancient
marine environment by the alignment of fossils whether an area was covered by oceans or lake
and river by the type of fossils observed in the rock. Fossils do play a role in modern society. Oil,
natural gas and coal are fossil fuels. They exist because of previous life forms. Oil and gas are
created by the decay of marine plants and animals.

Figure 35 Sponge fossil Figure 36 Bivalves fossil

Figure 38 Oolites fossil


Figure 37 Petrified wood fossil

27
The types of rocks that contain oil and natural gas are all sedimentary rocks, rocks formed when
grains and mineral particles deposited by running water fuse together. Because these rocks are
cemented together from such small components, they are porous, full of spaces in which energy-
rich carbon compounds can settle, later to be liberated in the form of either oil or gas.
Shale is a sedimentary rock frequently mentioned as a natural fuel source, likely because of its
abundance (42 percent of all sedimentary rock is estimated to be shale) and its composition. It is
produced when layers of carbon-rich mud are compressed until they harden into rock that retains
those layers. One type of shale contains so much kerogen, the organic solid that gets processed
into oil and gas, that it actually is called “oil shale.”

Figure 39 Shales

Other types of especially porous rocks often form above shale beds, trapping the low-density
carbon compounds that may rise through the mud that becomes shale in their spaces. Sandstone is
one such rock, created from grains of minerals like quartz bound by other compounds, such as
silica. Within sandstone beds, carbon compounds generally exist in liquid form, as crude oil, that
in some cases also releases natural gas when brought to Earth's surface.

28
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 CONCLUSION
This work has systematically described the geological evolution of Ruvu basin, it was written by
following the recent lithological investigations. The Jurassic sequence in the Ruvu basin has been
renamed in accordance with more recent lithostratigraphical nomenclature. The first onset of
sedimentary rocks in Ruvu basin was marked by the deposition of the continental Karoo sediments,
basement sediments and Mesozoic sediments (Jurassic and Cretaceous). It has explained the
sedimentary rocks, and its stratigraphy, the correlation of Ruvu basin; through correlation of
sedimentary rocks found in Tanga basin and comparing them with Ruvu basin, and Significance
of sedimentary rocks in relation to hydrocarbon potentiality; the uses of sedimentary rocks in Ruvu
basin.

5.2 RECOMMENDATION
Until now, limited use of the geologic record reflects long-standing uncertainties about the
geological evolution of Ruvu basin and its hydrocarbon potentiality information for answering
geological questions. Because there are very few information concerning geological evolution of
Ruvu basin in relation to hydrocarbon potentiality in order to predict prospective areas for further
exploration, a conceptual study of geologic evolution on Ruvu basin is widely needed. A
conceptual study of geologic evolution on Ruvu basin is usually a synthesis of exploration
experience, geologists should study this basin and conduct more research in order to provide
additional data which will help in the discovery of future hydrocarbon prospects and play for
exploration of hydrocarbon in Ruvu basin.

29
CHAPTER SIX
6.1 REFERENCE

Frank 2006 Petroleum Exploration Potential. Tanzania Petroleum Development Corporation


(TPDC), Dar es Salaam
Burek WJ 2007 Jurassic Geology of the world 806p. Oliver & Boyd Edinburg
Shihata G 2010 Sedimentary Basins of the African coasts, 2. South and East Coasts. Assoc. Afr.
Geol. Surv. pp. l93-231, Paris
Arthur 1980 Reconstruction of Madagascar and Africa - Evidence from the Davie fracture Zone
and Western Somali basin. Journal of Geophysical Research 92(139): 9385— 9406
Dawson R 2005 Geology of Africa. Oliver and Boyd, Edinburgh. 377p.
Kapilima S 2001 Stratigraphische und palacontologische Untersuchungen im Jura undder Kreide
des tansanischen Kuestenstreifens im Hinterland von Dar es Salaam und Bagamoyo . Berliner
Geowiss. Abh. A/57, 77p.
Bowler H 2006 Gas strike Spurs search for oil Tanzania. Oil and Gas Journal 123: 123-131 Kent
PE, Hunt JA and Johnstone DW 1971 Geology and geophysics of coastal sedimentary basins of
Tanzania. Natural Environment Research Council, Inst. of Geol. Sc., Geophysical Paper 6, 1-
101, London.
Kent PE 1972 Mesozoic history of the East Coast of Africa. Nature 238: 147-148
Christopher 2009 Geology of the continental terrace within and in the periphery of the Indian
Ocean 42-53 Moscow State University (In Russian).
Mpanda M 1997 Geology development of the East African Coastal Basin of Tanzania.
Stockholm Contributions in Geology 45(1): 121pp,
Rabinowitz PD, Coffin MF & Favley D 1983 The Separation of Madagascar and Africa. Science
220(4592): 67—69.
Vdeley BF 1986 The evolving continents. \Viley, J. and Sons Ltd. 2"d edition. 399p.
Wopfner H and Kaaya CZ 1992 Syndepositional Karoo rifting in thc Ruhuhu and Selous basins
— Tanzania. UNESCO, Geology for Economic Development, Newsletter 9: [59- 168.

30
STUDY OF GEOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF RUVU BASIN AND
ITS HYDROCARBON POTENTIALITY
BY
DEUSDEDIT J. MAHUNDA

Email: deusdeditmahunda1@gmail.com
ALL RIGHTS RESERVED ©2019

31