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Quarter II

Overview
This lesson describes the performance outcomes, skills and knowledge required
to prepare and to cook various vegetables, fruit, eggs and farinaceous dishes following
standard recipes appropriate to the intended beneficiary/ies. Hence, it requires the
ability to select and to prepare ingredients and to use relevant equipment and cookery
methods. Moreover, you will also be accomplishing activities that are very vital in
achieving the objectives set forth. You will be exposed to a range of hot meals (egg
dishes, pasta grain, and farinaceous dishes).

In the end, you are expected to present output as part of the requirement in this
quarter.

Objectives:
At the end of the lesson, the students are expected to:
33 discuss principles, procedures , and ingredients in preparing hot meals - egg
dishes, pasta grain, and farinaceous dishes
33 prepare and present a range of cold meals;and,
33 store appetizers hygienically.

DRAFT
Let’s See What You Know

Test 1. MULTIPLE-CHOICE
Direction: Read each questions carefully. Using a quiz booklet where you will
write the letter that corresponds to your answer in each question.

1. Which of the following refers to coddling an egg?


A. Egg is broken into a small cup.
B. Egg is boiled whole.
C. Egg is simmered in water.
D. Egg is mixed with milk/cream and sweetener.
1. Which of the following refers to “al dente” in pasta cooking?
A. Pasta is white and soft. B. Pasta snaps when chewed.
C. Pasta is soggy. D. Pasta is firm and chewy.

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3. This refers to food made from mixture of flour, sometimes with eggs that are formed
into different shapes.
A. Cereal
B. Pasta
C. Rice
D. Corn
4. Which of the following symbolizes life and fertility?
A. Rice
B. Corn
C. Barley
D. Wheat
5. Which of the following is considered a cereal?
A) Barley
B. Rice
C) Oats
D. Wheat

Test II. TRUE OR FALSE


Direction: Read each questions carefully. If the statement is correct, write the word
TRUE and if the statement is incorrect, write FALSE. Write your answer in
your quiz booklet.

DRAFT
______1. Eggs can be eaten alone or mixed with other ingredients to form other
dishes
______2. In cooking over easy, The white part of the egg determines if egg is cooked.
______3. Uncooked grain is best stored through freezing
______4. Microwave ovens are not used in cooking eggs.
______5. You can get fiber from whole grain cereals.
______6. Cereals do not serve as ingredients of alcoholic beverages
______7. Most animal feeds are made of flour.
______8. it only takes 3-4 minutes to cook a hardboiled egg
______9. Grains that are not cooked are indigestible
______10.Oil should be added to the water to be used in cooking pasta

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LESSON 1: PREPARE HOT MEALS
Learning Outcome 1: PREPARE EGG DISHES

Objectives

At the end of the lesson, you are expected to:


33 discuss the principles and procedures in preparing egg dishes,
33 identify ingredients according to the given recipe,
33 prepare variety of egg dishes based on appropriate techniques,
33 present egg dishes attractively using suitable garnishes, condiments and
service wares,
33 compute the selling price and the nutrient value of an egg dishes; and,
33 store egg dishes hygienically at the appropriate temperature.

Egg refers to poultry or fowl products. Eggs may be prepared in various ways.
Eggs may be beaten cooked in its shells, fried or poached or may be combined with
other dishes. In baking, it acts both as an emulsifier and leavener.

Activity 1. NAME THAT EGG DISH

DRAFT
Direction: Complete the boxes below by filling in the different egg dishes that you
know. Write your answer in your quiz notebook.

Different Egg
Dishes

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Eggs

The egg’s protective coating or mucin layer aids in the maintenance of its freshness
by covering the small holes in the shell is called bloom. During washing, bloom is
removed. Therefore, it is not advisable to wash eggs prior to storage unless it is very
dirty. Removal of mucin will expose the holes making the egg susceptible to bacterial
penetration and dehydration, thus hastening deterioration of its quality.

Storage
Eggs should be stored properly to prevent increase in alkalinity and bacterial
growth. They should be stored in a cool, dry place to retard deterioration as enzymatic
activity is greater in room temperature.

Methods in preparing egg dishes


• Egg cooked in a shell
Hard and soft cooked eggs are cooked this way. Simmer eggs only and not
boiled to prevent over coagulation which would cause the eggs to be tough. The
maximum cooking time for eggs in shell is 20-25 minutes. To avoid cracking of the
eggs during cooking, refrigerated eggs should be warmed at ambient temperature
before cooking. Before boiling, water at room temperature should be used.
Sometimes, yolk of eggs may become greenish during cooking. This color is

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due to the formation of iron sulfide. Darkening often occurs in eggs wherein the pH
of the albumin is high. It may also be a result of cooking too long at high temperature.
To avoid this, fresh eggs should always be used. Eggs should be cooked within
minimum period and cooled immediately in running water after cooking.
• Eggs prepared out of the shell
This method involves breaking the egg and using both the yolk and the white
during cooking. Poaching, frying, and the process of making scrambled eggs or
omelette are some of the common methods done.
• Eggs as a thickening agent and binder
When used as a binder or thickener due to the presence of proteins, the
hydrophilic colloids of yolk and whites are converted into a hydrophobic colloid
thus turning it into gel.
• Eggs as leavening agent
Baked products such as sponge cakes, chiffon cakes, meringues, and sufflés
make use of eggs as leavener resulting in a light, airy texture. This is done by the
incorporation of air during the egg beating. Foam is formed when the albumin
surrounds a colloidal system of air bubbles. When beating egg whites, overbeating
must be avoided as it tends to stretch the albumin and would result in a dry, watery
appearance.

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Methods in preparing egg dishes
Dry-heat preparation
• Frying – a frying pan, a sauté pan (omelet pan), or even a griddle can be used to
fry eggs.
o Fried eggs
ӹӹ Sunny-side up – The egg is cooked until the while is set and the yolk is
still soft. The egg is not flipped. This egg preparation may not be
sufficient to eliminate bacteria.
ӹӹ Over easy – The eggs is flipped over when the whites are 75% set. Cooking
continues until the whites are completely cooked but the yolk is still soft.
ӹӹ Over medium – The same as over easy, except that the yolks are partially
set.
ӹӹ Over hard – The same as over easy, except that the yolks are completely
set.
o Scrambled egg – Scrambled eggs are beaten while raw until well blended and
may be seasoned with salt and pepper or other seasoning. Liquid in the form
of milk, cream or water may be added to impart more body and/or flavor and
a soft, creamy texture. The added liquid, a tablespoon or less for each egg,
creates steam during cooking, which lifts the eggs and makes them lighter and
fluffier. Too much liquid makes the egg watery and forms small, tough, curd-like
masses.

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o Omelete – this is when eggs are beaten,
cooked, and rolled into a cigar shape or folded
into a flat half circle.
http://www.ihop.com/menus/main-
menu/omelettes

Plain omelets – consist of whole eggs, cooked and seasoned as desired, and
poured into a prepared pad heated in medium-high. Once the mixture is in the pan,
the heat is lowered to medium, and the mixture is not stirred. Uncooked portions are
allowed to cook by lifting the edges of the omelet with a spatula so the runny mixture
flows underneath. When the top is firm, the omelet can be folded in half, rolled and
folded over itself, or rolled and slid into a dish. If filling is added, they are placed on top
of the omelet just before it is folded.

o Baking – eggs and other ingredients lead to several different egg dishes
■■ Shirred eggs – These are whole eggs that are baked and served in
individual dishes. The egg is cracked, gently placed in a cup from
which it can be rolled in a container coated with butter or margarine,
and then baked in an oven at 350oF (177oC) until cooked.

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■■ Meringue – This is an egg white foamed used in dessert dishes as a
pie topping, a cake layer, or a frosting. Meringue are made by whipping
eggs white into foam and adding sugar, the amount of which determines
the meringue is soft or hard.
■■ Soufflé – This is a modified omelet. The main ingredient of a soufflé are
a thick base generally made from a white sauce or pastry cream, an
egg-foam, and flavoring ingredients.

Moist heat preparation

οο Hard and soft boiled – Although the term “hard-boiled eggs” is commonly used,
eggs should actually be simmered and never boiled, because it will become
tough and rubbery. The high heat of boiling also transforms the iron in the
egg yolk into ferrous sulfide, causing the greenish-black color and unpleasant
flavor to be found in the yolk of overly hard-cooked eggs.
■■ Hot-start method: The water is heated to boiling and then the eggs
are completely immersed in the boiling water. The heat is immediately
reduced to simmer, and the eggs are cooked for 3-15 minutes,
depending on the desired doneness:
soft – 3 to 4 minutes
medium – 5 to 7 minutes

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hard – 12 to 15 minutes
The cooked eggs are drained and then rinsed in cold running water to
stop further cooking from residual heat.

■■ Cold start method: The eggs are placed in a sauce pan with enough
cold water to cover them by at least an inch. The water is brought to a
boil, immediately lowered to simmer, and the eggs are then cooked to
order:
soft – 1minute
medium –3 to 5 minutes
hard – 10 minutes

Another way to prepare hard-cooked eggs from a cold start is to remove


the pan from the heat as soon as the water boils, cover it tightly, and let
it stand for 20 minutes. Cold-start eggs are less likely to crack during
cooking.Once cooked, eggs can be cut into slices or wedges using a
slicer or a wedger. Dipping the knife in hot water before slicing keeps
the hard-cooked eggs from falling apart.

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o Coddling – Eggs are prepared by breaking an egg into a small cup, called
a coddler, made of porcelain or heat-proof glass with a screw-on top, and
submerging the whole coddler in simmering water until the egg is cooked. The
coddler should be buttered or greased before adding the raw egg.

o Poaching – Eggs are poached by being cracked and simmered in enough


water to cover the egg by at least twice its depth. The well-poached egg should
have a firm yolk and intact white. Poached eggs are cooked for 3-5 minutes,
removed with a slotted spoon, drained, trimmed of any streamer, and served
immediately.

o Custard – These are mixtures of milk and/or cream, sweetener (sugar and
honey), flavorings (vanilla, nutmeg, etc.), and eggs or egg yolk. Custard is
thickened by the coagulation of egg protein during cooking. These egg proteins
denature when heated and recombine to form a network of sets or coagulates,
at the right temperature to form the solid gel of custard. All custard dishes
are very susceptible to microbial contamination and should be covered and
refrigerated as soon as possible after preparation. Custard should be baked at
350 (177) until a knife inserted in the middle of a cup comes out clean, about
23-25 minutes for custard cups and 35 to 40 minutes for a casserole-size dish.

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o Microwaving – Eggs are cooked rapidly in a microwave oven, so special caution
should be taken to avoid overcooking. Manufacturer’s instructions should be
followed for microwave egg cooking.

Other egg dishes

Egg dishes have a lot in common, and many cultures have developed egg dishes.
Because eggs do not have a strong taste, they are all useful for conveying other
combinations of flavors. In addition, their unique protein composition, which starts out
fluid, but when heated rapidly, develops a structure that supports other ingredients
This makes the egg very useful in creating many different kinds of dishes (Dolson,
2013).

This is an Italian version of an omelet. Several portions are


usually cooked at once. Small cubes of cheese if added in a
frittata will melt during cooking and create yummy little cheese
pockets.

http://www.bbcgoodfood.com/recipes/4771/
squash-sage-and-gruyre-frittata

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Quiches
A quiche is essentially baked custard (savory
rather than sweet) in a pie shell. It usually includes
cheese, as well as other ingredients. Since it is
custard, it is more delicate in consistency than
a frittata. This is because it is made with more
liquid than eggs, traditionally 2 to 3 eggs per cup
of liquid (traditionally cream), but this is less usual
these days), although you see recipes with more
eggs.
http://blog.fatfreevegan.com/2006/12/mini-
crustless-tofu-quiches.html

Stratas
Stratas are egg, cheese, and bread casseroles
that puff up when baking. They are usually not a
low-carbohydrate dish, although you can make
them with low carbohydrate bread. A strata has
the same ratio of liquid to eggs as a quiche,
although traditionally milk is used, not cream.

http://challengedairy.com/recipes/

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breakfast-foods/ham-and-broccoli-strata

Egg Casseroles
These are usually some combination of egg and cheese, but either with flour added
to the milk, or with a more solid dairy product such as sour cream or yogurt. They are
heartier than a quiche, probably leaning more towards a stratum in texture.

Safety tips
The chances of an egg being internally contaminated are relatively low, less than
1:10,000 commercial eggs. It is more common for contamination to occur during
handling and preparation after the egg has been removed from its shells. Eggs are
excellent breeding grounds for microbes, and can become internally contaminated from
a hen with a salmonella enteritidis, or from absorbing bacteria through the pores. The
latter can occur if the eggs are boiled and then cooled in the presence of infected water
or an infected food handler. Externally, the eggs may also be exposed to salmonella
enteritidis by fecal contamination during egg lying.
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (in Brown, 2011),
implicated eggs as the source for 73% of Salmonella enteriditis outbreak and there
is an increased possibility that listeria monocytogenes, which can grow at refrigerator
temperatures and has already been observed on whole eggs, may also contribute to
future outbreaks.

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Review of Learning Outcome 1

Activity 2. KNOW YOUR KITCHEN PROWESS


Direction: Recall any egg dish that your family prepares during especial or ordinary
occasion at home. Present the recipe in class.

Let’s Do it!

Activity 3. COOKING TIME


Direction: Group yourselves into four or five. Each group will prepare variety of egg
dishes from the different recipes considering the cultural background

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and condition of the patient.

Activity 4. PRESENTATION TIME


Direction: Create and present an egg dish attractively using appropriate
accompaniment, garnishing and serving portion. Present the output in
class.

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Learning Outcome 2
PREPARE PASTA, GRAIN, AND CEREAL DISHES

Objectives:
At the end of the lesson, you are expected to:
33 discuss the principles and procedures in preparing pasta grain and farinaceous
dishes,
33 identify ingredients according to the given recipe,
33 prepare variety of pasta grain and farinaceous dishes based on appropriate
techniques,
33 present pasta grain and farinaceous dishes attractively using suitable
garnishes, condiments and service wares,
33 compute the selling price and the nutrient value of a pasta and farinaceous
dishes; and,
33 store pasta grain and farinaceous dishes hygienically at the proper temperature.

Pasta is a food made from a mixture of flour, water, and sometimes eggs that is
formed into different shapes (such as thin strips, tubes, or shells) and usually boiled
(Merriam-Webster, 2014).

DRAFT
Activity 1. NAME THAT DISH
Direction: Complete the boxes below by filling them with different pasta,
grain, and cereal dishes that you know. Use your quiz notebook
for your answer.

Different Pasta
Dishes

Different Grain
Dishes

Different Cereal
Dishes

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Types of Pasta
1. Long pasta
• Capelli d' Angelo - This very fine noodle, also known as angel hair pasta, is
excellent with soup or butter sauces
• Spaghetti - Arguably, the most famous of all pasta forms. These round strands
are excellent with various sauces.
• Capellini - This is a thinner version of spaghetti. Its delicate shape makes it
perfect with light and spicy sauces such as tomato, fish and oil-based sauces.
• Linguine - This thin, slightly flattened pasta looks like a tongue, thus its name.
It is often served with oil, butter, and thin sauces.
• Bucatini - This thin, hollow pasta tube goes well with vegetable and cheese
sauces, pesto and pancetta.
• Bucatoni - This is the slightly fatter version of bucatini. As with bucatini, this is
ideal with robust sauces.
• Fusilli Lunghi - This long coil-snapped pasta is suited to chunky sauces. They
are a classic match with neopolitanragu and can be used in baked pasta dishes.

2. Ribbons
• Fettuccini - also known as trenette. Fettuccine is suited to medium heavy and
rich sauces.
• Tagliatelle - This is slightly wider than fettuccine and it is the classic partner of

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the bolognese sauce. It can also be combined with rich, hearty sauces.
• Pappardelle - These are very wide ribbons, also called larghissime, which
either could be straight edged or saw- edged.
• Tagliolini - perhaps one of the thinner ribbons, tagliolini is usually served with
sauce or broth.

3. Tubes
• Penne - The word penne means pen which this pasta resembles because it
is quill-like shape. It may be smooth (lisce) or ridge (rigate) and is available in
various sizes. The ridges and cavities of this type of pasta make it a perfect
vehicle for cream and meat sauce.
• Cavatappi - These corkscrews which are larger version of the fusilli, go well
with a variety of sauces which cling the pasta's ridges and holes
• Maccheroni/macaroni – Generally the term maccheroni or macaroni refers to a
variety of tubular pastas. They can be served with medium and hearty sauces
or in soups.
• Rigatoni – These are large, grooved tubes, which go well with meat sauces,
fresh tomato sauces, and vegetable sauces.

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4. Special forms
• Farfalle – These are flat rectangular noodles that are pinched in the center to
form bowties. Farfelle is excellent with oil-based sauces, butter sauces, cheese
sauces and tomato-based sauces that are trapped within the folds.
• Conchiglie – These are ridged shells that are available in a variety of sizes,
with the smallest ones in soups; the middle-sized ones, with sauces; and the
largest ones, stuffed. These are suited to tomato, meat, and butter sauces.
• Orecchiette – This pasta looks like little ears. Orecchiete is traditionally hand-
made from eggless pasta dough. It is usually served with vegetable sauces,
thick sauces, soups, and ragu.
• Fusilli corti – These are like short springs that are perfect with chunky sauces
and vegetable sauces that wrap around their shape.
• Route de carro – These cartwheels, which originate from Sicily, are a good
match with vegetable sauces, meat, and cheese sauces that are trapped within
their “spokes”.

5. Stuffed pasta
• Lasagne – These are long past sheets, which are prepared by layering them
with meat or vegetable filling and baked them.
• Raviolini – Also known as Agnolotti, these are usually meat-filled but may also
be stuffed with other types of fillings.

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• Tortelli – These are square pasta pillows usually stuffed with a spinach-ricotta
mixture and served with a simple buttered tomato sauce.
• Tortellini – these stuffed little pasta rings contain meat or cheese and are
usually served with cream sauces or with broth.
• Cannelloni – Different kinds of fillings can be spread on these rectangular pasta
sheets. They are then rolled up and baked.

6. Colored pasta
• Plain – This pasta is made from eggs, flour, salt and sometimes. It usually
accompanies cream sauces, with its color ranging from pale to rich yellow.
• Spinach – It is made by adding chopped cooked pasta to the eggs in the pasta
dough mixture.
• Tomato – The color of red pasta is achieved by the addition of tomato purée or
concentrate to the basic fresh pasta recipe.

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Preparation of pasta
• Moist heat preparation
The following are the ingredients and their proportions when cooking pasta:
- 3 liters water
- 1 tsp salt
- 250 grams pasta

When cooking pasta use a saucepan large enough for the pasta to move around.
Boil water. Once boiled, stir in the salt and slowly add the pasta, making sure that all of
the noodles are covered with water. This is to ensure uniform heating of the noodles.
Adding of oil is not advisable since this hinders the sauce from clinging to the pasta.

Replace the lid of the cooking pot to facilitate re-boiling of water. Remove the lid
when the water has boiled. Stir the cooking noodles once or twice only. Periodically,
check if the pasta is cooked.

Pasta must be cooked until it is firm to the bite it "al dente". This stage is reached
when the pasta can be easily cut by pressing with a fork against the side of the pan or
by actually biting on a strand to be sure that, the pasta feels firm and chewy.

For most regular pasta, cooking time is approximately 10 minutes, but fresh pasta

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and Asian noodles can take as little as 3 minutes.

Pasta should be drained immediately before serving using a colander. It should


never be rinsed in cold water unless it will be used for making salad. Rinsing it will
remove its starchy cooking which enables the sauce to cling to the noodles.
Pasta should be slightly undercooked if it is to be stir-fried, baked or added to
soup, stew or casseroles.

Storage of Pasta
• The storage of pasta depends on whether it is dried, fresh or cooked.
o Dried pasta should be tightly wrapped and stored in a cool, dry place.
o Fresh pasta should be kept in refrigerator until the expiration or “used
by” date.
It will be at its best for about a week and will keep in the freezer for
a month. Fresh pasta is modified-atmosphere packages may last up
to 120 days, but there is an increased risk for microbial contamination
because of the long storage time.

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Additional ingredients often found in fresh Asian noodles reduce their
keeping time in the refrigerator to days.
o Cooked pasta will keep for to days in the refrigerator and is easily
reheated in the microwave oven under vented plastic wrap or by placing
it in a pot of boiling water for half a minute.

Farinaceous Dishes

Farinaceous - consisting or made of meal or flour (Oxford dictionaries, 2014).

Cereals
Cereals – There are grains used for food, for example wheat, maize, or rye (Oxford
dictionaries, 2014). Grains are the world’s famous food crops, and there are
numerous varieties.

Several of the many varieties of grains


• Millet – This is the seed of an annual, gluten-free grass that is widely eaten as
a cereal in Africa and Asia. It is also used as a source of starch.
• Corn – Indigenous to Mexico, corn is one of the most important cereals in the
form of grain, meal, and flour. It is used to make corn bread and hominy, and is
also an important source of starch and cooking oil.
• Wheat – It is the source of the highest-quality bread and baking flour. There are

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many different varieties. The durum wheat type is best known in making pasta.
• Oats – native to central Europe, oats are used to make oatmeal and flour, and
are often added to cakes and cookies.
• Barley – Indigenous to the East, barley is used for making malt liquor, as a side
dish similar to rice, and also in soup.
• Masbati rice – Grown in the foothills of the Himalayas, the narrow long-grained
rice is one of the finest. It should be soaked before cooking, and is the best rice
to eat with Indian food.

Structure of grain

http://medicologia.info/2012/10/sfaturi-prevenirea-cancerului-alimentatie/

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Uses of Cereal Grains
• Flour is a fine powder obtained from crushing the endosperm of the grain. In
case of whole grain flours, the bran and germ are also milled into the flour.
Flour is used to make breads and an assortment of other baked products, such
as biscuits, rolls, crackers, pretzels, cookies, cakes, and pastries. It also plays
an important role as a thickener.
• Pasta comes in variety of shapes, and is sold in both dried and fresh forms.
• Breakfast cereals are the form of dry cereal as a vegetarian replacement for
traditional breakfast of ham, eggs, sausages, etc. Nutrient content: a cup of
cooked cereal, grain, or pasta contains about 160 calories (kcal), 30 grams
of carbohydrates, 6 grams of protein, some vitamins, and minerals (thiamin,
riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, pantothenic acid, folate), and a trace of fat.
Whole-grain products provide additional fiber.
• Alcoholic beverages are done through the process of “fermentation”. Example:
rice to make sake, a Japanese wine; rye, barley, or corn may be used in brewing
beer or distilling liquors.
• Animal feeds – Grains are important in manufacturing livestock and pet feeds.
Many dried dog foods list ground yellow corn as the first ingredient on their
label.

Types of cereal grains:

wheat
rice
corn
barley
DRAFT faro and spelt
Millet
sorghum
oats
rye
Other grains:
triticale
kamut
New waves of
grain:
amaranth
buckwheat
quinoa

Rice – over half the world’s population relies on rice as a staple food. It has 8 amino
acids in balanced proportions. In Asia, where 94% of the world’s rice is
produced, rice is so important that it is a symbol of life and fertility. This is why
rice is sometimes thrown at the bride and groom at a wedding.

Classification of rice
• Long-grained rice
Long-grained rice is rich in amylase. It absorbs more water and is
gelatinized at a higher temperature. If properly prepared, it retains its
shape well as it swells.
• Medium-grained and Short-grained rice
Short-grained rice is high in amylpectin. It is cohesive and sticky, tends
to split on ends and becomes less distinct in outline.

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Forms of rice
glutinous
white rice instant rice rice bran
rice

converted specialty
brown rice wild rice
rice rice

Corn – Over 50% of the world’s corn is grown in the United States. It is native to
Americas. Fossilized corn pollen grains found near Mexico City have been
estimated to be over 80,000 years old.

Corn classification – Corn is classified according to its kernel type and by its color.
Yellow and white predominate, but there are also red, pink, blue, and black corns
as well as corn bands or stripes.

dent corn flint corn flour corn

sweet corn popcorn pod corn

Forms of corn
Corn
Corn on the cob and kernel corn Cornmeal

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oil

hominy Corn starch

hominy grits Corn syrup

Preparation of Cereal Grains


Cereals in their natural form are nearly indigestible. The hardouter covering of the
seed of these grasses prevents their immediate consumption and can even break a
tooth.
Moist heat preparation: boiling/simmering
• Pre-prep - Whole grains are first rinsed thoroughly prior to cooking to remove
any dirt or insect part. Cooking the grain – the most common method is the
“absorption method”. The grain is added to a measurement amount of boiling
water. Salt is added in the ratio of ¼ teaspoon per cup of uncooked grain to
provide flavor. The pan is then covered, and the water is brought back to boil.
The heat is then immediately reduced, and the contents are allowed to simmer
(covered) for the remainder of the preparation time. The steam cooker simplifies
the process because the only step consists of adding the grain, unheated water,
and seasoning to the container, which regulates the temperature as needed to
produce perfect rice. Regardless of which method is used, water is absorbed,
after which the rice finishes cooking through the trapped steam.
• Grain consistency – A pan is used, adding the grain to hot water results in fluffier
product; adding cold water yields a sticker grain. Stirring also affects stickiness.
The grain is initially stirred only as much as is necessary to disperse it and the
salt evenly in the water. Stirring can be avoided by pouring the grain in a zigzag
fashion over the entire surface of the boiling water for a more even distribution.

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• Determine doneness – After the minimum amount of covered cooking time has
passed, the grains are tested for doneness by tasting. The grains should be
tender but should have a slight resistant core. Undercooked grains are difficult
to chew and have a starchy, raw flavor. Overcooked grains may form a mushy,
formless mash. Too much water contributes to stickiness, sogginess, and loss
of nutrients, but insufficient water causes dry, toughened textures, and may
even allow the grain to burn.
• Standing time – Once cooked, the grain should stand for 10-15 minutes. The
standing time allows steam to further separate the granules, creating a light,
airy texture. To further achieve this goal, after removing the saucepan from the
heat, a fork can be used to fluff the grain by gently and quickly forming a pyramid
with the grain in the pan. The fork handle is inserted into the pile in four places,
moving it back and forth each time to create ¼-inch tunnel for steam to escape
from the pyramid. Placing a paper towel flat over the pan and then covering the
pan with its lid allows the paper towel to absorb the rising steam. A modified
version of this method is often used in the Middle East to ensure a

Storage of cereal grains

Dry
Dry grains, freed of their bran and germ, are best kept in airtight wrappings or
containers in a cool, dry area free of rodents, insects, and other pests. Moisture is

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the biggest contributor to the deterioration of grains. The relative humidity in the
environment determines the grain’s moisture content, as grains take up moisture until
equilibrium is reached with the atmosphere’s water vapor. Once opened, packages
should be tightly resealed or the grain placed in another airtight container that will
protect it from air or animal invasion. Most grains, when stored properly, will keep for
6 to 12 months.

Refrigerated
Whole grain should be refrigerated in airtight containers to retard rancidity and
prevent mold growth, which can be caused by moisture. Usually, only whole and
cooked grains are refrigerated. Cooking whole grains will keep up to a week if they are
tightly covered. The best way to reheat grains is in a microwave oven or in a covered
saucepan on top of the range with about 2 tablespoons of water added for each cup
of grain.

Frozen
Cooked whole grain can be frozen for future use if they are tightly wrapped or
placed in airtight containers. Uncooked grains should not be frozen because freezing
alters the protein structure in such a way that any baked products made from the grain
will not rise as high.

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Nutritional contribution of cereals
Cereals contain some amount of vitamins B and a considerable amount of protein,
especially if eaten in large amounts. They are rich source of starch and have low fat
content if the germ has been removed.

Starches
Starches, the reserved carbohydrate of plants, have several functions in food
preparation. It can be used as thickener in sauces and as a stabilizer for beverages
and dressings. It also provides the structural framework of baked products. It is a
gelling agent for food items such as rice cakes, and can be used for dusting or coating
bread and biscuits, as well as helps retain moisture in fillings and candies.

Examples of starch cookery


Starch is cooked in many ways. It is primarily used for thickening soups, sauces,
and gravies; and for gelatinizing puddings.

White sauces
The general procedure for making white sauce is to first melt the fat before
thoroughly blending in the flour. Cold milk is then added and blended well with the
starch by constant stirring, usually, with a whisk. A well-prepared white sauce should
be smooth, well seasoned, and should have an appropriate viscosity for the type being

DRAFT
prepared.

Gravy
The preparation of gravy varies according to the type of dripping used. Dripping
are fats or liquid that accumulates after the meat has been fried, roasted, baked, or
steamed.

Cream soups
A cream soup is based on a thin white sauce also called béchamel sauce mild
that has been thickened with roux, with heavy cream added as a finishing touch. The
solids could either be strained or puréed and returned to the soup. Straining is done
to ensure a velvety-smooth texture. The consistency should be similar to that of heavy
cream.

Review of Learning Outcome 2

Activity 2. KNOW YOUR KITCHEN PROWESS


Direction: Recall any pasta, grain and cereal dish that your family prepares during
especial or ordinary occasion at home. Present the recipe in class.

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Let’s Do it!

Activity 3. COOKING TIME


Direction: Form a group with five members. Each group will prepare variety of
pasta, grain and cereal dishes from the different recipes considering
the cultural background and condition of the patient.

Activity 4. PRESENTATION TIME


Direction: Create and present pasta, grain and cereal dishes attractively using
appropriate accompaniment, garnishing and serving portion.

Enhancement activity

DRAFT
Individual Activity:
1. Watch the following video on how the egg/pasta dishes are prepared.
a. Egg dishes
33 Scrambled eggs: http://allrecipes.com/video/14/how-to-scramble-eggs/
detail.aspx
33 Frying an egg http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z1wjhJaAC4Y
33 Frittata: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8gQjVrAwvLs
b. Pasta dishes
• Spaghetti: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u0p_dBCEDs4
c. Cereal dishes
• Corn: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lc3Rm2kSWQ4
2. Answer the following questions after watching the videos:
a. What are the ingredients needed to prepare each of the egg dishes
given?
b. What are some tips to note when preparing each specific egg/pasta/
cereal dish?
c. What do you think are other ways to make the egg dish/pasta/cereal
dish more appropriate for Filipinos?

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GROUP ACTIVITY

Direction: Prepare dishes that are appropriate for a person who needs to have a high
caloric, high fiber and diet/meal (breakfast, lunch and dinner) using eggs,
pasta, and cereals.
1. There should be students per group.
2. Create a meal which is high caloric, high fiber and diet/meal (breakfast,
lunch and dinner) using eggs, pasta, and cereals.
3. Compute for the caloric content of the planned meal.
4 1
5 3 2
Performance
Criteria Very Needs
Excellent Satisfactory Fair
satisfactory improvement

prepares, prepares, prepares,


prepares, prepares, no attempt to
checks, and checks, and checks, and
checks, and checks, and prepare, check
uses most uses some uses none of the
uses needed uses all needed and use needed
needed needed needed
materials, materials, materials,
materials, materials, materials,
ingredients prior ingredients prior ingredients prior
ingredients prior ingredients prior ingredients prior
to actual activity to actual activity to actual activity
to actual activity. to actual activity to actual activity

systematic systematic systematic never follows


application of all application of application of systematic
Work work work work application of no attempt to

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Application procedure all procedure most procedure some procedure and apply procedure
Procedure the time even of the time with of the time with highly to the activity
without proper minimum constant development on given
supervision supervision supervision supervision

self-
self-
highly self- motivated and needs to be
motivated and not motivated
motivated and observes motivated
observes most and totally
observes all sometimes some and does not
Safety and safety and disregards
safety and of the safety and observe safety
security work security safety and
security security and security
habits precautions security
precautions all precautions precaution in
most of the time precautions in
the time some of the time work
in work work
in work

finished the finished the work finished the


finished the work
Speed/Time work ahead of close to given work beyond the no work at all
on time
time time given time.

Integration
In what ways can emotions affect eating?
How can you make meals more pleasant?

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Let’s See How Much You Have Learned

I. MULTIPLE-CHOICE
Direction: Read each questions carefully. Using a quiz booklet, write the letter that
corresponds to your answer in each question.
1. Which of the following refers to coddling an egg?
A) Egg is broken into a small cup.
B) Egg is boiled in water
C) Eggs is simmered in water.
D) Egg is mixed with fruits
2. Which of the following refers to “al dente” in pasta cooking?
A) Pasta is soft.
B) Pasta is chewy.
C) Pasta is soggy.
D) Pasta is firm and chewy.
3. This refers to a food made from mixture of flour, sometimes eggs that are
formed into different shapes.

DRAFT
A) cereal
B) pasta
C) rice
D) corn
4. Which of the following symbolizes life and fertility?
A) Rice
B) Corn
C) Barley
D) Wheat
5. Which of the following is not considered a cereal?
A) barley
B) rice
C) oats
D) wheat

II. TRUE OR FALSE


Direction: Read each questions carefully. If the statement is correct, write the
word TRUE and if the statement is incorrect, write FALSE. Write your
answer in your quiz booklet.
______1. Omelet is beaten egg, cooked, and rolled into a cigar shape or folded into
a flat half circle.
______2. In cooking, egg is flipped when the whites are 75% set.
______3. Freezing is the best storage for uncooked grain.
______4. Eggs are not cooked in microwaves.
______5. Whole-grain cereal can provide additional fiber.

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______6. Cereals are not used to make alcoholic beverages.
______7. Animal feeds are purely made of flour.
______8. Hardboiled egg is cooked for 3 to 4 minutes.
______9. Uncooked grains are tough and may be indigestible.
______10.In cooking pasta, oil should be included when boiling.

DRAFT

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