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ChE 600 Compiled Reviewers

2nd Term AY 2018-19


Reviewer 2A: Application

Chemical Process Industries


Process Control and Dynamics
Equipment Design

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

APPLICATION

1. In a shell-and-tube heat exchanger with the shell-side having an entering pressure of 588 psig,
calculate the design pressure of the shell-side.
A. 613 psig B. 563 psig C. 646.8 psig D. 529.2 E. None
psig of
the
abov
e
Solution:
In calculating the design pressure, the maximum allowable pressure is calculated by the addition of 25
psig or 10% safety factor (depending which is higher). Since 10% is higher than 25 psig, the addition of
10% safety factor was used.
10
𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 588 + (588 𝑥 ) = 646.8
100
2. What schedule number can be used for ordinary steel pipe having an allowable stress of
10,000 psi for use at working pressure of 350 psig?
A. 80 B. 120 C. 40 D. 160 E. None
of the
above
𝑃
𝑆𝑐ℎ. 𝑁𝑜. = 1000 ( )
𝑆
10, 000 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑆𝑐ℎ. 𝑁𝑜. = 1000 ( )
350 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔
𝑆𝑐ℎ. 𝑁𝑜. = 35 ≈ 40 (𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡)
3. It is required to design a cylindrical shell having 32 inch radius. The internal pressure inside is
663 psi and the material unit stress is 17,000 and it is fully radiographed. Determine the
required thickness of the shell.
A. 1.40 inch B. 1.37 inch C. 1.35 inch D. 1.30 inch E. None
of
these
Given:
𝑃 = 700 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑅 = 32 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ
𝑆 = 17000 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝐸 = 1 (𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑙𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑜𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑑)
𝑃𝑅
𝑡=
𝑆𝐸 − 0.6𝑃

(700 𝑝𝑠𝑖)(32 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ)


𝑡= = 𝟏. 𝟑𝟓 𝒊𝒏𝒄𝒉
(17000 𝑝𝑠𝑖)(1) − 0.6(700 𝑝𝑠𝑖)
4. Find the volume of fluid inside a horizontal , cylindrical tank ; 42 cm in diameter with cylinder
length of 62 cm with a guppy and ellipsoidal head and standard ASME torispherical 1-1 k =
0.06 heads , each heads extending beyond the ends of the cylinder 16.5 cm (except
torispherical ) for fluid depth in the tanks of 14 cm.

A. B. C. D. E. None of
29, 883.50724 𝑚3 298, 83.50724 𝑐𝑚3 29, 883.50724 𝑐𝑚3 30, 793.50724 𝑐𝑚3 these

Solution:
42
𝐷 = 42 𝑐𝑚 , 𝑅= = 21 , ℎ = 14 𝑐𝑚
2
Compute for Af

𝑅−ℎ
𝐴𝑓 = 𝑅 2 ∗ cos−1 ( ) − (𝑅 − ℎ) (√2 ∗ 𝑅 ∗ ℎ − ℎ2 )
𝑅
21𝑐𝑚 − 14𝑐𝑚
𝐴𝑓 = 21𝑐𝑚2 ∗ cos −1 ( ) − (21𝑐𝑚 − 14𝑐𝑚) (√2 ∗ 21𝑐𝑚 ∗ 14𝑐𝑚 − 14𝑐𝑚2 )
21𝑐𝑚
𝐴𝑓 = 404.2601739 𝑐𝑚2
Ellipsoidal Head (Volume)

𝑉𝑓 = 𝐴𝑓 ∗ 𝐿 + 𝜋 ∗ 𝑎 ∗ ℎ2 (1 − )
3𝑅
14 𝑐𝑚
𝑉𝑓 = 404.2601739 𝑐𝑚2 ∗ 62 𝑐𝑚 + 𝜋 ∗ 16.5 𝑐𝑚 ∗ 14 𝑐𝑚2 (1 − )
3 ∗ 21 𝑐𝑚

𝑉𝑓 = 32 ,966.2835 𝑐𝑚3
Guppy Head (Volume)
2 ∗ 𝑎 ∗ 𝑅2 ℎ 2∗𝑎
𝑉𝑓 = 𝐴𝑓 ∗ 𝐿 + cos−1 (1 − ) + (√2 ∗ 𝑅 ∗ ℎ − ℎ2 ) (ℎ + 𝑅)
3 𝑅 9∗𝑅

2 ∗ 16.5 𝑐𝑚 ∗ 21 𝑐𝑚2 14 𝑐𝑚
𝑉𝑓 = 404.2601739 𝑐𝑚2 ∗ 62 𝑐𝑚 + cos−1 (1 − )
3 21 𝑐𝑚
2 ∗ 16.5 𝑐𝑚
+ (√2 ∗ 21 𝑐𝑚 ∗ 14 𝑐𝑚 − 14 𝑐𝑚2 ) (14 𝑐𝑚 + 21 𝑐𝑚)
9 ∗ 21 𝑐𝑚

𝑉𝑓 = 26 800.73097 𝑐𝑚3
Volume
32, 966.2835 𝑐𝑚3 + 26,800.73097 𝑐𝑚3
𝑉= = 29, 883.50724 𝑐𝑚3
2
5. What is the volume of a half-filled horizontal tank with flat heads with diameter D and length
L?
𝜋 𝜋 𝜋 𝜋
A. 4 𝐷 2 𝐿 B. 6 𝐷 2 𝐿 C. 8 𝐷 2 𝐿 D. 2 𝐷 2 𝐿 E. None of these

Solution:
𝑉 =𝐵×ℎ
𝜋 𝐿
𝑉 = 𝐷2 ×
4 2

References:

PRESSURE VESSEL DESIGN by Dr. Lola Domnina Pestaño (lecture)

Retrieved from: ChE 511 Lecture

Livingston E., Scavuzzo R. J., Engineering Handbook, “Pressure Vessels”

CHE 511 lecture by Prof. Pestaño

PROCESS CONTROL AND DYNAMICS

1. In an underdamped second order system, the values of the time constant and damping ratio
were pre-determined. With the value of 0.5 and 0.4 respectively, calculate the period of
oscillation of the system.
A. 2.90 B. 1.45 C. 1.71 D. 3.43 E. of
these
Solution:
2𝜋𝜏 2𝜋(0.5)
𝑇= = = 3.43
√1 − 𝜁 2 √1 − (0.4)2
2. A step input of magnitude 4 is applied to a system having a transfer function of

𝑌(𝑠) 10
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.6𝑠 + 4

Determine its percentage overshoot.

A. 25.00 % B. 253.8% C. 25.38 % D. 0.2538 E. None of


these

Solution:

𝑌(𝑆) 10 1⁄ 4
= 2 ∗ 4 𝑋(𝑠) =
𝑋(𝑆) 𝑠 + 16𝑠 + 4 1⁄ 𝑠
4
𝑌(𝑆) 2.5
= 2
𝑋(𝑆) 0.25𝑠 + 0.4𝑠 + 1

4 2.5
𝑌(𝑠) = ∗ 𝜏 2 = 0.25 𝜏 = 0.5 2𝜉𝜏 = 0.4 𝜉 = 0.4
𝑠 0.25𝑠 2 + 0.4𝑠 + 1

−𝜋 ∗ 𝜏
% 𝑂𝑆 = exp ( ) ∗ 100
√1 − 𝜉 2

−𝜋 ∗ 0.5
% 𝑂𝑆 = exp ( ) ∗ 100 = 25.38 %
√1 − 0.42

3. Find Laplace Transform for 𝑓(𝑡)=5𝑒−𝑡cosh2𝑡

A. 5s+5/s2+2s- B. 5s+5/s2+2s+3 C. 5s+5/s2- D. 5s+1/s2+2s- E. None


3 2s-3 3 of the
above
𝑠
𝐿{𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑡} =
𝑠2− 22
s+1 s+1
L{e−t cosht} = 2 2
= 2
(s + 1) − 2 s + 2s − 3
5𝑠 + 5
𝐿{5𝑒 −𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑡} = 2
𝑠 + 2𝑠 − 3

4. Find the Laplace Transform of 𝑓(𝑡) = 3 e2t sin 2𝑡 + 𝑒 2𝑡 cos 2𝑡

𝑠+4 𝑠+4 𝑠+2 𝑠+4 E. None of


𝑠 2 − 4𝑠 + 13 𝑠 2 + 4𝑠 − 13 𝑠 2 − 4𝑠 + 13 𝑠 2 − 2𝑠 + 13 these
A. B. C. D.

2 𝑠−2
𝐹(𝑠) = 3 2 2
+
(𝑠 − 2) + 2 (𝑠 − 2)2 + 22
𝑠+4
𝐹(𝑠) =
(𝑠 − 2)2 + 22
𝒔+𝟒
𝑭(𝒔) = 𝟐
𝒔 − 𝟒𝒔 + 𝟏𝟑
5. Approximate the transfer function shown below with a second-order-plus-delay model using
Skogestad’s Half-Rule.
1−𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
(2𝑠 + 1)2 (8𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)

𝑒 −4𝑠 𝑒 −4𝑠 𝑒 −3𝑠 𝑒 −3𝑠 E. None of these


A. (10𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1) B. (10𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1) C. D.
(10𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1) (10𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1)

Solution:
1−𝑠
(10𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)
1−𝑠
2
(10𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1) (2 𝑠 + 1) (2𝑠 + 1)
𝑒 −𝑠 𝑒 −𝑠 𝑒 −2𝑠
(10𝑠 + 1)((8 + 1)𝑠 + 1)
𝑒 −4𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
(10𝑠 + 1)(9𝑠 + 1)

References:

STEP RESPONSE OF AN UNDERDAMPED SECOND ORDER SYSTEM by Engr. Basil James Santos
(lecture)

Retrieved February 15, 2019, from


CHE 511 (Process Control) Class Lecture – Discussion prepared by Sir Basil James Santos
Retrieved from: Process Control Lecture of Mr. Basil Santos

Process Control

1. Find the Inverse Laplace of


𝑠
𝐹(𝑠) =
𝑠2 + 8𝑠 + 21

A. 𝑒 −4𝑡 sin √5𝑡 − B. 𝑒 −4𝑡 cos √5𝑡 − C. 𝑒 −4𝑡 cos √5𝑡 − D. 𝑒 −4𝑡 sin √5𝑡 − E. None of
4 4 4 4 the
𝑒 −4𝑡 cos √5𝑡 𝑒 −4𝑡 sin √5𝑡 𝑒 −4𝑡 sin √5𝑡 𝑒 −4𝑡 cos √5𝑡
√5𝑡 √5𝑡 √5𝑡 √5𝑡 Choices
Solution:
𝑠
𝐹(𝑠) =
𝑠2
+ 8𝑠 + 21
𝑠+4−4
𝐹(𝑠) =
(𝑠 + 4)2 + 5
𝑠+4 4
𝐹(𝑠) = −
(𝑠 + 4) + 5 (𝑠 + 4)2 + 5
2

𝟒 −𝟒𝒕
𝑓(𝑡) = 𝒆−𝟒𝒕 𝐜𝐨𝐬 √𝟓𝒕 − 𝒆 𝐬𝐢𝐧 √𝟓𝒕
√𝟓

2. Water enters a 1000 L mixed tank heater at a flow rate of 220 L/min. The outlet temperature of the tank
is 80⁰C. Determine the response of the outlet temperature of a mixed-tank heater to a step change in
the inlet temperature from 65 to 73⁰C.
A. 80 + 8(1 − B. 80 + 8(1 − C. 80 + 9(1 − D. 85 + 8(1 − E. None of the
−𝑡/4.545 −𝑡/4.45 −𝑡/4.545 −𝑡/4.545
𝑒 ) 𝑒 ) 𝑒 ) 𝑒 ) choices

Solution:

1000 𝐿
𝜏= = 4.545 𝑚𝑖𝑛
220 𝐿/𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑇′(𝑠) 1
=
𝑇𝑖 ′(𝑠) 4.545𝑠 + 1

8 1
𝑇 ′ (𝑠) = ( )
𝑠 4.545𝑠 + 1

𝑇 ′ (𝑡) = 8(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/4.545 )

𝑇(𝑡) = 𝟖𝟎 + 𝟖(𝟏 − 𝒆−𝒕/𝟒.𝟓𝟒𝟓 )

𝑌(𝑠) 10
3. A step change with a magnitude of 4 is introduced in a transfer system of = . Determine
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠2 +1.6𝑠+4
the % Overshoot
A. 24.5% B. 25.4% C. 34.5% D. 35.4% E. None of the
choices
Solution:

𝑌(𝑠) 10
=
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠2 + 1.6𝑠 + 4
𝑌(𝑠) 2.5
=
𝑋(𝑠) 0.25𝑠2 + 0.4𝑠 + 1
𝜏2 = 0.25
2𝜖𝜏 = 0.4
𝜖 = 0.4
−𝜋 × 0.4
%𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑡 = (exp { )) × 100 = 𝟐𝟓. 𝟒%
√0.84

4. The characteristics of a controlled system is as shown below. Determine the range of Kc in which the
system will be stable.
𝑠 2 + 𝑠 + 2.5
1 + 𝐾𝑐 ∗ =6
𝑠(4𝑠 2 + 4𝑠 + 1)

A. Kc < 1 B. Kc > 1 C. Kc > 0 D. Kc > 1.5 E. None of the


choices
Solution:

4𝑠 3 + 4𝑠 2 + 𝑠 + 𝐾𝑐 2 + 𝐾𝐶 + 2.5𝐾𝑐 = 0
4𝑠 2 + (4 + 𝐾𝑐)𝑠 2 + (1 + 𝐾𝑐)𝑠 + 2.5𝐾𝑐 = 0
1 4 1+Kc

2 4+Kc 2.5Kc
3 1+Kc-10Kc/(4+Kc)
4 2.5Kc
10𝐾𝑐
1 + 𝐾𝑐 − >0
4 + 𝐾𝑐
4 + 5𝐾𝑐 + 𝐾𝑐 2 − 10𝐾𝑐 > 0
𝐾𝑐 2 − 5𝐾𝑐 + 4 > 0
𝑲𝒄 > 𝟏

5. Given a thermometer that has a time constant of 1 min is initially at 50°C. It is immersed in a bath
maintained at 100⁰C at t = 0. Determine the temperature reading in Celsius at 1.2 min.

A. 83.49°C B. 84.9°C C. 77.82°C D. 78.9°C E. None of the


Choices
Solution:

τ = 1 min for a thermometer initially at 50⁰C.


Next it is immersed in bath maintained at 100⁰C at t = 0
At t = 1.2
Y(t) = A(1-e-t/τ)
Y (1.2) = 50(1-e1.2/1) + 50
Y (1.2) = 84.9⁰C

6. A thermometer is placed in a water bath that is initially at steady state at a temperature of 27°C and was
maintained at a temperature of 85°C. Its time constant is 0.38 min. How long will it take for the
thermometer to reach a 72°C reading?

A. 0.58628 min B. 0.58286 min C. 0.56828 min D. 0.56882 min E. None of the
Choices

Solution:

x(t) = 27, t<0


85, t>0

X(t) = 0, t<0
58, t>0

58
𝑋(𝑠) = 𝑠

58 1
𝑌(𝑠) = ( )
𝑠 0.38𝑠+1

− 𝑡⁄
𝑌(𝑡) = 58 (1 − 𝑒 0.38 ) @ y = 72°C ; t = 0.5683 min
Equipment Design

1. A horizontal cylinder tank with hemispherical heads is design to a liquid. The dimension of the tank is
0.76 m for the height of the fluid. What is the volume occupied by the liquid if the tank is to be filled
half full and its L/D ratio is 3?
A. 9 m3 B. 10.11 m3 C. 9.5 m3 D. 11.01 m3 E. None of the
Choices
Solution:
𝑉𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑉𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑠 + 𝑉𝐶𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟
𝜋 𝜋
𝑉𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝐷 2 (𝐿) + 2 [ 𝐻 2 (1.5𝐷 − 𝐻)]
4 3
𝐷 𝐿
𝑏𝑢𝑡 𝐻 = 𝑎𝑛𝑑 = 3
2 𝐷
𝑠𝑜 𝐻 = 0.76𝑚, 𝐷 = 1.52𝑚, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐿 = 4.56𝑚
𝜋 𝜋
𝑉𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = (1.52𝑚)2 (4.56𝑚) + 2 [ (0.76𝑚)2 (1.5(1.52𝑚) − 0.76𝑚)]
4 3
𝑉𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝟏𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝒎𝟑

2. In a distillation column, for a distillate of 95% purity with a given withdrawal of 4 and α = 2.5. Estimate
the total number of trays.
A. 8 B. 7 C. 6 D. 9 E. None of the
Chioces

Solution:

Using Fenske’s Equation

Indicating subsuming values, we have 2.66/log 2.5= 6.7

3. Consider a shell and tube heat exchanger equipment with an entering pressure of steam of 588 psig and
an entering pressure of oil of 400 psig. What should be the design pressure of the shell-side?
A. 613 psig B. 646.8 psig C. 425 psig D. 440 psig E. None of the
choices
Solution:

Design temperature (DT) = (ℎ𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 × 1.10) 𝑜𝑟 (ℎ𝑖𝑔ℎ𝑒𝑠𝑡 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 + 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔)


Choose which is higher between the two.
𝐷𝑇 = 500 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 = 613 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔
𝐷𝑇 = 500 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 (1.10) = 𝟔𝟒𝟔. 𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈

References:

- LeBlanc, S. E., & Coughanowr, D. R. (2009). Process systems analysis and control. Boston:
McGraw-Hill.
- Seborg, D. E., Edgar, T. F., Mellichamp, D. A., & Doyle, F. J. (2017). Process dynamics and
control. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
- CPI PowerPoint Presentations
- Equipment Design PowerPoint Lectures by Prof. Evelyn Laurito, PhD.
- Shreve, R. N., & Brink, J. A. (1977). Chemical processes industries. New York: McGraw-Hill.
- Kirkpatrick, S., Shreve, N. (2011). The Chemical Process Industries (2nd ed., Vol. 2, 1-15).
- Coughanowr, D. (2016). Process Systems Analysis and Control (2nd ed., 125-126).
- Roberts, M. (2017). Principles of Equipment Design (3rd ed., 331-338).

CPI

1. Sulfuric acid solution is ordinarily sold according to their specific gravity, or their Baumé degree.
What is the specific gravity of Sulfuric acid with a Baumé of 15.

A. 1.1154 B. 0.9655 C. 1.1163 D. 15 E. None of these

Solution:

Since water is less dense than sulfuric acid,


145
specific gravity =
145 − degrees Baumé
145
specific gravity = = 1.1154
145 − 15

2. What is the correct order for the paper and paperboard process

I. Recycling

II. Thickening

III. Deinking

IV. Bleaching

A. I>II>III>IV B. I>III>IV>II C. I>III>II>IV D. IV>III>II>I E. None of these


3. Sodium hydroxide for : Potassium Hydroxide for

A. HARD B. BOTH C. BOTH SOFT D. SOFT SOAP E. None of


SOAP HARD SOAP AND HARD these
AND SOFT SOAP SOAP
SOAP
4. a multi-stage process that refines and brightens raw pulp

A. THICKENI B. BLEACHING C. D. DEINKING E. None of


NG RECYCLING these

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baum%C3%A9_scale

The chemical Process Industries 2nd Ed by Shreve

PROCON

1. By using the S-shift Theorem, find the Laplace Transform of f(t) = 3t7e3t.
15120 15120 21 21 E. None of
A. (𝑠−3)7 B. (𝑠−3)8 C. (𝑠−3)7 D. (𝑠−3)8
these

Note:

f(t) F(s)
tn n!/sn+1
eat 1/(s-a)

3(7!) 15120
F(s)=(𝑠−3)8 = (𝑠−3)8

2. Derive an approximate first order plus time delay model using Skogestad’s half rule for the following
transfer function:
k(−0.2s + 1)
G(s) =
(6s + 1)(2s + 1)(s + 1)
k∙e−2.2s k∙e−3.2s k∙e−0.2s k∙e−3.2s E. None
A. G(s) = 7s+1
B. G(s) = 8s+1
C. G(s) = 9s+1
D. G(s) = 6s+1
of
these

Solution:

k ∙ e−0.2s ∙ e−s ∙ e−s


G(s) =
(6 + 1)s + 1
k ∙ e−2.2s
G(s) =
7s + 1
4. A step change of magnitude 4 is introduced into a system having a transfer function of
𝑌(𝑠) 10
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.6𝑠 + 4
Determine the Ultimate Value of Y(t)

A. 11 B.10 C. 9 D. 12 E. None of
these

(Y(s))/(X(s))=(10/(s^2+1.6s+4))1/4
𝑌(𝑠) 2.5
=
𝑋(𝑠) 0.25𝑠 2 + 0.4𝑠 + 1
Ultimate Value = AKp=4(2.5)=10

5. Solve the following integro-differential equation using Laplace Transform


𝑡
𝑦 ′ = ∫0 𝑦𝑑𝑡 − 𝑡, 𝑦(0) = 3

A. 𝑦(𝑡) = 1 + B. 𝑦(𝑡) = C. 𝑦(𝑡) = D. 𝑦(𝑡) = E. None of


𝑒 −𝑡 + 𝑒 −𝑡 1+ 𝑒 𝑡 + 𝑒 −𝑡 1 + 𝑒𝑡 + these
𝑒 𝑡 + 𝑒 −𝑡 𝑒𝑡
Solution:
𝑌(𝑠) 1
𝑠𝑌(𝑠) − 3 = − 2
𝑠 𝑠
1 1
(𝑠 − ) 𝑌(𝑠) = 3 − 2
𝑠 𝑠
1
23− 3𝑠 2 − 1
𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑠 = 3
1 𝑠 −𝑠
(𝑠 − 𝑠 )

Using partial fraction,


1 1 1
𝑌(𝑠) = + +
𝑠 𝑠−1 𝑠+1
𝑦(𝑡) = 1 + 𝑒 𝑡 + 𝑒 −𝑡

6. A cylindrical tank has a diameter of 4 ft and an outflow with flow resistance of 0.2 min/ft2. It is initially
operating at steady-state with inlet flowrate of 25 ft3/min. At t=0, the inlet is closed. At what time will
the depth of water be reduced to 2 ft?

A. 9.10 𝑚𝑖𝑛 B. 2.30 𝑚𝑖𝑛 C. 2.3 ℎ𝑟 D. 1 ℎ𝑟 E. None of


these

Solution:
𝜋
𝐴𝑟 = (4)2 = 4𝜋
4
25 𝑡 < 0
𝑞=
0 𝑡>0
0 𝑡<0
𝑄=
−25 𝑡 > 0
25
𝑄(𝑠) =
𝑠
𝐻(𝑠) 0.2
=
𝑄(𝑠) 4 𝜋𝑠 + 1
5

25 0.2
𝐻(𝑠) = − ( )
𝑠 4 𝜋𝑠 + 1
5
𝑡
−4
𝐻(𝑡) = −5 (1 − 𝑒 5𝜋 )

𝑡
−4
ℎ = 5 − 5 (1 − 𝑒 5𝜋 )

when h = 2
𝑡
−4
2 = 5 − 5 (1 − 𝑒 5𝜋 )

t = 2.30 min

Reference: Lecture Notes by Sir. Basil James Santos


EQUIDES

1. Stagnation suction pressure is found to be 1 psig at a sea level installation. The liquid’s vapor
pressure is 9 psia. Calculate the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) for a liquid with a specific gravity of
0.91.

A. 7𝐹𝑇 B. 17𝐹𝑇 C. 5 PSI D. 10 PSI E. None of the


these

Solution:

NPSH = Ps – Pvap

NPSH= 1 + (14.7 – 9)= 6.7 PSI


2.31𝑝 (2.31)(6.7)
NPSH = (𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛) = = 17𝐹𝑇
𝑆𝐺 0.91

2. What schedule number can be used for ordinary steel pipe having an allowable stress of 10000 psi
for use at a working pressure of 400 psig?

A. 20 B. 25 C. 40 D. 35 E. None of these

Solution:
𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒
𝑆𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 = 1000 𝑥
𝐴𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒
400 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑆𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 = 1000 𝑥 = 40
10000 𝑝𝑠𝑖

3. A water tank 10m in ∅ and 15m high is half-filled. Determine the minimum thickness of the tank
plating if the stress is limited to 60MPa?

A. 6.0mm B. 6.3125 C. 6.13125m D. 3.5mm E. None of


mm m these

Solution:

𝑃 = 𝐷𝑔ℎ = 1000 ∗ 9.81 ∗ 7.5 = 73575𝑃𝑎 = 0.073575𝑀𝑃𝑎


60MPa=(0.073575MPa)(10m)/2t

t=6.13125mm
4. A spherical pressure vessel has a 2ft inner radius and 5/16 inch wall thickness. If the working
tensile stress of the material is 8000psi determine the maximum allowable internal pressure.

A. 218psi B. 228.33p C. 208.34 psi D. 2atm E. None of


si these

Solution:
𝑖𝑛
𝑙𝑏 𝑃∗(2𝑓𝑡∗2∗12 )
𝑓𝑡
800 𝑖𝑛2 = 5 =208.34 psi
4∗( )
16

5. Calculate the design pressure when the maximum internal pressure of a cylindrical vessel is 14 bar
(abs).

A. 14.72 bar B. 14.27 C. 17.3 bar D. 14.7 bar E. None of these


(abs) bar (gauge) (gauge)
(abs)
Solution:

𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃 = 𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑃 − 𝐸𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑃


Assume external pressure to be 1 atm or 1.01325 bar

𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃 = 14 − 1.01325 = 12.99 𝑏𝑎𝑟 (𝑎𝑏𝑠)


𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑃 = 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃 + 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 𝑜𝑟 10%

𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 𝑃𝑔 + 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚

𝑃𝑔 = 𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 − 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚
1.01325
𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑃 = (12.99 − 1.01325) + 25 ( ) = 13.7 𝑏𝑎𝑟 (𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒) = 13.7 + 1.01325
14.7
= 14.72 𝑏𝑎𝑟 (𝑎𝑏𝑠)

6. Liquid Methanol is flowing on a SCH 40 pipe steel with NRE = 4623. Calculate for the friction factor
using Blasius Equation.

A. 0.00958 B. 0.23 C. 0.9958 D. 0.0023 E. None of these

Solution:

𝑁𝑅𝐸 = 4623
0.079
𝑓= = 0.00958
46230.25

Reference: https://www.pumpsandsystems.com/topics/understanding-npsh-npsh-definitions
EQUIPMENT DESIGN

PROBLEM SOLVING

1. What is the Reynold’s Number of a 2” Sch 40 Steel pipe where the velocity in pipe is 6 m/s,
viscosity is 0.9cP, and density is 1000 kg/m3?
A. 346268.67 B. 342686.67 C. 348266.67 D. 346286.67 E. None of the
choices
Solution:
𝐷𝑖 𝑣𝜌
𝑁𝑅𝑒 =
𝜇
Di = 2.045 in. = 0.051943 m
v = 6 m/s
𝜇 = 0.9 cP = 0.0009 kg/m-s
𝜌 = 1000 kg/m3
𝑚 𝑘𝑔
0.051943 𝑚 (6 𝑠 ) (1000 3 )
𝑚
𝑁𝑅𝑒 =
𝑘𝑔
(0.0009 𝑚 − 𝑠)
NRe = 346286.666667

2. A double pipe heat exchanger has a 2in Sch40 steel pipe inside a 4-in Sch40 Steel pipe. The
operating pressure in the inner tubes is 40 psig and in the annulus it is 70 psig. What is the maximum
allowable pressure (MAWP)?

A. 85 psig B. 95 psig C. 44 psig D. 66 psig E. None of these

Solution:

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 + (25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 𝑜𝑟 10 % 𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟)


𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 70 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25 𝑃𝑠𝑖𝑔
𝑀AWP = 95 psig

4. Determine the thickness of a half-filled water tank with height of 15 m and a diameter of 10 m. The
working tensile stress of the material is 60 MPa.

A. 6.13125 m B. 6.31125 C. 6.13125 x D. 6.13125 E. None of


mm 10-3 mm mm the
choices
𝑘𝑔⁄
Solution: : P = 𝜌𝑔ℎ = (1000 ) 𝑥 ( 9.81 𝑚⁄ 2 ) 𝑥 ( 7. 5 𝑚) = 73575 𝑃𝑎 = 0.073575 𝑀𝑃𝑎
𝑚3 𝑠
(0.073575 𝑀𝑃𝑎)𝑥 (10 𝑚)
60 𝑀𝑃𝑎 = 2𝑡

𝑡 = 6. 13125 𝑚𝑚

5. Find the volume of fluid in horizontal cylindrical tanks of 46 cm in diameter with cylinder lengths of
62cm (no heads). The fluid depth of the tank is 15cm.
A. 20138.25 B. 20195.75 C 19825.25 D. 19348.25 E. None of the
Choices
Solution: Solution:
R= 23cm
H =15 cm
L = 62cm
𝑅−ℎ
𝐴 = 𝑅 2 cos ( 𝑅
)− (𝑅 − ℎ)√2𝑅ℎ − ℎ2
A = 324.8104cm2
Vf = AL
Vf = 20138.25

6. Based on the diagram given below, what is the shell-side design pressure?

A. 621.5 psig B. 590.5 psig C. 565 psig D. 565.5 psig E. None of the
Choices
Solution: Design Pressure based on Maximum Allowable Working Pressure
MAWP= Operating Pressure + (25 psig or 10% safety factor)
MAWP= 565+ (.10*565)
MAWP= 621.5 psig
References:

1. Lecture Notes on Pumps and Pumping Systems by Dr. Evelyn R. Laurito


2. EQUIPMENT DESIGN PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION
3. Equipment Design Lecture Notes on Pressure Vessel Design (2018)
4. Equipment Design Notes of Dr. Pestano
5. Lecture Notes on Pressure vessels by Dr. Evelyn R. Laurito

PROCESS CONTROL

1. Given the transfer function


𝑌(𝑠) 6
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 0.5𝑠 + 0.8𝑠 + 2
Determine the percentage overshoot.
A. 23.58% B. 25.38% C. 28.35% D. 23.85% E. None of the
choices
Solution: Solution:
1
𝑌(𝑠) 6
= ×2
𝑋(𝑠) 0.5𝑠 2 + 0.8𝑠 + 2 1
2
𝑌(𝑠) 3 𝐾𝑝
= =
𝑋(𝑠) 0.25𝑠 2 + 0.4𝑠 + 1 𝜏 2 𝑠 2 + 2𝜁𝜏𝑠 + 1
𝜏 2 = 0.25
𝜏 = 0.5
2𝜁𝜏 = 0.4
𝜁 = 0.4
−𝜋𝜁 −𝜋(0.4)
%𝑂𝑆 = exp ( ) 𝑥 100 % = exp ( ) 𝑥 100 %
√1 − 𝜁 2 √1 − (0.4)2
%OS = 25.38%

2. A step change magnitude of 5 is introduced into a system with a 𝜏 = 0.5 , 𝜁 = 0.4 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐾𝑝 =
2.5. Determine the maximum value of Y(t).

A. 12.5 B. 15.67 C. 16.15 D. 15.75 E. None of


these

Solution:
𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐴𝐾𝑝(1 + 𝑂𝑆)
−𝜋𝜁 −𝜋(0.4)
𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐴𝐾𝑝(1 + exp ( ) 𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (5)(2.5)(1 + exp ( )
√1−𝜁 2 √1−(0.4)2

𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 15.6725
3. Assume q1 is independent of h, derive the transfer function H(s)/ Q0(s) for the system.

1 1 1 1 E. None of the
F. 𝐴𝑟 𝑠
B. 𝐴𝑟 𝑠 + 1 C. 𝑠 + 1 D. 𝐴𝑟 ℎ + 1
choices

Solution:

4. What is the laplace transform for the term: cos ( αt + β )?


sin 𝛽−2 cos 𝛽 cos 𝛽−2 sin 𝛽 𝑠∗cos 𝛽−2 sin 𝛽 𝑠∗cos 𝛽−2 sin 𝛽
A. B. C. D. E. None of
𝑠 2 −𝛼 2 𝑠 2 −𝛼 2 𝛼 2 −𝑠 2 𝑠 2 −𝛼 2
the
choices

𝑠∗cos 𝛽−2 sin 𝛽


Solution: cos αt + cos β =
𝑠2 −𝛼 2

5. 5. Find the Laplace transform of the function that satisfies the equation and the
conditions:
𝑑3 𝑠 𝑑2 𝑠 5𝑑𝑠 𝑑2 𝑥(0) 𝑑𝑥(0)
𝑑𝑡 3 + 𝑑𝑡 2 + 𝑑𝑡
+ 2𝑥 = 2 ; x(0) =
𝑑𝑡 2
+
𝑑𝑡
=0
A. 𝑋(𝑆) = B. 𝑋(𝑆) = C. 𝑋(𝑆) = D. 𝑋(𝑆) = E. None of the
2 2 2 2 Choices
(𝑆 3 ) 𝑆(𝑆 3 +5𝑆+2) 𝑆(𝑆 3 +𝑆 2 +5𝑆+2) (𝑆 3 +𝑆 2 +5𝑆+2)
3 2
𝑑 𝑠 𝑑 𝑠 5𝑑𝑠
Solution: 3+ 2 + 𝑑𝑡 + 2𝑥 = 2
𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡
2
S3x(S)-S2x(0)-Sx’(0)-x”(0) + S2x(S)-Sx’(0)-x”(0) + 5(Sx(S)-x(0))+ 2x(S) = 𝑆
2
S3x(S)+ S2x(S)+ 5Sx(S) +2x(S) = 𝑆
2
X(S)(S3+S2+5S+2) =
𝑆

2
𝑋(𝑆) =
𝑆(𝑆 3 +𝑆 2 +5𝑆+2)

6 . A step change of magnitude 5 is introduced into a system having a transfer function of:

𝑌(𝑠) 10
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.6𝑠 + 4
Determine the ultimate value of Y(t).

A. 10 B. 12.5 C. 25 D. 16.5 E. None of the


Choices

Solution: Since transfer function of the second order system can be expressed as:
𝑌(𝑠) 𝐾𝑝
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 2𝜁𝜏𝑠 + 1
Therefore,
1
𝑌(𝑠) 10
= 2 (4)
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.6𝑠 + 4 1
4
𝑌(𝑠) 2.5 5
= 2
, 𝑋(𝑠) =
𝑋(𝑠) 0.25 + 0.4𝑠 + 1 𝑠
Ultimate Value formula= 𝐴𝐾𝑝

Ultimate value= (5)(2.5) = 12.5


References:

1. Process Control Lecture Notes by Sir Basil James Santos


2. Process Control Lecture Notes Sir Basil James Santos
3. Process Control Lecture Notes (2018)
4. Process Control Notes of Engr. Basil Santos

CPI

1. 1800 kg of wet solids which contain 65% solids by weight are fed to tray dryer where it is dried
by hot air. The product attained is found to contain 2% moisture by weight. Calculate the
amount of water removed from wet solids.
A. 601.62 kg B. 602.61 kg C. 606.12 kg D. 612.06 kg E. None
of the
choices
Solution: Basis: 1800 kg of wet solids

Water
removed

Feed = 1800 kg Dryer Product solids


Wet solids Moisture = 2%
65% solids Solids = 98%

Let x be the amount of product obtained, and y be the amount of water removed.
Material balance for Solids:
Solids in wet solids = Solids in product
1800(0.65) = 0.98x
1170 = 0.98x
x = 1193.87755102 kg
Overall material balance:
F=x+y
1800 = 1193.87755102 + y
y = 606.12244898 kg
Therefore,
Amount of water removed = y = 606.12 kg

PROCESS CONTROL

1. Apply the second-order-plus-time-delay model using Skogestad’s half-rule to approximate the transfer
function of the given.
1−𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
(2𝑠 + 1)2 (8𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)
𝑒 −4𝑠 𝑒 −9𝑠 𝑒 −4𝑠 𝑒 −6𝑠 e. None of the
a. (10𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1)
b. c. (𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1)
d.
(10𝑠+1)(4𝑠+1) (10𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1) choices
Solution:
1−𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
(10𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)
2
(2𝑠) −𝑠
𝑒 −𝑠 𝑒 2
𝑒
=
2
(10𝑠 + 1)((8 + 2) 𝑠 + 1)
𝑒 −4𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
(10𝑠 + 1)(9𝑠 + 1)

Reference: (2018). Engr. Basil Santos’ Process Control Notes

2. Given the transfer function


𝑌(𝑠) 2
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.5𝑠 + 5
Determine the ultimate value of Y(t) having a step change of 5.

G. 1 H. 2 I. 3 J. 4 K. None of the choices


Solution:
1
𝑌(𝑠) 2 5
= × 5, 𝑋(𝑠) =
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 2 + 1.5𝑠 + 5 1 𝑠
5
𝑌(𝑠) 0.4
=
𝑋(𝑠) 0.2𝑠 2 + 0.3𝑠 + 1
A = 5; Kp = 0.4
Ultimate value = AKp = 5(0.4) = 2

Reference: Process Control Lecture Notes by Sir Basil James Santos

3. Determine the unit-step response of a system that has a unit-impulse response of Y(t) = cos 2t.

a. y(t) = 0.5 sin 2t b. 0.5 cos 2t c. 0.25 sin 2t d. 0.25 cos 2t e. None of the choices
Solution:
𝑠
𝑌(𝑠) = = 𝐺(𝑠)
𝑠2 + 4
1 𝑠 1
𝑌(𝑠) = ∙ 2 = 2
𝑠 𝑠 +4 𝑠 +4
𝒚(𝒕) = 𝟎. 𝟓 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝟐𝒕

Reference: Process Control Lecture Notes by Engr. Basil James Santos

4. A 200-L tank heater is being fed with water at 20 C at a flow rate of 25 L/min initially, the heater is switched
off. At t=0, the heater is then switched on, supplying heat at a constant rate. The temperature of the outlet at t=10
min measures 60 C. What would be the temperature of the outlet at t=30 min?
A. 40.74 C B. 74.74 C C. 76.06 D. 71.46 E 71.27
1 1 𝑉 200
𝐾𝑝 = = ;𝐴 = 𝑞;𝜏 = = =8
𝑝𝐹𝑐𝑝 104600 𝐹 25
𝑡 −𝑡
𝑞
𝑇(𝑠) = 𝐴𝐾𝑝 (1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 ) = (1 − 𝑒 8 )
104600

𝑞 −10
𝑇(𝑡) = 20 + 104600 (1 − 𝑒 8 )

𝑞 −10
60= 20 + 104600 (1 − 𝑒 8 )

𝑞 = 5864089.88 𝐿/𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑞 −30
𝑇(𝑡) = 20 + 104600 (1 − 𝑒 8 )

𝑇(30) = 74.74

Reference: Process Control Lecture Notes by Engr. Basil James Santos

5. A cylindrical tank has a diameter of 6 ft and an outflow with flow resistance of 0.2 min/ft2. It is initially operating
at a steady state with an inlet flowrate of 25 ft 3/min. At t=0, the inlet is closed. At what time will the depth of
water be reduced to 1 ft?
A. 10.9 min B. 9.01 min C. 1.09 min D. 8.01 min E. None of the choices
Solution:
𝑞𝑠 = 25 ℎ𝑠 = 𝑞𝑠 𝑅 = 5 𝐾𝑝 = 𝑅 = 0.2 𝜏 = 𝐴𝑟𝑅 = 𝜋(32 )(0.2) = 1.8𝜋

{25,𝑡 <0 {0, 𝑡 <0 25


𝑞𝑠 = {0, 𝑡 >0. 𝑄(𝑡) = {−25, 𝑡 >0. 𝑄(𝑠) = −
𝑠

𝐾𝑝 25 0.2
𝐻(𝑠) = 𝑄(𝑠) = −
𝜏𝑠 + 1 𝑠 1.8𝜋𝑠 + 1

𝐻(𝑡) = ℎ(𝑡) − 5 = − 25(0.2)(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/1.8𝜋 )

If h = 1, t = 9.01 min

Reference: Process Control Lecture Notes by Engr. Basil James Santos

6. A thermometer with a time constant of 0.30 min is initially at equilibrium with water at 25 C. The water is then
heated such that the temperature of the water increases linearly until it reaches its boiling point after 6.0 min.
What is the temperature reading of the thermometer as soon as the water starts to boil?
A. 96,00 ° C B. 96.25 °C C. 100 °C D. 99.0 °C E. None of the choices
Solution:

𝑥𝑠 = 25, 𝑦𝑠 = 25, 𝜏 = 0.3

𝑥(𝑡) = { 25, 𝑡 < 0


25 + 12.5𝑡, 𝑡 > 0

𝑋(𝑡) = 𝑥 − 𝑥𝑠 = {0, 𝑡 < 0


12.5𝑡, 𝑡 > 0

12.5 1 1 𝜏 𝜏
𝑌(𝑠) = ( ) = 12.5( 2 + + )
𝑠 2 𝜏𝑠 + 1 𝑠 𝑠 1
𝑠+𝜏
𝜏
𝑌(𝑠) = 12.5( 𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 0.3 )

𝜏
𝑦(𝑡) − 25 = 12.5( 𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 0.3 )
If t = 6, t = 96.25 C

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. What is the design temperature and pressure of the given system below respectively?

a. 390ºF, 145 psig b. 145ºF, c. 350ºF, d. 135 psig, e. None of the


390 psig 135 psig 350ºF choices
Solution:
𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒: 340º𝐹𝐹 + 50º𝐹 = 390º𝐹
𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒: 120 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 = 145 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

Reference: (2018). Engr Loladomina Pestaño’s Equipment Design notes

2. Calculate the inner diameter of the pipe given that the outside diameter is 1.315 in. and the wall thickness is
0.133 in.
F. 1.049 in. G. 1.249 in. H. 1.581 in. I. 1.182 in. J. None of the choices
Solution:
Do = 1.315 in
∆x = 0.133 in
Di = Do – 2(∆x)
Di = 1.314 – 2(0.133)
Di = 1.049 in.

Reference: Lecture Notes on Piping Systems by Dr. Evelyn R. Laurito


3. A spherical pressure vessel has a 2-ft inner radius and 5/16-in wall thickness. If the working tensile stress of
the material is 8000 psi, determine the maximum allowable internal pressure.
a. 200.65 psi b. 214.25 psi c. 208.33 psi d. 195.24 psi K. None of the choices
Solution:
S = 8000 psi
D = 4 ft = 48 in
t = 5/16 in

𝑃𝐷
𝑆=
4𝑡
𝑃(48 𝑖𝑛)
8000 𝑝𝑠𝑖 =
5
4(16 𝑖𝑛)
𝑷 = 𝟐𝟎𝟖. 𝟑𝟑 𝒑𝒔𝒊

Reference: Equipment Design Lecture Notes by Engr. Loladomnina Pestaño

4. What will be an optimum Schedule Number of a steel pipe having an allowable stress of 5000psi at a working
pressure of 200 psig
A. 40 B. 20 C. 4 D. 0.4 E. 0.2
𝑷
𝑺𝒄𝒉. 𝑵𝒖𝒎𝒃𝒆𝒓 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 ∗
𝑺

𝟐𝟎𝟎
𝑺𝒄𝒉. 𝑵𝒐. = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 ∗ = 𝟒𝟎
𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎

Reference: Lecture Notes on Piping Systems by Dr. Evelyn R. Laurito

5. Find the volume of a fluid inside a process vessel of the shape shown above that if the liquid level is maintained
at 1/3 of the diameter of the cylinder. Assume one head to be ellipsoidal with a = ¼ of the major axis. The
conical head has a height of 1.25 times the cylinder diameter (D=1m, L=2m)
A. 0.625 B. 0.265 C. 0.562 D. 0.652 E. None of the
choices
Solution:

Cone
D=1 R = 0.5 L=2 h = 1/3 a = 1.25

Case1: 0 < h < R

|𝑅−ℎ| 1
𝑀= = 0.333 𝐾1 = 𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑀) + 𝑀3 ∗ 𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ ( ) − 2𝑀 √1 − 𝑀2 = 0.668.
|𝑅| 𝑀

𝑅−ℎ 2∗𝑎∗𝑅2
𝑉𝑓𝑐 = ((𝑅 2 ∗ 𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑠( ) − (𝑅 − ℎ) ∗ √2 ∗ 𝑅 ∗ ℎ − ℎ2 ) ∗ 𝐿 + ∗ 𝐾1) = 0.59745
𝑅 3

Ellipsoidal

𝑎 = 1/4

𝑅−ℎ ℎ
𝑉𝑓𝑒 = (𝑅 2 ∗ 𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑠( 𝑅
) − (𝑅 − ℎ) ∗ √2 ∗ 𝑅 ∗ ℎ − ℎ2 ) ∗ 𝐿 + 𝜋 ∗ 𝑎 ∗ ℎ2 ∗ (1 − 3∗𝑅
) = 0.52622

𝑉𝑓𝑐 + 𝑉𝑓𝑒
𝑉𝑓 = = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟔𝟐
2

Reference: Lecture Notes on Calculating Tank Volumes by Dr. Evelyn R. Laurito

6. A Dorr Thickener has a rake mechanism speed of 0.125 rpm, Torque of 69,154 Nm. Using an overall efficiency
of 0.5, calculate the power requirement of the thickener.

A. 1.83 W B. 1.97 C. 1.81 D. 92 W E. None of the


W kW choices
Solution:

Power Requirement
2𝜋𝑁𝑇
𝑃=
60(𝐸)(1000)
2𝜋(0.125 𝑟𝑝𝑚)(69,154.265𝑁𝑚)
𝑃=
60(0.5)(1000)

𝑷 = 𝟏. 𝟖𝟏𝒌𝑾

Reference: Equipment Design report Dorr Thickener by Joshua A. Castillo under Dr. Pestano
CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES

1. A cement company uses 2500 MT of gypsum a month. If 40 MT of this gypsum are


needed for every 950 MT of clinker to produce Portland cement, the MT of clinker
produced monthly by the cement plant is

A. 62.50 B. 105.26 C. 59,375 D. 38,000 E. None of


these
Solution:
𝑀𝑇 𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑 2500 𝑀𝑇 𝑔𝑦𝑝𝑠𝑢𝑚 950 𝑀𝑇 𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑒𝑟
=( )( )
𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ 𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ 40 𝑀𝑇 𝑔𝑦𝑝𝑠𝑢𝑚
𝑀𝑇 𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑
= 59,375
𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ
2. A fermenting agent that converts alcohol to acetic acid in the presence of excess
oxygen.

A. Lactic Acid B. Acetobacter C. Molds D. Yeasts E. None of


Bacteria these
3. Patents are valid for ___ years.

A. 15 B. 17 C. 20 D. 25 E. None of
these
4. In leather manufacturing, what process converts the protein of the raw hide or skin
into a stable material which will not putrefy and it is suitable for a wide variety of end
applications?

A. Neutralization B. Tanning C. Crusting D. Fat Liqouring E. None of


these
5. What is the conversion of a manufacturing plant where the output is 953 kg of Y and
47 kg of X with an input of 1000 kg of X.

A. 47.0% B. 95.3% C. 55.7% D. 81.0% E. None of


these
Solution:
1000 − 47
%𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × 100 = 95.3%
1000
References:
[1] S. Olano Jr., V. Bungay, C. Centeno, L. Medina Jr., C. Salazar. Reviewer for
Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination (3rd Edition)
[2, 4] Shreve, R. N. and Austin, G. T. (1984). Shreve’s Chemical Process Industries, 5th
ed. New York: Mc-Graw Hill
[3] GOVPH. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ipophil.gov.ph/services/patents/about-
patents
[5] Ashar, N. G., & Golwalkar, K. R. (2013). Practical guide to the manufacture of
sulfuric acid, oleums, and sulfonating agents. Springer.

PROCESS CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION

1. The range of value of K for a system with characteristic equation given by s4 + 6s3 +
11s2 + 6s + K = 0
A. 0<K<10 B. K<10 C.K>10 D. -10<K<0 E. None of
these
Solution:
1 11 𝐾
6 6
10 𝐾
60 − 6𝐾
10
𝐾
𝐾 < 10 , 𝐾 > 0
0 < 𝐾 < 10
2. A liquid level system is being operated at steady-state. The tank has a height of 5 ft
and a base area of 12 ft2. At t = 0, 30 ft3 of water was added to the system. Another 40
ft3 of water was added at 2 min. Determine the depth of the liquid right before 40 ft3 of
water was added.

A. 6.27 m B. 3.21 m C. 5.22 m D. 5.47 m E. None of


these
Solution:
𝐻(𝑠) 𝑅
=
𝑄𝑜 (𝑠) (𝐴𝑟𝑅)𝑠 + 1
𝑄𝑜 (𝑠) = 30 + 40𝑒 −2𝑠
0.1
𝐻(𝑠) = (30 + 40𝑒 −2𝑠 ) ( )
1.2𝑠 + 1
3 −𝑡/1.2 4 −(𝑡−2)/1.2
ℎ(𝑡) = 𝑒 + 𝑒 +5
1.2 1.2
𝑎𝑡 𝑡 = 2, ℎ(𝑡) = 5.47𝑚
3. A 100L mixing tank is initially operating at steady-state with an inlet flow rate of
20 L/min, and an inlet concentration of 5 g/L. At t =0, the feed was changed to another
feed that has a concentration of 1 g/L. Calculate the time it will take to reduce the
concentration in the system to 2 g/L.

A. 3.68 min B. 6.93 min C. 4.76 min D. 5.10 min E. None of


these
Solution:
F = 20 L/min F = 20 L/min
xs = 5 g/L V = 100 L
ys = 2 g/L

5, 𝑡<0
𝑥={
1, 𝑡>0 𝑡
𝑌(𝑡) = −4 (1 − 𝑒 − ⁄5 )
0, 𝑡<0
𝑥={ 𝑡
−4, 𝑡>0 𝑦 = 5 − 4 (1 − 𝑒 − ⁄5 )

4
𝑋(𝑠) = − 𝑎𝑡 𝑦 = 2, 𝑡 = 3.68 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝑠
4. Approximate the transfer function shown below with a second-order-plus-time-delay
model using Skogestad’s Half-Rule.
4 1 1−𝑠
𝑌(𝑠) = − ∙ 100𝐺(𝑠) =
𝑠 20 𝑠 + 1 (2𝑠 + 1)2 (8𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)

A. B. C. D. E. None of
𝑒 −3𝑠 𝑒 −4𝑠 𝑒 −3𝑠 𝑒 −4𝑠 these
(10𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1) (10𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1) (9𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1) (11𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1)
1−𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
(2𝑠 + 1)2 (8𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)
1−𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
(10𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)
1−𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
2 2
(10𝑠 + 1) ((8 + )𝑠 + 1) ( 𝑠 + 1)
2 2
𝑒−4𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
(10𝑠 + 1)(9𝑠 + 1)

5. What is the unit-impulse response of a system that has a unit-step response of


Y(t)=cos5t

A. Y(t)= cosh5t B. Y(t)= sinh5t C. Y(t)= 1/5 D. Y(t)= 1/5 E. None of


cos5t sin5t these
Solution:
𝑠 1
𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑋(𝑠) =
𝑠2 + 25 𝑠
𝑠
𝑌(𝑠) 𝑠 2 + 25 1
𝐺(𝑠) = = = 2
𝑋(𝑠) 1 𝑠 + 25
𝑠
1
𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑋(𝑠) ∙ 𝐺(𝑠) = 1 ∙ ( 2 )
𝑠 + 25
1
𝑌(𝑡) = sin 5𝑡
5

References:
[1] S. Olano Jr., V. Bungay, C. Centeno, L. Medina Jr., C. Salazar. Reviewer for
Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination (3rd Edition)
[2, 4, 5] Coughanowr, D. R. & LeBlanc S. E. Process Systems Analysis and Control,
3rd ed. New York, USA: McGraw Hill
[3] Process Control Lecture
EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. Calculate the minimum wall thickness for a cylindrical vessel that is to carry a gas at a
pressure of 1400 psi. The diameter of the vessel is 2 ft, and the stress is limited to 12
ksi. All joints are to be butt-welded (E=0.90) and assume no corrosion is necessary
A. 1.66 in B. 0.14 in C. 0.30 in D. 3.57 in E. None of these
Solution: 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐵𝑂𝐷
𝑃𝐷
𝑡= +𝐶
2𝑆𝐸 − 𝑃
12 𝑖𝑛
(1400 𝑝𝑠𝑖) (2𝑓𝑡 ( ))
𝑓𝑡
𝑡= +0
2(12000 𝑝𝑠𝑖)(0.9) − (1400 𝑝𝑠𝑖)
𝑡 = 1.66 𝑖𝑛
2. What schedule number can be used for ordinary steel pipe having allowable stress of
10,000 psi for use at a working pressure of 250 psig.

A. 32 B. 25 C. 35 D. 41 E. None of these
Solution:
𝑃 250 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔
𝑆𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 = 1000 = 1000 = 25
𝑆 10,000 𝑝𝑠𝑖
3. Calculate the maximum allowable pressure of a shell and tube heat exchanger
operating at a pressure of 500 psig
A. 510 psig B. 525 psig C. 550 psig D. 575 psig E. None of these

Solution:
𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 + (25 psig or) 10% safety factor

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 500 + 500(0.10)

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 550 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

*Choose answer with higher value


4. The internal diameter of a spherical vessel is 14 m and the outer diameter is 15 m. It is
made up of Type 302 stainless steel with maximum allowable stress of 75.85 MPa. A
single butt weld joint, not radiographed is used. Compute for the design pressure of the
vessel in MPa. Assume no corrosion.

A. 7.35 MPa B. 6.45 MPa C. 7.48 MPa D. 6.78 MPa E. None of these
𝐷𝑜 − 𝐷𝑖 15 − 10
𝑡= = = 0.5 𝑚
2 2
𝑃𝑟𝑖
𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐
2𝑆𝐸𝑗 − 0.2𝑃
𝑃(7)
0.5 = +0
2(75.85)(0.7) − 0.2𝑃
𝑃 = 7.478 = 7.48 𝑀𝑃𝑎
5. What is the maximum allowable pressure of a vessel working under absolute pressure
of 2500 kPa?

A. 363 psig B. 373 psig C.383 psig D. 393 psig E. None of these
Solution:
14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = (2500 𝑘𝑃𝑎 × ) − 14.7 = 347.99 ≈ 348 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔
101.325 𝑘𝑃𝑎

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 + (25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 𝑜𝑟 10% 𝑠𝑎𝑓𝑒𝑡𝑦 𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑡𝑜𝑟)

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 348 + 25 = 373 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 348 + (0.1 × 348) = 382.8 ≈ 383 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

∴ 𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 383 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

References:
[1] Engineering Mathematics. https://www.mathalino.com/reviewer/mechanics-and-
strength-of-materials/solution-to-problem-133-pressure-vessel
[2, 3, 4] Sinnott, R. K. (2005). Chemical Engineering Design, 4th ed. Oxford:
Butterworth-Heinemann
[5] Walas, S. M. (1990). Chemical process equipment: Selection and design. Boston:
Butterworth-Heinemann.

54CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRY, PROCESS CONTROL AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. Determine the Laplace Transform of 6𝑒 −2𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠 3𝑡


6𝑠+12 6𝑠+12 6𝑠+12 6𝑠+2 E. None of
A. B. C. D.
𝑠 2 +4𝑠+13 𝑠 2 +4𝑠+9 𝑠 2 +4𝑠+4 𝑠 2 +4𝑠+13 the
choices
Solution:
6(𝑠 + 2) 6𝑠 + 12
𝑓(𝑡) = 6𝑒 −2𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠 3𝑡 → 2 2
= 2
(𝑠 + 2) + 3 𝑠 + 4𝑠 + 4 + 9
𝟔𝒔 + 𝟏𝟐
𝑭(𝒔) = 𝟐
𝒔 + 𝟒𝒔 + 𝟏𝟑

2. Calculate the fluid volume, 𝑉𝑓 in 𝑚3 of a horizontal process vessel with an ellipsoidal head and a
1 1
cross-sectional area, 𝐴𝑓 = 0.2292 𝑚2; diameter, radius 𝐷 = 1𝑚, 𝑅 = 2 𝑚 ; height fluid, ℎ = 3 𝑚;
1
length, 𝐿 = 2𝑚; and distance a head extends, 𝑎 = 𝑚.
4
A. 0.5229 B. 0.5262 C. 0.5392 D. 0.5263 E. None of
the
choices
Solution:

𝑉𝑓 = 𝐴𝑓 𝐿 + 𝜋𝑎ℎ2 (1 − )
3𝑅
1
1 1 2 (3)
𝑉𝑓 = 0.2292(2) + 𝜋 ( ) ( ) (1 − ) = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟐𝟔𝟑 𝒎𝟑
4 3 1
3 (2)
3. A cylindrical tank has a diameter of 6ft and an outflow with a flow resistance of 0.2min/ft2. It is
initially operating at steady-state with an inlet flowrate of 25 ft3/min. At t=0, the inlet is closed. At
what time will the depth of water be reduced to 1 ft?
A. 9.1 secs B. 10.2 secs C. 9.1 min D. 10.2 min E. None of the
choices
Solution: −25 𝐾𝑝
𝑄(𝑠) = 𝐻(𝑠) = 𝑄(𝑠) ∙ 𝜏𝑠+1
q= 25 t>0 𝑠 −25 0.2
0 t<0 = ∙
𝐻(𝑠) 𝐾𝑝 𝑠 1.8𝜋𝑠 + 1
−𝑡
= 𝐻(𝑡) = (−25)(0.2)(1 − 𝑒 1.8𝜋 )
Q= 0 t>0 𝑄(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 1 −𝑡
-25 t<0 ℎ(𝑡) = 5 − 5(1 − 𝑒 1.8𝜋 )
∗ 𝜏 = 𝐴𝑟 ∙ 𝑅
= (𝜋⁄4)(6)2 (0.2) = 1.8𝜋 when h=1, t=9.1min
4. Compute for the outside diameter for a shell and tube given a design pressure of 370900 Pa, an
inside diameter of 0.67m and a maximum allowable stress of 16.076 ksi. Assume a fully-
radiographed butt joint and a corrosion coefficient of 3mm.
A. 0.678 m B. 0.702 mm C. 0.735 m D. 0.728 m E. None of the
choices
Solution:

Design Pressure (Pd)=370900 Pa


Ej=1 (370900) ∙ 0.5(0.67) 3
𝑡= +
Di=0.67m 8
(1.108𝑥10 ) ∙ 1 − 0.6 ∙ (370900) 1000
101325
𝑆 = (16.076 ∙ 1000) = 1.108𝑥108 𝑃𝑎
14.7 = 4.123𝑥10−3 𝑚

Since Pd<0.385SEj 𝐷𝑜 = 𝐷𝑖 + 2 ∙ 𝑡 = 0.67 + (2)(4.123𝑥10−3 )


𝐷𝑜 = 0.678𝑚
𝑃𝑑 ∙ 0.5𝐷𝑖
𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐
𝑆 ∙ 𝐸𝑗 − 0.6 ∙ 𝑃𝑑

5. Ethanolamine enters the shell side of a STHE at 424 and 232.22°C leaves at 390 psig at 194.44°C.
Cooling water enters the shell side at 422 psig and 120°F. What is the design pressure and
temperature of the equipment?
A. 466.4psig and B. 449psig and C. 466.4psig and D. 466.4psig and E. None of the
475°C 257.22°F 257.22°C 246.11°C choices
Solution:
Highest temperature 232.22°C
Highest pressure: 424 psig
(232.22 ∙ 1.8) + 32 = 450°F
424(1.1) = 466.4 psig 450°F + 25°F = 475°F
424+25 = 449 psig Design Temperature = 475°F or 246.11°C
Design pressure = 466.4 psig
6. Which of the following polymers represents the formula shown below in which n can be a very
large number?

A. polyvinyl B. polypropylene C. polyethylene D. teflon E. None of the


chloride choices

Solution:
7. What are the raw materials for ‘Solvay Process’?

A. Salt, B. Ammonia, salt, C. Ammonia, D. Ammonia & E. None of the


limestone, & limestone limestone & coke oven choices
ammonia & coke gas
coke oven
gas
8. A U-tube manometer exhibits underdamped second-order response to a change in the differential
pressure between the columns. At steady state, the manometer gives a reading of 8.5 cm. The
pressure difference is varied according to a step change of 20 kPa. The resulting response is
oscillatory and has a maximum reading of 15 cm. Determine the reading of the second peak if the
ultimate response is 13 cm.
A. 14.33 cm B. 14.12 cm C. 13.40 cm D. 13.26 cm E. None of the
choices

Solution:
ℎ𝑠 = 8.5 𝑐𝑚
𝑌(𝑡)𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 16 𝑐𝑚
𝐴𝐾𝑝 = 13 𝑐𝑚
𝐴 + 𝐴𝐾𝑝 = 1𝑠𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘
𝐶 + 𝐴𝐾𝑝 = 2𝑛𝑑 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘
𝐴 16 − 13
𝑂𝑆 = =
𝐵 13 − 8.5
𝐶
= 𝑂𝑆 2
𝐴
16 − 13 2
𝐶=( ) ( 16 − 13) = 1.333 𝑐𝑚
13 − 8.5
2𝑛𝑑 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 = 14.333 𝑐𝑚
9. A flathead cylindrical storage tank is used at working pressure of 50 psig and 80°F. Its diameter is 30
ft and all joints are butt welded with backing strip. Estimate the necessary wall thickness assuming
there is no corrosion, efficiency is 80%, and allowable tensile strength is 13700 psi.
A. 1.237 in B. 0.738 in C. 0.823 in D. 1.480 in E. None of the
choices
Solution:
𝑃𝑟𝑖
𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐
𝑆𝐸 − 0.6𝑃
𝑃 = 50 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 = 89.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎
(89.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎)(15 𝑥 12 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠)
𝑡=
(13700 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎)(0.8) − 0.6(89.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎)
𝑡 = 1.480 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠
10. What does FIFA mean?
A. First Inn First B. First Inn First C. First In First D. First Inside E. None of the
Out Outside Out First Outside choices
11. Steam and oil enters the shell and tube heat exchanger. Steam enters at 588 psig and 482 oF while
the oil enters at 400 psig and 120oF and leaves the exchanger at 390 psig and 450oF. What is the
design temperature of the exchanger?
A. 500oC B. 532 oF C. 532 oC D. 170 oF E. None of the
choices
Solution:
MAWT = 482oF + 50 oF = 532 oF

12. An open loop second – order syste is critically damped. What is/are its pole/s? Expresss in terms of
Ƭ.

1 B. 2Ƭ 1 D. Ƭ E. None of the
A. 𝜏
C. − 𝜏
choices
Solution:
𝜏 2 𝑠 2 + 2𝜏𝑠 + 1 = 0
s = - 1/Ƭ
13. Name this reaction:

A. Saponificatio B. Neutralizatio C. Kettle Process D. Hydrolysis E. None of the


n Reaction n of Fatty Choices
Acids
14. Derive an approximate Second-order-plus-time-delay using Skogestad’s Half Rule given,

2−𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
(𝑠 + 2)(8𝑠 + 1)2 (12𝑠 + 1)

A. B. C. D. E. None of the
choices
𝐺(𝑠) 𝐺(𝑠) 𝐺(𝑠) 𝐺(𝑠)
𝑒 −5𝑠 𝑒 −5𝑠 𝑒 −6𝑠 𝑒 −5𝑠
= = = =
(12𝑠 + 1)(12𝑠 + 1) (12𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1) (12𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1) (12𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1)

Solution:

2−𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
(𝑠 + 2)(8𝑠 + 1)2 (12𝑠 + 1)
2(1 − 0.5𝑠)
𝐺(𝑠) =
2(1 + 0.5𝑠)(8𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1)(12𝑠 + 1)
8
𝑒 −0.5𝑠 𝑒 −0.5𝑠 𝑒 −2𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
8
(12𝑠 + 1)((8 + 4) 𝑠 + 1)
𝑒 −5𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) =
(12𝑠 + 1)(12𝑠 + 1)

15. A double pipe heat exchanger vessel has a 2in Sch 40 steel pipe inside a 4-in Sch 40 steel pipe. The
operating pressure in the inner tubes is 40 psig and the annulus is 60 psig. What is the maximum
allowable working pressure?
A. 44 psig B. 60 psig C. 85 psig D. 65 psig E. None of the
choices
Solution:

60 psig + 25 psig = 85 psig

16. Oil is entering the tube side of the heat exchanger at 400 psig and 120 F leaving at 390 psig at 450 F.
Steam enters the shell side at 588 psig and 482 F. What is the design pressure of the equipment?

A. 588 B. 613 C. 455 D. 647 E. None of the


choices
Solution:
588 + 0.1(588) = 646.8 psig
588+25 = 613 psig
Pdes = 646.8 psig
17. A step change of magnitude 8 is introduced into a system with the following transfer
𝑌(𝑠) 13.12
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.83𝑠 + 2

What is the ultimate value


A. 6.56 B. 104.96 C. 52.48 D. 13.12 E. None of the
choices
Solution:

𝑌(𝑠) 13.12
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.83𝑠 + 2
𝑌(𝑠) 6.56
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 0.5𝑠 + 0.915𝑠 + 1

Kp =6.56
𝜏 2 = 0.5
√2
𝜏=
2
2𝜗𝜏 = 1.83
𝜗 = 0.77
AKp = 8 x 6.56 = 52.48

18. What is the optimum pipe diameter for 100 gpm at 33 c?

A. 62.1 B. 3.4 C. 3.3 D. 0.22 E. None of the


choices
Solution:

100 𝑔𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑡 3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3


𝑞𝑐 = 𝑥 𝑥 = 0.2228
𝑚𝑖𝑛 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙 60 𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛
𝜌𝑤 𝑎𝑡 33℃ = 62.0761 lb/cf
𝑘𝑔 62.4 𝑙𝑏/𝑐𝑓
𝜌𝑤 = 994.809 3 𝑥
𝑚 𝑘𝑔
1000 3
𝑚
Dopt = 3.9 𝑞𝑓 0.45 𝜌0.13
Dopt = 3.394 ft

References:

[1] Coughanowr, D.R., (2009) Process Systems Analysis and Control. 3rd Edition

[2] University of Santo Tomas, Department of Chemical Engineering, Prof. Evelyn Laurito Notes in CHE
511, 2nd Term A.Y. 2018-2017

[3] Chapter 10, CPI. Retrieved from MRII lecture notes

PROCESS CONTROL

1. A thermometer with a time constant of 0.40 min is initially at steady state at 25 ºC. The
thermometer is then placed in an ice bath maintained at 4 ºC at t=0. Determine the time
needed in seconds for the thermometer to read 5 ºC.

A. 1.22 s B. 1.5 s C. 73.07 s D.27.5 s E. None of the


choices
Solution:
𝜏 = 0.30 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑥𝑠 = 25 ℃𝑦𝑠 = 25 ℃
−21
𝑋(𝑠) =
𝑠
𝑌(𝑠) 1
=
𝑋(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 1
−21 1
𝑌(𝑠) = ×
𝑠 0.4𝑠 + 1
𝑡
𝑌(𝑡) = −21 (1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 )
𝑡
𝑦(𝑡) = 25 − 21 (1 − 𝑒 −0.4 )
𝑡
5 = 25 − 21 (1 − 𝑒 −0.4 ) ∴ 𝑡 = 1.22 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 73.07 𝑠
2. A 240 L mixing tank is initially operating at steady state with an inlet flowrate of 20 L/min, and
inlet concentration of 4 g/L. At t=0, the feed was charged to another feed that has a
concentration of 2 g/L. Determine the concentration at 5 mins.
A. 4.32 g/L B. 3.32 g/L C. 2.32 g/L D. 1.32 g/L E. None of the
choices
Solution:
240
𝜏= = 12𝑥𝑠 = 4 𝑔/𝐿𝑦𝑠 = 4𝑔/𝐿𝑡 = 5 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑠
20
−2
𝑋(𝑠) =
𝑠
𝑌(𝑠) 1
=
𝑋(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 1
−2 1
𝑌(𝑠) = ×
𝑠 12𝑠 + 1
𝑡
𝑌(𝑡) = −2 (1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 )
5
𝑦(𝑡) = 4 − 2 (1 − 𝑒 −12 )
∴ 𝑦(𝑡) = 3.32 𝑔/𝐿
3. Using Skogestad’s Half-Rule, derive an approximate first order plus time delay (FOPTD) model
for the transfer function
𝐾(−0.4𝑠 + 1)
𝐺(𝑠) =
(5𝑠 + 1)(4𝑠 + 1)(𝑠 + 1)
𝐾∙𝑒 −5.4𝑠 𝐾∙𝑒 −3.4𝑠 𝐾∙𝑒 −5.4𝑠 𝐾∙𝑒 −3.4𝑠 E. None of the
A. 5𝑠+1 B. 5𝑠+1 C. 7𝑠+1 D. 7𝑠+1
choices
Solution:
𝐾 𝑒 −0.4𝑠 𝑒 −2𝑠 𝑒 −𝑠 𝐾 𝑒 −3.4𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) = =
(5 + 2)𝑠 + 1 7𝑠 + 1

4. The unit step response of a system is given by 𝑌(𝑡) = 1 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑡. Determine the transfer
function of the system.
2 4 6
A. 2/s B. 𝑠 ⁄𝑠 + 2 C. 𝑠2 +4 D. 𝑠2 +7 E. None of the
choices
Solution
𝑌(𝑠)
= 𝐺𝑐(𝑆)
𝑋(𝑠)
1 𝑠
𝑌(𝑠) = − 2
𝑠 𝑠 +4
1
𝑋(𝑠) =
𝑠
1 𝑠
𝑌(𝑠) 𝑠 − 𝑠 2 + 4
=
𝑋(𝑠) 1
𝑠
4
𝐺𝑐(𝑠) = 2
𝑠 +4

5. The response of a First Order Plus Time Delay system to a step input of 3 has an ultimate
value of 6. What is its proportionality constant?
A. 4 B. 3 C. 8 D. 2 E. None of the
above
Solution:

A=3
AKp=6
Kp=6/3=2
6. An open loop second order system is critically damped. What is/are its poles? Express answer
interms of t.
A. 𝑆 = 𝜏 B. 𝑆 = 𝜏 −𝑒 C. . 𝑆 = 1𝜏 D. 𝑆 =
1 E. None of the
𝜏
Choices
Solution:
𝜏 𝑠 𝑠 2 + 2𝜏𝑠 + 1 = 0
1
𝑆=
𝜏

Reference:

[1] Coughanowr, D. and LeBlanc, Steven (2009). Process systems analysis and control. McGraw-Hill
Education

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. What would be the thickness of a spherical vessel whose inside diameter is 8 m and the
material of construction isStainlessSteelGrade304at100℉ (maximum allowable stress is 20
ksig) withnormaloperatingpressureof400kPa(gage).Typeofjointis doublebutt-weld and it is
fully radiographed (𝐸𝑗 = 1). Assume a corrosion allowance of 3 mm.
A. 20.50 mm B. 19.65 mm C. 18.75 mm D.8.6 mm E. None of the
choices
Solution:
14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 400 𝑘𝑃𝑎𝑃 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 400 𝑘𝑃𝑎 × + 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 = 83.03 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔
101.325 𝑘𝑃𝑎
𝐷𝑖 = 8 𝑚𝑅𝑖 = 4 𝑚 = 4000 𝑚𝑚
𝐸𝑗 = 1𝑆 = 20 𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑔 = 20000 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑐𝑐 = 3 𝑚𝑚
𝑃 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒 × 𝑅𝑖
𝑡= + 𝑐𝑐
𝑆 × 𝐸𝑗 − 0.6𝑃 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒
83.03 × 4000
𝑡= +3
20000 × 1 − 0.6 × 83.03

𝑡 = 19.65 𝑚𝑚

2. What is the design pressure of a vessel if its maximum operating pressure is 760 mmHg?
A. 1.7 atm B. 2.7 atm C. 3.7 atm D. 4.7 atm E. None of the
choices
Solution:
𝑃 = 760 𝑚𝑚𝐻𝑔 = 14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖 = 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚
14.7(0.1) = 1.47 𝑝𝑠𝑖 < 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 14.7 + 25 = 39.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖 = 2.7 𝑎𝑡𝑚
3. Determine the optimum pipe diameter for 55 gpm water at 35 °C.
A. 2.5933 in B. 2.7690 in C. 3.396 in D. 3.748 in E. None of the
choices
Solution:
𝑙𝑏
𝜌 = 62.3 3; 𝜇 = 0.74 𝑐𝑃 from PHB
𝑓𝑡
Assume 𝑁𝑅𝑒 > 2100
𝐷 𝑣𝜌
𝐷𝑖 = 3.9𝑞𝑓0.45 𝜌0.13 ; 𝑁𝑅𝑒 = 𝑖
𝜇
55 𝑔𝑎𝑙 3.785 𝐿 𝑚3 3.283 𝑓𝑡 3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3
𝑞𝑓 = × × × × = 0.1224
𝑚𝑖𝑛 1 𝑔𝑎𝑙 1000 𝐿 1 𝑚3 60 𝑠 𝑠
0.45 0.13
𝐷𝑖 = 3.9(0.1224) (62.3) = 2.5933 𝑖𝑛
Check 𝑁𝑅𝑒
1 𝑓𝑡 0.1224 𝑓𝑡 3 1 3600 𝑠 𝑙𝑏
(2.5933𝑖𝑛 × 12 𝑖𝑛) × ( 𝑠 × 2 × ) × 62.3 3
𝜋 2.5933 1 ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡
( ) 𝑓𝑡 2
𝑁𝑅𝑒 = 4 12 = 90345.61
𝑙𝑏
2.4192
𝑓𝑡 ℎ𝑟
0.74𝑐𝑃 × 1 𝑐𝑃
> 2100

4. What is the maximum design temperature of a heat exchanger if the maximum operating
temperature of the said vessel is 400°C.
A. 428°C B. 802°C C. 428°F D. 248°C E. None of the
choices
Solution:
9
400𝑥 + 32 = 752°𝐹
5
𝑀𝑎𝑥. 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝 = 752 + 50 = 802°𝐹
5
(802 − 32)𝑥 = 428°𝐶
9
5. It is desired to design a horizontal cylinder with a hemispherical head to handle a liquid with
volume of 10 m3. Find its dimensions if it will be half full and L/D=3.
A. D= 2.0m B. D= 2.2m C. D= 2.5m D. D= 2.5m E. None of the
H=0.5m H=1.1m H=0.5m H=0.5m Choices
L=6.7m L=6.7m L=6.7m L=6.0m
Solution:
𝑉𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑉𝑆𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 + 𝑉𝐶𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟
𝜋 𝜋
10 = 𝐷 2 𝐻 + 2 ( 𝐻 2 (1.5𝐷 − 𝐻))
4 3
𝐷
𝐻=
2
𝜋 2𝐷 𝜋 𝐷 2 𝐷
10 = 𝐷 + 2 ( ( ) (1.5𝐷 − ))
4 2 3 2 2

𝐷 = 2.2
𝐻 = 1.1

𝐿 = 6.7

Reference:
[1] Towler, G. P. (2013). Chemical engineering design: Principles, practice and economics of plant and
process design, (2ndEdition). Kidlington, Oxford, U.K. ; Waltham, Mass.: Butterworth-Heinemann.

CPI, PROCESS CONTROL, AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1.What is the maximum allowable working temperature of a countercurrent double pipe heat
exchanger with an inlet and outlet temperatures of 350F and 200F respectively for the inner tube, and
543F and 320F respectively for the outer tube.

A.400 B.613 C.593F D.370 E. None of the


choices

Solution: You will base your solution on the highest temperature employed by the equipment.
The safety margin for maximum temperature is 50 F based on the rule of thumb.
MAWT = 543F + 50F
MAWT = 593F

2. Identify the value of the unit step response of a system that has a unit-impulse response of y(t) =
cos2t if t =10.

A.0.9129 B.0.4565 C.0.2040 D.0.4080 E. None of the


choices
𝑌(𝑠)
Solution: G(s)=𝑋(𝑠) ; Y(s)=X(s)xG(s)
y(t) = cos2t
𝑠
Y(s) = =G(s) (given)
𝑠2 +4
1
X(s)= (unit-step)
𝑠

1 𝑠 1
Y(s) = 𝑠 𝑥 𝑠2 +4=𝑠2 +4
1
y(t) =2sin2t
1
y(10) =2sin2(10)=0.4565

3. They are added in the glass formulation in order to lower the melting point temperature of the glass.

A. Cullets B. Formers C. Stabilizers D. Fluxes E. None of the


choices

Solution: N/A

4. Calculate the design pressure and temperature of a cylindrical vessel made with carbon steel with
flat heads given the following conditions:
Diameter: 450 mm Operating Temperature: 500°C
Length: 750 mm
Operating Pressure: 25 atm (abs)
The vessel has a corrosion allowance of 2 mm and is double-butt-weld, spot radiographed.

A.388.08 psig, B. 883.08 psig, C. 264 atm, D. 300 atm, E. None of the
982°F 289°F 142.79°C 256.7°C choices

𝟏𝟒. 𝟕 𝒑𝒔𝒊
𝑷𝑶𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈 = [𝟐𝟓 𝒂𝒕𝒎 (𝒂𝒃𝒔)𝒙 ] − 𝟏𝟒. 𝟕 = 𝟑𝟓𝟐. 𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈
𝟏 𝒂𝒕𝒎
𝑷𝒅𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏 = 𝟑𝟓𝟐. 𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈 (𝟎. 𝟏𝟎) = 𝟑𝟓. 𝟐𝟖 > 𝟐𝟓∴ 𝒂𝒅𝒅 𝟑𝟓. 𝟐𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈
𝑷𝒅𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏 = 𝟑𝟓𝟐. 𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈 + 𝟑𝟓. 𝟐𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈 = 𝟑𝟖𝟖. 𝟎𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈
𝑻𝒐𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈 = 𝟓𝟎𝟎°𝐶(𝟏. 𝟖) + 32 = 932°𝐹
𝑻𝒐𝒅𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏 = 𝟗𝟑𝟐°𝐹 + 50°𝐹 = 982 °𝐹

5. A mixing tank operating at steady-state has brine flowing with an inlet flow rate of 45 L/min. The
brine has an inlet concentration of 1 g/L and at t=0, the brine feed concentration was suddenly
increased to 5.0 g/L. Calculate the volume of the tank if it takes 6 mins to further increase the outlet
concentration to 3.0 g/L.

A. 350 L B. 430 L C.560 L D. 390 L E. None of the


choices

4
𝑋(𝑠) =
𝑠
4 1
𝑌(𝑠) = ⋅
𝑠 𝑉 𝑠+1
45
𝑦(𝑡) = 3.0 𝑔/𝐿 𝑡 = 6 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑠. 𝑉 =?
6

𝑦(𝑡) = 1 + 4(1 − 𝑒 𝑉/45 )
𝑉 = 389.527661 𝐿 ≈ 390 𝐿

6. It is a process in the production of vegetable oil wherein separation of higher melting parts like
waxes and triglycerides occurs that requires slow cooking to form crystals.

A. Hydrogen B. Pressing C. Winterization D. Degumming E. None of the


ation choices

Solution: N/A

7. It is a type of chemical that is sometimes referred to as “fine chemicals”. These are typically high-
value-added products with many differentiations. The major products of this segment include paints
and coatings, adhesive sealants, catalysts, dyes and pigments, industrial gases, resins and plastic
additives.

A.Basic Chemicals B. Acidic C. Consumer D. Specialty E. None of the


Chemicals Chemicals Chemicals choices

Solution: N/A

8. A spherical pressure vessel has an internal diameter of 9 m and an outside diameter of 9.8 m.
Calculate the stress acting normal on the tank if it operates at 1.2 MPa internal pressure.

A. 6.75 MPa B. 7.35 MPa C. 1.35 MPa D. 1.47 MPa E. None of the
choices

Solution:
𝐷𝑜 = 𝐷𝑖 + 2𝑡 9.8 = 9 + 2𝑡 ; t = 0.4 m
𝜎𝐿 = 𝑃𝑑/4𝑡 = (1.2 𝑀𝑃𝑎)(9 𝑚) / 4(0.4 𝑚) = 6.75 𝑀𝑃𝑎

9. Determine the range of Kc in which the system will be stable.


s3+3s2+3s+1+Kc=0

A. -8<Kc<1 B. -8<Kc<-1 C. -1<Kc<8 D. 1<Kc<8 E. None of the


choices

Solution:
10. The allowable working pressure has a safety factor of either 10% or +25psig of the operating
pressure in which the higher MAWP is chosen.

A. 400kPa B. 420kPa C. 420kPa D. 500kPa E. None of the


choices

Solution:

The allowable working pressure has a safety factor of either 10% or +25psig of the operating pressure
in which the higher MAWP is chosen.

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 400𝑘𝑃𝑎 + 0.1(400𝑘𝑃𝑎) = 440𝑘𝑃𝑎

11. Solve the following integro-differential equation using laplace transform


𝑡
𝑦′ = ∫ 𝑦𝑑𝑡 − 𝑡 , 𝑦(0) = 3
0

A.𝑦(𝑡) = 1 + B.𝑦(𝑡) = 𝑒 𝑡 +𝑒 −𝑡 C.𝑦(𝑡) = 1 + D. 𝑦(𝑡) = 1 + E. None of the


𝑒 𝑡 +𝑒 −𝑡 𝑒 −𝑡 +𝑒 −𝑡 𝑒 𝑡 +𝑒 𝑡 choices

Solution
𝑌(𝑠) 1
𝑠𝑌(𝑠) − 𝑦(0) = − 2
𝑠 𝑠
Isolating 𝑌(𝑠)

3𝑠 2 − 1
𝑌(𝑠) =
𝑠(𝑠 2 − 1)

By Partial fraction
1 1 1
𝑌(𝑠) = + +
𝑠 𝑠+1 𝑠−1
𝑦(𝑡) = 1 + 𝑒 𝑡 +𝑒 −𝑡

12. In a water treatment plant, the lime soda process is used to remove water hardness. According to
the analysis of the waste water, it contained 90mg/L of 𝐶𝑎+2 and 40 mg/L of 𝑀𝑔+2 . Determine the
hardness of the wastewater.

A. 3.9mg/L B. 389mg/L C. 4572mg/L D. 469mg/L E. None of the


choices
Solution
100𝑔
𝐶𝑎+2 ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝐶𝑎+2 × = 2.5[𝐶𝑎+2 ]
40𝑔
100𝑔
𝑀𝑔+2 ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝑀𝑔+2 × = 4.1[𝑀𝑔+2 ]
24.3𝑔

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 2.5[𝐶𝑎+2 ] + 4.1[𝑀𝑔+2 ]

90𝑚𝑔 40𝑚𝑔 389𝑚𝑔


𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 2.5 ( ) + 4.1 ( )=
𝐿 𝐿 𝐿

3𝑠+2
13. Solve for the inverse laplace of the equation: 𝑠2 −25

13 17 13 17 13 17 13 17 E. None of the
A. 10 𝑒 5𝑡 + 10 𝑒 −5𝑡 B. 10 𝑒 −5𝑡 + 10 𝑒 5𝑡 C. 10 𝑒 5𝑡 − 10 𝑒 −5𝑡 D. 10 𝑒 −5𝑡 − 10 𝑒 5𝑡
choices

3𝑠 + 2 3𝑠 + 2 𝐴 𝐵
2
= = +
𝑠 − 25 (𝑠 + 5)(𝑠 − 5) 𝑠 + 5 𝑠 − 5

3𝑠 + 2 = 𝐴(𝑠 − 5) + 𝐵(𝑠 + 5)

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑠 = 5, 𝐵 = 17/10

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑠 = −5, 𝐴 = 13/10


3𝑠 + 2 13/10 17/10
= +
(𝑠 + 5)(𝑠 − 5) 𝑠+5 𝑠−5
13 −5𝑡 17 5𝑡
𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒 𝑙𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒 = 𝑒 + 𝑒
10 10

14. The purpose of this primary component for fertilizers is to enhance root growth and flowering.

A. Nitrogen B. Phosphorous C. Potassium D. Calcium E. None of the


Choices
15. It is the process in soap manufacturing where the temperature in which the mixture is kept is
generally higher (around 100 degree celcius), allowing a wider range of fatty raw materials to be used.

A. Full-Boiled B. Semi-Boiled C. Kettle Process D. Cold Process E. None of the


Process Process Choices

References:

[1] Coughanowr, Donald. Process Systems Analysis and Control, 3rd ed. 2009
[2] Seborg, Dale, Process Dynamics and Control, 3rd ed. 2011

[3] Walas, S. M. (1988). Chemical process equipment: Selection and design. Boston: Butterworths.

[4] Rivera, E. (2018) Notes on Chemical Process Industries

CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES, PROCESS DYNAMICS & CONTROL, AND


EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. It is a unit process used to create aldehydes from olefins (alkenes) and is


widely used in organic chemical industry.
A. Friedel- B. Hydroformylation C. Coupling D. Hydrogenation E. None of
Crafts the
choices
Solution:
Hydroformylation (aka oxo-process)

2. Consider the characteristic equation of a system given below:


s3 + 3s2 + 2s + 4 = 0
The system is _________ and the response of the system is __________.
A. Stable; B. Stable; non- C. Unstable; D. Marginally E. None of
oscillatory oscillatory oscillatory stable; non- the
oscillatory choices
Solution:
𝐿(𝑠) = 0
𝑠 + 3𝑠 2 + 2𝑠 + 4 = 0
3

𝑠1 = −2.7983
𝑠2 = −0.10184 + 1.1917𝑖
𝑠3 = −0.10184 − 1.1917𝑖

3. Water at 35oC (density = 62.3 lb/ft3 and viscosity = 0.8 cP) is to be used in a
utility plant, what is the optimum pipe diameter to be utilized for 100 gpm of
water?
A. 1 ½ in B. 3 1/3 in Sch 40 C. 2 ½ in D. 3 in Sch 40 E. None of
Sch 40 Sch 40 the
choices
Solution:
𝐷𝑖 = 3.9𝑞𝑓0.45 𝜌0.13 (for turbulent and liquids with low viscosity only (< 20 cP); use
English units)
0.45
100 𝑔𝑎𝑙 1 𝑓𝑡 3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏 0.13
𝐷𝑖 = 3.9 ( × × ) (62.3 3 ) = 3.3957 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠
𝑚𝑖𝑛 7.47 𝑔𝑎𝑙 60 𝑠 𝑓𝑡

4. Considering the characteristic equation of a certain closed-loop control system


𝑆 3 + 3𝑆 2 + (𝐾 + 2)𝑆 + 4 = 0
The range of K that makes the system stable is…
2 2 3 2
A. 𝐾 > B. 𝐾 < − C. 𝐾 < − D. 𝐾 > − E. None of
3 3 2 3
the
choices
Solution:
𝑆 3 + 3𝑆 2 + (𝐾 + 2)𝑆 + 4 = 0

1 K+2

3 4
3(𝐾 + 2) − 1(4) 0
3
4 ---

3(𝐾 + 2) − 1(4)
>0
3
3𝐾 + 2 > 0
−𝟐
𝑲>
𝟑

5. Determine the schedule number of a pipe having a 480 ksig internal working
pressure with 12000 psi allowable working stress.
A. Sch 38 B. Sch 40 C. Sch 42 D. Sch 36 E. None of
the
choices
Solution:
𝑃
𝑆𝑐ℎ # = 1000 ( )
𝑆
480000
𝑆𝑐ℎ # = 1000 ( )
12000
𝑺𝒄𝒉 # = 𝟒𝟎

6. Determine the value of θ in the trigonometric functions involved in the inverse


Laplace of
𝑠
𝐹(𝑠) = 2
𝑠 + 8𝑠 + 21

A. √5 B. 5 C. √21 D. 4 E. None of
the
choices
Solution:
𝑠
𝐹(𝑠) =
𝑠 2 + 8𝑠 + 21
𝑠+4−4 𝑠+4 4
𝐹(𝑠) = = −
(𝑠 + 4) + 5 (𝑠 + 4) + 5 (𝑠 + 4)2 + 5
2 2

𝟒 −𝟒𝒕
𝒇(𝒕) = 𝒆−𝟒𝒕 𝒄𝒐𝒔√𝟓𝒕 − 𝒆 𝒔𝒊𝒏√𝟓𝒕
√𝟓
7. Find the damping ratio of a system If the decay ratio of the known system is
equal to 85
A. -0.5773 B. 0.-7553 C. -0.3557 D. -0.3357 E. None of
the
choices
Solution:
2𝜋𝜁

√1−𝜁2
Decay ratio = 𝑒

2𝜋𝜁

√1−𝜁2
85 = 𝑒

ζ = -0.5773

8. Calculate the surface area of an ellipsoidal head if its diameter is equals to


1.5m.
A. 2.35 m2 B. 2.45 m2 C. 2.55 m2 D. 2.65 m2 E. None of
the
choices
Solution:

(using the additional equations from the book by Towler)


S=1.09(D2)
S=1.09(1.5m2)
S=2.45 m2

9. If the operating pressure of a certain vessel is 2600 psi, what should the design
pressure for the said tank be?
A. 2660 psi B. 2860 psi C. 2360 psi D. 2330 psi E. None of
the
choices
Solution:
Design pressure = 2600 psi + 0.10(2600) psi = 2860 psi

10. A thermometer with 𝜏 = 0.25 𝑚𝑖𝑛 is initially at steady-state at 25°C. The


thermometer is then placed in a hot bath maintained at 90°C at t=0. Determine
the time needed for the thermometer to read 85°C.
A. 0.5653 B. 0.6412 secs C. 0.5653 D. 0.6412 mins E. None of
mins secs the
choices
Solution:
25 , 𝑡 < 0 0, 𝑡 < 0 65
𝑥={ 𝑋={ 𝑋(𝑠) =
90, 𝑡 > 0 65, 𝑡 > 0 𝑠

𝑌(𝑠) 1 65 1 1
= 𝜏𝑠+1 𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑠(𝜏𝑠+1) 𝑌(𝑠) = 65(𝑠 − 1 )
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠+
𝜏

𝑡
𝑌(𝑡) = 65(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏 ) 𝑦(𝑡) = 25 + 65(1 − 𝑒 −0.25 )

t= 0.6412 mins

11. Determine the design pressure of a cylindrical vessel with diameter of 1.5 m
that operates at a maximum internal pressure of 15 bar (abs).
A. 240.8 B. 230.8 psia C. 230.8 D. 2.38 atm E. None of
psig psig the
choices
Solution:
14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖
𝑃𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 15𝑏𝑎𝑟 𝑥 = 220.5 𝑝𝑠𝑖
1𝑏𝑎𝑟 = 1𝑎𝑡𝑚
𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒 = 220.5 − 14.7 = 205.8(0.1) 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 < 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔
𝑃𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 = 205.8 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25 = 230.8 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

12. LeBlanc process is an early industrial process manufacturing ______.


A. Caustic B. Soda C. Soda D. Soda E. None of
soda ash water can the choices

13. The Laplace transform of 𝑓(𝑡) = 𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑡) is


𝑠2 −1 𝑠2 +1 𝑠2 −1 𝑠2 +1 E. None of
A. (𝑠2 +1)2 B. (𝑠2 +1)2
C. (𝑠2 −1)2
D. (𝑠2 −1)2
the choices

Solution:
𝑑 𝑠
𝐿{𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑡)} = − ( 2 )
𝑑𝑠 𝑠 + 1
(𝑠 2 + 1) ∙ 1 − 𝑠 ∙ 2𝑠
𝐿{𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑡)} = −
(𝑠 2 + 1)2
−𝑠 2 + 1
𝐿{𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑡)} = − 2
(𝑠 + 1)2
𝒔𝟐 − 𝟏
𝐿{𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑡)} = 𝟐
(𝒔 + 𝟏)𝟐

14. Calculate the percentage of the volume of liquid with the total volume of the
process vessel horizontal cylindrical vessel of diameter 2 feet and length 6
feet, if the liquid level inside is maintained at height 0.2 meters.
A. 27.6 % B. 28.5 % C. 30.2 % D. 32.8 % E. None of
the choices
𝑅−ℎ
Solution: 𝐴𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 = 𝑅 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 ( ) − (𝑅 − ℎ)√2𝑅ℎ − ℎ2
𝑅
1 𝑓𝑡
2 2 −1
1−(0.2 𝑚× ) 0.2 0.2 0.2 2
𝐴𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 = (2) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( 0.3048 𝑚
) − (1 − 0.3048) √2(1) 0.3048 − 0.3048 = 0.9 𝑓𝑡 2
1

𝑉𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 = (0.9 𝑓𝑡 2 )(6 𝑓𝑡) = 5.38 𝑓𝑡 3


𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 5.38 𝑓𝑡 3
𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 = 𝜋 = 0.2854 → 𝟐𝟖. 𝟓𝟒%
(2 𝑓𝑡)2 (6 𝑓𝑡)
4
15. Determine the percentage overshoot of the transfer function below with a step
change of magnitude 6.
𝑌(𝑠) 8
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 2𝑠 + 6.4𝑠 + 16

A.15.49% B. 11.59% C. 30.50% D. 61.18% E. None of


the choices

Solution:
𝑌(𝑠) 0.5 6
= 𝑋 (𝑠) =
𝑋(𝑠) 0.125𝑠 2 + 0.4𝑠 + 1 𝑠
6 0.5
𝑌(𝑠) = 2
𝑠 0.125𝑠 + 0.4𝑠 + 1
2
𝜏 = 0.125, 2𝜁𝜏 = 0.4
𝜏 = 0.3536, 𝜁 = 0.5657
−𝜋𝜁
𝑂𝑆% = exp ( ) = 0.1159
√1 − 𝜁 2

16. A fluid enters a 1-2 multi-pass shell and tube heat exchanger at 200 degC and
is cooled to 100 degC. Cooling water with a flowrate of 475 kg/hr enters the
exchanger at 27 degC and heated to 92 degC. The overall heat transfer
coefficient Ui is 1000 W/m2-k. Calculate the heat transfer rate.
A. 35.88 kW B. 55.21 kW C. 59.62 kW D. 95.51 kW E. None of the
choices
Solution:
𝑞 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝Δ𝑇
475 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝐽
𝑞=( ) (4.184 ) (92 − 27)℃ = 35.88 𝑘𝑊
3600 𝑠 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃
17. Assuming counter-current flow, what is the log mean temperature difference in
the heat exchanger in deg C?
A. 53.68 B. 81.25 C. 59.63 D. 89.36 E. None of the
choices
Solution:
Δ𝑇1 = 100 ℃, Δ𝑇2 = 65 ℃
Δ𝑇1 − Δ𝑇2
Δ𝑇 = = 89.36
Δ𝑇
ln (Δ𝑇1 )
2
18. Which of the following is the raw material for Ostwald process
A. Nitrogen B. Hydrogen C. Sulfur D. Ammonia E. None of the
choices

References:
[1,16,17] S. Olano Jr., V. Bungay, C. Centeno, L. Medina Jr., C. Salazar.
Reviewer for Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination 3 rd Edition
[2,4,6,7,13,15] Santos, B.J., Process Control Lecture
[3,5,8,9,14] Laurito, E., Lecture Notes for Equipment Design. Piping Systems
[12,18] Gupta, O. (2016). Objective Type Questions & Answers in Chemical
Engineering. New Delhi: Khanna Book Publishing (P).
PROCESS CONTROL

1. A 300 L mixing tank is initially operating at steady-state with an inlet flow rate of 50 L/min,
and an inlet concentration of 5 g/L. At time zero, the feed was changed to another feed that
has a concentration of 1.5 g/L. Calculate the time it will take to increase again the
concentration in the system to 2 g/L.
A. 12.58 mins B. 11.67 mins C. 11.00 mins D. 12.00 mins F. None of
E. the Above
Solution:
xs=ys= 5
Kp=1
Tau (T) = 300/50 = 6 min

X(s) = -3.5/s
𝑌(𝑠) 𝐾𝑝
=
𝑋(𝑠) 𝑇𝑠 + 1
−3.5 𝐾𝑝
𝑌(𝑠) =
𝑠 6𝑠 + 1
Y(t) = -3.5(1-e^(-t/6))
y(t) = 5 -3.5(1-e^(-t/6))
y(2) = 5 -3.5(1-e^(-t/6))
t = 11.67 mins

2. Determine the value of K of the characteristic equation 2x3 + 6x2 + 3x + k = 0


A. 0<k<3 B. 0<k<3/2 C. 2<k<3 D. 0<k<2/3 E. None of
the Above
Solution:
(1) 2 1

(2) 6 k

(3) 3 − 2𝑘
3
(4) k

6 − 2𝑘 3 − 2𝑘
(3) = =
6 2
3 − 2𝑘
(𝑘) − 6(0)
(4) = 3 =𝑘
3 − 2𝑘
3
3 − 2𝑘 3
(3): > 0; > 𝑘
3 2
(4): 𝑘 > 0

𝟑
𝟎<𝒌<
𝟐

3. Derive an approximate second-order-plus-time-delay model using Skogestad's Half-Rule


K(1-s)e-2s
G(s)=
(10s+1)(1.5s+1)(5s+1)(0.03s+1)
200
s Ke-3.78s E. None of
A.
Ke 70
G(s)= (10s+1)(5.75s+1) B. G(s)= (10s+1)(5.75s+1)
the Above
150
Ke-4.78s - s
C. G(s)= (10s+1)(5.75s+1) D.
Ke 60
G(s)= (10s+1)(5.75s+1)
Solution:
K(1-s)e-2s
G(s)=
(10s+1)(5s+1)(1.5s+1)(0.03s+1)
1.5
Ke-2s e-s e-0.03s e- 2 s
G(s)=
1.5
(10s+1) [(5+ 2 ) s+1]
Ke-3.78s
G(s)=
(10s+1)(5.75s+1)

References

1. Coughanow, D. (2008). Process System Analysis and Control, 3rd ed.


2. Coughanow, D. (2008). Process System Analysis and Control, 3rd ed.
3. Santos, J.B. (2018). Notes on Process Control. page 43

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. Calculate the thickness of the cylindrical vessel with 1.5 meter diameter to operate at
maximum internal pressure of 14 bar absolute and temperature of 400 deg C. Material is
made out of plain carbon steel, where its vessel is double butt-welded and fully radiographed.
The vessel will have 1 hemi-elliposoidal head (major axis is 2 times the minor axis) and one
flat head.
A. 0.013 m B. 0.011 m C. 0.012 m D. 0.010 m E. None of the
Above
Solution:

Common corrosion allowance for carbon (Cc) is 2 mm.


D= 1.5 m
147 𝑝𝑠𝑖
P = 14 bar 1.01325 𝑏𝑎𝑟 – 14.7 psi = 188.41 psig
T= 400C = 752F; S=12.9
Plain carbon steel E = 1
𝑃𝑟
𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐
𝑆𝐸 − 0.6𝑃
1.5
188.41 ( 2 ) 2
𝑡= +
12900(1) − 0.6(188.41) 1000

2. Find the fluid volume of a horizontal tank with ellipsoidal head if the radius (R) of the
horizontal tank is 3m, the height (h) of fluid is 1.7m, the length (L) of the cylindrical section is
6.3m and the distance of the head from the cylindrical section (a) is 0.7m.
A. 37.56m^3 B. 47.56m^3 C. 57.56m^3 D. 67.56m^3 E. None of the
Above
Solution:
ℎ 𝑅−ℎ
𝑉 = 𝐴𝑓 𝐿 + 𝜋𝑎ℎ2 (1 − ) ; 𝐴𝑓 = 𝑅 2 cos −1 ( ) − (𝑅 − ℎ)√2𝑅ℎ − ℎ2
3𝑅 𝑅

3 − 1.7
𝐴𝑓 = (3)2 cos−1 ( ) − (3 − 1.7)√2(3)(1.7) − (1.7)2 = 6.5886622
3

1.7
𝑉 = (6.5886622)(6.3) + 𝜋(0.7)(32 ) (1 − ) = 𝟓𝟕. 𝟓𝟔𝒎𝟑
3(3)

3. Given a spherical vessel with an internal and outer diameter of 10m and 14m, respectively. A
maximum allowable strength is given as 85MPa and a single butt weld joint, fully
radiographed is used. Assume no corrosion. Determine the design pressure of spherical vessel
in MPa.
A. 60.15MPa B. 70.00MPa C. 62.96MPa D. 50.55MPa E. None of the
Above
Solution:

Pri
t= +C
2SE-0.2P C

14-10
t= =2m
2

S=85MPa
E=1
CC =0
10
ri = =5m
2
P(5m)
2m=
(2)(85MPa)(1)-0.2P

P=62.96MPa

References

1. Laurito notes 2018


2. Jones, D. (2003). Calculating tank volume. P. 4

CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES, PROCESS CONTROL & EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. What is the Laplace transform of f(t)= 5 𝑒 −𝑡 cos 2𝑡 + 2 𝑒 −𝑡 sin 2𝑡 ?


5𝑠+7 5𝑠+9 5𝑠+4 5𝑠+12 E. None of the
A. 𝑠2 +4𝑠+5 B. 𝑠2 +2𝑠+5 C. 𝑠2 +6𝑠+10 D. 𝑠2 +2𝑠+6
Choices

Solution:

5(𝑠+1) 22
F(s) = (𝑠+1)2 +22 + (𝑠+1)2 +22
5𝑠+9
F(s) =
𝑠2 +2𝑠+5

2. What would be the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) for a vessel having a pressure
of 590 psig?
A. 649 psig B. 627 psig C. 675 psig D. 603 psig E. None of the
Choices

Solution:
MAWP = Operating Pressure + (25psig or 10% safety factor)
MAWP = 590 + (0.10*590) = 649 psig

3. An experiment is performed to determine a thermometer’s time constant. The initial temperature


of the thermometer reads 20oC. After 30 seconds, the thermometer is immersed in a water bath is a
temperature of 88 oC.

A. 27.98 s B. 28.98 s C. 29.98 s D. 30.98 s E. None of the


Choices

Solution:

20 𝑡 < 0 1
x(t) = { } Y(s) = X(s) * ( ) Y(t) = 68 (1 – 𝑒 −t/𝜏 ) = y(t) – Y(s)
88 𝑡 > 0 𝜏𝑠 + 1
0 𝑡<0 68 1
X(t) = { } Y(s) = * (𝜏𝑠 + 1) Y(t) = 68 (1 – 𝑒 −30/𝜏) = 63 – 20
68 𝑡 > 0 𝑠
𝝉 = 29.98 s
68
X(s) = 𝑠

4. In the refining process of petroleum, thermal alkylation is an essential step. Here, when ethylene
reacts with added isobutane, the product is _________.

A. 2,2- B. 1,2- C. 1,1- D. 1,3- E. None of the


dimethylbutane dimethylbutane dimethylbutane dimethylbutane choices

Solution:

+ 

Note: The alkyl group will transfer to the other molecule producing neohexene or 2,2-dimethylbutane.

5. Alkyl-benzene sulfonate is one of the important components manufactured in the production of


detergent. When oleum is added to alkyl-benzene sulfonate, the side product is _______. (Hint:
Perform chemical equation balance).
A. H2SO4 B. H3SO4 C. SO3 D. SO2 E. None of the
choices

Solution:

6. In pipes, what is the equivalent Fanning friction factor of 378 Darcy friction factor?
A. 1512 B. 94.5 C. 374 D. 382 E. None of the
Choices
Solution:

fdarcy= 4 ffanning 378/4 = 94.5 (Fanning friction factor)

7. A cylindrical tank has a diameter of 8 ft and an outflow with flow resistance of 0.2 min/ft2. It is
initially operating at steady-state with an inlet flowrate of 30 ft3/min. At t=0, the inlet is closed. At
what time will the depth of water be reduced to 2 ft?
A. 11.0445 B. 10. 0547 C. 11.0542 D. 10.0982 E. None of the
Choices
Solution:
16
qs = 30 R = Kp = 0.2 𝜏 = 𝐴𝑟𝑅 = 𝜋(42 )(0.2) = 5
𝜋ℎ𝑠 = 𝑞𝑠 𝑅 = (30)(0.2) = 6
30, 𝑡 < 0,
𝑞={
0, 𝑡 > 0

0, 𝑡 < 0,
𝑄(𝑡) = {
−30, 𝑡 > 0
30
𝑄(𝑠) = −
𝑠
𝐾𝑝 30 0.2
𝐻(𝑠) = 𝑄(𝑠) = (− )
𝜏𝑠 + 1 16
𝑠 ( 𝜋)𝑠 + 1
5
𝑡
−16
𝐻(𝑡) = ℎ(𝑡) − 6 = −30(0.2)(1 − 𝑒 5 𝜋)
If h =2, t = 11.04445534 mins
8. A 100-L mixing tank is initially operating at steady-state with an inlet flowrate of 20 L/min, and an
inlet concentration of 7 g/L. At t = 0, the feed was changed to another feed that has a concentration
of 1 g/L. Calculate the time it will take to reduce the concentration in the system to 3 g/L.
A. 6.3958 B. 5.4931 C. 7.8641 D. 4.6849 E. None of the
Choices
Solution:

𝑉 100
xs = 7 ys = 7𝜏 = = = 5𝐾𝑝 = 1
𝐹 20
7, 𝑡 < 0,
𝑥(𝑡) = {
1, 𝑡 > 0
0, 𝑡 < 0,
𝑋(𝑡) = {
−6, 𝑡 > 0
6
𝑋(𝑠) = −
𝑠
1 6 1
𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑋(𝑠) = (− )
𝜏𝑠 + 1 𝑠 5𝑠 + 1
𝑡
𝑌(𝑡) = 𝑦(𝑡) − 7 = −6(1 − 𝑒 −5 )
If y = 3, t = 5.4931 mins
9. A distillation column has a temperature of 200°F in the condenser and a 400°F in the reboiler.
What is its Maximum Allowable Working Temperature?
A. 425°F B. 400°F C. 375° F D. 450° F E. None of the
Choices
Solution:

Choose the higher temperature


50°F is the safety margin for the maximum temperature from heuristics

MAWT = 400°F + 50°F


MAWT = 450°F
8−3𝑠+𝑠2
10. Find the inverse laplace transform of 𝑠3
2 3
A. 4t – 3t + 1 B. 4t +3t-1 C. 4t2+3t-1 D. 4t3+3t+1 E. None of the
choices
Solution:
8
ℒ −1 { 3 } = 4𝑡 2
𝑠
−3
ℒ −1 { 2 } = −3𝑡
𝑠
1
ℒ −1 { } = 1
𝑠
8−3𝑠+𝑠2 8 3 1
𝑠3
= 𝑠3
− 𝑠2
+ 𝑠

11. Deionized water flows through the inner tube of 20-mm diameter in a thin-walled tube heat
exchanger of 3.2-m length. Hot process fluid at 98oC flows in the annulus formed with the outer tube
of 64-mm diameter and exits at 76oC. The deionized water is the be heated from 40oC to 70oC at a
flowrate of 5kg/s. Determine the minimum logarithmic mean temperature difference for this process
in a co-current flow.
A. 29.22oC B. 22.92oC C. 31.83oC D. 38.31oC E. None of the
choices
Solution:
58 − 6
∆𝑇1 − ∆𝑇2 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 =
∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = 58
∆𝑇 ln 6
ln ∆𝑇1
2 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = 22.92078
∆𝑇1 = (98 − 40) = 58
∆𝑇2 = (76 − 70) = 6

12. The Haber Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas
(methane) into ammonia. The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic.
Determine the ideal ratio of the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen going into the reactor.
A. 1:5 B. 2:3 C. 1:3 D. 1:1 E. None of the
choices
Solution:
1𝑁2 1
Nitrogen = N2(g) 3𝐻
= 3 = 1: 3
2
Hydrogen = H2(g)

Write the chemical reaction:


N2(g) + H2(g) ←→ NH3(g)
Balance the equation:
N2(g) + 3H2(g) ←→ 2NH3(g)

13.Calculate the thickness of a Cylindrical Stainless Steel Grade 304 Shell with a diameter of 2 m that
will operate at 272.8oF with an operating pressure of 43.06psi that is fully radiographed with a
corrosion resistance of 3 mm.
A. 6.11 mm B. 2.75 mm C. 4.45 mm D. 5.75 mm E. None of the
choices
Solution:
P = 43.06psi
ri = 2/2 = 1m
CC = 3mm
Ej = 1
S for stainless steel 304 at 272.8oF = 15.68ksi = 15 680 psi
0.385(15680psi)(1) > 43.06 therefore, the equation to be used is
𝑃ri
𝑡= + Cc
𝑆Ej − 0.6P
43.06𝑝𝑠𝑖(1000𝑚𝑚)
𝑡= + 3mm = 𝟓. 𝟕𝟓𝐦𝐦
15680𝑝𝑠𝑖(1) − 0.6(43.06psi)
𝑌(𝑠)
14. A step change of magnitude 3 is introduced into a system having a transfer function of 𝑋(𝑠) =
9
3𝑠2 +1.5𝑠+3
find the time constant and the damping ratio.
A. 1, 0.25 B. 1, 0.5 C. 0.5, 1 D.0.25, 1 E. None of the
choices

Solution:
𝑌(𝑠) 9 1/3 3 3
= = , 𝑋(𝑠) =
𝑋(𝑠) 3𝑠2 +1.5𝑠+3 1/3 𝑠2 +0.5𝑠+1 𝑠
3 3
𝑌(𝑠) = 2
𝑠 𝑠 + 0.5𝑠 + 1
𝜏2 = 1, 2𝜁𝜏 = 0.5
𝜏 = 1, 𝜁 = 0.25

References:

 Rules of Thumb for ChE Design: Carl Branan


 Coughanowr, Donald. Process Systems Analysis and Control, 3rd ed. 2009
 Shreve, R. N., & Austin, G. T. (1984). Shreve's Chemical process industries. New York: McGraw-
Hill.
 Seborg, Dale. Process Dynamics and Control, 3rd ed. 2011

PROCESS CONTROL
1. Given the characteristic equation: s^3+3s^2+3s+1+K = 0. What is the range of K so
that the system is stable?
A. -1<K<8 B. -2.75<K<0.54 C. K>3 D. K>0.3 E. None of
the above
Solution:

𝑠 3 + 3𝑠 2 + 3𝑠 + 1 + 𝐾 = 0

1| 1 3

2| 3 1+𝐾

8−𝑘
3 |
3

4| 1+𝐾
8−𝐾
>0→𝐾<8
3

1 + 𝐾 > 0 → 𝐾 > −1

𝑅𝑎𝑛𝑔𝑒: − 1 < 𝐾 < 8


2.

Solution:
3. When D1=D2=0, determine the transfer function Y/X for the system shown below. Let
a= R1R2R3R4R5

𝑎 𝑎 𝑎𝑇1 𝑎𝑇2
A. B. C. D. E. None
1+𝑎𝑇2 +𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑇1 1+𝑎𝑇1 +𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑇2 1+𝑇1 +𝑎𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑇2 1+𝑅1 𝑇1 +𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑇2
of the
choic
es
Solution:

Let the output of the second summation from the left be A


Negative input of 2nd summation = AR2R3T2
Y = AR2R3R4R5
Negative input of 1st summation = AR2R3R4R5T1
Positive input of 2nd summation = (X- AR2R3R4R5T1)R1
A = (X- AR2R3R4R5T1)R1 + AR2R3T2 = XR1 - AR1R2R3R4R5T1 + AR2R3T2
X = A (1 + R1R2R3R4R5T1 + R2R3T2)/R1
Y/X = R1R2R3R4R5/1 + R1R2R3R4R5T1 + R2R3T2
7𝑠+1
4. Find the inverse Laplace of 𝐹(𝑠) = 𝑠2 −1
F. 7cos(t)+7sinht G. 7cosh(t)- H. 7cosh(t)+sin( I. 7cosh(t)+sin(t J. None of
sinh(t) t) ) the above
Solution:

7𝑠 + 1 7𝑠 1
𝐹(𝑠) = 2
= 2 + 2
𝑠 −1 𝑠 −1 𝑠 −1

𝑓(𝑡) = 7 cosh(𝑡) + sinh(𝑡)


5. Find the Laplace Transform of: L(3e^(-3t) sinh⁡2t )
2 1 4 6 O. None of
K. 2 L. 2 M. 2 N.
s +5s+4 s +3s+2 s +5s+6 s2 +6s+5 the above
Solution:
6
L(3 sinh 2t) =
s2 −4

6 6
L(3e−3t sinh 2t) = 2
= 2
(s + 3) − 4 s + 6s + 9 − 4

6
L(3e−3t sinh 2t) =
s2 + 6s + 5

6. Derive the transfer function for the diagram shown:

𝑃(𝑠)𝐶(𝑠) 𝑃(𝑠)𝐶(𝑠) 𝑃(𝑠)𝐶(𝑠) 𝑃(𝑠)𝐶(𝑠) E. None


A. B. C. 𝐶(𝑠)𝑃(𝑠) D. 𝐶(𝑠)𝑃(𝑠)
1+𝐹(𝑠)𝐶(𝑠)𝑃(𝑠) 1−𝐹(𝑠)𝐶(𝑠)𝑃(𝑠) 1+ 1− of the
𝐹(𝑠) 𝐹(𝑠)
choic
es
Solution:
𝐵𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘 𝐶 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠, 𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑦 = 𝐶(𝑠)𝑃(𝑠)
𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚 𝑤𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑏𝑒 𝒏𝒆𝒈𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆 𝒇𝒆𝒆𝒅𝒃𝒂𝒄𝒌
𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎

References:
[1] Olano, S. S., Jr., Bungay, V. C., Centeno, C. R., & Salazar, C. M. (2015). Reviewer for
Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination (3rd ed., p.374). Manila: Manila Review Institute.
[3] Coughanowr, D., LeBlanc, S., (2008). Process Systems Analysis and Control (3rd ed., p.224).
New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.
[4] LeBlanc, S. E., & Coughanowr, D. R. (2009). Process systems analysis and control. Boston:
McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
[5] Santos, B. S. (2018). Process Control Notes.
[6] Santos, B. S. (2018). Process Control Notes.

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. A pressure vessel made of steel is 30 ft in diameter and has an internal pressure of


about 5200 psi. Assume the allowable stress of steel is 15,000 psi and a joint
efficiency of 80%. Provide a corrosion allowance of 1/16 in. If the pressure vessel
uses a spherical shell, calculate the thickness of the vessel.
A. 41.2 in. B. 35.6 in. C. 43.6 in. D. 40.8 in. E. None of
the
above
Solution:

𝑃𝑟𝑖
𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐
2𝑆𝐸 − 0.2𝑃

30 𝑓𝑡 12 𝑖𝑛
(5200)( × ) 1
2 1 𝑓𝑡
𝑡= + = 40.8 𝑖𝑛
2(15000)(0.8) − 0.2(5200) 16

Note that: The formula must comply to a thickness <= 0.356ri and an internal pressure
<=0.685SE
2.

Solution:
3. Water and glycerin were fed into a STHE with 1” BWG 14 tubes. Determine its
overall coefficient if the value of ho and hi were 1077.71 W/mK and 2499.55
W/mK, respectively. Use 5000 W/mK for the fluids’ fouling factor.
A. 1200.2 B. 936.3 C. 745.9 D. 526.7 E. None of
W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK the
choices
Solution:
O.D. = 0.0254
I.D. = 0.211836
𝐷
1 1 1 𝐷𝑡 × ln ( 𝑡 ) 𝐷 1 𝐷𝑡 1
𝑑𝑡 𝑡
= + + + + = 526.694
𝑈𝑜 ℎ𝑜 ℎ𝑜𝑑 2 × 45 𝑑𝑡 ℎ𝑖𝑑 𝑑𝑡 ℎ𝑖

4. A cylindrical shell is used to handle corrosive fluids (CC=9mm). it uses stainless steel
type 316 at 167degF (S=18.526ksi) and double-welded butt joints that are fully
radiographed. With an internal pressure of 39.7 psi, calculate the thickness of the
cylindrical shell. Tank diameter is 2.952901696 m
F. 0.01217 G. 0.01217 H. 0.0168 in I. 0.0168 J. None of
m dm dm the
above
Solution:

𝑃𝑟𝑖
𝑡𝑠 = + 𝐶𝑐
𝑆𝐸 − 0.6𝑃

2.952901696
39.7 ∙ 2
𝑡𝑠 = + 0.009 = 0.0121680104 𝑚
(18526) − (0.6)(39.7)
5. Estimate the safe working pressure for a 4 in, Schedule 40 pipe, carbon steel, butt
welded with working temperature of 100°C. The safe working stress for butt welded
steel pipe up to 120°C. is 5000lb/in2
A. 1379 B. 1500 C. 1300 D. 1450 E. None of
KPa KPa KPa KPa the
above
Solution:

𝑆𝑐ℎ 𝑁𝑜. 𝑥 σ𝑠 40 𝑥 5000


𝑃𝑆 = =
1000 1000

𝑙𝑏
𝑃𝑆 = 200 = 1379 𝐾𝑃𝑎
𝑖𝑛2

F. A spherical pressure vessel has an internal diameter of 6m and outside diameter of


7m. Determine the stress acting normal on the tank if it operates at 2.3 MPa internal
pressure.
A. 3.42 B. 3.41 C. 3.45 D. 3.44 E. None of
MPa MPa MPa MPa the
choices
Solution:
For spherical vessels:
𝑃𝐷𝑖 2.3(6)
𝑆𝐿 = = = 3.45 𝑀𝑃𝑎
4𝑡 4(7 − 6)
References:
[1] Olano, S. S., Jr., Bungay, V. C., Centeno, C. R., & Salazar, C. M. (2015). Reviewer for
Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination (3rd ed., p.374). Manila: Manila Review Institute.

[3] Sinnot, R.K., (2005). Chemical Engineering Design (4th ed., p.635). Oxford: Elsevier
Butterworth-Heinemann.
[4] [5] Laurito, E. R. (2018). Notes on pressure vessels.
[5] Laurito, E. R. (2018). Notes on pressure vessels.
[6] Laurito, E. R. (2018). Notes on stresses in pressure-loaded thin-walled vessels.

CPI

1. A thermometer (τ = 0.3 min) is at equilibrium with water at 25°C. The water is then
heated such that the temperature of the water increases linearly until it reaches its
boiling point after 6 min. What is the temperature reading of the thermometer as soon
as the water starts to boil?

A. 96.25°C B. 100.41°C C. 97.34°C D. 98.12°C E. None of


the
above
Solution

𝑥𝑠 = 25 𝑦𝑠 = 25

100 − 25
𝜏 = 0.3 = 12.5
6

25 𝑡<0
𝑥(𝑡) = {
25 + 12.5𝑡 𝑡>0

0 𝑡<0
𝑋(𝑡) = {
12.5𝑡 𝑡>0

12.5
𝑋(𝑠) =
𝑠2

12.5 1
𝑌(𝑠) = 2

𝑠 𝜏𝑠 + 1

1 𝜏 𝜏
𝑌(𝑠) = 12.5 ( + + )
𝑠 2 𝑠 𝑠+1
𝜏
−𝑡
𝑌(𝑡) = 12.5 (𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 𝜏 )
−𝑡
𝑌(𝑡) = 12.5 (𝑡 − 0.3 + 0.3𝑒 0.3 ) + 25

𝑡 = 6, 𝑦 = 96.25℃

2. A cement company uses 3,000 MT of gypsum a month. If 50 MT of this


gypsum are needed for every 1,000 MT of clinker to produce Portland
cement, the MT of clinker produced monthly by the cement plant is:

A. 60000 B. 65000 C. 75000 D. 70000MT E. None of


MT MT MT the
above
Solution

𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑦𝑝𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑢𝑠𝑒𝑑 = 3000 𝑀𝑇

50 𝑀𝑇 𝑔𝑦𝑝𝑠𝑢𝑚−→ 1000 𝑀𝑇 𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑒𝑟

3000
𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑦𝑝𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑒𝑑 = = 60 𝑀𝑇
50

𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑 = 60 𝑀𝑇 (1000𝑀𝑇) = 60000𝑀𝑇

3. A 200-L mixing tank, initially operated at steady state with an inlet flow rate of 40L/min,
and an inlet concentration of 10g/L, was disturbed at t=0 when the feed was changed
to another concentration (5g/L). Calculate the time it will take to reduce the
concentration of the system to 7g/L.
A. 4.595 s B. 4.581 s C. 4.577 s D. 4.568 s E. None of
the
above
Solution

𝑥𝑠 = 10 𝑦𝑠 = 10

𝑉 200
𝜏= = =5
𝐹 40

10 𝑡<0
𝑥(𝑡) = {
5 𝑡>0

0 𝑡<0
𝑋(𝑡) = {
−5 𝑡>0

5
𝑋(𝑠) = −
𝑠
1 5 1
𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑋(𝑠) =−
𝜏𝑠 + 1 𝑠 5𝑠 + 1
𝑡
𝑌(𝑡) = 𝑦(𝑡) − 10 = −5(1 − 𝑒 − ⁄5 )

𝑖𝑓 𝑦 = 7, 𝑡 = 4.58145365937 𝑠

[1] Olano, S. S., Jr., Bungay, V. C., Centeno, C. R., & Salazar, C. M. (2015). Reviewer for
Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination (3rd ed., p.391). Manila: Manila Review Institute.
[2] Servillano, S.B. Olano Jr (2015). Reviewer for Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination,
3rd Edition (2015). p.367

[3] Roque, Joshua Emmanuel V. (2018). Multiple CSTR in Series for the Production of Ethyl
Acetate. UST Manila, Philippines

CPI, Process Control and Equipment Design

1. Given the characteristic equation:

𝑠3 + 2𝑠2 + 3𝑠 + 4 + 𝑠𝑠 = 0

If Kc = 3, what is the stability criterion of the system

A. Stable B. Marginally C. Unstable D. Marginally E. None of these


Stable Unstable

Solution:

Get the value of s:

s = -2.132493688

s = 0.06624684424 + 1.810567124i

s = 0.06624684424 - 1.810567124i
If there are no poles with positive real part, the system is stable

∴ Unstable

(Approximation only)

2. Consider a control system in which a Proportional-Integral controller is used with Kc = 1 and 𝑠𝑠 = 2.


What is the transfer function of the controller ( Gc(s) )?
2𝑠+1
A. Gc(s) = 1 B. Gc(s) = C. Gc(s) = 2s+1 D. Gc(s) = E. None of these
2𝑠
2𝑠2 +2𝑠+1
2𝑠

Solution:

1
Gc(s) = Kc (1+ )
𝑠𝑠 𝑠
1
Gc(s) = 1 (1+ )
2𝑠
2𝑠+1
Gc(s) =
2𝑠

3. A tall vertical column made from carbon steel 2 m in diameter and 40 m in height is to be installed
with flat heads. The available specifications are: Operating temperature and pressure - 284℉and 57 psi.

Corrosion
allowance = 1.5
mm
Permissible
material stress =
12900 psi

What should be the thickness of the head?


A. 98 mm B. 98.84 mm C. 88 mm D. 88.84 mm E. None of these

Solution:

Design pressure = 57 + 25 = 82 psi


1
Radius of the column = 2*2= 1 m

0.3𝑠
𝑠 = 2𝑠𝑠 √ + 𝑠𝑠
𝑠

0.3(82 𝑠𝑠𝑠)
𝑠 = 2(1000 𝑠𝑠)√ + 1.5 𝑠𝑠
(12900 𝑠𝑠𝑠)

𝑠 =88.84 mm

4. A 2 m diameter cylindrical tank has an outflow with resistance of 0.05 𝑠𝑠𝑠/𝑠2 . Initially, water enters
the tank steadily at a flowrate of8 𝑠3 /𝑠𝑠𝑠. At t = 0, the inlet is closed. In how many seconds will the
depth of water be reduced to 0.25 m?

A. 2.27 s B. 3.66 s C. 4.43 s D. 5.51 s E. None of these

Solution:

qs = 8 hs = qsR = 8(0.05) = 0.4 m Kp = R = 0.05 𝜏 = 𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 𝑠(12 )(0.05) = 0.05𝑠


8, 𝑠<0 0, 𝑠<0
𝑠 = {0, 𝑠>0
𝑠(𝑠) = {−8, 𝑠>0
𝑠(𝑠) = −8/𝑠

𝑠𝑠 8 0.05
𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠(𝑠)( )= − ( )
𝑠𝑠 + 1 𝑠 0.05𝑠 𝑠 + 1
𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠(𝑠) − 0.4 = −8(0.05)(1 − 𝑠−𝑠/0.05𝑠 )
𝑠 = 0.0738 𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 4.43 𝑠

5. Find the thickness of a 0.2 m in diameter vessel with flat head, has allowable stress of 100 MPa, and
internal pressure of 300 kPa. Assume a corrosion allowance of 2 mm.

A. 1.002 m B. 0.009 m C. 4.301 m D. 2.333 m E. None of these

Solution:

Flat Head:

0.3𝑠
𝑠 = 2𝑠√ + 𝑠𝑠
𝑠
0.3(300 𝑠𝑠𝑠) 3
𝑠 = 2(0.1 𝑠)√ +
(100,000 𝑠𝑠𝑠) 1000

𝑠 = 0.009 𝑠

6. H2SO4 is produced in a plant using contact process. A large storage tank currently holds 150,000 kg
of 25% oleum. The total capacity of the tank is 160,000 kg. If water is added to the tank to fill the
capacity, determine the percentage of H2SO4 in the final mixture.

A. 80.08% B. 95.32% C. 97.16% D.99.02% E. None of these

Solution:

25% oleum = 25% SO3 and 75% H2SO4

Initially,

SO3 = 0.25(150,000 kg) = 37,500 kg

H2SO4 = 0.75(150,000 kg) = 112,500 kg

H2O to be added = 160,000 - 150,000 kg = 10,000 kg.

SO3 + H2O → H2SO4

Determine the limiting reactant.


18 𝑠𝑠/𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠2𝑠
37500 𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠3 ( ) = 8437.5 𝑠𝑠 𝑠2𝑠
80 𝑠𝑠/𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠3
The limiting reactant is SO3. 8437.5 kg H2O will react to form H2SO4.
98 𝑠𝑠/𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠2𝑠𝑠4
37500 𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠3 ( ) = 45937.5 𝑠𝑠 𝑠2𝑠𝑠4
80 𝑠𝑠/𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠3

New mixture:

H2O = 10,000 - 8,437.5 = 1,562.5 kg H2O

H2SO4 = 112,500 + 45,937.5 kg = 158,437.5

%H2SO4 = 158,437.5/160,000 * 100 = 99.02%


7. A thermometer initially at 70 degrees Celsius having a time constant of 5 minute is placed in a bath
maintained at 100 degrees Celsius at t=0. Find the temperature at t=1.2 minutes

A. 84 degrees B. 84.9 degrees C. 90 degrees D. 88.4 degrees E. None of these


celsius celsius celsius celsius

Solution:

𝜏= 5 ; A = 70

𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠(1 − 𝑠−𝑠/𝑠 )

𝑠(𝑠) = 70(1 − 𝑠−𝑠/5 )

When t=1.2 minutes

𝑠(𝑠) = 70(1 − 𝑠−1.2/5 )+70

𝑠(𝑠) = 84.9360 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠

8. Determine the safe working pressure for a 5 in., sch. 80 pipe, carbon steel, butt-welded, working
temperature 100 degrees celsius with a maximum allowable pressure of 12000 lb/in^2

A.960 lb/in^2 B. 4398 𝑠𝑠/𝑠𝑠2 C. 3100 lb/in^2 D. 4400 lb/in^2 E. None of these

Solution:

Safe working pressure = (schedule no.)(Max allowable stress) / 1000

Schedule no. = 80

Max allowable stress = 12000 lb/in^2

Safe working pressure = (80)(12000 lb/in^2) / 1000 = 960 lb/in^2


9. Given a step change magnitude of 5 that is introduced into a system having a transfer function of
𝑠(𝑠) 12
𝑠(𝑠)
= 𝑠2+1.6𝑠+4. Determine its percent overshoot.

A.23.37% B.73.23% C.33.27% D.37.23% E. None of these

Solution:

1
𝑠(𝑠) 12
= 2 ∙4
𝑠(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.2𝑠 + 4 1
4
𝑠(𝑠) 3 5
= ∙
𝑠(𝑠) 0.25𝑠2 + 0.3𝑠 + 1 𝑠
𝜏 2 = 0.25

𝜏 = 0.5

2𝑠𝑠 = 0.3
𝜁=0.3
−𝑠(𝑠)
%𝑠𝑠 = 𝑠√1−𝑠2
−𝑠(0.3)
%𝑠𝑠 = 𝑠√1−0.32 × 100% = 37.23%

10. Determine the design pressure and temperature for the figure below
A.185psig, 450F B.176psig,210F C.99psig,440F D.160psig,400F E. None of these

Solution: Max Working Pressure of equipment : 160 psig

(160)0.10 = 16psig<25psig

Design Pressure of equipment : 160 psig+25psig=185 psig

Max Working Temperature of equipment : 400F

Design Temperature of equipment : 400F + 50F=450F

11. Given a spherical shell with a diameter of 6m, a maximum allowable stress of 200 MPa, internal
pressure of 200 KPa, a joint efficiency of 85%, and a corrosion allowance of 2mm, find the thickness of
the shell.

A. 3.76 mm B. 5mm C. 1.2mm D. 2.88mm E. None of these

Solution:
𝑠𝑠
𝑠= + 𝑠𝑠
2𝑠𝑠 − 0.2𝑠
(200 𝑠𝑠𝑠)(3𝑠) 2
𝑠= +
2(200000𝑠𝑠𝑠)(0.85) − 0.2(200 𝑠𝑠𝑠) 1000
t=3.76 mm
2𝑠−5
12. Find the inverse Laplace transform of 𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠2+4𝑠+8

A.2𝑠−2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) − B. 2𝑠−2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) + C. 2𝑠2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(−2𝑠) − D. 2𝑠2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) + E. None of these
9 −2𝑠 9 −2𝑠 9 2𝑠
𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) 𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) 𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(−2𝑠) 𝑠2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠)
2 2 2

Solution:
2𝑠 − 5
𝑠(𝑠) =
𝑠2 + 4𝑠 + 8
2(𝑠 + 2) 9 2
𝑠(𝑠) = 2 −
(𝑠 + 2)2 + 2 2 (𝑠 + 2)2 + 22
9
𝑠(𝑠) = 2𝑠−2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) − 𝑠−2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠)
2

13. What is the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure of a tank operating at 200 psig?

A. 225 psig B. 220 psig C. 210 psig D. 200 psig E. None of these
Solution:

MAWP= Operating pressure + (25 psig or 10% MAWP)

If 25 psig, MAWP= 225psig (greater than 220 psig)

If 10% OP, MAWP= 220 psig

14. A process of unknown transfer function is subjected to a unit impulse input. The output of the
process is measured accurately and is found to be represented by the function Y(t) = t e-^-t. Determine
the unit step response in this process.

A.𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠𝑠−𝑠 B. 𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠𝑠−2𝑠 C. 𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠 D. 𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠−𝑠 E. None of these

Solution:

Y(t) = te^-t

X(s) = 1 Y(s) = 1/(s+1)^2

G(s) = Y(s)/X(s) = 1/s(s+1)^2

To determine the unit step response:

Y(s) = 1/(s+1)^2
𝑠 𝑠
𝑠(𝑠) = 1/(𝑠 + 1)2 = +
𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 1)2
Solving for B and C:

B=0C=1

1
𝑠(𝑠) =
(𝑠 + 1)2

𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠𝑠−𝑠

15.It is the conversion of heavy products to lighter products which utilizes high temperature to make
low value residues into petroleum coke.
A.Coking/Thermal B.Hydrocracking C.Fluid catalytic D. Catalytic E. None of these
cracking cracking cracking

References:

Coughanowr, Donald. Process Systems Analysis and Control, 3rd ed. 2009

Towler, G. P. (2013). Chemical engineering design: Principles, practice and economics of plant and
process design, second edition (2nd ed.). Kidlington, Oxford, U.K. ; Waltham, Mass.: Butterworth-
Heinemann.

CHEMICAL PROCESSES INDUSTRIES, PROCESS CONTROL & DYNAMICS AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. Process wastewater flows at 750 m3/hr into a holding pond with a volume of 7500 m3 and then flow
from the pond to a river. Initially, the pond is at steady state with a negligible concentration of
pollutants. Because of a malfunction in the wastewater treating process, the concentration of the
pollutants in the inlet stream suddenly increases to 800 ppm and stays constant at that value for 1 day.
After which the treatment process was corrected and the concentration of the pollutants at the inlet
stream drops to zero. Assuming a perfectly mixed pond, for how long is the outlet stream from the
pond to the river exceeding the regular maximum pollutant concentration of 450 ppm?
A. 20.53585 hrs B. 16.35774 hrs C. 21.97448 hrs D. 14.73521 hrs E. None of
these
Solution: 𝑉 = 7500 𝐹 = 750 𝑥𝑠 = 𝑦𝑠 = 0
0 𝑡<0 0 𝑡<0
800 800 −24𝑠
𝑥(𝑡) = { 800 0 < 𝑡 < 24 𝑋(𝑡) = { 800 0 < 𝑡 < 24 𝑋(𝑠) = − 𝑒
𝑠 𝑠
0 𝑡 > 24 0 𝑡 > 24
𝑌(𝑠) 1
Transfer function for a Mixing tank system: 𝑋(𝑠)
=𝑉
𝑠+1
𝐹
Deriving the response of the system , y(t):
800 800 −24𝑠 1
𝑌(𝑠) = [ − 𝑒 ][ ]
𝑠 𝑠 7500
𝑠+1
750
𝑌(𝑡) = 800(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/10 ) − 800𝑢(𝑡 − 24)(1 − 𝑒 −(𝑡−24)/10 )
800(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/10 ) 𝑡 < 24
𝑦(𝑡) = { 𝑡−24
800(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/10 ) − 800 (1 − 𝑒 − 10 ) 𝑡 > 24
Assume t<24 y(t)=450 t= 8.266785732 hrs VALID!
Assume t<24 y(t)=450 t= 28.80264194 hrs VALID!
Δt= 28.80264194 -8.266785732= 20.53585621 hrs
2. The equation shown below is the characteristic equation of a closed-loop system. Determine the
range of KC in which the system is stable? The transportation lag can be approximated by 1st-order Pade.
𝑘𝑐 𝑒 −𝑠
1+ =0
(𝑠 + 2)2
A. −5 < 𝑘𝑐 < 7 B. −3 < 𝑘𝑐 < 4 C. −4 < 𝑘𝑐 < 8 D. 3 < 𝑘𝑐 < 8 E. None of
these
Solution:

Given Characteristic Equation:


𝑘𝑐 𝑒 −𝑠
1+ =0
(𝑠 + 2)2
2−𝑠
The transportation lag can be approximated using 1st order Pade: 𝑒 −2𝑠 = 2+𝑠

Simplifying the given characteristic equation:


(𝑠 + 2)2 (𝑠 + 2) + 𝑘𝑐 (2 − 𝑠)
=0
(𝑠 + 2)2 (𝑠 + 2)
𝑠 3 + 6𝑠 2 + 12𝑠 + 8 + 𝑘𝑐 (2 − 𝑠) = 0

Determining the range of kc by using Routh Array


1 12 − 𝑘𝑐 0
6 8 + 2𝑘𝑐 0
6(12 − 𝑘𝑐 ) − 1(8 + 2𝑘𝑐 )
0 0
6
[ 8 + 2𝑘𝑐 0 0 ]
6(12 − 𝑘𝑐 ) − 1(8 + 2𝑘𝑐 )
> 0 & 8 + 2𝑘𝑐 > 0
6
𝑘𝑐 > −4 & 𝑘𝑐 < 8
If kc=-4, Poles: 0, −3 ± 𝑖√7 Range for stability: −4 < 𝑘𝑐 < 8 𝑂𝑅 (−4,8)
If kc=8, Poles: 0, ±2𝑖
3. A process engineer is assigned to design a pipeline which will be used to deliver a viscous liquid from
the storage tank to the batch reactor. That liquid flows at laminar conditions having a rate of 8.3145
x10-3 m3/s and has a viscosity (µ) of 9.6485 Pa•s. What will be the optimum steel pipe inside diameter
for this design?
A. 11.067 in B. 9.893 in C. 7.783 in D. 8.085 in E. None of
these
0.36 0.18
Solution: 𝐷𝑖,𝑜𝑝𝑡 = 3𝑞𝑓 µ𝑓 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐷𝑖,𝑜𝑝𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠
0.36
3
𝑚3 1 𝑓𝑡 1000 𝑐𝑃 0.18
𝐷𝑖,𝑜𝑝𝑡 = 3 [(0.0083145 )( ) ] [(9.6485 𝑃𝑎 • 𝑠 ( ) )]
𝑠 0.3048 𝑚 1 𝑃𝑎 • 𝑠
𝐷𝑖,𝑜𝑝𝑡 = 10.06303235 𝑖𝑛
o
4. A thermometer initially reads 20 C at t=0, it is placed in a boiling H2O. After 2 min, it was removed
from the boiling H2O and is plunged in to an ice H2O. At t=2 min, the thermometer reads 96oC. What
would be the expected reading of the thermometer at t=4 min.
A. 5.1oC B. 4.8oC C. 4.1oC D. 3.7oC E. None of
these
Solution:
𝑌(𝑠) 1
=
𝑋(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 1
20 𝑡<0
𝑥(𝑡) = {100 0 < 𝑡 < 2
0 𝑡>2
0 𝑡<0
𝑋(𝑡) = { 80 0 < 𝑡 < 2
−20 𝑡>2
80 100 −2𝑠
𝑋(𝑠) = − 𝑒
𝑠 𝑠
80 100 −2𝑠 1
𝑌(𝑠) = ( − 𝑒 )( )
𝑠 𝑠 𝜏𝑠 + 1
𝑡 (𝑡−2)
𝑌(𝑡) = 80(1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 ) − 100(1 − 𝑒 − 𝜏 )𝑢(𝑡 − 2)
𝑡
80(1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 ) + 20 𝑡<2
𝑋(𝑡) = { 𝑡 (𝑡−2)
80(1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 ) − 100(1 − 𝑒− 𝜏 ) + 20 𝑡 > 2

At t=2; y(t)=96oC (use 1st equation)


𝜏 = 0.6676 𝑚𝑖𝑛

At t=4; 𝜏 = 0.6676 𝑚𝑖𝑛 (use 2nd equation)


y(t)= 4.80oC

5. Determine the unit-impulse response of a system that has a unit-step response of Y(t) = sinh 3t.
A. 3cosh 3t B. 3sin 3t C.3cos 3t D. 3sinh 3t E. None of
these
Solution:
3
𝑌(𝑠) 𝑠 2 − 9 3𝑠
𝐺(𝑠) = = = 2
𝑋(𝑠) 1 𝑠 −9
𝑠
3𝑠
𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑋(𝑠)𝐺(𝑠) = 1( 2 )
𝑠 −9
𝑌(𝑡) = 3 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ 3𝑡
6. The internal diameter of a spherical vessel is 14m and the outer diameter is 15m. It is made up of
Type 304 stainless steel with maximum temperature of 450oC. A single butt weld joint not
radiographed is used. Compute for the design pressure of the vessel in MPa. Assume no corrosion.
A.7.5189 MPa B. 7.0092 MPa C.6.9872 MPa D.6.5239 MPa E. None of
these
Given:
Spherical Vessel
Di= 14m
Do= 15m
Type 304 SS; at T=450oC=842oF (by interpolation from Table 13.2 (Sinnott and Towler, Chemical
Engineering Design)
S=11.061 ksi=11.061x1000 psi=76.2629MPa
𝐷 −𝐷 15−14
𝑡 = 𝑜2 𝑖 = 2 =0.5m
Single butt weld joint not radiographed: Ej=0.7
No corrosion: Cc=0
Solution:
Spherical Tank:
𝑃𝑟𝑖
𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐
2𝑆𝐸𝑗 − 2𝑃
𝑃(7𝑚)
0.5 = +0
2(76.2629𝑀𝑃𝑎)(0.7) − 0.2𝑃
𝑃 = 7.5189 𝑀𝑃𝑎

7. A double pipe heat exchanger has 2” Sch 40 steel pipe inside a 4” Sch 40 steel pipe. The operating
pressure in the inner tubes is 35 psig and in the annulus it is 70 psig. What shall be the maximum
allowable working pressure?
A. 90 psig B. 60 psig C. 95 psig D. 70 psig E. None of
these
Solution:

MAWP = operating P + 25 psig

** Since the pressure in the annulus is higher, 70 psig will be set as the operating pressure.

MAWP = 70 psig + 25 psig = 95 psig


8. Approximate the transfer function shown below with a second-order-plus-time-delay model using
Skogestad’s Half-Rule.

1−𝑠
G(s) =
(2𝑠+1)2 (8𝑠+1) (10𝑠+1)

A. G(s) = 𝑒−2𝑠 C. G(s) = D. G(s) = E. None of


1−𝑠 B. G(s) = 𝑒−𝑠
(2𝑠+1)(10𝑠+1) 𝑒 −4𝑠 these
(2𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1) (10𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1)(2𝑠+1)
(10𝑠+1) (9𝑠+1)
Solution:

1−𝑠
G(s) =
(10𝑠+1) (8𝑠+1)(2𝑠+1)( 2𝑠+1)

1−𝑠
G(s) = 2
(10𝑠+1) (8𝑠+1)( 𝑠+1)( 2𝑠+1)
2

𝑒 −𝑠 ∙ 𝑒 −𝑠 ∙ 𝑒 −2𝑠
G(s) =
(10𝑠+1) ((8+1)𝑠+1)

𝑒 −4𝑠
G(s) =
(10𝑠+1) (9𝑠+1)
9. A mixed tank heater is being operated as shown below. Determine the response of the outlet
temperature to a step change in the inlet to 70℃.

A. T(t) = 60 + 10 B. T(t) = 80 + 10 (1- C. T(t) = 20 + 10 D. T(t) = 80 + 20 E. None of


(1-𝑒 −𝑡/5 ) 𝑒 −𝑡/5 ) (1-𝑒 −𝑡/5 ) (1-𝑒 −𝑡/5 ) these
Solution:

60 𝑡<0
𝑇𝑜 = {
70 𝑡>0

0 𝑡<0
𝑇𝑜′ = {
10 𝑡>0
10
To’(s) = 𝑠

10 1
T’(s) = 𝑠
∗ 5𝑠+1

Step fxn: T’(t) = Akp (1-𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏 )


T’(t) = 10 (1-𝑒 −𝑡/5 ) = T-Ts = T-80
T(t) = 80 + 10 (1-𝑒 −𝑡/5 )
10. Determine the maximum value of Y(t) if a step change of magnitude 5 is introduced into a system
with the following transfer function.
𝑌(𝑠) 4
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 8𝑠 + 6𝑠 + 2

A. 10.2840 B. 10.0081 C. 10 D. 10.2931 E. None of


these
Solution:
𝑌(𝑠) 4
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 8𝑠 + 6𝑠 + 2
𝑌(𝑠) 2
= 2
𝑋(𝑠) 4𝑠 + 3𝑠 + 1
𝜏 2 = 4, 𝜏 = 2
2ζ(2) = 3, ζ = 0.75
𝑌(𝑡) = 𝐴𝐾𝑝 = 5(2) = 10
−0.75𝜋
( )
√ 2
%𝑂𝑆 = 𝑒 1−0.75
× 100 = 2.84%
𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐴𝐾𝑝(1 + %𝑂𝑆) = 10(1 + 0.0284)
𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 10.2840
11. A double pipe heat exchanger has a 1-inch Sch 40 steel pipe inside a 2-inch Sch 40 steel pipe. If the
operating pressure of the inner tube is 35 psig and in the annulus it is 50 psig, what is the maximum
allowable working pressure?
A. 60 psig B. 75 psig C. 38.5 psig D. 55 psig E. None of
these
Solution:
𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 50𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔
𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 75𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔
6𝑠+1
12. What is the inverse Laplace transform of 𝐹(𝑠) = 𝑠2 +6𝑠+18 ?

A. 6e^(-3t)cos3t- B. 6e^(3t)cos3t- C. 6e^(-3t)sin3t- D. 6e^(-3t)cos3t- E. None of


(17/3)e^(-3t)sin3t (17/3)e^(3t)sin3t (17/3)e^(-3t)cos3t 17e^(-3t)sin3t these
Solution:
6𝑠 + 1
𝐹(𝑠) =
𝑠2
+ 6𝑠 + 18
6(𝑠 + 3) − 17
𝐹(𝑠) =
(𝑠 + 3)2 + 9
6(𝑠 + 3) 17
𝐹(𝑠) = −
(𝑠 + 3)2 + 9 (𝑠 + 3)2 + 9
17
𝐹(𝑡) = 6𝑒 −3𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠3𝑡 − 𝑒 −3𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑛3𝑡
3

13. A Schedule 40 pipe has a diameter of 4 inches and a maximum allowable stress of 17, 142 lb/in2
for a butt-welded steel pipe. Calculate for the safe working pressure.
A. 688.85 lb/in2 B. 668.85 lb/in2 C. 658.68 lb/in2 D. 685.68 lb/in2 E. None of these
Solution:
𝑆𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 𝑛𝑜. × 𝜎𝑠 40 × 17142 𝑙𝑏
𝑃𝑠 = = = 685.68 2
1000 1000 𝑖𝑛

14. Find the cross-sectional area of the fluid in a partially filled horizontal cylinder if the diameter is 42
cm and if the liquid level is maintained at 14 cm.
A. 410.35 cm2 B. 404.26 cm2 C. 405.72 cm2 D. 408.15 cm2 E. None of these
Solution:
𝑅−ℎ
𝐴𝑓 = 𝑅2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 ( ) − (𝑅 − ℎ)√2𝑅ℎ − ℎ2
𝑅
21 − 14
𝐴𝑓 = (21)2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 ( ) − (21 − 14)√2(21)(14) − (14)2
21
𝐴𝑓 = 404.26 𝑐𝑚2
15. The unit impulse response of a system is given by Y(t)= t5. Determine the response of the system
to a step input.
1 1 1 6 1 E. None of these
A. 𝑡 6
24
B. 𝑡 6
6
C. 𝑡
120
D. 𝑡 6
36
Solution:
𝑌(𝑡) = 𝑡 5
5!
𝑌(𝑠) = 6
𝑠
5!
𝑠 6 120
𝐺(𝑠) = = 6
1 𝑠
1 120 120
𝑌(𝑠) = ( 6 ) = 7
𝑠 𝑠 𝑠
1 6
𝑌(𝑡) = 𝑡
6

References:

 Seborg, D.E., Edgar, T.F. & Mellichamp, D.A. (2004). Process Dynamics and Control (2nd ed). John
Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ.
 Towler, G. & Sinnott, R. (2008). Chemical Engineering Design: Principles, Practice and Economics
of Plant and Process Design. Elsevier, Inc.: London, UK.