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Reviewer 2A: Application

Process Control and Dynamics

Equipment Design

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

APPLICATION

1. In a shell-and-tube heat exchanger with the shell-side having an entering pressure of 588 psig,

calculate the design pressure of the shell-side.

A. 613 psig B. 563 psig C. 646.8 psig D. 529.2 E. None

psig of

the

abov

e

Solution:

In calculating the design pressure, the maximum allowable pressure is calculated by the addition of 25

psig or 10% safety factor (depending which is higher). Since 10% is higher than 25 psig, the addition of

10% safety factor was used.

10

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 588 + (588 𝑥 ) = 646.8

100

2. What schedule number can be used for ordinary steel pipe having an allowable stress of

10,000 psi for use at working pressure of 350 psig?

A. 80 B. 120 C. 40 D. 160 E. None

of the

above

𝑃

𝑆𝑐ℎ. 𝑁𝑜. = 1000 ( )

𝑆

10, 000 𝑝𝑠𝑖

𝑆𝑐ℎ. 𝑁𝑜. = 1000 ( )

350 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

𝑆𝑐ℎ. 𝑁𝑜. = 35 ≈ 40 (𝑛𝑒𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑡)

3. It is required to design a cylindrical shell having 32 inch radius. The internal pressure inside is

663 psi and the material unit stress is 17,000 and it is fully radiographed. Determine the

required thickness of the shell.

A. 1.40 inch B. 1.37 inch C. 1.35 inch D. 1.30 inch E. None

of

these

Given:

𝑃 = 700 𝑝𝑠𝑖

𝑅 = 32 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ

𝑆 = 17000 𝑝𝑠𝑖

𝐸 = 1 (𝑓𝑢𝑙𝑙𝑦 𝑟𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑜𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑑)

𝑃𝑅

𝑡=

𝑆𝐸 − 0.6𝑃

𝑡= = 𝟏. 𝟑𝟓 𝒊𝒏𝒄𝒉

(17000 𝑝𝑠𝑖)(1) − 0.6(700 𝑝𝑠𝑖)

4. Find the volume of fluid inside a horizontal , cylindrical tank ; 42 cm in diameter with cylinder

length of 62 cm with a guppy and ellipsoidal head and standard ASME torispherical 1-1 k =

0.06 heads , each heads extending beyond the ends of the cylinder 16.5 cm (except

torispherical ) for fluid depth in the tanks of 14 cm.

A. B. C. D. E. None of

29, 883.50724 𝑚3 298, 83.50724 𝑐𝑚3 29, 883.50724 𝑐𝑚3 30, 793.50724 𝑐𝑚3 these

Solution:

42

𝐷 = 42 𝑐𝑚 , 𝑅= = 21 , ℎ = 14 𝑐𝑚

2

Compute for Af

𝑅−ℎ

𝐴𝑓 = 𝑅 2 ∗ cos−1 ( ) − (𝑅 − ℎ) (√2 ∗ 𝑅 ∗ ℎ − ℎ2 )

𝑅

21𝑐𝑚 − 14𝑐𝑚

𝐴𝑓 = 21𝑐𝑚2 ∗ cos −1 ( ) − (21𝑐𝑚 − 14𝑐𝑚) (√2 ∗ 21𝑐𝑚 ∗ 14𝑐𝑚 − 14𝑐𝑚2 )

21𝑐𝑚

𝐴𝑓 = 404.2601739 𝑐𝑚2

Ellipsoidal Head (Volume)

ℎ

𝑉𝑓 = 𝐴𝑓 ∗ 𝐿 + 𝜋 ∗ 𝑎 ∗ ℎ2 (1 − )

3𝑅

14 𝑐𝑚

𝑉𝑓 = 404.2601739 𝑐𝑚2 ∗ 62 𝑐𝑚 + 𝜋 ∗ 16.5 𝑐𝑚 ∗ 14 𝑐𝑚2 (1 − )

3 ∗ 21 𝑐𝑚

𝑉𝑓 = 32 ,966.2835 𝑐𝑚3

Guppy Head (Volume)

2 ∗ 𝑎 ∗ 𝑅2 ℎ 2∗𝑎

𝑉𝑓 = 𝐴𝑓 ∗ 𝐿 + cos−1 (1 − ) + (√2 ∗ 𝑅 ∗ ℎ − ℎ2 ) (ℎ + 𝑅)

3 𝑅 9∗𝑅

2 ∗ 16.5 𝑐𝑚 ∗ 21 𝑐𝑚2 14 𝑐𝑚

𝑉𝑓 = 404.2601739 𝑐𝑚2 ∗ 62 𝑐𝑚 + cos−1 (1 − )

3 21 𝑐𝑚

2 ∗ 16.5 𝑐𝑚

+ (√2 ∗ 21 𝑐𝑚 ∗ 14 𝑐𝑚 − 14 𝑐𝑚2 ) (14 𝑐𝑚 + 21 𝑐𝑚)

9 ∗ 21 𝑐𝑚

𝑉𝑓 = 26 800.73097 𝑐𝑚3

Volume

32, 966.2835 𝑐𝑚3 + 26,800.73097 𝑐𝑚3

𝑉= = 29, 883.50724 𝑐𝑚3

2

5. What is the volume of a half-filled horizontal tank with flat heads with diameter D and length

L?

𝜋 𝜋 𝜋 𝜋

A. 4 𝐷 2 𝐿 B. 6 𝐷 2 𝐿 C. 8 𝐷 2 𝐿 D. 2 𝐷 2 𝐿 E. None of these

Solution:

𝑉 =𝐵×ℎ

𝜋 𝐿

𝑉 = 𝐷2 ×

4 2

References:

1. In an underdamped second order system, the values of the time constant and damping ratio

were pre-determined. With the value of 0.5 and 0.4 respectively, calculate the period of

oscillation of the system.

A. 2.90 B. 1.45 C. 1.71 D. 3.43 E. of

these

Solution:

2𝜋𝜏 2𝜋(0.5)

𝑇= = = 3.43

√1 − 𝜁 2 √1 − (0.4)2

2. A step input of magnitude 4 is applied to a system having a transfer function of

𝑌(𝑠) 10

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.6𝑠 + 4

these

Solution:

𝑌(𝑆) 10 1⁄ 4

= 2 ∗ 4 𝑋(𝑠) =

𝑋(𝑆) 𝑠 + 16𝑠 + 4 1⁄ 𝑠

4

𝑌(𝑆) 2.5

= 2

𝑋(𝑆) 0.25𝑠 + 0.4𝑠 + 1

4 2.5

𝑌(𝑠) = ∗ 𝜏 2 = 0.25 𝜏 = 0.5 2𝜉𝜏 = 0.4 𝜉 = 0.4

𝑠 0.25𝑠 2 + 0.4𝑠 + 1

−𝜋 ∗ 𝜏

% 𝑂𝑆 = exp ( ) ∗ 100

√1 − 𝜉 2

−𝜋 ∗ 0.5

% 𝑂𝑆 = exp ( ) ∗ 100 = 25.38 %

√1 − 0.42

3 2s-3 3 of the

above

𝑠

𝐿{𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑡} =

𝑠2− 22

s+1 s+1

L{e−t cosht} = 2 2

= 2

(s + 1) − 2 s + 2s − 3

5𝑠 + 5

𝐿{5𝑒 −𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑡} = 2

𝑠 + 2𝑠 − 3

𝑠 2 − 4𝑠 + 13 𝑠 2 + 4𝑠 − 13 𝑠 2 − 4𝑠 + 13 𝑠 2 − 2𝑠 + 13 these

A. B. C. D.

2 𝑠−2

𝐹(𝑠) = 3 2 2

+

(𝑠 − 2) + 2 (𝑠 − 2)2 + 22

𝑠+4

𝐹(𝑠) =

(𝑠 − 2)2 + 22

𝒔+𝟒

𝑭(𝒔) = 𝟐

𝒔 − 𝟒𝒔 + 𝟏𝟑

5. Approximate the transfer function shown below with a second-order-plus-delay model using

Skogestad’s Half-Rule.

1−𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

(2𝑠 + 1)2 (8𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)

A. (10𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1) B. (10𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1) C. D.

(10𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1) (10𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1)

Solution:

1−𝑠

(10𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)

1−𝑠

2

(10𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1) (2 𝑠 + 1) (2𝑠 + 1)

𝑒 −𝑠 𝑒 −𝑠 𝑒 −2𝑠

(10𝑠 + 1)((8 + 1)𝑠 + 1)

𝑒 −4𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

(10𝑠 + 1)(9𝑠 + 1)

References:

STEP RESPONSE OF AN UNDERDAMPED SECOND ORDER SYSTEM by Engr. Basil James Santos

(lecture)

CHE 511 (Process Control) Class Lecture – Discussion prepared by Sir Basil James Santos

Retrieved from: Process Control Lecture of Mr. Basil Santos

Process Control

𝑠

𝐹(𝑠) =

𝑠2 + 8𝑠 + 21

A. 𝑒 −4𝑡 sin √5𝑡 − B. 𝑒 −4𝑡 cos √5𝑡 − C. 𝑒 −4𝑡 cos √5𝑡 − D. 𝑒 −4𝑡 sin √5𝑡 − E. None of

4 4 4 4 the

𝑒 −4𝑡 cos √5𝑡 𝑒 −4𝑡 sin √5𝑡 𝑒 −4𝑡 sin √5𝑡 𝑒 −4𝑡 cos √5𝑡

√5𝑡 √5𝑡 √5𝑡 √5𝑡 Choices

Solution:

𝑠

𝐹(𝑠) =

𝑠2

+ 8𝑠 + 21

𝑠+4−4

𝐹(𝑠) =

(𝑠 + 4)2 + 5

𝑠+4 4

𝐹(𝑠) = −

(𝑠 + 4) + 5 (𝑠 + 4)2 + 5

2

𝟒 −𝟒𝒕

𝑓(𝑡) = 𝒆−𝟒𝒕 𝐜𝐨𝐬 √𝟓𝒕 − 𝒆 𝐬𝐢𝐧 √𝟓𝒕

√𝟓

2. Water enters a 1000 L mixed tank heater at a flow rate of 220 L/min. The outlet temperature of the tank

is 80⁰C. Determine the response of the outlet temperature of a mixed-tank heater to a step change in

the inlet temperature from 65 to 73⁰C.

A. 80 + 8(1 − B. 80 + 8(1 − C. 80 + 9(1 − D. 85 + 8(1 − E. None of the

−𝑡/4.545 −𝑡/4.45 −𝑡/4.545 −𝑡/4.545

𝑒 ) 𝑒 ) 𝑒 ) 𝑒 ) choices

Solution:

1000 𝐿

𝜏= = 4.545 𝑚𝑖𝑛

220 𝐿/𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑇′(𝑠) 1

=

𝑇𝑖 ′(𝑠) 4.545𝑠 + 1

8 1

𝑇 ′ (𝑠) = ( )

𝑠 4.545𝑠 + 1

𝑌(𝑠) 10

3. A step change with a magnitude of 4 is introduced in a transfer system of = . Determine

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠2 +1.6𝑠+4

the % Overshoot

A. 24.5% B. 25.4% C. 34.5% D. 35.4% E. None of the

choices

Solution:

𝑌(𝑠) 10

=

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠2 + 1.6𝑠 + 4

𝑌(𝑠) 2.5

=

𝑋(𝑠) 0.25𝑠2 + 0.4𝑠 + 1

𝜏2 = 0.25

2𝜖𝜏 = 0.4

𝜖 = 0.4

−𝜋 × 0.4

%𝑂𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠ℎ𝑜𝑜𝑡 = (exp { )) × 100 = 𝟐𝟓. 𝟒%

√0.84

4. The characteristics of a controlled system is as shown below. Determine the range of Kc in which the

system will be stable.

𝑠 2 + 𝑠 + 2.5

1 + 𝐾𝑐 ∗ =6

𝑠(4𝑠 2 + 4𝑠 + 1)

choices

Solution:

4𝑠 3 + 4𝑠 2 + 𝑠 + 𝐾𝑐 2 + 𝐾𝐶 + 2.5𝐾𝑐 = 0

4𝑠 2 + (4 + 𝐾𝑐)𝑠 2 + (1 + 𝐾𝑐)𝑠 + 2.5𝐾𝑐 = 0

1 4 1+Kc

2 4+Kc 2.5Kc

3 1+Kc-10Kc/(4+Kc)

4 2.5Kc

10𝐾𝑐

1 + 𝐾𝑐 − >0

4 + 𝐾𝑐

4 + 5𝐾𝑐 + 𝐾𝑐 2 − 10𝐾𝑐 > 0

𝐾𝑐 2 − 5𝐾𝑐 + 4 > 0

𝑲𝒄 > 𝟏

5. Given a thermometer that has a time constant of 1 min is initially at 50°C. It is immersed in a bath

maintained at 100⁰C at t = 0. Determine the temperature reading in Celsius at 1.2 min.

Choices

Solution:

Next it is immersed in bath maintained at 100⁰C at t = 0

At t = 1.2

Y(t) = A(1-e-t/τ)

Y (1.2) = 50(1-e1.2/1) + 50

Y (1.2) = 84.9⁰C

6. A thermometer is placed in a water bath that is initially at steady state at a temperature of 27°C and was

maintained at a temperature of 85°C. Its time constant is 0.38 min. How long will it take for the

thermometer to reach a 72°C reading?

A. 0.58628 min B. 0.58286 min C. 0.56828 min D. 0.56882 min E. None of the

Choices

Solution:

85, t>0

X(t) = 0, t<0

58, t>0

58

𝑋(𝑠) = 𝑠

58 1

𝑌(𝑠) = ( )

𝑠 0.38𝑠+1

− 𝑡⁄

𝑌(𝑡) = 58 (1 − 𝑒 0.38 ) @ y = 72°C ; t = 0.5683 min

Equipment Design

1. A horizontal cylinder tank with hemispherical heads is design to a liquid. The dimension of the tank is

0.76 m for the height of the fluid. What is the volume occupied by the liquid if the tank is to be filled

half full and its L/D ratio is 3?

A. 9 m3 B. 10.11 m3 C. 9.5 m3 D. 11.01 m3 E. None of the

Choices

Solution:

𝑉𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑉𝐻𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑠 + 𝑉𝐶𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟

𝜋 𝜋

𝑉𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝐷 2 (𝐿) + 2 [ 𝐻 2 (1.5𝐷 − 𝐻)]

4 3

𝐷 𝐿

𝑏𝑢𝑡 𝐻 = 𝑎𝑛𝑑 = 3

2 𝐷

𝑠𝑜 𝐻 = 0.76𝑚, 𝐷 = 1.52𝑚, 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐿 = 4.56𝑚

𝜋 𝜋

𝑉𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = (1.52𝑚)2 (4.56𝑚) + 2 [ (0.76𝑚)2 (1.5(1.52𝑚) − 0.76𝑚)]

4 3

𝑉𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝟏𝟎. 𝟏𝟏𝒎𝟑

2. In a distillation column, for a distillate of 95% purity with a given withdrawal of 4 and α = 2.5. Estimate

the total number of trays.

A. 8 B. 7 C. 6 D. 9 E. None of the

Chioces

Solution:

3. Consider a shell and tube heat exchanger equipment with an entering pressure of steam of 588 psig and

an entering pressure of oil of 400 psig. What should be the design pressure of the shell-side?

A. 613 psig B. 646.8 psig C. 425 psig D. 440 psig E. None of the

choices

Solution:

Choose which is higher between the two.

𝐷𝑇 = 500 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 = 613 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

𝐷𝑇 = 500 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 (1.10) = 𝟔𝟒𝟔. 𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈

References:

- LeBlanc, S. E., & Coughanowr, D. R. (2009). Process systems analysis and control. Boston:

McGraw-Hill.

- Seborg, D. E., Edgar, T. F., Mellichamp, D. A., & Doyle, F. J. (2017). Process dynamics and

control. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

- CPI PowerPoint Presentations

- Equipment Design PowerPoint Lectures by Prof. Evelyn Laurito, PhD.

- Shreve, R. N., & Brink, J. A. (1977). Chemical processes industries. New York: McGraw-Hill.

- Kirkpatrick, S., Shreve, N. (2011). The Chemical Process Industries (2nd ed., Vol. 2, 1-15).

- Coughanowr, D. (2016). Process Systems Analysis and Control (2nd ed., 125-126).

- Roberts, M. (2017). Principles of Equipment Design (3rd ed., 331-338).

CPI

1. Sulfuric acid solution is ordinarily sold according to their specific gravity, or their Baumé degree.

What is the specific gravity of Sulfuric acid with a Baumé of 15.

Solution:

145

specific gravity =

145 − degrees Baumé

145

specific gravity = = 1.1154

145 − 15

2. What is the correct order for the paper and paperboard process

I. Recycling

II. Thickening

III. Deinking

IV. Bleaching

3. Sodium hydroxide for : Potassium Hydroxide for

SOAP HARD SOAP AND HARD these

AND SOFT SOAP SOAP

SOAP

4. a multi-stage process that refines and brightens raw pulp

NG RECYCLING these

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Baum%C3%A9_scale

PROCON

1. By using the S-shift Theorem, find the Laplace Transform of f(t) = 3t7e3t.

15120 15120 21 21 E. None of

A. (𝑠−3)7 B. (𝑠−3)8 C. (𝑠−3)7 D. (𝑠−3)8

these

Note:

f(t) F(s)

tn n!/sn+1

eat 1/(s-a)

3(7!) 15120

F(s)=(𝑠−3)8 = (𝑠−3)8

2. Derive an approximate first order plus time delay model using Skogestad’s half rule for the following

transfer function:

k(−0.2s + 1)

G(s) =

(6s + 1)(2s + 1)(s + 1)

k∙e−2.2s k∙e−3.2s k∙e−0.2s k∙e−3.2s E. None

A. G(s) = 7s+1

B. G(s) = 8s+1

C. G(s) = 9s+1

D. G(s) = 6s+1

of

these

Solution:

G(s) =

(6 + 1)s + 1

k ∙ e−2.2s

G(s) =

7s + 1

4. A step change of magnitude 4 is introduced into a system having a transfer function of

𝑌(𝑠) 10

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.6𝑠 + 4

Determine the Ultimate Value of Y(t)

A. 11 B.10 C. 9 D. 12 E. None of

these

(Y(s))/(X(s))=(10/(s^2+1.6s+4))1/4

𝑌(𝑠) 2.5

=

𝑋(𝑠) 0.25𝑠 2 + 0.4𝑠 + 1

Ultimate Value = AKp=4(2.5)=10

𝑡

𝑦 ′ = ∫0 𝑦𝑑𝑡 − 𝑡, 𝑦(0) = 3

𝑒 −𝑡 + 𝑒 −𝑡 1+ 𝑒 𝑡 + 𝑒 −𝑡 1 + 𝑒𝑡 + these

𝑒 𝑡 + 𝑒 −𝑡 𝑒𝑡

Solution:

𝑌(𝑠) 1

𝑠𝑌(𝑠) − 3 = − 2

𝑠 𝑠

1 1

(𝑠 − ) 𝑌(𝑠) = 3 − 2

𝑠 𝑠

1

23− 3𝑠 2 − 1

𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑠 = 3

1 𝑠 −𝑠

(𝑠 − 𝑠 )

1 1 1

𝑌(𝑠) = + +

𝑠 𝑠−1 𝑠+1

𝑦(𝑡) = 1 + 𝑒 𝑡 + 𝑒 −𝑡

6. A cylindrical tank has a diameter of 4 ft and an outflow with flow resistance of 0.2 min/ft2. It is initially

operating at steady-state with inlet flowrate of 25 ft3/min. At t=0, the inlet is closed. At what time will

the depth of water be reduced to 2 ft?

these

Solution:

𝜋

𝐴𝑟 = (4)2 = 4𝜋

4

25 𝑡 < 0

𝑞=

0 𝑡>0

0 𝑡<0

𝑄=

−25 𝑡 > 0

25

𝑄(𝑠) =

𝑠

𝐻(𝑠) 0.2

=

𝑄(𝑠) 4 𝜋𝑠 + 1

5

25 0.2

𝐻(𝑠) = − ( )

𝑠 4 𝜋𝑠 + 1

5

𝑡

−4

𝐻(𝑡) = −5 (1 − 𝑒 5𝜋 )

𝑡

−4

ℎ = 5 − 5 (1 − 𝑒 5𝜋 )

when h = 2

𝑡

−4

2 = 5 − 5 (1 − 𝑒 5𝜋 )

t = 2.30 min

EQUIDES

1. Stagnation suction pressure is found to be 1 psig at a sea level installation. The liquid’s vapor

pressure is 9 psia. Calculate the Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH) for a liquid with a specific gravity of

0.91.

these

Solution:

NPSH = Ps – Pvap

2.31𝑝 (2.31)(6.7)

NPSH = (𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛) = = 17𝐹𝑇

𝑆𝐺 0.91

2. What schedule number can be used for ordinary steel pipe having an allowable stress of 10000 psi

for use at a working pressure of 400 psig?

A. 20 B. 25 C. 40 D. 35 E. None of these

Solution:

𝑊𝑜𝑟𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

𝑆𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 = 1000 𝑥

𝐴𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑤𝑎𝑏𝑙𝑒 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒

400 𝑝𝑠𝑖

𝑆𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 = 1000 𝑥 = 40

10000 𝑝𝑠𝑖

3. A water tank 10m in ∅ and 15m high is half-filled. Determine the minimum thickness of the tank

plating if the stress is limited to 60MPa?

mm m these

Solution:

60MPa=(0.073575MPa)(10m)/2t

t=6.13125mm

4. A spherical pressure vessel has a 2ft inner radius and 5/16 inch wall thickness. If the working

tensile stress of the material is 8000psi determine the maximum allowable internal pressure.

si these

Solution:

𝑖𝑛

𝑙𝑏 𝑃∗(2𝑓𝑡∗2∗12 )

𝑓𝑡

800 𝑖𝑛2 = 5 =208.34 psi

4∗( )

16

5. Calculate the design pressure when the maximum internal pressure of a cylindrical vessel is 14 bar

(abs).

(abs) bar (gauge) (gauge)

(abs)

Solution:

Assume external pressure to be 1 atm or 1.01325 bar

𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑃 = 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃 + 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 𝑜𝑟 10%

𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 = 𝑃𝑔 + 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚

𝑃𝑔 = 𝑃𝑎𝑏𝑠 − 𝑃𝑎𝑡𝑚

1.01325

𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑃 = (12.99 − 1.01325) + 25 ( ) = 13.7 𝑏𝑎𝑟 (𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒) = 13.7 + 1.01325

14.7

= 14.72 𝑏𝑎𝑟 (𝑎𝑏𝑠)

6. Liquid Methanol is flowing on a SCH 40 pipe steel with NRE = 4623. Calculate for the friction factor

using Blasius Equation.

Solution:

𝑁𝑅𝐸 = 4623

0.079

𝑓= = 0.00958

46230.25

Reference: https://www.pumpsandsystems.com/topics/understanding-npsh-npsh-definitions

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

PROBLEM SOLVING

1. What is the Reynold’s Number of a 2” Sch 40 Steel pipe where the velocity in pipe is 6 m/s,

viscosity is 0.9cP, and density is 1000 kg/m3?

A. 346268.67 B. 342686.67 C. 348266.67 D. 346286.67 E. None of the

choices

Solution:

𝐷𝑖 𝑣𝜌

𝑁𝑅𝑒 =

𝜇

Di = 2.045 in. = 0.051943 m

v = 6 m/s

𝜇 = 0.9 cP = 0.0009 kg/m-s

𝜌 = 1000 kg/m3

𝑚 𝑘𝑔

0.051943 𝑚 (6 𝑠 ) (1000 3 )

𝑚

𝑁𝑅𝑒 =

𝑘𝑔

(0.0009 𝑚 − 𝑠)

NRe = 346286.666667

2. A double pipe heat exchanger has a 2in Sch40 steel pipe inside a 4-in Sch40 Steel pipe. The

operating pressure in the inner tubes is 40 psig and in the annulus it is 70 psig. What is the maximum

allowable pressure (MAWP)?

Solution:

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 70 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25 𝑃𝑠𝑖𝑔

𝑀AWP = 95 psig

4. Determine the thickness of a half-filled water tank with height of 15 m and a diameter of 10 m. The

working tensile stress of the material is 60 MPa.

mm 10-3 mm mm the

choices

𝑘𝑔⁄

Solution: : P = 𝜌𝑔ℎ = (1000 ) 𝑥 ( 9.81 𝑚⁄ 2 ) 𝑥 ( 7. 5 𝑚) = 73575 𝑃𝑎 = 0.073575 𝑀𝑃𝑎

𝑚3 𝑠

(0.073575 𝑀𝑃𝑎)𝑥 (10 𝑚)

60 𝑀𝑃𝑎 = 2𝑡

𝑡 = 6. 13125 𝑚𝑚

5. Find the volume of fluid in horizontal cylindrical tanks of 46 cm in diameter with cylinder lengths of

62cm (no heads). The fluid depth of the tank is 15cm.

A. 20138.25 B. 20195.75 C 19825.25 D. 19348.25 E. None of the

Choices

Solution: Solution:

R= 23cm

H =15 cm

L = 62cm

𝑅−ℎ

𝐴 = 𝑅 2 cos ( 𝑅

)− (𝑅 − ℎ)√2𝑅ℎ − ℎ2

A = 324.8104cm2

Vf = AL

Vf = 20138.25

6. Based on the diagram given below, what is the shell-side design pressure?

A. 621.5 psig B. 590.5 psig C. 565 psig D. 565.5 psig E. None of the

Choices

Solution: Design Pressure based on Maximum Allowable Working Pressure

MAWP= Operating Pressure + (25 psig or 10% safety factor)

MAWP= 565+ (.10*565)

MAWP= 621.5 psig

References:

2. EQUIPMENT DESIGN PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION

3. Equipment Design Lecture Notes on Pressure Vessel Design (2018)

4. Equipment Design Notes of Dr. Pestano

5. Lecture Notes on Pressure vessels by Dr. Evelyn R. Laurito

PROCESS CONTROL

𝑌(𝑠) 6

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 0.5𝑠 + 0.8𝑠 + 2

Determine the percentage overshoot.

A. 23.58% B. 25.38% C. 28.35% D. 23.85% E. None of the

choices

Solution: Solution:

1

𝑌(𝑠) 6

= ×2

𝑋(𝑠) 0.5𝑠 2 + 0.8𝑠 + 2 1

2

𝑌(𝑠) 3 𝐾𝑝

= =

𝑋(𝑠) 0.25𝑠 2 + 0.4𝑠 + 1 𝜏 2 𝑠 2 + 2𝜁𝜏𝑠 + 1

𝜏 2 = 0.25

𝜏 = 0.5

2𝜁𝜏 = 0.4

𝜁 = 0.4

−𝜋𝜁 −𝜋(0.4)

%𝑂𝑆 = exp ( ) 𝑥 100 % = exp ( ) 𝑥 100 %

√1 − 𝜁 2 √1 − (0.4)2

%OS = 25.38%

2. A step change magnitude of 5 is introduced into a system with a 𝜏 = 0.5 , 𝜁 = 0.4 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝐾𝑝 =

2.5. Determine the maximum value of Y(t).

these

Solution:

𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐴𝐾𝑝(1 + 𝑂𝑆)

−𝜋𝜁 −𝜋(0.4)

𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐴𝐾𝑝(1 + exp ( ) 𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (5)(2.5)(1 + exp ( )

√1−𝜁 2 √1−(0.4)2

𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 15.6725

3. Assume q1 is independent of h, derive the transfer function H(s)/ Q0(s) for the system.

1 1 1 1 E. None of the

F. 𝐴𝑟 𝑠

B. 𝐴𝑟 𝑠 + 1 C. 𝑠 + 1 D. 𝐴𝑟 ℎ + 1

choices

Solution:

sin 𝛽−2 cos 𝛽 cos 𝛽−2 sin 𝛽 𝑠∗cos 𝛽−2 sin 𝛽 𝑠∗cos 𝛽−2 sin 𝛽

A. B. C. D. E. None of

𝑠 2 −𝛼 2 𝑠 2 −𝛼 2 𝛼 2 −𝑠 2 𝑠 2 −𝛼 2

the

choices

Solution: cos αt + cos β =

𝑠2 −𝛼 2

5. 5. Find the Laplace transform of the function that satisfies the equation and the

conditions:

𝑑3 𝑠 𝑑2 𝑠 5𝑑𝑠 𝑑2 𝑥(0) 𝑑𝑥(0)

𝑑𝑡 3 + 𝑑𝑡 2 + 𝑑𝑡

+ 2𝑥 = 2 ; x(0) =

𝑑𝑡 2

+

𝑑𝑡

=0

A. 𝑋(𝑆) = B. 𝑋(𝑆) = C. 𝑋(𝑆) = D. 𝑋(𝑆) = E. None of the

2 2 2 2 Choices

(𝑆 3 ) 𝑆(𝑆 3 +5𝑆+2) 𝑆(𝑆 3 +𝑆 2 +5𝑆+2) (𝑆 3 +𝑆 2 +5𝑆+2)

3 2

𝑑 𝑠 𝑑 𝑠 5𝑑𝑠

Solution: 3+ 2 + 𝑑𝑡 + 2𝑥 = 2

𝑑𝑡 𝑑𝑡

2

S3x(S)-S2x(0)-Sx’(0)-x”(0) + S2x(S)-Sx’(0)-x”(0) + 5(Sx(S)-x(0))+ 2x(S) = 𝑆

2

S3x(S)+ S2x(S)+ 5Sx(S) +2x(S) = 𝑆

2

X(S)(S3+S2+5S+2) =

𝑆

2

𝑋(𝑆) =

𝑆(𝑆 3 +𝑆 2 +5𝑆+2)

6 . A step change of magnitude 5 is introduced into a system having a transfer function of:

𝑌(𝑠) 10

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.6𝑠 + 4

Determine the ultimate value of Y(t).

Choices

Solution: Since transfer function of the second order system can be expressed as:

𝑌(𝑠) 𝐾𝑝

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 2𝜁𝜏𝑠 + 1

Therefore,

1

𝑌(𝑠) 10

= 2 (4)

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.6𝑠 + 4 1

4

𝑌(𝑠) 2.5 5

= 2

, 𝑋(𝑠) =

𝑋(𝑠) 0.25 + 0.4𝑠 + 1 𝑠

Ultimate Value formula= 𝐴𝐾𝑝

References:

2. Process Control Lecture Notes Sir Basil James Santos

3. Process Control Lecture Notes (2018)

4. Process Control Notes of Engr. Basil Santos

CPI

1. 1800 kg of wet solids which contain 65% solids by weight are fed to tray dryer where it is dried

by hot air. The product attained is found to contain 2% moisture by weight. Calculate the

amount of water removed from wet solids.

A. 601.62 kg B. 602.61 kg C. 606.12 kg D. 612.06 kg E. None

of the

choices

Solution: Basis: 1800 kg of wet solids

Water

removed

Wet solids Moisture = 2%

65% solids Solids = 98%

Let x be the amount of product obtained, and y be the amount of water removed.

Material balance for Solids:

Solids in wet solids = Solids in product

1800(0.65) = 0.98x

1170 = 0.98x

x = 1193.87755102 kg

Overall material balance:

F=x+y

1800 = 1193.87755102 + y

y = 606.12244898 kg

Therefore,

Amount of water removed = y = 606.12 kg

PROCESS CONTROL

1. Apply the second-order-plus-time-delay model using Skogestad’s half-rule to approximate the transfer

function of the given.

1−𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

(2𝑠 + 1)2 (8𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)

𝑒 −4𝑠 𝑒 −9𝑠 𝑒 −4𝑠 𝑒 −6𝑠 e. None of the

a. (10𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1)

b. c. (𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1)

d.

(10𝑠+1)(4𝑠+1) (10𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1) choices

Solution:

1−𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

(10𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)

2

(2𝑠) −𝑠

𝑒 −𝑠 𝑒 2

𝑒

=

2

(10𝑠 + 1)((8 + 2) 𝑠 + 1)

𝑒 −4𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

(10𝑠 + 1)(9𝑠 + 1)

𝑌(𝑠) 2

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.5𝑠 + 5

Determine the ultimate value of Y(t) having a step change of 5.

Solution:

1

𝑌(𝑠) 2 5

= × 5, 𝑋(𝑠) =

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 2 + 1.5𝑠 + 5 1 𝑠

5

𝑌(𝑠) 0.4

=

𝑋(𝑠) 0.2𝑠 2 + 0.3𝑠 + 1

A = 5; Kp = 0.4

Ultimate value = AKp = 5(0.4) = 2

3. Determine the unit-step response of a system that has a unit-impulse response of Y(t) = cos 2t.

a. y(t) = 0.5 sin 2t b. 0.5 cos 2t c. 0.25 sin 2t d. 0.25 cos 2t e. None of the choices

Solution:

𝑠

𝑌(𝑠) = = 𝐺(𝑠)

𝑠2 + 4

1 𝑠 1

𝑌(𝑠) = ∙ 2 = 2

𝑠 𝑠 +4 𝑠 +4

𝒚(𝒕) = 𝟎. 𝟓 𝐬𝐢𝐧 𝟐𝒕

4. A 200-L tank heater is being fed with water at 20 C at a flow rate of 25 L/min initially, the heater is switched

off. At t=0, the heater is then switched on, supplying heat at a constant rate. The temperature of the outlet at t=10

min measures 60 C. What would be the temperature of the outlet at t=30 min?

A. 40.74 C B. 74.74 C C. 76.06 D. 71.46 E 71.27

1 1 𝑉 200

𝐾𝑝 = = ;𝐴 = 𝑞;𝜏 = = =8

𝑝𝐹𝑐𝑝 104600 𝐹 25

𝑡 −𝑡

𝑞

𝑇(𝑠) = 𝐴𝐾𝑝 (1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 ) = (1 − 𝑒 8 )

104600

𝑞 −10

𝑇(𝑡) = 20 + 104600 (1 − 𝑒 8 )

𝑞 −10

60= 20 + 104600 (1 − 𝑒 8 )

𝑞 = 5864089.88 𝐿/𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑞 −30

𝑇(𝑡) = 20 + 104600 (1 − 𝑒 8 )

𝑇(30) = 74.74

5. A cylindrical tank has a diameter of 6 ft and an outflow with flow resistance of 0.2 min/ft2. It is initially operating

at a steady state with an inlet flowrate of 25 ft 3/min. At t=0, the inlet is closed. At what time will the depth of

water be reduced to 1 ft?

A. 10.9 min B. 9.01 min C. 1.09 min D. 8.01 min E. None of the choices

Solution:

𝑞𝑠 = 25 ℎ𝑠 = 𝑞𝑠 𝑅 = 5 𝐾𝑝 = 𝑅 = 0.2 𝜏 = 𝐴𝑟𝑅 = 𝜋(32 )(0.2) = 1.8𝜋

𝑞𝑠 = {0, 𝑡 >0. 𝑄(𝑡) = {−25, 𝑡 >0. 𝑄(𝑠) = −

𝑠

𝐾𝑝 25 0.2

𝐻(𝑠) = 𝑄(𝑠) = −

𝜏𝑠 + 1 𝑠 1.8𝜋𝑠 + 1

If h = 1, t = 9.01 min

6. A thermometer with a time constant of 0.30 min is initially at equilibrium with water at 25 C. The water is then

heated such that the temperature of the water increases linearly until it reaches its boiling point after 6.0 min.

What is the temperature reading of the thermometer as soon as the water starts to boil?

A. 96,00 ° C B. 96.25 °C C. 100 °C D. 99.0 °C E. None of the choices

Solution:

25 + 12.5𝑡, 𝑡 > 0

12.5𝑡, 𝑡 > 0

12.5 1 1 𝜏 𝜏

𝑌(𝑠) = ( ) = 12.5( 2 + + )

𝑠 2 𝜏𝑠 + 1 𝑠 𝑠 1

𝑠+𝜏

𝜏

𝑌(𝑠) = 12.5( 𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 0.3 )

𝜏

𝑦(𝑡) − 25 = 12.5( 𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 0.3 )

If t = 6, t = 96.25 C

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. What is the design temperature and pressure of the given system below respectively?

390 psig 135 psig 350ºF choices

Solution:

𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑢𝑟𝑒: 340º𝐹𝐹 + 50º𝐹 = 390º𝐹

𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒: 120 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 = 145 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

2. Calculate the inner diameter of the pipe given that the outside diameter is 1.315 in. and the wall thickness is

0.133 in.

F. 1.049 in. G. 1.249 in. H. 1.581 in. I. 1.182 in. J. None of the choices

Solution:

Do = 1.315 in

∆x = 0.133 in

Di = Do – 2(∆x)

Di = 1.314 – 2(0.133)

Di = 1.049 in.

3. A spherical pressure vessel has a 2-ft inner radius and 5/16-in wall thickness. If the working tensile stress of

the material is 8000 psi, determine the maximum allowable internal pressure.

a. 200.65 psi b. 214.25 psi c. 208.33 psi d. 195.24 psi K. None of the choices

Solution:

S = 8000 psi

D = 4 ft = 48 in

t = 5/16 in

𝑃𝐷

𝑆=

4𝑡

𝑃(48 𝑖𝑛)

8000 𝑝𝑠𝑖 =

5

4(16 𝑖𝑛)

𝑷 = 𝟐𝟎𝟖. 𝟑𝟑 𝒑𝒔𝒊

4. What will be an optimum Schedule Number of a steel pipe having an allowable stress of 5000psi at a working

pressure of 200 psig

A. 40 B. 20 C. 4 D. 0.4 E. 0.2

𝑷

𝑺𝒄𝒉. 𝑵𝒖𝒎𝒃𝒆𝒓 = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 ∗

𝑺

𝟐𝟎𝟎

𝑺𝒄𝒉. 𝑵𝒐. = 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 ∗ = 𝟒𝟎

𝟓𝟎𝟎𝟎

5. Find the volume of a fluid inside a process vessel of the shape shown above that if the liquid level is maintained

at 1/3 of the diameter of the cylinder. Assume one head to be ellipsoidal with a = ¼ of the major axis. The

conical head has a height of 1.25 times the cylinder diameter (D=1m, L=2m)

A. 0.625 B. 0.265 C. 0.562 D. 0.652 E. None of the

choices

Solution:

Cone

D=1 R = 0.5 L=2 h = 1/3 a = 1.25

|𝑅−ℎ| 1

𝑀= = 0.333 𝐾1 = 𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑀) + 𝑀3 ∗ 𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ ( ) − 2𝑀 √1 − 𝑀2 = 0.668.

|𝑅| 𝑀

𝑅−ℎ 2∗𝑎∗𝑅2

𝑉𝑓𝑐 = ((𝑅 2 ∗ 𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑠( ) − (𝑅 − ℎ) ∗ √2 ∗ 𝑅 ∗ ℎ − ℎ2 ) ∗ 𝐿 + ∗ 𝐾1) = 0.59745

𝑅 3

Ellipsoidal

𝑎 = 1/4

𝑅−ℎ ℎ

𝑉𝑓𝑒 = (𝑅 2 ∗ 𝑎𝑐𝑜𝑠( 𝑅

) − (𝑅 − ℎ) ∗ √2 ∗ 𝑅 ∗ ℎ − ℎ2 ) ∗ 𝐿 + 𝜋 ∗ 𝑎 ∗ ℎ2 ∗ (1 − 3∗𝑅

) = 0.52622

𝑉𝑓𝑐 + 𝑉𝑓𝑒

𝑉𝑓 = = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟔𝟐

2

6. A Dorr Thickener has a rake mechanism speed of 0.125 rpm, Torque of 69,154 Nm. Using an overall efficiency

of 0.5, calculate the power requirement of the thickener.

W kW choices

Solution:

Power Requirement

2𝜋𝑁𝑇

𝑃=

60(𝐸)(1000)

2𝜋(0.125 𝑟𝑝𝑚)(69,154.265𝑁𝑚)

𝑃=

60(0.5)(1000)

𝑷 = 𝟏. 𝟖𝟏𝒌𝑾

Reference: Equipment Design report Dorr Thickener by Joshua A. Castillo under Dr. Pestano

CHEMICAL PROCESS INDUSTRIES

needed for every 950 MT of clinker to produce Portland cement, the MT of clinker

produced monthly by the cement plant is

these

Solution:

𝑀𝑇 𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑 2500 𝑀𝑇 𝑔𝑦𝑝𝑠𝑢𝑚 950 𝑀𝑇 𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑒𝑟

=( )( )

𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ 𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ 40 𝑀𝑇 𝑔𝑦𝑝𝑠𝑢𝑚

𝑀𝑇 𝑐𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑙𝑒𝑟 𝑝𝑟𝑜𝑑𝑢𝑐𝑒𝑑

= 59,375

𝑚𝑜𝑛𝑡ℎ

2. A fermenting agent that converts alcohol to acetic acid in the presence of excess

oxygen.

Bacteria these

3. Patents are valid for ___ years.

A. 15 B. 17 C. 20 D. 25 E. None of

these

4. In leather manufacturing, what process converts the protein of the raw hide or skin

into a stable material which will not putrefy and it is suitable for a wide variety of end

applications?

these

5. What is the conversion of a manufacturing plant where the output is 953 kg of Y and

47 kg of X with an input of 1000 kg of X.

these

Solution:

1000 − 47

%𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑖𝑜𝑛 = × 100 = 95.3%

1000

References:

[1] S. Olano Jr., V. Bungay, C. Centeno, L. Medina Jr., C. Salazar. Reviewer for

Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination (3rd Edition)

[2, 4] Shreve, R. N. and Austin, G. T. (1984). Shreve’s Chemical Process Industries, 5th

ed. New York: Mc-Graw Hill

[3] GOVPH. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.ipophil.gov.ph/services/patents/about-

patents

[5] Ashar, N. G., & Golwalkar, K. R. (2013). Practical guide to the manufacture of

sulfuric acid, oleums, and sulfonating agents. Springer.

1. The range of value of K for a system with characteristic equation given by s4 + 6s3 +

11s2 + 6s + K = 0

A. 0<K<10 B. K<10 C.K>10 D. -10<K<0 E. None of

these

Solution:

1 11 𝐾

6 6

10 𝐾

60 − 6𝐾

10

𝐾

𝐾 < 10 , 𝐾 > 0

0 < 𝐾 < 10

2. A liquid level system is being operated at steady-state. The tank has a height of 5 ft

and a base area of 12 ft2. At t = 0, 30 ft3 of water was added to the system. Another 40

ft3 of water was added at 2 min. Determine the depth of the liquid right before 40 ft3 of

water was added.

these

Solution:

𝐻(𝑠) 𝑅

=

𝑄𝑜 (𝑠) (𝐴𝑟𝑅)𝑠 + 1

𝑄𝑜 (𝑠) = 30 + 40𝑒 −2𝑠

0.1

𝐻(𝑠) = (30 + 40𝑒 −2𝑠 ) ( )

1.2𝑠 + 1

3 −𝑡/1.2 4 −(𝑡−2)/1.2

ℎ(𝑡) = 𝑒 + 𝑒 +5

1.2 1.2

𝑎𝑡 𝑡 = 2, ℎ(𝑡) = 5.47𝑚

3. A 100L mixing tank is initially operating at steady-state with an inlet flow rate of

20 L/min, and an inlet concentration of 5 g/L. At t =0, the feed was changed to another

feed that has a concentration of 1 g/L. Calculate the time it will take to reduce the

concentration in the system to 2 g/L.

these

Solution:

F = 20 L/min F = 20 L/min

xs = 5 g/L V = 100 L

ys = 2 g/L

5, 𝑡<0

𝑥={

1, 𝑡>0 𝑡

𝑌(𝑡) = −4 (1 − 𝑒 − ⁄5 )

0, 𝑡<0

𝑥={ 𝑡

−4, 𝑡>0 𝑦 = 5 − 4 (1 − 𝑒 − ⁄5 )

4

𝑋(𝑠) = − 𝑎𝑡 𝑦 = 2, 𝑡 = 3.68 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝑠

4. Approximate the transfer function shown below with a second-order-plus-time-delay

model using Skogestad’s Half-Rule.

4 1 1−𝑠

𝑌(𝑠) = − ∙ 100𝐺(𝑠) =

𝑠 20 𝑠 + 1 (2𝑠 + 1)2 (8𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)

A. B. C. D. E. None of

𝑒 −3𝑠 𝑒 −4𝑠 𝑒 −3𝑠 𝑒 −4𝑠 these

(10𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1) (10𝑠+1)(9𝑠+1) (9𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1) (11𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1)

1−𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

(2𝑠 + 1)2 (8𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1)

1−𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

(10𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)(2𝑠 + 1)

1−𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

2 2

(10𝑠 + 1) ((8 + )𝑠 + 1) ( 𝑠 + 1)

2 2

𝑒−4𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

(10𝑠 + 1)(9𝑠 + 1)

Y(t)=cos5t

cos5t sin5t these

Solution:

𝑠 1

𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑋(𝑠) =

𝑠2 + 25 𝑠

𝑠

𝑌(𝑠) 𝑠 2 + 25 1

𝐺(𝑠) = = = 2

𝑋(𝑠) 1 𝑠 + 25

𝑠

1

𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑋(𝑠) ∙ 𝐺(𝑠) = 1 ∙ ( 2 )

𝑠 + 25

1

𝑌(𝑡) = sin 5𝑡

5

References:

[1] S. Olano Jr., V. Bungay, C. Centeno, L. Medina Jr., C. Salazar. Reviewer for

Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination (3rd Edition)

[2, 4, 5] Coughanowr, D. R. & LeBlanc S. E. Process Systems Analysis and Control,

3rd ed. New York, USA: McGraw Hill

[3] Process Control Lecture

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. Calculate the minimum wall thickness for a cylindrical vessel that is to carry a gas at a

pressure of 1400 psi. The diameter of the vessel is 2 ft, and the stress is limited to 12

ksi. All joints are to be butt-welded (E=0.90) and assume no corrosion is necessary

A. 1.66 in B. 0.14 in C. 0.30 in D. 3.57 in E. None of these

Solution: 𝑘𝑖𝑛𝑒𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑠 𝑜𝑓 𝐵𝑂𝐷

𝑃𝐷

𝑡= +𝐶

2𝑆𝐸 − 𝑃

12 𝑖𝑛

(1400 𝑝𝑠𝑖) (2𝑓𝑡 ( ))

𝑓𝑡

𝑡= +0

2(12000 𝑝𝑠𝑖)(0.9) − (1400 𝑝𝑠𝑖)

𝑡 = 1.66 𝑖𝑛

2. What schedule number can be used for ordinary steel pipe having allowable stress of

10,000 psi for use at a working pressure of 250 psig.

A. 32 B. 25 C. 35 D. 41 E. None of these

Solution:

𝑃 250 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

𝑆𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 𝑁𝑢𝑚𝑏𝑒𝑟 = 1000 = 1000 = 25

𝑆 10,000 𝑝𝑠𝑖

3. Calculate the maximum allowable pressure of a shell and tube heat exchanger

operating at a pressure of 500 psig

A. 510 psig B. 525 psig C. 550 psig D. 575 psig E. None of these

Solution:

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 + (25 psig or) 10% safety factor

4. The internal diameter of a spherical vessel is 14 m and the outer diameter is 15 m. It is

made up of Type 302 stainless steel with maximum allowable stress of 75.85 MPa. A

single butt weld joint, not radiographed is used. Compute for the design pressure of the

vessel in MPa. Assume no corrosion.

A. 7.35 MPa B. 6.45 MPa C. 7.48 MPa D. 6.78 MPa E. None of these

𝐷𝑜 − 𝐷𝑖 15 − 10

𝑡= = = 0.5 𝑚

2 2

𝑃𝑟𝑖

𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐

2𝑆𝐸𝑗 − 0.2𝑃

𝑃(7)

0.5 = +0

2(75.85)(0.7) − 0.2𝑃

𝑃 = 7.478 = 7.48 𝑀𝑃𝑎

5. What is the maximum allowable pressure of a vessel working under absolute pressure

of 2500 kPa?

A. 363 psig B. 373 psig C.383 psig D. 393 psig E. None of these

Solution:

14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖

𝑂𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑝𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = (2500 𝑘𝑃𝑎 × ) − 14.7 = 347.99 ≈ 348 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

101.325 𝑘𝑃𝑎

References:

[1] Engineering Mathematics. https://www.mathalino.com/reviewer/mechanics-and-

strength-of-materials/solution-to-problem-133-pressure-vessel

[2, 3, 4] Sinnott, R. K. (2005). Chemical Engineering Design, 4th ed. Oxford:

Butterworth-Heinemann

[5] Walas, S. M. (1990). Chemical process equipment: Selection and design. Boston:

Butterworth-Heinemann.

6𝑠+12 6𝑠+12 6𝑠+12 6𝑠+2 E. None of

A. B. C. D.

𝑠 2 +4𝑠+13 𝑠 2 +4𝑠+9 𝑠 2 +4𝑠+4 𝑠 2 +4𝑠+13 the

choices

Solution:

6(𝑠 + 2) 6𝑠 + 12

𝑓(𝑡) = 6𝑒 −2𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠 3𝑡 → 2 2

= 2

(𝑠 + 2) + 3 𝑠 + 4𝑠 + 4 + 9

𝟔𝒔 + 𝟏𝟐

𝑭(𝒔) = 𝟐

𝒔 + 𝟒𝒔 + 𝟏𝟑

2. Calculate the fluid volume, 𝑉𝑓 in 𝑚3 of a horizontal process vessel with an ellipsoidal head and a

1 1

cross-sectional area, 𝐴𝑓 = 0.2292 𝑚2; diameter, radius 𝐷 = 1𝑚, 𝑅 = 2 𝑚 ; height fluid, ℎ = 3 𝑚;

1

length, 𝐿 = 2𝑚; and distance a head extends, 𝑎 = 𝑚.

4

A. 0.5229 B. 0.5262 C. 0.5392 D. 0.5263 E. None of

the

choices

Solution:

ℎ

𝑉𝑓 = 𝐴𝑓 𝐿 + 𝜋𝑎ℎ2 (1 − )

3𝑅

1

1 1 2 (3)

𝑉𝑓 = 0.2292(2) + 𝜋 ( ) ( ) (1 − ) = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟐𝟔𝟑 𝒎𝟑

4 3 1

3 (2)

3. A cylindrical tank has a diameter of 6ft and an outflow with a flow resistance of 0.2min/ft2. It is

initially operating at steady-state with an inlet flowrate of 25 ft3/min. At t=0, the inlet is closed. At

what time will the depth of water be reduced to 1 ft?

A. 9.1 secs B. 10.2 secs C. 9.1 min D. 10.2 min E. None of the

choices

Solution: −25 𝐾𝑝

𝑄(𝑠) = 𝐻(𝑠) = 𝑄(𝑠) ∙ 𝜏𝑠+1

q= 25 t>0 𝑠 −25 0.2

0 t<0 = ∙

𝐻(𝑠) 𝐾𝑝 𝑠 1.8𝜋𝑠 + 1

−𝑡

= 𝐻(𝑡) = (−25)(0.2)(1 − 𝑒 1.8𝜋 )

Q= 0 t>0 𝑄(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 1 −𝑡

-25 t<0 ℎ(𝑡) = 5 − 5(1 − 𝑒 1.8𝜋 )

∗ 𝜏 = 𝐴𝑟 ∙ 𝑅

= (𝜋⁄4)(6)2 (0.2) = 1.8𝜋 when h=1, t=9.1min

4. Compute for the outside diameter for a shell and tube given a design pressure of 370900 Pa, an

inside diameter of 0.67m and a maximum allowable stress of 16.076 ksi. Assume a fully-

radiographed butt joint and a corrosion coefficient of 3mm.

A. 0.678 m B. 0.702 mm C. 0.735 m D. 0.728 m E. None of the

choices

Solution:

Ej=1 (370900) ∙ 0.5(0.67) 3

𝑡= +

Di=0.67m 8

(1.108𝑥10 ) ∙ 1 − 0.6 ∙ (370900) 1000

101325

𝑆 = (16.076 ∙ 1000) = 1.108𝑥108 𝑃𝑎

14.7 = 4.123𝑥10−3 𝑚

𝐷𝑜 = 0.678𝑚

𝑃𝑑 ∙ 0.5𝐷𝑖

𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐

𝑆 ∙ 𝐸𝑗 − 0.6 ∙ 𝑃𝑑

5. Ethanolamine enters the shell side of a STHE at 424 and 232.22°C leaves at 390 psig at 194.44°C.

Cooling water enters the shell side at 422 psig and 120°F. What is the design pressure and

temperature of the equipment?

A. 466.4psig and B. 449psig and C. 466.4psig and D. 466.4psig and E. None of the

475°C 257.22°F 257.22°C 246.11°C choices

Solution:

Highest temperature 232.22°C

Highest pressure: 424 psig

(232.22 ∙ 1.8) + 32 = 450°F

424(1.1) = 466.4 psig 450°F + 25°F = 475°F

424+25 = 449 psig Design Temperature = 475°F or 246.11°C

Design pressure = 466.4 psig

6. Which of the following polymers represents the formula shown below in which n can be a very

large number?

chloride choices

Solution:

7. What are the raw materials for ‘Solvay Process’?

limestone, & limestone limestone & coke oven choices

ammonia & coke gas

coke oven

gas

8. A U-tube manometer exhibits underdamped second-order response to a change in the differential

pressure between the columns. At steady state, the manometer gives a reading of 8.5 cm. The

pressure difference is varied according to a step change of 20 kPa. The resulting response is

oscillatory and has a maximum reading of 15 cm. Determine the reading of the second peak if the

ultimate response is 13 cm.

A. 14.33 cm B. 14.12 cm C. 13.40 cm D. 13.26 cm E. None of the

choices

Solution:

ℎ𝑠 = 8.5 𝑐𝑚

𝑌(𝑡)𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 16 𝑐𝑚

𝐴𝐾𝑝 = 13 𝑐𝑚

𝐴 + 𝐴𝐾𝑝 = 1𝑠𝑡 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘

𝐶 + 𝐴𝐾𝑝 = 2𝑛𝑑 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘

𝐴 16 − 13

𝑂𝑆 = =

𝐵 13 − 8.5

𝐶

= 𝑂𝑆 2

𝐴

16 − 13 2

𝐶=( ) ( 16 − 13) = 1.333 𝑐𝑚

13 − 8.5

2𝑛𝑑 𝑝𝑒𝑎𝑘 = 14.333 𝑐𝑚

9. A flathead cylindrical storage tank is used at working pressure of 50 psig and 80°F. Its diameter is 30

ft and all joints are butt welded with backing strip. Estimate the necessary wall thickness assuming

there is no corrosion, efficiency is 80%, and allowable tensile strength is 13700 psi.

A. 1.237 in B. 0.738 in C. 0.823 in D. 1.480 in E. None of the

choices

Solution:

𝑃𝑟𝑖

𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐

𝑆𝐸 − 0.6𝑃

𝑃 = 50 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 = 89.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎

(89.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎)(15 𝑥 12 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠)

𝑡=

(13700 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎)(0.8) − 0.6(89.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑎)

𝑡 = 1.480 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠

10. What does FIFA mean?

A. First Inn First B. First Inn First C. First In First D. First Inside E. None of the

Out Outside Out First Outside choices

11. Steam and oil enters the shell and tube heat exchanger. Steam enters at 588 psig and 482 oF while

the oil enters at 400 psig and 120oF and leaves the exchanger at 390 psig and 450oF. What is the

design temperature of the exchanger?

A. 500oC B. 532 oF C. 532 oC D. 170 oF E. None of the

choices

Solution:

MAWT = 482oF + 50 oF = 532 oF

12. An open loop second – order syste is critically damped. What is/are its pole/s? Expresss in terms of

Ƭ.

1 B. 2Ƭ 1 D. Ƭ E. None of the

A. 𝜏

C. − 𝜏

choices

Solution:

𝜏 2 𝑠 2 + 2𝜏𝑠 + 1 = 0

s = - 1/Ƭ

13. Name this reaction:

n Reaction n of Fatty Choices

Acids

14. Derive an approximate Second-order-plus-time-delay using Skogestad’s Half Rule given,

2−𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

(𝑠 + 2)(8𝑠 + 1)2 (12𝑠 + 1)

A. B. C. D. E. None of the

choices

𝐺(𝑠) 𝐺(𝑠) 𝐺(𝑠) 𝐺(𝑠)

𝑒 −5𝑠 𝑒 −5𝑠 𝑒 −6𝑠 𝑒 −5𝑠

= = = =

(12𝑠 + 1)(12𝑠 + 1) (12𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1) (12𝑠 + 1)(10𝑠 + 1) (12𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1)

Solution:

2−𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

(𝑠 + 2)(8𝑠 + 1)2 (12𝑠 + 1)

2(1 − 0.5𝑠)

𝐺(𝑠) =

2(1 + 0.5𝑠)(8𝑠 + 1)(8𝑠 + 1)(12𝑠 + 1)

8

𝑒 −0.5𝑠 𝑒 −0.5𝑠 𝑒 −2𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

8

(12𝑠 + 1)((8 + 4) 𝑠 + 1)

𝑒 −5𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) =

(12𝑠 + 1)(12𝑠 + 1)

15. A double pipe heat exchanger vessel has a 2in Sch 40 steel pipe inside a 4-in Sch 40 steel pipe. The

operating pressure in the inner tubes is 40 psig and the annulus is 60 psig. What is the maximum

allowable working pressure?

A. 44 psig B. 60 psig C. 85 psig D. 65 psig E. None of the

choices

Solution:

16. Oil is entering the tube side of the heat exchanger at 400 psig and 120 F leaving at 390 psig at 450 F.

Steam enters the shell side at 588 psig and 482 F. What is the design pressure of the equipment?

choices

Solution:

588 + 0.1(588) = 646.8 psig

588+25 = 613 psig

Pdes = 646.8 psig

17. A step change of magnitude 8 is introduced into a system with the following transfer

𝑌(𝑠) 13.12

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.83𝑠 + 2

A. 6.56 B. 104.96 C. 52.48 D. 13.12 E. None of the

choices

Solution:

𝑌(𝑠) 13.12

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.83𝑠 + 2

𝑌(𝑠) 6.56

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 0.5𝑠 + 0.915𝑠 + 1

Kp =6.56

𝜏 2 = 0.5

√2

𝜏=

2

2𝜗𝜏 = 1.83

𝜗 = 0.77

AKp = 8 x 6.56 = 52.48

choices

Solution:

𝑞𝑐 = 𝑥 𝑥 = 0.2228

𝑚𝑖𝑛 7.48 𝑔𝑎𝑙 60 𝑠 𝑚𝑖𝑛

𝜌𝑤 𝑎𝑡 33℃ = 62.0761 lb/cf

𝑘𝑔 62.4 𝑙𝑏/𝑐𝑓

𝜌𝑤 = 994.809 3 𝑥

𝑚 𝑘𝑔

1000 3

𝑚

Dopt = 3.9 𝑞𝑓 0.45 𝜌0.13

Dopt = 3.394 ft

References:

[1] Coughanowr, D.R., (2009) Process Systems Analysis and Control. 3rd Edition

[2] University of Santo Tomas, Department of Chemical Engineering, Prof. Evelyn Laurito Notes in CHE

511, 2nd Term A.Y. 2018-2017

PROCESS CONTROL

1. A thermometer with a time constant of 0.40 min is initially at steady state at 25 ºC. The

thermometer is then placed in an ice bath maintained at 4 ºC at t=0. Determine the time

needed in seconds for the thermometer to read 5 ºC.

choices

Solution:

𝜏 = 0.30 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑥𝑠 = 25 ℃𝑦𝑠 = 25 ℃

−21

𝑋(𝑠) =

𝑠

𝑌(𝑠) 1

=

𝑋(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 1

−21 1

𝑌(𝑠) = ×

𝑠 0.4𝑠 + 1

𝑡

𝑌(𝑡) = −21 (1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 )

𝑡

𝑦(𝑡) = 25 − 21 (1 − 𝑒 −0.4 )

𝑡

5 = 25 − 21 (1 − 𝑒 −0.4 ) ∴ 𝑡 = 1.22 𝑚𝑖𝑛 = 73.07 𝑠

2. A 240 L mixing tank is initially operating at steady state with an inlet flowrate of 20 L/min, and

inlet concentration of 4 g/L. At t=0, the feed was charged to another feed that has a

concentration of 2 g/L. Determine the concentration at 5 mins.

A. 4.32 g/L B. 3.32 g/L C. 2.32 g/L D. 1.32 g/L E. None of the

choices

Solution:

240

𝜏= = 12𝑥𝑠 = 4 𝑔/𝐿𝑦𝑠 = 4𝑔/𝐿𝑡 = 5 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑠

20

−2

𝑋(𝑠) =

𝑠

𝑌(𝑠) 1

=

𝑋(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 1

−2 1

𝑌(𝑠) = ×

𝑠 12𝑠 + 1

𝑡

𝑌(𝑡) = −2 (1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 )

5

𝑦(𝑡) = 4 − 2 (1 − 𝑒 −12 )

∴ 𝑦(𝑡) = 3.32 𝑔/𝐿

3. Using Skogestad’s Half-Rule, derive an approximate first order plus time delay (FOPTD) model

for the transfer function

𝐾(−0.4𝑠 + 1)

𝐺(𝑠) =

(5𝑠 + 1)(4𝑠 + 1)(𝑠 + 1)

𝐾∙𝑒 −5.4𝑠 𝐾∙𝑒 −3.4𝑠 𝐾∙𝑒 −5.4𝑠 𝐾∙𝑒 −3.4𝑠 E. None of the

A. 5𝑠+1 B. 5𝑠+1 C. 7𝑠+1 D. 7𝑠+1

choices

Solution:

𝐾 𝑒 −0.4𝑠 𝑒 −2𝑠 𝑒 −𝑠 𝐾 𝑒 −3.4𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) = =

(5 + 2)𝑠 + 1 7𝑠 + 1

4. The unit step response of a system is given by 𝑌(𝑡) = 1 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠2𝑡. Determine the transfer

function of the system.

2 4 6

A. 2/s B. 𝑠 ⁄𝑠 + 2 C. 𝑠2 +4 D. 𝑠2 +7 E. None of the

choices

Solution

𝑌(𝑠)

= 𝐺𝑐(𝑆)

𝑋(𝑠)

1 𝑠

𝑌(𝑠) = − 2

𝑠 𝑠 +4

1

𝑋(𝑠) =

𝑠

1 𝑠

𝑌(𝑠) 𝑠 − 𝑠 2 + 4

=

𝑋(𝑠) 1

𝑠

4

𝐺𝑐(𝑠) = 2

𝑠 +4

5. The response of a First Order Plus Time Delay system to a step input of 3 has an ultimate

value of 6. What is its proportionality constant?

A. 4 B. 3 C. 8 D. 2 E. None of the

above

Solution:

A=3

AKp=6

Kp=6/3=2

6. An open loop second order system is critically damped. What is/are its poles? Express answer

interms of t.

A. 𝑆 = 𝜏 B. 𝑆 = 𝜏 −𝑒 C. . 𝑆 = 1𝜏 D. 𝑆 =

1 E. None of the

𝜏

Choices

Solution:

𝜏 𝑠 𝑠 2 + 2𝜏𝑠 + 1 = 0

1

𝑆=

𝜏

Reference:

[1] Coughanowr, D. and LeBlanc, Steven (2009). Process systems analysis and control. McGraw-Hill

Education

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. What would be the thickness of a spherical vessel whose inside diameter is 8 m and the

material of construction isStainlessSteelGrade304at100℉ (maximum allowable stress is 20

ksig) withnormaloperatingpressureof400kPa(gage).Typeofjointis doublebutt-weld and it is

fully radiographed (𝐸𝑗 = 1). Assume a corrosion allowance of 3 mm.

A. 20.50 mm B. 19.65 mm C. 18.75 mm D.8.6 mm E. None of the

choices

Solution:

14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖

𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 400 𝑘𝑃𝑎𝑃 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒 = 400 𝑘𝑃𝑎 × + 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 = 83.03 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

101.325 𝑘𝑃𝑎

𝐷𝑖 = 8 𝑚𝑅𝑖 = 4 𝑚 = 4000 𝑚𝑚

𝐸𝑗 = 1𝑆 = 20 𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑔 = 20000 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑐𝑐 = 3 𝑚𝑚

𝑃 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒 × 𝑅𝑖

𝑡= + 𝑐𝑐

𝑆 × 𝐸𝑗 − 0.6𝑃 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑔𝑎𝑔𝑒

83.03 × 4000

𝑡= +3

20000 × 1 − 0.6 × 83.03

𝑡 = 19.65 𝑚𝑚

2. What is the design pressure of a vessel if its maximum operating pressure is 760 mmHg?

A. 1.7 atm B. 2.7 atm C. 3.7 atm D. 4.7 atm E. None of the

choices

Solution:

𝑃 = 760 𝑚𝑚𝐻𝑔 = 14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖 = 1 𝑎𝑡𝑚

14.7(0.1) = 1.47 𝑝𝑠𝑖 < 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖

𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑃𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒 = 14.7 + 25 = 39.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖 = 2.7 𝑎𝑡𝑚

3. Determine the optimum pipe diameter for 55 gpm water at 35 °C.

A. 2.5933 in B. 2.7690 in C. 3.396 in D. 3.748 in E. None of the

choices

Solution:

𝑙𝑏

𝜌 = 62.3 3; 𝜇 = 0.74 𝑐𝑃 from PHB

𝑓𝑡

Assume 𝑁𝑅𝑒 > 2100

𝐷 𝑣𝜌

𝐷𝑖 = 3.9𝑞𝑓0.45 𝜌0.13 ; 𝑁𝑅𝑒 = 𝑖

𝜇

55 𝑔𝑎𝑙 3.785 𝐿 𝑚3 3.283 𝑓𝑡 3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑓𝑡 3

𝑞𝑓 = × × × × = 0.1224

𝑚𝑖𝑛 1 𝑔𝑎𝑙 1000 𝐿 1 𝑚3 60 𝑠 𝑠

0.45 0.13

𝐷𝑖 = 3.9(0.1224) (62.3) = 2.5933 𝑖𝑛

Check 𝑁𝑅𝑒

1 𝑓𝑡 0.1224 𝑓𝑡 3 1 3600 𝑠 𝑙𝑏

(2.5933𝑖𝑛 × 12 𝑖𝑛) × ( 𝑠 × 2 × ) × 62.3 3

𝜋 2.5933 1 ℎ𝑟 𝑓𝑡

( ) 𝑓𝑡 2

𝑁𝑅𝑒 = 4 12 = 90345.61

𝑙𝑏

2.4192

𝑓𝑡 ℎ𝑟

0.74𝑐𝑃 × 1 𝑐𝑃

> 2100

4. What is the maximum design temperature of a heat exchanger if the maximum operating

temperature of the said vessel is 400°C.

A. 428°C B. 802°C C. 428°F D. 248°C E. None of the

choices

Solution:

9

400𝑥 + 32 = 752°𝐹

5

𝑀𝑎𝑥. 𝐷𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 𝑇𝑒𝑚𝑝 = 752 + 50 = 802°𝐹

5

(802 − 32)𝑥 = 428°𝐶

9

5. It is desired to design a horizontal cylinder with a hemispherical head to handle a liquid with

volume of 10 m3. Find its dimensions if it will be half full and L/D=3.

A. D= 2.0m B. D= 2.2m C. D= 2.5m D. D= 2.5m E. None of the

H=0.5m H=1.1m H=0.5m H=0.5m Choices

L=6.7m L=6.7m L=6.7m L=6.0m

Solution:

𝑉𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 = 𝑉𝑆𝑝ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 + 𝑉𝐶𝑦𝑙𝑖𝑛𝑑𝑒𝑟

𝜋 𝜋

10 = 𝐷 2 𝐻 + 2 ( 𝐻 2 (1.5𝐷 − 𝐻))

4 3

𝐷

𝐻=

2

𝜋 2𝐷 𝜋 𝐷 2 𝐷

10 = 𝐷 + 2 ( ( ) (1.5𝐷 − ))

4 2 3 2 2

𝐷 = 2.2

𝐻 = 1.1

𝐿 = 6.7

Reference:

[1] Towler, G. P. (2013). Chemical engineering design: Principles, practice and economics of plant and

process design, (2ndEdition). Kidlington, Oxford, U.K. ; Waltham, Mass.: Butterworth-Heinemann.

1.What is the maximum allowable working temperature of a countercurrent double pipe heat

exchanger with an inlet and outlet temperatures of 350F and 200F respectively for the inner tube, and

543F and 320F respectively for the outer tube.

choices

Solution: You will base your solution on the highest temperature employed by the equipment.

The safety margin for maximum temperature is 50 F based on the rule of thumb.

MAWT = 543F + 50F

MAWT = 593F

2. Identify the value of the unit step response of a system that has a unit-impulse response of y(t) =

cos2t if t =10.

choices

𝑌(𝑠)

Solution: G(s)=𝑋(𝑠) ; Y(s)=X(s)xG(s)

y(t) = cos2t

𝑠

Y(s) = =G(s) (given)

𝑠2 +4

1

X(s)= (unit-step)

𝑠

1 𝑠 1

Y(s) = 𝑠 𝑥 𝑠2 +4=𝑠2 +4

1

y(t) =2sin2t

1

y(10) =2sin2(10)=0.4565

3. They are added in the glass formulation in order to lower the melting point temperature of the glass.

choices

Solution: N/A

4. Calculate the design pressure and temperature of a cylindrical vessel made with carbon steel with

flat heads given the following conditions:

Diameter: 450 mm Operating Temperature: 500°C

Length: 750 mm

Operating Pressure: 25 atm (abs)

The vessel has a corrosion allowance of 2 mm and is double-butt-weld, spot radiographed.

A.388.08 psig, B. 883.08 psig, C. 264 atm, D. 300 atm, E. None of the

982°F 289°F 142.79°C 256.7°C choices

𝟏𝟒. 𝟕 𝒑𝒔𝒊

𝑷𝑶𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈 = [𝟐𝟓 𝒂𝒕𝒎 (𝒂𝒃𝒔)𝒙 ] − 𝟏𝟒. 𝟕 = 𝟑𝟓𝟐. 𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈

𝟏 𝒂𝒕𝒎

𝑷𝒅𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏 = 𝟑𝟓𝟐. 𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈 (𝟎. 𝟏𝟎) = 𝟑𝟓. 𝟐𝟖 > 𝟐𝟓∴ 𝒂𝒅𝒅 𝟑𝟓. 𝟐𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈

𝑷𝒅𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏 = 𝟑𝟓𝟐. 𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈 + 𝟑𝟓. 𝟐𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈 = 𝟑𝟖𝟖. 𝟎𝟖 𝒑𝒔𝒊𝒈

𝑻𝒐𝒑𝒆𝒓𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒏𝒈 = 𝟓𝟎𝟎°𝐶(𝟏. 𝟖) + 32 = 932°𝐹

𝑻𝒐𝒅𝒆𝒔𝒊𝒈𝒏 = 𝟗𝟑𝟐°𝐹 + 50°𝐹 = 982 °𝐹

5. A mixing tank operating at steady-state has brine flowing with an inlet flow rate of 45 L/min. The

brine has an inlet concentration of 1 g/L and at t=0, the brine feed concentration was suddenly

increased to 5.0 g/L. Calculate the volume of the tank if it takes 6 mins to further increase the outlet

concentration to 3.0 g/L.

choices

4

𝑋(𝑠) =

𝑠

4 1

𝑌(𝑠) = ⋅

𝑠 𝑉 𝑠+1

45

𝑦(𝑡) = 3.0 𝑔/𝐿 𝑡 = 6 𝑚𝑖𝑛𝑠. 𝑉 =?

6

−

𝑦(𝑡) = 1 + 4(1 − 𝑒 𝑉/45 )

𝑉 = 389.527661 𝐿 ≈ 390 𝐿

6. It is a process in the production of vegetable oil wherein separation of higher melting parts like

waxes and triglycerides occurs that requires slow cooking to form crystals.

ation choices

Solution: N/A

7. It is a type of chemical that is sometimes referred to as “fine chemicals”. These are typically high-

value-added products with many differentiations. The major products of this segment include paints

and coatings, adhesive sealants, catalysts, dyes and pigments, industrial gases, resins and plastic

additives.

Chemicals Chemicals Chemicals choices

Solution: N/A

8. A spherical pressure vessel has an internal diameter of 9 m and an outside diameter of 9.8 m.

Calculate the stress acting normal on the tank if it operates at 1.2 MPa internal pressure.

A. 6.75 MPa B. 7.35 MPa C. 1.35 MPa D. 1.47 MPa E. None of the

choices

Solution:

𝐷𝑜 = 𝐷𝑖 + 2𝑡 9.8 = 9 + 2𝑡 ; t = 0.4 m

𝜎𝐿 = 𝑃𝑑/4𝑡 = (1.2 𝑀𝑃𝑎)(9 𝑚) / 4(0.4 𝑚) = 6.75 𝑀𝑃𝑎

s3+3s2+3s+1+Kc=0

choices

Solution:

10. The allowable working pressure has a safety factor of either 10% or +25psig of the operating

pressure in which the higher MAWP is chosen.

choices

Solution:

The allowable working pressure has a safety factor of either 10% or +25psig of the operating pressure

in which the higher MAWP is chosen.

𝑡

𝑦′ = ∫ 𝑦𝑑𝑡 − 𝑡 , 𝑦(0) = 3

0

𝑒 𝑡 +𝑒 −𝑡 𝑒 −𝑡 +𝑒 −𝑡 𝑒 𝑡 +𝑒 𝑡 choices

Solution

𝑌(𝑠) 1

𝑠𝑌(𝑠) − 𝑦(0) = − 2

𝑠 𝑠

Isolating 𝑌(𝑠)

3𝑠 2 − 1

𝑌(𝑠) =

𝑠(𝑠 2 − 1)

By Partial fraction

1 1 1

𝑌(𝑠) = + +

𝑠 𝑠+1 𝑠−1

𝑦(𝑡) = 1 + 𝑒 𝑡 +𝑒 −𝑡

12. In a water treatment plant, the lime soda process is used to remove water hardness. According to

the analysis of the waste water, it contained 90mg/L of 𝐶𝑎+2 and 40 mg/L of 𝑀𝑔+2 . Determine the

hardness of the wastewater.

choices

Solution

100𝑔

𝐶𝑎+2 ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝐶𝑎+2 × = 2.5[𝐶𝑎+2 ]

40𝑔

100𝑔

𝑀𝑔+2 ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 𝑀𝑔+2 × = 4.1[𝑀𝑔+2 ]

24.3𝑔

𝑇𝑜𝑡𝑎𝑙 ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑑𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 = 2.5 ( ) + 4.1 ( )=

𝐿 𝐿 𝐿

3𝑠+2

13. Solve for the inverse laplace of the equation: 𝑠2 −25

13 17 13 17 13 17 13 17 E. None of the

A. 10 𝑒 5𝑡 + 10 𝑒 −5𝑡 B. 10 𝑒 −5𝑡 + 10 𝑒 5𝑡 C. 10 𝑒 5𝑡 − 10 𝑒 −5𝑡 D. 10 𝑒 −5𝑡 − 10 𝑒 5𝑡

choices

3𝑠 + 2 3𝑠 + 2 𝐴 𝐵

2

= = +

𝑠 − 25 (𝑠 + 5)(𝑠 − 5) 𝑠 + 5 𝑠 − 5

3𝑠 + 2 = 𝐴(𝑠 − 5) + 𝐵(𝑠 + 5)

𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑛 𝑠 = 5, 𝐵 = 17/10

3𝑠 + 2 13/10 17/10

= +

(𝑠 + 5)(𝑠 − 5) 𝑠+5 𝑠−5

13 −5𝑡 17 5𝑡

𝑖𝑛𝑣𝑒𝑟𝑠𝑒 𝑙𝑎𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒 = 𝑒 + 𝑒

10 10

14. The purpose of this primary component for fertilizers is to enhance root growth and flowering.

Choices

15. It is the process in soap manufacturing where the temperature in which the mixture is kept is

generally higher (around 100 degree celcius), allowing a wider range of fatty raw materials to be used.

Process Process Choices

References:

[1] Coughanowr, Donald. Process Systems Analysis and Control, 3rd ed. 2009

[2] Seborg, Dale, Process Dynamics and Control, 3rd ed. 2011

[3] Walas, S. M. (1988). Chemical process equipment: Selection and design. Boston: Butterworths.

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

widely used in organic chemical industry.

A. Friedel- B. Hydroformylation C. Coupling D. Hydrogenation E. None of

Crafts the

choices

Solution:

Hydroformylation (aka oxo-process)

s3 + 3s2 + 2s + 4 = 0

The system is _________ and the response of the system is __________.

A. Stable; B. Stable; non- C. Unstable; D. Marginally E. None of

oscillatory oscillatory oscillatory stable; non- the

oscillatory choices

Solution:

𝐿(𝑠) = 0

𝑠 + 3𝑠 2 + 2𝑠 + 4 = 0

3

𝑠1 = −2.7983

𝑠2 = −0.10184 + 1.1917𝑖

𝑠3 = −0.10184 − 1.1917𝑖

3. Water at 35oC (density = 62.3 lb/ft3 and viscosity = 0.8 cP) is to be used in a

utility plant, what is the optimum pipe diameter to be utilized for 100 gpm of

water?

A. 1 ½ in B. 3 1/3 in Sch 40 C. 2 ½ in D. 3 in Sch 40 E. None of

Sch 40 Sch 40 the

choices

Solution:

𝐷𝑖 = 3.9𝑞𝑓0.45 𝜌0.13 (for turbulent and liquids with low viscosity only (< 20 cP); use

English units)

0.45

100 𝑔𝑎𝑙 1 𝑓𝑡 3 1 𝑚𝑖𝑛 𝑙𝑏 0.13

𝐷𝑖 = 3.9 ( × × ) (62.3 3 ) = 3.3957 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠

𝑚𝑖𝑛 7.47 𝑔𝑎𝑙 60 𝑠 𝑓𝑡

𝑆 3 + 3𝑆 2 + (𝐾 + 2)𝑆 + 4 = 0

The range of K that makes the system stable is…

2 2 3 2

A. 𝐾 > B. 𝐾 < − C. 𝐾 < − D. 𝐾 > − E. None of

3 3 2 3

the

choices

Solution:

𝑆 3 + 3𝑆 2 + (𝐾 + 2)𝑆 + 4 = 0

1 K+2

3 4

3(𝐾 + 2) − 1(4) 0

3

4 ---

3(𝐾 + 2) − 1(4)

>0

3

3𝐾 + 2 > 0

−𝟐

𝑲>

𝟑

5. Determine the schedule number of a pipe having a 480 ksig internal working

pressure with 12000 psi allowable working stress.

A. Sch 38 B. Sch 40 C. Sch 42 D. Sch 36 E. None of

the

choices

Solution:

𝑃

𝑆𝑐ℎ # = 1000 ( )

𝑆

480000

𝑆𝑐ℎ # = 1000 ( )

12000

𝑺𝒄𝒉 # = 𝟒𝟎

Laplace of

𝑠

𝐹(𝑠) = 2

𝑠 + 8𝑠 + 21

A. √5 B. 5 C. √21 D. 4 E. None of

the

choices

Solution:

𝑠

𝐹(𝑠) =

𝑠 2 + 8𝑠 + 21

𝑠+4−4 𝑠+4 4

𝐹(𝑠) = = −

(𝑠 + 4) + 5 (𝑠 + 4) + 5 (𝑠 + 4)2 + 5

2 2

𝟒 −𝟒𝒕

𝒇(𝒕) = 𝒆−𝟒𝒕 𝒄𝒐𝒔√𝟓𝒕 − 𝒆 𝒔𝒊𝒏√𝟓𝒕

√𝟓

7. Find the damping ratio of a system If the decay ratio of the known system is

equal to 85

A. -0.5773 B. 0.-7553 C. -0.3557 D. -0.3357 E. None of

the

choices

Solution:

2𝜋𝜁

−

√1−𝜁2

Decay ratio = 𝑒

2𝜋𝜁

−

√1−𝜁2

85 = 𝑒

ζ = -0.5773

1.5m.

A. 2.35 m2 B. 2.45 m2 C. 2.55 m2 D. 2.65 m2 E. None of

the

choices

Solution:

S=1.09(D2)

S=1.09(1.5m2)

S=2.45 m2

9. If the operating pressure of a certain vessel is 2600 psi, what should the design

pressure for the said tank be?

A. 2660 psi B. 2860 psi C. 2360 psi D. 2330 psi E. None of

the

choices

Solution:

Design pressure = 2600 psi + 0.10(2600) psi = 2860 psi

thermometer is then placed in a hot bath maintained at 90°C at t=0. Determine

the time needed for the thermometer to read 85°C.

A. 0.5653 B. 0.6412 secs C. 0.5653 D. 0.6412 mins E. None of

mins secs the

choices

Solution:

25 , 𝑡 < 0 0, 𝑡 < 0 65

𝑥={ 𝑋={ 𝑋(𝑠) =

90, 𝑡 > 0 65, 𝑡 > 0 𝑠

𝑌(𝑠) 1 65 1 1

= 𝜏𝑠+1 𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑠(𝜏𝑠+1) 𝑌(𝑠) = 65(𝑠 − 1 )

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑠+

𝜏

𝑡

𝑌(𝑡) = 65(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/𝜏 ) 𝑦(𝑡) = 25 + 65(1 − 𝑒 −0.25 )

t= 0.6412 mins

11. Determine the design pressure of a cylindrical vessel with diameter of 1.5 m

that operates at a maximum internal pressure of 15 bar (abs).

A. 240.8 B. 230.8 psia C. 230.8 D. 2.38 atm E. None of

psig psig the

choices

Solution:

14.7 𝑝𝑠𝑖

𝑃𝑜𝑝𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 = 15𝑏𝑎𝑟 𝑥 = 220.5 𝑝𝑠𝑖

1𝑏𝑎𝑟 = 1𝑎𝑡𝑚

𝑃𝑔𝑎𝑢𝑔𝑒 = 220.5 − 14.7 = 205.8(0.1) 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 < 25 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

𝑃𝑑𝑒𝑠𝑖𝑔𝑛 = 205.8 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25 = 230.8 𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

A. Caustic B. Soda C. Soda D. Soda E. None of

soda ash water can the choices

𝑠2 −1 𝑠2 +1 𝑠2 −1 𝑠2 +1 E. None of

A. (𝑠2 +1)2 B. (𝑠2 +1)2

C. (𝑠2 −1)2

D. (𝑠2 −1)2

the choices

Solution:

𝑑 𝑠

𝐿{𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑡)} = − ( 2 )

𝑑𝑠 𝑠 + 1

(𝑠 2 + 1) ∙ 1 − 𝑠 ∙ 2𝑠

𝐿{𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑡)} = −

(𝑠 2 + 1)2

−𝑠 2 + 1

𝐿{𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑡)} = − 2

(𝑠 + 1)2

𝒔𝟐 − 𝟏

𝐿{𝑡𝑐𝑜𝑠(𝑡)} = 𝟐

(𝒔 + 𝟏)𝟐

14. Calculate the percentage of the volume of liquid with the total volume of the

process vessel horizontal cylindrical vessel of diameter 2 feet and length 6

feet, if the liquid level inside is maintained at height 0.2 meters.

A. 27.6 % B. 28.5 % C. 30.2 % D. 32.8 % E. None of

the choices

𝑅−ℎ

Solution: 𝐴𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 = 𝑅 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 ( ) − (𝑅 − ℎ)√2𝑅ℎ − ℎ2

𝑅

1 𝑓𝑡

2 2 −1

1−(0.2 𝑚× ) 0.2 0.2 0.2 2

𝐴𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 = (2) 𝑐𝑜𝑠 ( 0.3048 𝑚

) − (1 − 0.3048) √2(1) 0.3048 − 0.3048 = 0.9 𝑓𝑡 2

1

𝑙𝑖𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑑 5.38 𝑓𝑡 3

𝑅𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑠𝑠𝑒𝑙 = 𝜋 = 0.2854 → 𝟐𝟖. 𝟓𝟒%

(2 𝑓𝑡)2 (6 𝑓𝑡)

4

15. Determine the percentage overshoot of the transfer function below with a step

change of magnitude 6.

𝑌(𝑠) 8

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 2𝑠 + 6.4𝑠 + 16

the choices

Solution:

𝑌(𝑠) 0.5 6

= 𝑋 (𝑠) =

𝑋(𝑠) 0.125𝑠 2 + 0.4𝑠 + 1 𝑠

6 0.5

𝑌(𝑠) = 2

𝑠 0.125𝑠 + 0.4𝑠 + 1

2

𝜏 = 0.125, 2𝜁𝜏 = 0.4

𝜏 = 0.3536, 𝜁 = 0.5657

−𝜋𝜁

𝑂𝑆% = exp ( ) = 0.1159

√1 − 𝜁 2

16. A fluid enters a 1-2 multi-pass shell and tube heat exchanger at 200 degC and

is cooled to 100 degC. Cooling water with a flowrate of 475 kg/hr enters the

exchanger at 27 degC and heated to 92 degC. The overall heat transfer

coefficient Ui is 1000 W/m2-k. Calculate the heat transfer rate.

A. 35.88 kW B. 55.21 kW C. 59.62 kW D. 95.51 kW E. None of the

choices

Solution:

𝑞 = 𝑚𝑐𝑝Δ𝑇

475 𝑘𝑔 𝑘𝐽

𝑞=( ) (4.184 ) (92 − 27)℃ = 35.88 𝑘𝑊

3600 𝑠 𝑘𝑔 ∙ ℃

17. Assuming counter-current flow, what is the log mean temperature difference in

the heat exchanger in deg C?

A. 53.68 B. 81.25 C. 59.63 D. 89.36 E. None of the

choices

Solution:

Δ𝑇1 = 100 ℃, Δ𝑇2 = 65 ℃

Δ𝑇1 − Δ𝑇2

Δ𝑇 = = 89.36

Δ𝑇

ln (Δ𝑇1 )

2

18. Which of the following is the raw material for Ostwald process

A. Nitrogen B. Hydrogen C. Sulfur D. Ammonia E. None of the

choices

References:

[1,16,17] S. Olano Jr., V. Bungay, C. Centeno, L. Medina Jr., C. Salazar.

Reviewer for Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination 3 rd Edition

[2,4,6,7,13,15] Santos, B.J., Process Control Lecture

[3,5,8,9,14] Laurito, E., Lecture Notes for Equipment Design. Piping Systems

[12,18] Gupta, O. (2016). Objective Type Questions & Answers in Chemical

Engineering. New Delhi: Khanna Book Publishing (P).

PROCESS CONTROL

1. A 300 L mixing tank is initially operating at steady-state with an inlet flow rate of 50 L/min,

and an inlet concentration of 5 g/L. At time zero, the feed was changed to another feed that

has a concentration of 1.5 g/L. Calculate the time it will take to increase again the

concentration in the system to 2 g/L.

A. 12.58 mins B. 11.67 mins C. 11.00 mins D. 12.00 mins F. None of

E. the Above

Solution:

xs=ys= 5

Kp=1

Tau (T) = 300/50 = 6 min

X(s) = -3.5/s

𝑌(𝑠) 𝐾𝑝

=

𝑋(𝑠) 𝑇𝑠 + 1

−3.5 𝐾𝑝

𝑌(𝑠) =

𝑠 6𝑠 + 1

Y(t) = -3.5(1-e^(-t/6))

y(t) = 5 -3.5(1-e^(-t/6))

y(2) = 5 -3.5(1-e^(-t/6))

t = 11.67 mins

A. 0<k<3 B. 0<k<3/2 C. 2<k<3 D. 0<k<2/3 E. None of

the Above

Solution:

(1) 2 1

(2) 6 k

(3) 3 − 2𝑘

3

(4) k

6 − 2𝑘 3 − 2𝑘

(3) = =

6 2

3 − 2𝑘

(𝑘) − 6(0)

(4) = 3 =𝑘

3 − 2𝑘

3

3 − 2𝑘 3

(3): > 0; > 𝑘

3 2

(4): 𝑘 > 0

𝟑

𝟎<𝒌<

𝟐

K(1-s)e-2s

G(s)=

(10s+1)(1.5s+1)(5s+1)(0.03s+1)

200

s Ke-3.78s E. None of

A.

Ke 70

G(s)= (10s+1)(5.75s+1) B. G(s)= (10s+1)(5.75s+1)

the Above

150

Ke-4.78s - s

C. G(s)= (10s+1)(5.75s+1) D.

Ke 60

G(s)= (10s+1)(5.75s+1)

Solution:

K(1-s)e-2s

G(s)=

(10s+1)(5s+1)(1.5s+1)(0.03s+1)

1.5

Ke-2s e-s e-0.03s e- 2 s

G(s)=

1.5

(10s+1) [(5+ 2 ) s+1]

Ke-3.78s

G(s)=

(10s+1)(5.75s+1)

References

2. Coughanow, D. (2008). Process System Analysis and Control, 3rd ed.

3. Santos, J.B. (2018). Notes on Process Control. page 43

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. Calculate the thickness of the cylindrical vessel with 1.5 meter diameter to operate at

maximum internal pressure of 14 bar absolute and temperature of 400 deg C. Material is

made out of plain carbon steel, where its vessel is double butt-welded and fully radiographed.

The vessel will have 1 hemi-elliposoidal head (major axis is 2 times the minor axis) and one

flat head.

A. 0.013 m B. 0.011 m C. 0.012 m D. 0.010 m E. None of the

Above

Solution:

D= 1.5 m

147 𝑝𝑠𝑖

P = 14 bar 1.01325 𝑏𝑎𝑟 – 14.7 psi = 188.41 psig

T= 400C = 752F; S=12.9

Plain carbon steel E = 1

𝑃𝑟

𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐

𝑆𝐸 − 0.6𝑃

1.5

188.41 ( 2 ) 2

𝑡= +

12900(1) − 0.6(188.41) 1000

2. Find the fluid volume of a horizontal tank with ellipsoidal head if the radius (R) of the

horizontal tank is 3m, the height (h) of fluid is 1.7m, the length (L) of the cylindrical section is

6.3m and the distance of the head from the cylindrical section (a) is 0.7m.

A. 37.56m^3 B. 47.56m^3 C. 57.56m^3 D. 67.56m^3 E. None of the

Above

Solution:

ℎ 𝑅−ℎ

𝑉 = 𝐴𝑓 𝐿 + 𝜋𝑎ℎ2 (1 − ) ; 𝐴𝑓 = 𝑅 2 cos −1 ( ) − (𝑅 − ℎ)√2𝑅ℎ − ℎ2

3𝑅 𝑅

3 − 1.7

𝐴𝑓 = (3)2 cos−1 ( ) − (3 − 1.7)√2(3)(1.7) − (1.7)2 = 6.5886622

3

1.7

𝑉 = (6.5886622)(6.3) + 𝜋(0.7)(32 ) (1 − ) = 𝟓𝟕. 𝟓𝟔𝒎𝟑

3(3)

3. Given a spherical vessel with an internal and outer diameter of 10m and 14m, respectively. A

maximum allowable strength is given as 85MPa and a single butt weld joint, fully

radiographed is used. Assume no corrosion. Determine the design pressure of spherical vessel

in MPa.

A. 60.15MPa B. 70.00MPa C. 62.96MPa D. 50.55MPa E. None of the

Above

Solution:

Pri

t= +C

2SE-0.2P C

14-10

t= =2m

2

S=85MPa

E=1

CC =0

10

ri = =5m

2

P(5m)

2m=

(2)(85MPa)(1)-0.2P

P=62.96MPa

References

2. Jones, D. (2003). Calculating tank volume. P. 4

5𝑠+7 5𝑠+9 5𝑠+4 5𝑠+12 E. None of the

A. 𝑠2 +4𝑠+5 B. 𝑠2 +2𝑠+5 C. 𝑠2 +6𝑠+10 D. 𝑠2 +2𝑠+6

Choices

Solution:

5(𝑠+1) 22

F(s) = (𝑠+1)2 +22 + (𝑠+1)2 +22

5𝑠+9

F(s) =

𝑠2 +2𝑠+5

2. What would be the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure (MAWP) for a vessel having a pressure

of 590 psig?

A. 649 psig B. 627 psig C. 675 psig D. 603 psig E. None of the

Choices

Solution:

MAWP = Operating Pressure + (25psig or 10% safety factor)

MAWP = 590 + (0.10*590) = 649 psig

of the thermometer reads 20oC. After 30 seconds, the thermometer is immersed in a water bath is a

temperature of 88 oC.

Choices

Solution:

20 𝑡 < 0 1

x(t) = { } Y(s) = X(s) * ( ) Y(t) = 68 (1 – 𝑒 −t/𝜏 ) = y(t) – Y(s)

88 𝑡 > 0 𝜏𝑠 + 1

0 𝑡<0 68 1

X(t) = { } Y(s) = * (𝜏𝑠 + 1) Y(t) = 68 (1 – 𝑒 −30/𝜏) = 63 – 20

68 𝑡 > 0 𝑠

𝝉 = 29.98 s

68

X(s) = 𝑠

4. In the refining process of petroleum, thermal alkylation is an essential step. Here, when ethylene

reacts with added isobutane, the product is _________.

dimethylbutane dimethylbutane dimethylbutane dimethylbutane choices

Solution:

+

Note: The alkyl group will transfer to the other molecule producing neohexene or 2,2-dimethylbutane.

detergent. When oleum is added to alkyl-benzene sulfonate, the side product is _______. (Hint:

Perform chemical equation balance).

A. H2SO4 B. H3SO4 C. SO3 D. SO2 E. None of the

choices

Solution:

6. In pipes, what is the equivalent Fanning friction factor of 378 Darcy friction factor?

A. 1512 B. 94.5 C. 374 D. 382 E. None of the

Choices

Solution:

7. A cylindrical tank has a diameter of 8 ft and an outflow with flow resistance of 0.2 min/ft2. It is

initially operating at steady-state with an inlet flowrate of 30 ft3/min. At t=0, the inlet is closed. At

what time will the depth of water be reduced to 2 ft?

A. 11.0445 B. 10. 0547 C. 11.0542 D. 10.0982 E. None of the

Choices

Solution:

16

qs = 30 R = Kp = 0.2 𝜏 = 𝐴𝑟𝑅 = 𝜋(42 )(0.2) = 5

𝜋ℎ𝑠 = 𝑞𝑠 𝑅 = (30)(0.2) = 6

30, 𝑡 < 0,

𝑞={

0, 𝑡 > 0

0, 𝑡 < 0,

𝑄(𝑡) = {

−30, 𝑡 > 0

30

𝑄(𝑠) = −

𝑠

𝐾𝑝 30 0.2

𝐻(𝑠) = 𝑄(𝑠) = (− )

𝜏𝑠 + 1 16

𝑠 ( 𝜋)𝑠 + 1

5

𝑡

−16

𝐻(𝑡) = ℎ(𝑡) − 6 = −30(0.2)(1 − 𝑒 5 𝜋)

If h =2, t = 11.04445534 mins

8. A 100-L mixing tank is initially operating at steady-state with an inlet flowrate of 20 L/min, and an

inlet concentration of 7 g/L. At t = 0, the feed was changed to another feed that has a concentration

of 1 g/L. Calculate the time it will take to reduce the concentration in the system to 3 g/L.

A. 6.3958 B. 5.4931 C. 7.8641 D. 4.6849 E. None of the

Choices

Solution:

𝑉 100

xs = 7 ys = 7𝜏 = = = 5𝐾𝑝 = 1

𝐹 20

7, 𝑡 < 0,

𝑥(𝑡) = {

1, 𝑡 > 0

0, 𝑡 < 0,

𝑋(𝑡) = {

−6, 𝑡 > 0

6

𝑋(𝑠) = −

𝑠

1 6 1

𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑋(𝑠) = (− )

𝜏𝑠 + 1 𝑠 5𝑠 + 1

𝑡

𝑌(𝑡) = 𝑦(𝑡) − 7 = −6(1 − 𝑒 −5 )

If y = 3, t = 5.4931 mins

9. A distillation column has a temperature of 200°F in the condenser and a 400°F in the reboiler.

What is its Maximum Allowable Working Temperature?

A. 425°F B. 400°F C. 375° F D. 450° F E. None of the

Choices

Solution:

50°F is the safety margin for the maximum temperature from heuristics

MAWT = 450°F

8−3𝑠+𝑠2

10. Find the inverse laplace transform of 𝑠3

2 3

A. 4t – 3t + 1 B. 4t +3t-1 C. 4t2+3t-1 D. 4t3+3t+1 E. None of the

choices

Solution:

8

ℒ −1 { 3 } = 4𝑡 2

𝑠

−3

ℒ −1 { 2 } = −3𝑡

𝑠

1

ℒ −1 { } = 1

𝑠

8−3𝑠+𝑠2 8 3 1

𝑠3

= 𝑠3

− 𝑠2

+ 𝑠

11. Deionized water flows through the inner tube of 20-mm diameter in a thin-walled tube heat

exchanger of 3.2-m length. Hot process fluid at 98oC flows in the annulus formed with the outer tube

of 64-mm diameter and exits at 76oC. The deionized water is the be heated from 40oC to 70oC at a

flowrate of 5kg/s. Determine the minimum logarithmic mean temperature difference for this process

in a co-current flow.

A. 29.22oC B. 22.92oC C. 31.83oC D. 38.31oC E. None of the

choices

Solution:

58 − 6

∆𝑇1 − ∆𝑇2 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 =

∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = 58

∆𝑇 ln 6

ln ∆𝑇1

2 ∆𝑇𝑙𝑚 = 22.92078

∆𝑇1 = (98 − 40) = 58

∆𝑇2 = (76 − 70) = 6

12. The Haber Process combines nitrogen from the air with hydrogen derived mainly from natural gas

(methane) into ammonia. The reaction is reversible and the production of ammonia is exothermic.

Determine the ideal ratio of the mixture of nitrogen and hydrogen going into the reactor.

A. 1:5 B. 2:3 C. 1:3 D. 1:1 E. None of the

choices

Solution:

1𝑁2 1

Nitrogen = N2(g) 3𝐻

= 3 = 1: 3

2

Hydrogen = H2(g)

N2(g) + H2(g) ←→ NH3(g)

Balance the equation:

N2(g) + 3H2(g) ←→ 2NH3(g)

13.Calculate the thickness of a Cylindrical Stainless Steel Grade 304 Shell with a diameter of 2 m that

will operate at 272.8oF with an operating pressure of 43.06psi that is fully radiographed with a

corrosion resistance of 3 mm.

A. 6.11 mm B. 2.75 mm C. 4.45 mm D. 5.75 mm E. None of the

choices

Solution:

P = 43.06psi

ri = 2/2 = 1m

CC = 3mm

Ej = 1

S for stainless steel 304 at 272.8oF = 15.68ksi = 15 680 psi

0.385(15680psi)(1) > 43.06 therefore, the equation to be used is

𝑃ri

𝑡= + Cc

𝑆Ej − 0.6P

43.06𝑝𝑠𝑖(1000𝑚𝑚)

𝑡= + 3mm = 𝟓. 𝟕𝟓𝐦𝐦

15680𝑝𝑠𝑖(1) − 0.6(43.06psi)

𝑌(𝑠)

14. A step change of magnitude 3 is introduced into a system having a transfer function of 𝑋(𝑠) =

9

3𝑠2 +1.5𝑠+3

find the time constant and the damping ratio.

A. 1, 0.25 B. 1, 0.5 C. 0.5, 1 D.0.25, 1 E. None of the

choices

Solution:

𝑌(𝑠) 9 1/3 3 3

= = , 𝑋(𝑠) =

𝑋(𝑠) 3𝑠2 +1.5𝑠+3 1/3 𝑠2 +0.5𝑠+1 𝑠

3 3

𝑌(𝑠) = 2

𝑠 𝑠 + 0.5𝑠 + 1

𝜏2 = 1, 2𝜁𝜏 = 0.5

𝜏 = 1, 𝜁 = 0.25

References:

Coughanowr, Donald. Process Systems Analysis and Control, 3rd ed. 2009

Shreve, R. N., & Austin, G. T. (1984). Shreve's Chemical process industries. New York: McGraw-

Hill.

Seborg, Dale. Process Dynamics and Control, 3rd ed. 2011

PROCESS CONTROL

1. Given the characteristic equation: s^3+3s^2+3s+1+K = 0. What is the range of K so

that the system is stable?

A. -1<K<8 B. -2.75<K<0.54 C. K>3 D. K>0.3 E. None of

the above

Solution:

𝑠 3 + 3𝑠 2 + 3𝑠 + 1 + 𝐾 = 0

1| 1 3

2| 3 1+𝐾

8−𝑘

3 |

3

4| 1+𝐾

8−𝐾

>0→𝐾<8

3

1 + 𝐾 > 0 → 𝐾 > −1

2.

Solution:

3. When D1=D2=0, determine the transfer function Y/X for the system shown below. Let

a= R1R2R3R4R5

𝑎 𝑎 𝑎𝑇1 𝑎𝑇2

A. B. C. D. E. None

1+𝑎𝑇2 +𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑇1 1+𝑎𝑇1 +𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑇2 1+𝑇1 +𝑎𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑇2 1+𝑅1 𝑇1 +𝑅2 𝑅3 𝑇2

of the

choic

es

Solution:

Negative input of 2nd summation = AR2R3T2

Y = AR2R3R4R5

Negative input of 1st summation = AR2R3R4R5T1

Positive input of 2nd summation = (X- AR2R3R4R5T1)R1

A = (X- AR2R3R4R5T1)R1 + AR2R3T2 = XR1 - AR1R2R3R4R5T1 + AR2R3T2

X = A (1 + R1R2R3R4R5T1 + R2R3T2)/R1

Y/X = R1R2R3R4R5/1 + R1R2R3R4R5T1 + R2R3T2

7𝑠+1

4. Find the inverse Laplace of 𝐹(𝑠) = 𝑠2 −1

F. 7cos(t)+7sinht G. 7cosh(t)- H. 7cosh(t)+sin( I. 7cosh(t)+sin(t J. None of

sinh(t) t) ) the above

Solution:

7𝑠 + 1 7𝑠 1

𝐹(𝑠) = 2

= 2 + 2

𝑠 −1 𝑠 −1 𝑠 −1

5. Find the Laplace Transform of: L(3e^(-3t) sinh2t )

2 1 4 6 O. None of

K. 2 L. 2 M. 2 N.

s +5s+4 s +3s+2 s +5s+6 s2 +6s+5 the above

Solution:

6

L(3 sinh 2t) =

s2 −4

6 6

L(3e−3t sinh 2t) = 2

= 2

(s + 3) − 4 s + 6s + 9 − 4

6

L(3e−3t sinh 2t) =

s2 + 6s + 5

A. B. C. 𝐶(𝑠)𝑃(𝑠) D. 𝐶(𝑠)𝑃(𝑠)

1+𝐹(𝑠)𝐶(𝑠)𝑃(𝑠) 1−𝐹(𝑠)𝐶(𝑠)𝑃(𝑠) 1+ 1− of the

𝐹(𝑠) 𝐹(𝑠)

choic

es

Solution:

𝐵𝑙𝑜𝑐𝑘 𝐶 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝑃 𝑎𝑟𝑒 𝑖𝑛 𝑠𝑒𝑟𝑖𝑒𝑠, 𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑝𝑙𝑦 = 𝐶(𝑠)𝑃(𝑠)

𝑇ℎ𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑑𝑖𝑎𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚 𝑤𝑖𝑙𝑙 𝑏𝑒 𝒏𝒆𝒈𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒗𝒆 𝒇𝒆𝒆𝒅𝒃𝒂𝒄𝒌

𝑢𝑠𝑒 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑔𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑎𝑙 𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑎

References:

[1] Olano, S. S., Jr., Bungay, V. C., Centeno, C. R., & Salazar, C. M. (2015). Reviewer for

Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination (3rd ed., p.374). Manila: Manila Review Institute.

[3] Coughanowr, D., LeBlanc, S., (2008). Process Systems Analysis and Control (3rd ed., p.224).

New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.

[4] LeBlanc, S. E., & Coughanowr, D. R. (2009). Process systems analysis and control. Boston:

McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

[5] Santos, B. S. (2018). Process Control Notes.

[6] Santos, B. S. (2018). Process Control Notes.

EQUIPMENT DESIGN

about 5200 psi. Assume the allowable stress of steel is 15,000 psi and a joint

efficiency of 80%. Provide a corrosion allowance of 1/16 in. If the pressure vessel

uses a spherical shell, calculate the thickness of the vessel.

A. 41.2 in. B. 35.6 in. C. 43.6 in. D. 40.8 in. E. None of

the

above

Solution:

𝑃𝑟𝑖

𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐

2𝑆𝐸 − 0.2𝑃

30 𝑓𝑡 12 𝑖𝑛

(5200)( × ) 1

2 1 𝑓𝑡

𝑡= + = 40.8 𝑖𝑛

2(15000)(0.8) − 0.2(5200) 16

Note that: The formula must comply to a thickness <= 0.356ri and an internal pressure

<=0.685SE

2.

Solution:

3. Water and glycerin were fed into a STHE with 1” BWG 14 tubes. Determine its

overall coefficient if the value of ho and hi were 1077.71 W/mK and 2499.55

W/mK, respectively. Use 5000 W/mK for the fluids’ fouling factor.

A. 1200.2 B. 936.3 C. 745.9 D. 526.7 E. None of

W/mK W/mK W/mK W/mK the

choices

Solution:

O.D. = 0.0254

I.D. = 0.211836

𝐷

1 1 1 𝐷𝑡 × ln ( 𝑡 ) 𝐷 1 𝐷𝑡 1

𝑑𝑡 𝑡

= + + + + = 526.694

𝑈𝑜 ℎ𝑜 ℎ𝑜𝑑 2 × 45 𝑑𝑡 ℎ𝑖𝑑 𝑑𝑡 ℎ𝑖

4. A cylindrical shell is used to handle corrosive fluids (CC=9mm). it uses stainless steel

type 316 at 167degF (S=18.526ksi) and double-welded butt joints that are fully

radiographed. With an internal pressure of 39.7 psi, calculate the thickness of the

cylindrical shell. Tank diameter is 2.952901696 m

F. 0.01217 G. 0.01217 H. 0.0168 in I. 0.0168 J. None of

m dm dm the

above

Solution:

𝑃𝑟𝑖

𝑡𝑠 = + 𝐶𝑐

𝑆𝐸 − 0.6𝑃

2.952901696

39.7 ∙ 2

𝑡𝑠 = + 0.009 = 0.0121680104 𝑚

(18526) − (0.6)(39.7)

5. Estimate the safe working pressure for a 4 in, Schedule 40 pipe, carbon steel, butt

welded with working temperature of 100°C. The safe working stress for butt welded

steel pipe up to 120°C. is 5000lb/in2

A. 1379 B. 1500 C. 1300 D. 1450 E. None of

KPa KPa KPa KPa the

above

Solution:

𝑃𝑆 = =

1000 1000

𝑙𝑏

𝑃𝑆 = 200 = 1379 𝐾𝑃𝑎

𝑖𝑛2

7m. Determine the stress acting normal on the tank if it operates at 2.3 MPa internal

pressure.

A. 3.42 B. 3.41 C. 3.45 D. 3.44 E. None of

MPa MPa MPa MPa the

choices

Solution:

For spherical vessels:

𝑃𝐷𝑖 2.3(6)

𝑆𝐿 = = = 3.45 𝑀𝑃𝑎

4𝑡 4(7 − 6)

References:

[1] Olano, S. S., Jr., Bungay, V. C., Centeno, C. R., & Salazar, C. M. (2015). Reviewer for

Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination (3rd ed., p.374). Manila: Manila Review Institute.

[3] Sinnot, R.K., (2005). Chemical Engineering Design (4th ed., p.635). Oxford: Elsevier

Butterworth-Heinemann.

[4] [5] Laurito, E. R. (2018). Notes on pressure vessels.

[5] Laurito, E. R. (2018). Notes on pressure vessels.

[6] Laurito, E. R. (2018). Notes on stresses in pressure-loaded thin-walled vessels.

CPI

1. A thermometer (τ = 0.3 min) is at equilibrium with water at 25°C. The water is then

heated such that the temperature of the water increases linearly until it reaches its

boiling point after 6 min. What is the temperature reading of the thermometer as soon

as the water starts to boil?

the

above

Solution

𝑥𝑠 = 25 𝑦𝑠 = 25

100 − 25

𝜏 = 0.3 = 12.5

6

25 𝑡<0

𝑥(𝑡) = {

25 + 12.5𝑡 𝑡>0

0 𝑡<0

𝑋(𝑡) = {

12.5𝑡 𝑡>0

12.5

𝑋(𝑠) =

𝑠2

12.5 1

𝑌(𝑠) = 2

∙

𝑠 𝜏𝑠 + 1

1 𝜏 𝜏

𝑌(𝑠) = 12.5 ( + + )

𝑠 2 𝑠 𝑠+1

𝜏

−𝑡

𝑌(𝑡) = 12.5 (𝑡 − 𝜏 + 𝜏𝑒 𝜏 )

−𝑡

𝑌(𝑡) = 12.5 (𝑡 − 0.3 + 0.3𝑒 0.3 ) + 25

𝑡 = 6, 𝑦 = 96.25℃

gypsum are needed for every 1,000 MT of clinker to produce Portland

cement, the MT of clinker produced monthly by the cement plant is:

MT MT MT the

above

Solution

3000

𝐴𝑚𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑡 𝑜𝑓 𝑔𝑦𝑝𝑠𝑢𝑚 𝑛𝑒𝑒𝑑𝑒𝑑 = = 60 𝑀𝑇

50

3. A 200-L mixing tank, initially operated at steady state with an inlet flow rate of 40L/min,

and an inlet concentration of 10g/L, was disturbed at t=0 when the feed was changed

to another concentration (5g/L). Calculate the time it will take to reduce the

concentration of the system to 7g/L.

A. 4.595 s B. 4.581 s C. 4.577 s D. 4.568 s E. None of

the

above

Solution

𝑥𝑠 = 10 𝑦𝑠 = 10

𝑉 200

𝜏= = =5

𝐹 40

10 𝑡<0

𝑥(𝑡) = {

5 𝑡>0

0 𝑡<0

𝑋(𝑡) = {

−5 𝑡>0

5

𝑋(𝑠) = −

𝑠

1 5 1

𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑋(𝑠) =−

𝜏𝑠 + 1 𝑠 5𝑠 + 1

𝑡

𝑌(𝑡) = 𝑦(𝑡) − 10 = −5(1 − 𝑒 − ⁄5 )

𝑖𝑓 𝑦 = 7, 𝑡 = 4.58145365937 𝑠

[1] Olano, S. S., Jr., Bungay, V. C., Centeno, C. R., & Salazar, C. M. (2015). Reviewer for

Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination (3rd ed., p.391). Manila: Manila Review Institute.

[2] Servillano, S.B. Olano Jr (2015). Reviewer for Chemical Engineering Licensure Examination,

3rd Edition (2015). p.367

[3] Roque, Joshua Emmanuel V. (2018). Multiple CSTR in Series for the Production of Ethyl

Acetate. UST Manila, Philippines

𝑠3 + 2𝑠2 + 3𝑠 + 4 + 𝑠𝑠 = 0

Stable Unstable

Solution:

s = -2.132493688

s = 0.06624684424 + 1.810567124i

s = 0.06624684424 - 1.810567124i

If there are no poles with positive real part, the system is stable

∴ Unstable

(Approximation only)

What is the transfer function of the controller ( Gc(s) )?

2𝑠+1

A. Gc(s) = 1 B. Gc(s) = C. Gc(s) = 2s+1 D. Gc(s) = E. None of these

2𝑠

2𝑠2 +2𝑠+1

2𝑠

Solution:

1

Gc(s) = Kc (1+ )

𝑠𝑠 𝑠

1

Gc(s) = 1 (1+ )

2𝑠

2𝑠+1

Gc(s) =

2𝑠

3. A tall vertical column made from carbon steel 2 m in diameter and 40 m in height is to be installed

with flat heads. The available specifications are: Operating temperature and pressure - 284℉and 57 psi.

Corrosion

allowance = 1.5

mm

Permissible

material stress =

12900 psi

A. 98 mm B. 98.84 mm C. 88 mm D. 88.84 mm E. None of these

Solution:

1

Radius of the column = 2*2= 1 m

0.3𝑠

𝑠 = 2𝑠𝑠 √ + 𝑠𝑠

𝑠

0.3(82 𝑠𝑠𝑠)

𝑠 = 2(1000 𝑠𝑠)√ + 1.5 𝑠𝑠

(12900 𝑠𝑠𝑠)

𝑠 =88.84 mm

4. A 2 m diameter cylindrical tank has an outflow with resistance of 0.05 𝑠𝑠𝑠/𝑠2 . Initially, water enters

the tank steadily at a flowrate of8 𝑠3 /𝑠𝑠𝑠. At t = 0, the inlet is closed. In how many seconds will the

depth of water be reduced to 0.25 m?

Solution:

8, 𝑠<0 0, 𝑠<0

𝑠 = {0, 𝑠>0

𝑠(𝑠) = {−8, 𝑠>0

𝑠(𝑠) = −8/𝑠

𝑠𝑠 8 0.05

𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠(𝑠)( )= − ( )

𝑠𝑠 + 1 𝑠 0.05𝑠 𝑠 + 1

𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠(𝑠) − 0.4 = −8(0.05)(1 − 𝑠−𝑠/0.05𝑠 )

𝑠 = 0.0738 𝑠𝑠𝑠 = 4.43 𝑠

5. Find the thickness of a 0.2 m in diameter vessel with flat head, has allowable stress of 100 MPa, and

internal pressure of 300 kPa. Assume a corrosion allowance of 2 mm.

Solution:

Flat Head:

0.3𝑠

𝑠 = 2𝑠√ + 𝑠𝑠

𝑠

0.3(300 𝑠𝑠𝑠) 3

𝑠 = 2(0.1 𝑠)√ +

(100,000 𝑠𝑠𝑠) 1000

𝑠 = 0.009 𝑠

6. H2SO4 is produced in a plant using contact process. A large storage tank currently holds 150,000 kg

of 25% oleum. The total capacity of the tank is 160,000 kg. If water is added to the tank to fill the

capacity, determine the percentage of H2SO4 in the final mixture.

Solution:

Initially,

18 𝑠𝑠/𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠2𝑠

37500 𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠3 ( ) = 8437.5 𝑠𝑠 𝑠2𝑠

80 𝑠𝑠/𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠3

The limiting reactant is SO3. 8437.5 kg H2O will react to form H2SO4.

98 𝑠𝑠/𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠2𝑠𝑠4

37500 𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠3 ( ) = 45937.5 𝑠𝑠 𝑠2𝑠𝑠4

80 𝑠𝑠/𝑠𝑠𝑠𝑠 𝑠𝑠3

New mixture:

7. A thermometer initially at 70 degrees Celsius having a time constant of 5 minute is placed in a bath

maintained at 100 degrees Celsius at t=0. Find the temperature at t=1.2 minutes

celsius celsius celsius celsius

Solution:

𝜏= 5 ; A = 70

8. Determine the safe working pressure for a 5 in., sch. 80 pipe, carbon steel, butt-welded, working

temperature 100 degrees celsius with a maximum allowable pressure of 12000 lb/in^2

A.960 lb/in^2 B. 4398 𝑠𝑠/𝑠𝑠2 C. 3100 lb/in^2 D. 4400 lb/in^2 E. None of these

Solution:

Schedule no. = 80

9. Given a step change magnitude of 5 that is introduced into a system having a transfer function of

𝑠(𝑠) 12

𝑠(𝑠)

= 𝑠2+1.6𝑠+4. Determine its percent overshoot.

Solution:

1

𝑠(𝑠) 12

= 2 ∙4

𝑠(𝑠) 𝑠 + 1.2𝑠 + 4 1

4

𝑠(𝑠) 3 5

= ∙

𝑠(𝑠) 0.25𝑠2 + 0.3𝑠 + 1 𝑠

𝜏 2 = 0.25

𝜏 = 0.5

2𝑠𝑠 = 0.3

𝜁=0.3

−𝑠(𝑠)

%𝑠𝑠 = 𝑠√1−𝑠2

−𝑠(0.3)

%𝑠𝑠 = 𝑠√1−0.32 × 100% = 37.23%

10. Determine the design pressure and temperature for the figure below

A.185psig, 450F B.176psig,210F C.99psig,440F D.160psig,400F E. None of these

(160)0.10 = 16psig<25psig

11. Given a spherical shell with a diameter of 6m, a maximum allowable stress of 200 MPa, internal

pressure of 200 KPa, a joint efficiency of 85%, and a corrosion allowance of 2mm, find the thickness of

the shell.

Solution:

𝑠𝑠

𝑠= + 𝑠𝑠

2𝑠𝑠 − 0.2𝑠

(200 𝑠𝑠𝑠)(3𝑠) 2

𝑠= +

2(200000𝑠𝑠𝑠)(0.85) − 0.2(200 𝑠𝑠𝑠) 1000

t=3.76 mm

2𝑠−5

12. Find the inverse Laplace transform of 𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠2+4𝑠+8

A.2𝑠−2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) − B. 2𝑠−2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) + C. 2𝑠2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(−2𝑠) − D. 2𝑠2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) + E. None of these

9 −2𝑠 9 −2𝑠 9 2𝑠

𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) 𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) 𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(−2𝑠) 𝑠2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠)

2 2 2

Solution:

2𝑠 − 5

𝑠(𝑠) =

𝑠2 + 4𝑠 + 8

2(𝑠 + 2) 9 2

𝑠(𝑠) = 2 −

(𝑠 + 2)2 + 2 2 (𝑠 + 2)2 + 22

9

𝑠(𝑠) = 2𝑠−2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠) − 𝑠−2𝑠 𝑠𝑠𝑠(2𝑠)

2

13. What is the Maximum Allowable Working Pressure of a tank operating at 200 psig?

A. 225 psig B. 220 psig C. 210 psig D. 200 psig E. None of these

Solution:

14. A process of unknown transfer function is subjected to a unit impulse input. The output of the

process is measured accurately and is found to be represented by the function Y(t) = t e-^-t. Determine

the unit step response in this process.

Solution:

Y(t) = te^-t

Y(s) = 1/(s+1)^2

𝑠 𝑠

𝑠(𝑠) = 1/(𝑠 + 1)2 = +

𝑠 + 1 (𝑠 + 1)2

Solving for B and C:

B=0C=1

1

𝑠(𝑠) =

(𝑠 + 1)2

𝑠(𝑠) = 𝑠𝑠−𝑠

15.It is the conversion of heavy products to lighter products which utilizes high temperature to make

low value residues into petroleum coke.

A.Coking/Thermal B.Hydrocracking C.Fluid catalytic D. Catalytic E. None of these

cracking cracking cracking

References:

Coughanowr, Donald. Process Systems Analysis and Control, 3rd ed. 2009

Towler, G. P. (2013). Chemical engineering design: Principles, practice and economics of plant and

process design, second edition (2nd ed.). Kidlington, Oxford, U.K. ; Waltham, Mass.: Butterworth-

Heinemann.

CHEMICAL PROCESSES INDUSTRIES, PROCESS CONTROL & DYNAMICS AND EQUIPMENT DESIGN

1. Process wastewater flows at 750 m3/hr into a holding pond with a volume of 7500 m3 and then flow

from the pond to a river. Initially, the pond is at steady state with a negligible concentration of

pollutants. Because of a malfunction in the wastewater treating process, the concentration of the

pollutants in the inlet stream suddenly increases to 800 ppm and stays constant at that value for 1 day.

After which the treatment process was corrected and the concentration of the pollutants at the inlet

stream drops to zero. Assuming a perfectly mixed pond, for how long is the outlet stream from the

pond to the river exceeding the regular maximum pollutant concentration of 450 ppm?

A. 20.53585 hrs B. 16.35774 hrs C. 21.97448 hrs D. 14.73521 hrs E. None of

these

Solution: 𝑉 = 7500 𝐹 = 750 𝑥𝑠 = 𝑦𝑠 = 0

0 𝑡<0 0 𝑡<0

800 800 −24𝑠

𝑥(𝑡) = { 800 0 < 𝑡 < 24 𝑋(𝑡) = { 800 0 < 𝑡 < 24 𝑋(𝑠) = − 𝑒

𝑠 𝑠

0 𝑡 > 24 0 𝑡 > 24

𝑌(𝑠) 1

Transfer function for a Mixing tank system: 𝑋(𝑠)

=𝑉

𝑠+1

𝐹

Deriving the response of the system , y(t):

800 800 −24𝑠 1

𝑌(𝑠) = [ − 𝑒 ][ ]

𝑠 𝑠 7500

𝑠+1

750

𝑌(𝑡) = 800(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/10 ) − 800𝑢(𝑡 − 24)(1 − 𝑒 −(𝑡−24)/10 )

800(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/10 ) 𝑡 < 24

𝑦(𝑡) = { 𝑡−24

800(1 − 𝑒 −𝑡/10 ) − 800 (1 − 𝑒 − 10 ) 𝑡 > 24

Assume t<24 y(t)=450 t= 8.266785732 hrs VALID!

Assume t<24 y(t)=450 t= 28.80264194 hrs VALID!

Δt= 28.80264194 -8.266785732= 20.53585621 hrs

2. The equation shown below is the characteristic equation of a closed-loop system. Determine the

range of KC in which the system is stable? The transportation lag can be approximated by 1st-order Pade.

𝑘𝑐 𝑒 −𝑠

1+ =0

(𝑠 + 2)2

A. −5 < 𝑘𝑐 < 7 B. −3 < 𝑘𝑐 < 4 C. −4 < 𝑘𝑐 < 8 D. 3 < 𝑘𝑐 < 8 E. None of

these

Solution:

𝑘𝑐 𝑒 −𝑠

1+ =0

(𝑠 + 2)2

2−𝑠

The transportation lag can be approximated using 1st order Pade: 𝑒 −2𝑠 = 2+𝑠

(𝑠 + 2)2 (𝑠 + 2) + 𝑘𝑐 (2 − 𝑠)

=0

(𝑠 + 2)2 (𝑠 + 2)

𝑠 3 + 6𝑠 2 + 12𝑠 + 8 + 𝑘𝑐 (2 − 𝑠) = 0

1 12 − 𝑘𝑐 0

6 8 + 2𝑘𝑐 0

6(12 − 𝑘𝑐 ) − 1(8 + 2𝑘𝑐 )

0 0

6

[ 8 + 2𝑘𝑐 0 0 ]

6(12 − 𝑘𝑐 ) − 1(8 + 2𝑘𝑐 )

> 0 & 8 + 2𝑘𝑐 > 0

6

𝑘𝑐 > −4 & 𝑘𝑐 < 8

If kc=-4, Poles: 0, −3 ± 𝑖√7 Range for stability: −4 < 𝑘𝑐 < 8 𝑂𝑅 (−4,8)

If kc=8, Poles: 0, ±2𝑖

3. A process engineer is assigned to design a pipeline which will be used to deliver a viscous liquid from

the storage tank to the batch reactor. That liquid flows at laminar conditions having a rate of 8.3145

x10-3 m3/s and has a viscosity (µ) of 9.6485 Pa•s. What will be the optimum steel pipe inside diameter

for this design?

A. 11.067 in B. 9.893 in C. 7.783 in D. 8.085 in E. None of

these

0.36 0.18

Solution: 𝐷𝑖,𝑜𝑝𝑡 = 3𝑞𝑓 µ𝑓 𝑤ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑒 𝐷𝑖,𝑜𝑝𝑡 𝑖𝑠 𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑒𝑑 𝑖𝑛 𝑖𝑛𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑠

0.36

3

𝑚3 1 𝑓𝑡 1000 𝑐𝑃 0.18

𝐷𝑖,𝑜𝑝𝑡 = 3 [(0.0083145 )( ) ] [(9.6485 𝑃𝑎 • 𝑠 ( ) )]

𝑠 0.3048 𝑚 1 𝑃𝑎 • 𝑠

𝐷𝑖,𝑜𝑝𝑡 = 10.06303235 𝑖𝑛

o

4. A thermometer initially reads 20 C at t=0, it is placed in a boiling H2O. After 2 min, it was removed

from the boiling H2O and is plunged in to an ice H2O. At t=2 min, the thermometer reads 96oC. What

would be the expected reading of the thermometer at t=4 min.

A. 5.1oC B. 4.8oC C. 4.1oC D. 3.7oC E. None of

these

Solution:

𝑌(𝑠) 1

=

𝑋(𝑠) 𝜏𝑠 + 1

20 𝑡<0

𝑥(𝑡) = {100 0 < 𝑡 < 2

0 𝑡>2

0 𝑡<0

𝑋(𝑡) = { 80 0 < 𝑡 < 2

−20 𝑡>2

80 100 −2𝑠

𝑋(𝑠) = − 𝑒

𝑠 𝑠

80 100 −2𝑠 1

𝑌(𝑠) = ( − 𝑒 )( )

𝑠 𝑠 𝜏𝑠 + 1

𝑡 (𝑡−2)

𝑌(𝑡) = 80(1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 ) − 100(1 − 𝑒 − 𝜏 )𝑢(𝑡 − 2)

𝑡

80(1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 ) + 20 𝑡<2

𝑋(𝑡) = { 𝑡 (𝑡−2)

80(1 − 𝑒 −𝜏 ) − 100(1 − 𝑒− 𝜏 ) + 20 𝑡 > 2

𝜏 = 0.6676 𝑚𝑖𝑛

y(t)= 4.80oC

5. Determine the unit-impulse response of a system that has a unit-step response of Y(t) = sinh 3t.

A. 3cosh 3t B. 3sin 3t C.3cos 3t D. 3sinh 3t E. None of

these

Solution:

3

𝑌(𝑠) 𝑠 2 − 9 3𝑠

𝐺(𝑠) = = = 2

𝑋(𝑠) 1 𝑠 −9

𝑠

3𝑠

𝑌(𝑠) = 𝑋(𝑠)𝐺(𝑠) = 1( 2 )

𝑠 −9

𝑌(𝑡) = 3 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ 3𝑡

6. The internal diameter of a spherical vessel is 14m and the outer diameter is 15m. It is made up of

Type 304 stainless steel with maximum temperature of 450oC. A single butt weld joint not

radiographed is used. Compute for the design pressure of the vessel in MPa. Assume no corrosion.

A.7.5189 MPa B. 7.0092 MPa C.6.9872 MPa D.6.5239 MPa E. None of

these

Given:

Spherical Vessel

Di= 14m

Do= 15m

Type 304 SS; at T=450oC=842oF (by interpolation from Table 13.2 (Sinnott and Towler, Chemical

Engineering Design)

S=11.061 ksi=11.061x1000 psi=76.2629MPa

𝐷 −𝐷 15−14

𝑡 = 𝑜2 𝑖 = 2 =0.5m

Single butt weld joint not radiographed: Ej=0.7

No corrosion: Cc=0

Solution:

Spherical Tank:

𝑃𝑟𝑖

𝑡= + 𝐶𝑐

2𝑆𝐸𝑗 − 2𝑃

𝑃(7𝑚)

0.5 = +0

2(76.2629𝑀𝑃𝑎)(0.7) − 0.2𝑃

𝑃 = 7.5189 𝑀𝑃𝑎

7. A double pipe heat exchanger has 2” Sch 40 steel pipe inside a 4” Sch 40 steel pipe. The operating

pressure in the inner tubes is 35 psig and in the annulus it is 70 psig. What shall be the maximum

allowable working pressure?

A. 90 psig B. 60 psig C. 95 psig D. 70 psig E. None of

these

Solution:

** Since the pressure in the annulus is higher, 70 psig will be set as the operating pressure.

8. Approximate the transfer function shown below with a second-order-plus-time-delay model using

Skogestad’s Half-Rule.

1−𝑠

G(s) =

(2𝑠+1)2 (8𝑠+1) (10𝑠+1)

1−𝑠 B. G(s) = 𝑒−𝑠

(2𝑠+1)(10𝑠+1) 𝑒 −4𝑠 these

(2𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1) (10𝑠+1)(8𝑠+1)(2𝑠+1)

(10𝑠+1) (9𝑠+1)

Solution:

1−𝑠

G(s) =

(10𝑠+1) (8𝑠+1)(2𝑠+1)( 2𝑠+1)

1−𝑠

G(s) = 2

(10𝑠+1) (8𝑠+1)( 𝑠+1)( 2𝑠+1)

2

𝑒 −𝑠 ∙ 𝑒 −𝑠 ∙ 𝑒 −2𝑠

G(s) =

(10𝑠+1) ((8+1)𝑠+1)

𝑒 −4𝑠

G(s) =

(10𝑠+1) (9𝑠+1)

9. A mixed tank heater is being operated as shown below. Determine the response of the outlet

temperature to a step change in the inlet to 70℃.

(1-𝑒 −𝑡/5 ) 𝑒 −𝑡/5 ) (1-𝑒 −𝑡/5 ) (1-𝑒 −𝑡/5 ) these

Solution:

60 𝑡<0

𝑇𝑜 = {

70 𝑡>0

0 𝑡<0

𝑇𝑜′ = {

10 𝑡>0

10

To’(s) = 𝑠

10 1

T’(s) = 𝑠

∗ 5𝑠+1

T’(t) = 10 (1-𝑒 −𝑡/5 ) = T-Ts = T-80

T(t) = 80 + 10 (1-𝑒 −𝑡/5 )

10. Determine the maximum value of Y(t) if a step change of magnitude 5 is introduced into a system

with the following transfer function.

𝑌(𝑠) 4

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 8𝑠 + 6𝑠 + 2

these

Solution:

𝑌(𝑠) 4

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 8𝑠 + 6𝑠 + 2

𝑌(𝑠) 2

= 2

𝑋(𝑠) 4𝑠 + 3𝑠 + 1

𝜏 2 = 4, 𝜏 = 2

2ζ(2) = 3, ζ = 0.75

𝑌(𝑡) = 𝐴𝐾𝑝 = 5(2) = 10

−0.75𝜋

( )

√ 2

%𝑂𝑆 = 𝑒 1−0.75

× 100 = 2.84%

𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝐴𝐾𝑝(1 + %𝑂𝑆) = 10(1 + 0.0284)

𝑌𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 10.2840

11. A double pipe heat exchanger has a 1-inch Sch 40 steel pipe inside a 2-inch Sch 40 steel pipe. If the

operating pressure of the inner tube is 35 psig and in the annulus it is 50 psig, what is the maximum

allowable working pressure?

A. 60 psig B. 75 psig C. 38.5 psig D. 55 psig E. None of

these

Solution:

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 50𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔 + 25𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

𝑀𝐴𝑊𝑃 = 75𝑝𝑠𝑖𝑔

6𝑠+1

12. What is the inverse Laplace transform of 𝐹(𝑠) = 𝑠2 +6𝑠+18 ?

(17/3)e^(-3t)sin3t (17/3)e^(3t)sin3t (17/3)e^(-3t)cos3t 17e^(-3t)sin3t these

Solution:

6𝑠 + 1

𝐹(𝑠) =

𝑠2

+ 6𝑠 + 18

6(𝑠 + 3) − 17

𝐹(𝑠) =

(𝑠 + 3)2 + 9

6(𝑠 + 3) 17

𝐹(𝑠) = −

(𝑠 + 3)2 + 9 (𝑠 + 3)2 + 9

17

𝐹(𝑡) = 6𝑒 −3𝑡 𝑐𝑜𝑠3𝑡 − 𝑒 −3𝑡 𝑠𝑖𝑛3𝑡

3

13. A Schedule 40 pipe has a diameter of 4 inches and a maximum allowable stress of 17, 142 lb/in2

for a butt-welded steel pipe. Calculate for the safe working pressure.

A. 688.85 lb/in2 B. 668.85 lb/in2 C. 658.68 lb/in2 D. 685.68 lb/in2 E. None of these

Solution:

𝑆𝑐ℎ𝑒𝑑𝑢𝑙𝑒 𝑛𝑜. × 𝜎𝑠 40 × 17142 𝑙𝑏

𝑃𝑠 = = = 685.68 2

1000 1000 𝑖𝑛

14. Find the cross-sectional area of the fluid in a partially filled horizontal cylinder if the diameter is 42

cm and if the liquid level is maintained at 14 cm.

A. 410.35 cm2 B. 404.26 cm2 C. 405.72 cm2 D. 408.15 cm2 E. None of these

Solution:

𝑅−ℎ

𝐴𝑓 = 𝑅2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 ( ) − (𝑅 − ℎ)√2𝑅ℎ − ℎ2

𝑅

21 − 14

𝐴𝑓 = (21)2 𝑐𝑜𝑠 −1 ( ) − (21 − 14)√2(21)(14) − (14)2

21

𝐴𝑓 = 404.26 𝑐𝑚2

15. The unit impulse response of a system is given by Y(t)= t5. Determine the response of the system

to a step input.

1 1 1 6 1 E. None of these

A. 𝑡 6

24

B. 𝑡 6

6

C. 𝑡

120

D. 𝑡 6

36

Solution:

𝑌(𝑡) = 𝑡 5

5!

𝑌(𝑠) = 6

𝑠

5!

𝑠 6 120

𝐺(𝑠) = = 6

1 𝑠

1 120 120

𝑌(𝑠) = ( 6 ) = 7

𝑠 𝑠 𝑠

1 6

𝑌(𝑡) = 𝑡

6

References:

Seborg, D.E., Edgar, T.F. & Mellichamp, D.A. (2004). Process Dynamics and Control (2nd ed). John

Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ.

Towler, G. & Sinnott, R. (2008). Chemical Engineering Design: Principles, Practice and Economics

of Plant and Process Design. Elsevier, Inc.: London, UK.

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