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common characteristics of myxomycetes (slime molds)

• General Characters:
1. There are approximately 500 species of Myxomycetes.
2. They are found on moist soil, decaying wood, and dung.
3. Not true fungi (lack a cell wall).
4. They possess characters of both plant and animals.
*Like plant (reproduce by spores with a definite cell wall).
*Like animals (vegetative structure plasmodium: slimy, naked, multinucleat mass of protoplasm).
5. They are heterotrophic (lack chlorophyll). Most are saprophytes (absorb food from decaying wood
or ingest food, by phagocytosis: but during sexual reproduction).

General characteristics of fungi:

 Fungi are eukaryotic, i.e. their cells contain a membrane-bound nucleus and other
membrane-bound organelles.
See prokaryotic vs eukaryotic cells for more about what is meant by 'eukaryotic'.
 Fungi have cell walls* (plants also have cell walls, but animals have no cell walls).
*A difference between fungi and animals.
 Fungi cell walls are composed mainly of a carbohydrate called chitin*, while plant cell walls
are composed mainly of cellulose.
*A difference between fungi and plants.
 Fungi are achlorophyllous, which means they lack the chlorophyll pigments present in
the chloroplasts in plant cells and which are necessary for photosynthesis. Fungi are
therefore incapable of photosynthesis.
*another difference between fungi and plants.
 The (carbohydrate) molecule used to store energy in fungi is glycogen.
Glycogen is also used to store energy in the muscle and liver cells of animals but plants have
a different storage molecule, called starch.
*another difference between fungi and plants.
 Fungi are heterotrophs, which means that they obtain nutrients by absorption.
(As also applies to other living things, including plants and animals, fungi need nutrients in
order to live, grow and reproduce.)
Some fungi, called saprobiontic fungi, release enzymes that help to break-down dead organic
matter into chemicals that the fungi can then absorb and process as a food source. Other fungi
are parasitic, meaning that they obtain nutrients directly from other living things such as
trees, or even people e.g. in the case of the fungus responsible for Athlete's Foot.
o Saprobiontic fungi are saprobiontic organisms, also called saprobionts. They
digest their food externally and then absorb the products of that 'digestion'. To do this
they form very thin threads called hyphae that enable the fungus to feed on organic
matter, e.g. dead and decaying bodies of plants and animals. See how saprobiontic
organisms feed.
Why were slime molds not considered fungi?
Most slime molds will exist as single-celled organisms when food is plentiful. They exhibit
characteristics of protozoa (a Kingdom-level taxon) and have thus been lumped together under the
group name Mycetozoa under the Protozoan phylum of Amoebozoa. Mycetozoa is further subdivided
into three subgroups that are still under study for further classification:
Myxogastria or myxomycetes: syncytial or plasmodial slime molds
Dictyosteliida or dictyostelids: cellular slime molds.
Slime mold cells carnivorously hunt and eat other smaller cells such as bacteria, yeasts, and other
fungi that live on dead plant material. This is the reason why they are no longer considered fungi but
as protozoa. When a chemical signal is given, the slime mold cells combine to form a single assembly
that differentiates into fruiting bodies that release spores for reproduction.
describe the standard procedure for wastewater treatment process
Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a quiescent basin where heavy solids
can settle to the bottom while oil, grease and lighter solids float to the surface. The settled and floating
materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be discharged or subjected to secondary
treatment. Some sewage treatment plants that are connected to a combined sewer system have a
bypass arrangement after the primary treatment unit. This means that during very heavy rainfall
events, the secondary and tertiary treatment systems can be bypassed to protect them from hydraulic
overloading, and the mixture of sewage and stormwater only receives primary treatment.
Secondary treatment removes dissolved and suspended biological matter. Secondary treatment is
typically performed by indigenous, water-borne micro-organisms in a managed habitat. Secondary
treatment may require a separation process to remove the micro-organisms from the treated water
prior to discharge or tertiary treatment.
Tertiary treatment is sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary treatment in
order to allow ejection into a highly sensitive or fragile ecosystem (estuaries, low-flow rivers, coral
reefs,...). Treated water is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically (for example, by lagoons
and microfiltration) prior to discharge into a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland, or it can be used
for the irrigation of a golf course, green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for
groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes.
propose a procedure for wastewater treatment coupling with methane production
The various types of waste streams which can be digested for the recovery of energy in the form of
methane, can be divided as follows:

1. Solid wastes:

- domestic wastes, such as separately collected Vegetable, Fruit and Yard waste (VFY);

- organic residual fraction after mechanical separation of integral collected household waste (grey

- agricultural wastes (crop residues);

- manure.

2. Waste slurries:

- liquid manure;

- sewage sludge;

- urine and faeces;

- industrial waste (e.g. fat-, slaughterhouse and fish wastes).

3. Wastewater:
- industrial wastewater (especially from the food and beverage industry);

- domestic wastewater (sewage).