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Cell Biology

Cell Biology Functions of a cell • Cell metabolism and energy use – Chemical reactions that
Cell Biology Functions of a cell • Cell metabolism and energy use – Chemical reactions that
Cell Biology Functions of a cell • Cell metabolism and energy use – Chemical reactions that

Functions of a cell

Cell metabolism and energy use

Chemical reactions that occur within a cell

Synthesis of molecules

proteins, nucleic acids, and lipids

Communication

chemical and electrical signals

Ex. nerve cells produce chemical and electrical signals by which they communicate with muscle cells

Reproduction and inheritance

contain a complete copy of all the genetic information of the individual

genetic information ultimately determines the structural and functional characteristics of the cell.

Basic Parts of a Cell

Plasma membrane, or cell membrane

Nucleus

Cytoplasm

specialized structures called organelles perform specific functions

structures called organelles perform specific functions Plasma Membrane Structure • outermost component of a cell

Plasma Membrane

Structure

outermost component of a cell

Consists primarily of lipids and proteins, with a very small amount of carbohydrates.

Carbohydrates combine with lipids to form glycolipids and with proteins to form glycoproteins.

Glycocalyx collection of glycolipids, glycoproteins, and carbohydrates on the outer surface of the plasma membrane.

Function

Separates intracellular and extracellular substances, those outside the cell semi- permeable

“gate keeper” - determines what moves into and out of cells through proteins and membrane channels

Encloses and supports the cell contents

Attaches cells to the extracellular environment or to other cells

Ability to recognize and communicate with each other

• Ability to recognize and communicate with each other bilayer of phospholipids and cholesterol with proteins

bilayer of phospholipids and cholesterol with proteins “floating” in the membrane.

Semi-permeable membrane

Polar, hydrophilic region is directed toward either the extracellular fluid or the cytoplasm.

Nonpolar, hydrophobic region of each phospholipid molecule is directed toward the center of the membrane

molecule is directed toward the center of the membrane Transport process • Passive transport – does
molecule is directed toward the center of the membrane Transport process • Passive transport – does

Transport process

Passive transport does not require energy

Diffusion

Osmosis

Facilitated diffusion

Active transport

requires energy through Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

 requires energy through Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Active transport • Movement of substance requires energy
 requires energy through Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Active transport • Movement of substance requires energy
 requires energy through Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Active transport • Movement of substance requires energy

Active transport

Movement of substance requires energy provided by Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

Release of Phosphate from ATP releases energy and form Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)

Diffusion

Diffusion Osmosis • Diffusion of water (solvent) across a selectively permeable membrane, such as a plasma

Osmosis

Diffusion of water (solvent) across a selectively permeable membrane, such as a plasma membrane

Selectively permeable - allows water but not all the solutes dissolved in the water to diffuse through it

Water diffuses from more to less concentration

it • Water diffuses from more to less concentration Osmotic pressures • Osmotic pressure is the

Osmotic pressures

Osmotic pressure is the force required to prevent the movement of water across a selectively permeable membrane

Isosmotic - solutions with the same concentration of solute particles have the same osmotic pressure

Hyperosmotic solutions having greater concentration of solute particles, and therefore a greater osmotic pressure than another solution

Hypo-osmotic - solutions having lesser concentration of solute particles, and therefore a lesser osmotic pressure than another solution

Solutions and Tonicity

Depending on the concentrations of solutes with regards to the two compartments

Isotonic solution concentration of solutes in the solution is equal outside and inside the cell

Hypertonic solution - concentration of solutes in the solution is greater outside the cell compared to inside

Hypotonic solutions concentration of solutes in the solution is lesser compared to inside the cell

in the solution is lesser compared to inside the cell Membrane Proteins • Marker molecules -
in the solution is lesser compared to inside the cell Membrane Proteins • Marker molecules -

Membrane Proteins

Marker molecules - glycoproteins - surface molecules that allow cells to identify other cells or other molecules.

Attachment proteins - integral proteins

Allow cells to attach to other cells or to extracellular molecules

Cadherins are proteins that attach cells to other cells

Integrins are proteins that attach cells to extracellular molecules

Transport proteins - integral proteins

Allow ions or molecules to move from one side of the plasma membrane to the other

3 important characteristics:

specificity, saturation, and competition

one side of the plasma membrane to the other – 3 important characteristics : specificity, saturation,

Specificity - each transport protein binds to and transports only a certain type of molecule or ion

Only substances that are the right shape can bind to the protein

Competition

Results from molecules having similar shape binding to the transport protein

closely related may bind to the same binding site.

o The substance in the greater concentration more readily is moves across the plasma

Saturation

rate of movement of molecules across the membrane is limited by the number of available transport protein

is limited by the number of available transport protein Transport proteins Secondary active transport • Two
is limited by the number of available transport protein Transport proteins Secondary active transport • Two

Transport proteins

the number of available transport protein Transport proteins Secondary active transport • Two step process –
the number of available transport protein Transport proteins Secondary active transport • Two step process –
the number of available transport protein Transport proteins Secondary active transport • Two step process –
the number of available transport protein Transport proteins Secondary active transport • Two step process –
the number of available transport protein Transport proteins Secondary active transport • Two step process –
the number of available transport protein Transport proteins Secondary active transport • Two step process –

Secondary active transport

Two step process

Ion gradient formation

Movement of the ion back to the cell provides energy for some other

molecule to move out - secondary active transport

Ex. - glucose moves from the lumen of the intestine into epithelial cells by secondary active transport

into epithelial cells by secondary active transport Vesicular Transport • movement of larger volumes of

Vesicular Transport

movement of larger volumes of substances across the plasma membrane through the formation or release of vesicles, the cytoplasm.

endocytosis and exocytosis

requires energy in the form of ATP.

does not demonstrate the degree of specificity or saturation

Endocytosis

occurs when material moves through the plasma membrane and into the cytoplasm by the formation of a vesicle.

A portion of the plasma membrane wraps around a material to form a vesicle.

Phagocytosis and Pinocytosis

Phagocytosis

“cell-eating”

Important in eliminating harmful substances from the body

Solid particles are ingested, and phagocytic vesicles

White blood cells - phagocytize bacteria, cell debris, and foreign particles

- phagocytize bacteria, cell debris, and foreign particles • Pinocytosis • Process - “cell - drinking”

Pinocytosis

Process - “cell-drinking”

Distinguished from phagocytosis in that smaller vesicles form and they contain molecules dissolved in liquid rather than particles

Cell types - kidneys, epithelial cells of the intestines, cells of the liver, and cells that line capillaries

cells of the liver, and cells that line capillaries Cytoplasm Structure • material outside the nucleus

Cytoplasm

Structure

material outside the nucleus but inside the plasma membrane

Cytosol colloid, fluid portion

dissolved ions, molecules, proteins, organelles

Proteins - enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of molecules

Cytoskeleton

Microtubules - hollow tubes composed primarily of protein units called tubulin.

provide support and structure to the cytoplasm of the cell

involved in cell division

components of certain cell organelles, such as centrioles, cilia, and flagella

Actin filaments (microfilaments) - small fibrils, that form bundles, sheets, or networks in the cytoplasm.

Provide structure to the cytoplasm and mechanical support for microvilli.

Support the plasma membrane and define the shape of the cell

Changes in cell shape involve the breakdown and reconstruction of actin filaments.

Muscle cells contain a large number - muscle’s contractile capabilities

Intermediate filaments - protein fibers intertwined

mechanical strength to cells

Ex. nerve cells

• mechanical strength to cells • Ex. nerve cells Cytoplasmic Inclusions • aggregates of chemicals either

Cytoplasmic Inclusions

aggregates of chemicals either produced or taken in by the cell

Old hemoglobin, melanin

Dust, minerals, and dyes

Ribosomes

Each ribosome is composed of a large subunit and a small subunit.

Function

Sites of protein synthesis

Free ribosomes create proteins used inside the cell

Attached ribosomes (Endoplasmic reticulum) - produce integral membrane proteins and proteins that are secreted from the cell

proteins and proteins that are secreted from the cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Structure • Connected to the

Endoplasmic Reticulum

Structure

Connected to the outer membrane of the nuclear envelope

Broad, flattened, interconnecting sacs and tubules

Interior spaces of those sacs and tubules are called cisternae

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

“rough” because ribosomes are attached to it

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

are attached to it • Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Function • Rough endoplasmic reticulum • ribosomes -

Function

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

ribosomes - proteins are produced and modified for use as integral membrane proteins and for secretion into the extracellular space.

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum

Manufactures lipids (phospholipids, cholesterol, and steroid hormones)

Golgi Apparatus

Structure

Flattened, membranous sacs

Transport vesicles and secretory vesicles

Function

packaging and distribution center because it modifies

Proteins and lipids

and secretory vesicles • Function • packaging and distribution center because it modifies • Proteins and

Proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum are transported to the golgi apparatus

Golgi apparatus - chemically packs, modifies the proteins (adding glycoproteins) and are distributed to various locations

highly developed in cells that secrete large amounts of protein or glycoproteins, such as cells in the salivary glands and the pancreas.

such as cells in the salivary glands and the pancreas. Lysosomes Structure • membrane-bound vesicles that

Lysosomes

Structure

membrane-bound vesicles that form at the Golgi apparatus

contain hydrolytic enzymes that function as intracellular digestive systems.

Function

Vesicles taken into the cell fuse with the lysosomes to form one vesicle and to expose the endocytized materials to hydrolytic enzymes

to expose the endocytized materials to hydrolytic enzymes Peroxisomes and Proteasomes Peroxisomes • membrane-bound

Peroxisomes and Proteasomes

Peroxisomes

membrane-bound vesicles that are smaller than lysosomes

contain enzymes that break down fatty acids and amino acids.

can produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a toxic by-product.

Catalase - breaks down hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen

Proteasomes

large protein complexes containing enzymes

break down and recycle other proteins within the cell.

Mitochondria

Structure

small, rod-shaped structures

Layers

Inner membrane - numerous infoldings called cristae

Intermembrane space

Outer membrane - smooth contour

Matrix- material located inside the inner membrane

Mitochondria contain DNA and ribosomes

Complex series of mitochondrial enzymes form ATP

• Complex series of mitochondrial enzymes – form ATP Function • Provide the majority of the

Function

Provide the majority of the energy for the cell - “cell’s power plants”.

Major sites for the production of ATP

citric acid (Krebs) cycle are in the matrix.

Information for making some mitochondrial proteins is stored in mitochondrial DNA

Proteins are synthesized on mitochondrial ribosomes

Centrioles and Spindle Fibers

The centrosome a specialized zone of cytoplasm close to the nucleus, is the center of microtubule formation in the cell

Within the centrosome are two centrioles - small, cylindrical organelle

Cell division - microtubules called spindle fibers extend out in all directions from the centrosome

fibers extend out in all directions from the centrosome Cilia and Flagella Structure • Cilia 

Cilia and Flagella

Structure

Cilia

structures that project from the surface of cells and are capable of movement.

aggregate of microtubules

cylindrical in shape

shaft of each cilium is enclosed by the plasma membrane

Flagella - similar to that of cilia, but they are longer

Flagella - similar to that of cilia, but they are longer Function • Movement • Cilia

Function

Movement

Cilia - Numerous on surface cells that line the respiratory tract and the female reproductive tract.

move in a coordinated fashion

 

moves materials over the surface of the cells

Ex. Removal of debris from the lungs

Flagella

Sperm cells are the only human cells , only one flagellum exists per cell

Moves in a wavelike fashion

exists per cell – Moves in a wavelike fashion Microvilli Structure • cylindrically shaped •

Microvilli

Structure

cylindrically shaped

extensions of the plasma membrane - increases the cell surface area.

Small - microvilli are only one-tenth to one- twentieth the size of cilia

are only one-tenth to one- twentieth the size of cilia Function • Increase absorption from increased

Function

Increase absorption from increased surface area- intestine, kidney

Sensory receptors (highly modified) elongated microvilli in hair cells of the inner ear respond to sound

Nucleus

Structure

Large, membrane-bound structure usually located near the center of the cell

Parts

nucleoplasm

nuclear envelope inner and outer layer

 

nuclear pores

Nucleolus

dense region within the nucleus

nucleolus lacks a surrounding membrane

Function

Chromosomes aggregate Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and Proteins (histones)

Chromatin compacts into chromosomes during cell division

Nucleolus

Creation of subunits for ribosomes

No membrane

– Creation of subunits for ribosomes – No membrane DNA and RNA • Nucleic acids Genes
– Creation of subunits for ribosomes – No membrane DNA and RNA • Nucleic acids Genes

DNA and RNA

Nucleic acids

Genes and Gene Expression

Genes are the functional units of heredity

Heredity is the transmission of genetic traits from parent to offspring.

Gene expression

Transcription

DNA strands serves as the template strand and is copied for translation mRNA strand

Translation

synthesis of a protein at the ribosome based on the sequence of the codons of mRNA through the tRNA and RNA polymerase

Nucleic acids

composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, and phosphorus

largest molecules in the body

major classes

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)

ribonucleic acid (RNA)

Roles of DNA and RNA

DNA

found in the nucleus (control center) of the cell, where it constitutes the genetic ,material also called the genes

Two main functions

replicates (reproduces) itself before a cell divides, ensuring that the genetic information in the descendant cells is identical

provides the basic instructions for building every protein in the body

DNA fingerprinting can help solve forensic each person is unique

RNA

located chiefly outside the nucleus and can be considered a "molecular slave" of DNA.

Carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by DNA

3 types - messenger RNA, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA

Carries out the orders for protein synthesis issued by DNA – 3 types - messenger RNA,
Double helix – “spiral staircase”
Double helix –
“spiral staircase”

DNA 2 nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonds forming a double helix

nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonds forming a double helix Cell Life Cycle • changes a cell
nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonds forming a double helix Cell Life Cycle • changes a cell
nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonds forming a double helix Cell Life Cycle • changes a cell
nucleotides linked by hydrogen bonds forming a double helix Cell Life Cycle • changes a cell

Cell Life Cycle

changes a cell undergoes from the time it is formed until it divides to produce two new cells

Interphase is the phase between cell divisions

nearly all of the life cycle of a typical cell is spent in interphase

G1 first gap phase

S phase synthesis phase

G2 second gap phase

Mitotic phase cell division

Prophase

Metaphase

Anaphase

Telophase

G2 – second gap phase • Mitotic phase – cell division – Prophase – Metaphase –
G2 – second gap phase • Mitotic phase – cell division – Prophase – Metaphase –
G2 – second gap phase • Mitotic phase – cell division – Prophase – Metaphase –
Human Genome Kinefelter Syndrome Turner ’s Syndrome
Human Genome Kinefelter Syndrome Turner ’s Syndrome
Human Genome Kinefelter Syndrome Turner ’s Syndrome
Human Genome Kinefelter Syndrome Turner ’s Syndrome
Human Genome Kinefelter Syndrome Turner ’s Syndrome
Human Genome Kinefelter Syndrome Turner ’s Syndrome

Human Genome

Human Genome Kinefelter Syndrome Turner ’s Syndrome

Kinefelter Syndrome Turner’s Syndrome