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LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

Chapter 8

Troubleshooting

Noise Unstable Counts No Counts Decreasing Air Counts Transverse Motion Failure Longitudinal Motion Failures Limit
Noise
Unstable Counts
No Counts
Decreasing Air Counts
Transverse Motion Failure
Longitudinal Motion Failures
Limit Switch Tripped During Scan
Imaging Problems
Femur Scan Problems
Failing Air Matrix Results
Indicator Failures
Communications Failures

Start Up Software

Viewing Quality Assurance Trends

This chapter contains troubleshooting techniques for diagnostic failures, failing quality assurance tests, mechanical failures and imaging problems.

8.1 Diagnostic Failure Codes

8.2 Failing Quality Assurance Test

8.3 Standard Positioning Problems

8.4 Electrical

8.5 Air Counts

8.5.1

8.5.2

8.5.3

8.6 Arcing

8.7 Mechanical Failures

8.7.1

8.7.2

8.7.3

8.8

8.9

8.10

8.11

8.12

8.13

8.14

8-1

8-5

8-15

8-21

8-23

8-23

8-23

8-27

8-29

8-31

8-31

8-32

8-34

8-35

8-39

8-41

8-43

8-45

8-47

8-51

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DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

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LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

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8.1 Diagnostic Failure Codes

The following conditions halt the operations of the scanner, and generate a diagnostic failure message which is displayed on the monitor screen:

transverse motion interruption,

longitudinal motion interruption,

Emergency Stop Button actuation,

excessive x-ray source temperature, and

loss of 28 volt power supply.

x-ray source temperature, and loss of 28 volt power supply. The following error codes are meaningful:

The following error codes are meaningful:

Diagnostic Failure # 15-4 - Transverse Motion failure The message "Diagnostic Failure #15-4" should occur quickly after the transverse motion ceases during a patient scan. A slotted disk at the end of the arm rotates through an infrared beam, and pulses are sent to the OINK board when there is transverse motion. Therefore, either the motion is stopping during a patient scan, or the electronics of the motion detection system are not functioning.

If the transverse motion stops during the scan, see section 8.7. In Total Body scanning, a defect in the transverse mechanics may cause one of the transverse limit switches to be closed. Closure of a limit switch prevents further operation of the motor. The shutter will close, the shutter open lamp will go out and the end of exposure alarm will sound. Seconds later the error message will appear on the screen. For further information, see section 8.7.

The transverse and longitudinal motion detection system is only operational during patient scans. If the problem occurs during a quality assurance scan, for instance, then it is probable that the high voltage system is arcing.

If the error occurs consistently on the first line of a patient scan, and the scanner is moving in the transverse direction, then check the following:

Remove the table top and the front panel. Verify that the slotted disk at the front of the lower arm rail is in the middle of the slot between the photo diode and photo transistor. The slotted disk must be completely flat and remain in the center of the sensor slot during its entire rotation. If the slotted disk has been in contact with the optical sensor, disassemble this mechanism, and clean the sensor and the slots of the disk.

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

The pulses that normally enter the OINK board at J14 (the black wire at the center of the connector) may have stopped. These pulses are necessary to keep the OINK board from sending an interrupt to the SBC. These pulses can be seen with an oscilloscope (see figure 1). Use a voltmeter to measure the voltage on the positive side of C16 (33 µf capacitor). This voltage should never approach 2 Volts DC during a scan if the pulses are present to reset U11A. If this voltage stays well below 2VDC during the scan, but the error 15 still occurs, the interrupt was invalid. Check for arcing in the high voltage system or replace the OINK and SBC.

in the high voltage system or replace the OINK and SBC. Diagnostic Failure # 23-3 -

Diagnostic Failure # 23-3 - Longitudinal Motion failure The pulses that normally enter the OINK board at J13 (the black wire at the center of the connector) may have stopped. These pulses are necessary to keep the OINK board from sending an interrupt to the SBC. These pulses can be seen with an oscilloscope (see figure 2). Use a voltmeter to measure the voltage on the positive side of C17 (1000 µf capacitor). This voltage should never approach 2 Volts DC during a scan if the pulses are present to reset U11B. If this voltage stays well below 2VDC during the scan, but the error 23 still occurs, the interrupt was invalid. Check for arcing in the high voltage system or replace the OINK and SBC.

in the high voltage system or replace the OINK and SBC. If the longitudinal motion stops

If the longitudinal motion stops in the middle of the scan, see "Longitudinal Motion Failure" in section 8.7.

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

Diagnostic Failure # 27-2 - Failure of the 28V power supply Measure the output of the 28VDC power supply, and verify that it remains constant during the voltage ramping and scanning operations.

This supply is turned on by the X-ray Relay, so verify that the Relay is closing. If not, then either the Relay is bad or it is not receiving the signal from the SBC via the OINK (see section 4.5). The Tube Head Thermostat is wired in series with the Relay, so if it has opened, the Relay will not be able to close. (see Failure #30 below)

The 28VDC should also be measured at the Terminal Block. If not, check the continuity of the wiring and refasten all connections. Also, check the wire tie-downs for excess tension they may be putting on the wires.

for excess tension they may be putting on the wires. It may be necessary to check

It may be necessary to check the wiring from the Terminal Block to the MAX board and to the High Voltage Power Supplies.

Diagnostic Failure # 29-1 - Emergency Stop Button is engaged Verify that the emergency stop button is out. If it has been pressed in, press it again to release it. If 26VDC can be measured on both pins of OINK connector J17, the Emergency Stop Switch and the wires connecting it to the OINK board are good and the OINK board should be replaced.

Diagnostic Failure # 30-0 - Tube Head Thermostat There is a thermostat inside the Tube Head. This thermostat is normally closed, but opens when the Tube Head temperature is too high. The thermostat will close again automatically after a cool down period of usually less than 30 minutes. If 0 VDC is measured on both pins of OINK connector J15, the Thermostat and the wires connecting it to the OINK board are good and the OINK board should be replaced.

Diagnostic Failure # 0 or # 255 - Communication Error or Corrupt Monitor The computer is not communicating with the SBC board (see section 8.12). Download the latest version of the Monitor program again (see section 5.1). If this is unsuccessful, verify that the I/O cable from the computer to the SBC Board is secure. Also, verfiy that the serial port is set to SERIAL_2. If all fails, the SBC or computer serial port is defective.

Other Diagnostic Failure Codes Multiple error codes are possible. These will be displayed one after the other, but the first one displayed is probably the problem. The others are generated as a result of the first failure.

Reasons For Invalid Diagnostic Failures Arcing of the x-ray high voltage system releases a large amount of electromagnetic energy. This energy creates noise in the electronic circuits and may cause the SBC to do unpredictable things, such as give invalid diagnostic errors. Arcing is usually accompanied by white, blue or black lines across patient scans (See Arcing, section 8.6).

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DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

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LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

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8.2 Failing Quality Assurance Test

See the chapter in the Operator's Manual, "Running the Quality Assurance Tests", for explanations of the various tests that are performed during the running of the Daily Quality Assurance.

If any of the QA test results fail, none of the results are considered valid. The results will be stored in the Quality Assurance History file (typically C:\LUNAR\ANC\DPXS.DBF), but these values will not be averaged with the other results for calibration purposes. In addition, after two days the operator will find messages appearing on the screen warning that no valid Quality Assurance Test has been run within the last 48 hours. After two weeks without a valid Quality Assurance Test, the software will prevent patient scans. Recent valid QA's are necessary for accurate results.

Recent valid QA's are necessary for accurate results. Lamp Operation Just before the QA begins, the

Lamp Operation Just before the QA begins, the operator is asked if the Shutter Open, X-Ray On, and Power-On lights are illuminated. If the Green Power-On light has burned out and yet the other two lights are lit, it is recommended to ignore the Green light and answer "yes", allowing the QA to pass. Answering "no" will fail the QA regardless of all the other tests passing, and failed QA's are not stored in the database.

However, it is not recommended that scanner operation be continued if the X-ray On light fails, and the scanner will not operate if the Shutter Open light fails. These LED's are the only indicator of exposure to x-rays and must be replaced as soon as possible.

Peak Setting Customers will note slight fluctuations in the Peak Setting, but only a shift of >50 units in consecutive QA's will give a "fail" evaluation. Drift in the Peak setting should be monitored by the customer.

Background The background test will fail if other sources of radiation are located in the room or nearby on the other side of walls.

Verify that the lead cup is installed immediately underneath the PMT and that other sources of radiation are not causing the failure. Any other sources of radiation in the vicinity of the scanner which causes failure of this background measurement must be removed for proper operation of the scanner.

Beam Stop Action The Beam Stop Action test verifies the ability of the lead shutter to attenuate x-rays from the tube head by verifying that the Background counts when the shutter is closed are lower than counts taken through the brass piece with the shutter open.

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

Spillover An increase in the Spillover percentage over time is an indication that the PMT is losing resolution, even if the Spillover test does not fail. Trends in excess of those specified on in section 8.15 indicate service is required. A large change in the Spillover can be explained in some cases by standard positioning (or a small change in the home position of the scanner). If the beam is not fully eclipsed by the brass piece during the Spillover test, the Spillover value increases dramatically (see section 8.3)

CHI Square This is a statistical test to measure the spread of the Air Count data. Under normal conditions, the number of counts obtained in a large number of samples should form a Gaussian distribution. The Chi Square test is a measure of how the data fits to a Gaussian distribution, based on a certain confidence factor. There is a small statistical probability that this test will fail even though there is no problem. Rare failure of this test parameter should not cause concern.

failure of this test parameter should not cause concern. Air Counts and Air Ratio The most

Air Counts and Air Ratio The most important numbers are the High and Low channel Air Counts and the Air Ratio. During this test the baseline is established which will later be used for comparing with the values obtained during the scan of the standard. The High and Low Air Count numbers should be checked against the Quality Assurance history to verify that the numbers are close to numbers obtained in the past. Care should be taken that the x-ray beam is not missing the standard, nor being obstructed by the brass piece on the standard during the High and Low Air Count test.

The Air Ratio value should remain very constant over time. Check to see that the Air Ratio has not varied from the value at the time of installation by +0.02 or greater. So if the Air Ratio was 0.59 at installation, then 0.58 and 0.60 are also acceptable, but 0.61 or 0.57 would be a cause for concern.

Version 4.2a and higher software revisions have an additional test for air counts called “True Air Ratio”. This test moves the beam off the standard block and into unobstructed air, collects data, and calculates the count ratio. The normal air count ratio is sensitive to rollunder but not rollover. The True Air Ratio is sensitive to rollover but not rollunder. The combination of the two should detect any problems with the AGS system.

Air Ratio Fluctuations If the Air Ratio printed on the Quality Assurance Test printout changes by 0.02 or more, it is a sign that the scanner requires service. The ratio of High to Low Channel Air Counts is perhaps the most important parameter, because the bone density measurement is based on the changes in the ratio of High to Low Channel counts. The Air Ratio should remain constant as long as the x-ray beam quality and the resolution of the detector remain constant. Figure 1 shows the effect of changing detector resolution on the Air Ratio of the scanner. The last points on this graph indicate the Air Ratio of the scanner after replacement of the Scintillation Detector.

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

LUNAR ® DPX-IQ Service Manual Rev. E (3/98) Unfortunately, Air Ratio changes are usually not noticed
LUNAR ® DPX-IQ Service Manual Rev. E (3/98) Unfortunately, Air Ratio changes are usually not noticed
LUNAR ® DPX-IQ Service Manual Rev. E (3/98) Unfortunately, Air Ratio changes are usually not noticed
LUNAR ® DPX-IQ Service Manual Rev. E (3/98) Unfortunately, Air Ratio changes are usually not noticed

Unfortunately, Air Ratio changes are usually not noticed until the test results fail, and sometimes the customer will not even notice the problem until they are warned that no valid Quality Assurance Test has been run within the last 48 hours. Therefore, it is important that the Quality Assurance trends be inspected during each service visit (see section 8.15).

It is not possible to view the Air Ratio trends in the Quality Assurance History file, but it is possible to view the Low Channel Air Counts. A change in the Low Channel Air Counts will usually be accompanied by a change in Air Ratio (see "Decreasing Air Counts" in section 8.5). If the graph of the Low Channel Air Counts shows a trend, view the Quality Assurance History, and calculate the initial and final Air Ratio by dividing HIGH by LOW. Compare these two values to determine if the Air Ratio has changed 0.02 or more.

LOW. Compare these two values to determine if the Air Ratio has changed 0.02 or more.

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

The problems which could cause a change in air ratio are:

deterioration of the resolution of the Scintillation Detector (PMT)

current leakage through the transorbs on the XORB board

a faulty High Voltage Power Supply (kV unstable over time)

changes to the x-ray tube insert

These are very difficult to diagnose by a method other than substitution of new components until the Air Ratio returns to normal. The Scintillation Detector deterioration or unstable High Voltage Power Supply, will usually cause the Air Matrix Scan (see section 5.1) to fail. The specification for XORB Board transorbs is that they must allow less than 0.5 micro amperes reverse bias current. At LUNAR, each transorb is measured by applying a 5 Volt reverse bias to the transorb and a 100 kW 1% resistor connected in series. The voltage measured across the 100 kW resistor must then be less than 50 mV.

across the 100 k W resistor must then be less than 50 mV. Homing Problem The

Homing Problem The scanner may not be finding the correct "Home" position. The correct "Home" position aligns the center of the x-ray beam with the center of the Brass Piece when the Standard is correctly positioned. The Air Counts must be obtained through the plastic part of the Standard next to the Brass Piece. If the Air Counts are obtained with the x-ray beam passing through the Brass Piece or missing the standard entirely, the Quality Assurance Scan will fail. For additional information on these symptoms, see "Standard Positioning Problems", section 8.3.

Transverse or Longitudinal Mechanics Failure of this test is caused by one or more of the following:

Incorrect Limit Switch positioning

Defective Limit Switch

A mechanical constraint

A defective Motor

A defective Centent Motor Controller

The values recorded for these tests should remain fairly constant over time. Variations between QA's of under 25 steps should not be a cause for concern as 1 transverse step = 0.05 mm and 1 longitudinal step = 0.1 mm, so the actual variation is only a few millimeters.

If the number of steps continually increases from QA to QA, this could indicate an impediment to the scanner's motion and should be rectified.

Tissue Value The tissue value should not be the sole failing parameter. The failure of this test is usually accompanied by problems with Bone Mineral values (see below) or Air Ratio trends (see above). If this is failing alone it is probably a problem with the counting system (Detector, AGS or DCA's).

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

Bone Mineral of the Standard Chambers There are two messages which can be displayed below the table at the bottom of the Quality Assurance Results printout. The software contains values which it expects the scanner to measure for the scan of each chamber. If the mean of the BM measurements made for the chamber does not fall within the predefined software limits the message "Mean standard value deviates from expected" will occur. If the percent coefficient of variance is over 2%, the message "Variability in standard results is high" will appear. These messages will always occur if the Air Counts or Air Ratio test has deviated severely from normal results. However if the Air Count results look normal, and the values are approximately equal to the numbers obtained during the scanner installation, then the counts may be unstable.

Another cause of failing %CV can be arcing during the QA. This can be detected
Another cause of failing %CV can be arcing during the QA. This can be detected by examining
the QA History graphically and looking for variation of the Large BM values (see Figures 1 and 2
below). Note the few data points that vary. These are the early signs of arcing.

This will also be apparent (but not obvious) on the QA Results printout. The arc occurred in the third standard scan line and elevated the BM values. If a customer reports a failing QA because of a %CV being too high, be aware that this could be an early warning of arcing. Obtain from the site the DPXS.DBF file for analysis. Look for variation of the Large BM values. Arcs of greater magnitude can also affect more than one line of the standard scan.

It is very important to notice these early warning signs of arcing so that the system can be re- greased before any damage is done to the high voltage cable connectors or the tube head.

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

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Limits Test Lower Limit Upper Limit Peak Setting -50 from last QA +50 from last
Limits
Test
Lower Limit
Upper Limit
Peak Setting
-50 from last QA
+50 from last QA
Background (Low keV)
0
50
(High keV)
0
50
Beam Stop Action
-
-
Percent Spillover
6.3
10.0 (9.0 to 10.0 is sub-
standard)
Chi Square
0
40
Air Counts (Low keV)
450,000 cps
900,000 cps
(High keV)
270,000 cps
630,000 cps
Air Ratio
.50
.70
Transverse Mechanics
12350
(DPX-IQ240)
12550
(DPX-IQ240)
10700
(DPX-IQ180)
10900
(DPX-IQ180)
Longitudinal Mechanics
19700
(DPX-IQ240)
19800
(DPX-IQ240)
13250
(DPX-IQ180)
13350
(DPX-IQ180)
Tissue Value
1.302
1.320
Collimation Ratio
3.5
4.5
%CV
0.00
2.00

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

Symptoms of High and Low KV It has been noted in a small number of cases that defective high voltage power supplies, or an arcing tube head may produce a voltage other than 76 kV. This is possible because once ramping is complete, the SBC does not adjust the kV any further.

In the first example of low kV (see Figure 4), defective power supplies are most likely responsible.

QUALITY ASSURANCE RESULTS

X-Ray Voltage (kVp) 76.0 X-Ray Current (mA) 150.0 Date 02/05/96 System 0 DETECTOR AMPLIFIER COUNTS
X-Ray Voltage (kVp) 76.0
X-Ray Current (mA) 150.0
Date
02/05/96
System
0
DETECTOR
AMPLIFIER
COUNTS
COUNTS
C
SETTING
LOW keV
HIGH keV
O
U
250
29555
390
N
300
39718
554
T
350
40026
1312
S
400
36234
6506
450
48899
22634
500
67661
38630
550
68608
41050
600
49011
34429
650
26595
42352
700
11142
60496
750
4269
70912
AMPLIFIER SETTING
PROCEDURE
VALUE
EVALUATION
Lights
Peak Setting
Background (Low keV)
(High keV)
Beam Stop Action
Percent Spillover
Chi Square
Air Counts (Low keV)
(High keV)
-
Pass
535 units
Pass
1 cps
Pass
0 cps
Pass
-
Pass
8.56%
Pass
4
Pass
732592 cps
Pass
279669 cps
Pass
Air Ratio
Transverse Mechanics
Longitudinal Mechanics
Tissue Value
Collimation Ratio
0.38
Fail
12399/12401 steps
19755 /19754 steps
Pass
Pass
1.305
Pass
3.784
Pass
1
2
3
4
5
MEAN
SD
%CV
LARGE BM
260.9
264.0
262.4
259.5 260.1
261.4
1.64
0.63
WIDTH
503
507
507
498
503
504
3.32
0.66
MEDIUM BM
192.7
194.6
193.7
194.6 194.3
194.0
0.73
0.37
WIDTH
437
437
436
433
434
435
1.62
0.37
SMALL BM
137.7
138.5
139.6
137.5 138.6
138.4
0.73
0.53
WIDTH
370
370
374
369
369
370
1.85
0.50

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

In the case of high voltage (Figure 5), an arcing tube head is the most likely cause although defective power supplies could cause this as well.

QUALITY ASSURANCE RESULTS

X-Ray Voltage (kVp) 76.0 X-Ray Current (mA) 150.0

Date

02/05/96

System

0

DETECTOR AMPLIFIER COUNTS COUNTS SETTING LOW keV HIGH keV 250 87594 1747 300 97331 2522
DETECTOR
AMPLIFIER
COUNTS
COUNTS
SETTING
LOW keV
HIGH keV
250
87594
1747
300
97331
2522
350
78506
9101
400
54877
34186
450
59094
75590
500
76557
96291
550
78016
80230
600
55782
53878
650
31110
53238
700
13338
72266
750
4963
80477
AMPLIFIER SETTING
PROCEDURE
VALUE
EVALUATION
-
Pass
500 units
Pass
2 cps
Pass
1 cps
Pass
-
Pass
7.12%
Pass
2
Pass
816197 cps
Pass
692936 cps
Fail
0.85
Fail
12398/12400 steps
19752 /19754 steps
Pass
Pass
1.309
Pass
3.806
Pass

1

2

3

4

5

MEAN

SD

%CV

C

O

U

N

T

S

Lights Peak Setting Background (Low keV) (High keV) Beam Stop Action Percent Spillover Chi Square Air Counts (Low keV) (High keV)

Air Ratio Transverse Mechanics Longitudinal Mechanics Tissue Value Collimation Ratio

LARGE BM

261.0

261.6

261.9

263.6 262.5

262.1

0.87

0.33

WIDTH

493

495

495

495

494

494

0.80

0.16

MEDIUM BM

196.1

195.4

196.9

195.0 195.2

195.7

0.71

0.36

WIDTH

425

423

427

425

424

425

1.33

0.31

SMALL BM

140.7

139.4

139.5

140.0 139.3

139.8

0.53

0.38

WIDTH

362

358

359

360

358

359

1.50

0.42

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

NOTE:

It would be prudent in both of these cases to take a positive and negative power supply, AND a tube head. Also, the XORB test points may look normal (indicating 76 KV) in each case as well. This usually occurs where the power supplies are defective and so the monitor voltages returned to the XORB may not show the true voltage. When the tube head arcs causing the voltage to go too high, then the XORB test points may indeed show the actual voltages.

The clearest indicators of these problems are the shape of the Peak, the Air Counts, and Air Ratio. Note how these differ from cases where the standard block is positioned incorrectly (see section 8.3).

standard block is positioned incorrectly (see section 8.3). Figure 4 was run at 72 kV; Figure

Figure 4 was run at 72 kV; Figure 5 was run at 80 kV.

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DPX-IQ Service Manual

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LUNAR ®

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8.3 Standard Positioning Problems

Problems with failing Daily Quality Assurance (QA) Tests can sometimes be associated with improper placement of the standard block. The following QA results printouts illustrate various positions of the standard:

Example 1 Figure 1is a normal passing QA with the standard block properly placed.

QUALITY ASSURANCE RESULTS

Date 02/05/96 System 0 DETECTOR AMPLIFIER COUNTS COUNTS SETTING LOW keV HIGH keV 250 57094
Date
02/05/96
System
0
DETECTOR
AMPLIFIER
COUNTS
COUNTS
SETTING
LOW keV
HIGH keV
250
57094
819
300
66867
1197
350
55651
4448
400
44925
21091
450
55571
47504
500
74150
65117
550
72234
57322
600
49440
43568
650
24787
50211
700
10848
68470
750
4096
75642
AMPLIFIER SETTING
PROCEDURE
VALUE
EVALUATION
-
Pass
510 units
Pass
1 cps
Pass
1 cps
Pass
-
Pass
7.59%
Pass
6
Pass

789683 cps

Pass

457478 cps

Pass

0.58

Pass

12398/12400 steps 19755 /19755 steps

 

Pass

Pass

1.309

Pass

3.799

Pass

3

4

5

MEAN

SD

%CV

265.4

264.4 264.7

264.9

0.35

0.13

505

500

502

502

2.06

0.41

196.8

195.8 197.0

197.3

1.13

0.57

428

428

428

429

1.60

0.37

140.0

141.3 142.0

141.3

0.98

0.70

361

364

364

363

1.26

0.35

X-Ray Voltage (kVp) 76.0 X-Ray Current (mA) 150.0

C

O

U

N

T

S

Lights Peak Setting Background (Low keV) (High keV) Beam Stop Action Percent Spillover Chi Square Air Counts (Low keV) (High keV)

Air Ratio Transverse Mechanics Longitudinal Mechanics Tissue Value Collimation Ratio

 

1

2

LARGE BM

264.6

265.2

WIDTH

499

502

MEDIUM BM

199.3

197.5

WIDTH

432

430

SMALL BM

142.7

140.4

WIDTH

364

362

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

Example 2 Figure 2 is a QA in which the standard was not on the table. Note the errant Spillover value and Air Counts (the Low KeV counts indicates the counters rolled over). In this case Spillover will usually be approximately 110%. However, this is unpredictable as individual AGS boards try to handle the superimposed signals from the unattenuated x-ray beam.

QUALITY ASSURANCE RESULTS

X-Ray Voltage (kVp) 76.0 X-Ray Current (mA) 150.0

Date

02/05/96

System

0

DETECTOR AMPLIFIER COUNTS COUNTS SETTING LOW keV HIGH keV 250 283312 46448 300 293533 62419
DETECTOR
AMPLIFIER
COUNTS
COUNTS
SETTING
LOW keV
HIGH keV
250
283312
46448
300
293533
62419
350
261792
107250
400
281987
190755
450
352064
273731
500
374781
287616
550
311120
259901
600
204298
276326
650
116512
344339
700
64794
380410
750
40192
337149
AMPLIFIER SETTING
PROCEDURE
VALUE
EVALUATION
-
Pass
495 units
Pass
2 cps
Pass
0 cps
Pass
-
Pass
129.64%
Fail
6
Pass
14087 cps
Fail
3593432 cps
Fail
255.10
Fail
12398/12401 steps
19755 /19755 steps
Pass
Pass
3.350
Fail
2.119
Fail

C

O

U

N

T

S

Lights Peak Setting Background (Low keV) (High keV) Beam Stop Action Percent Spillover Chi Square Air Counts (Low keV) (High keV)

Air Ratio Transverse Mechanics Longitudinal Mechanics Tissue Value Collimation Ratio

 

1

2

3

4

5

MEAN

SD

%CV

LARGE BM

61.7

44.6

90.0

35.6

70.4

60.5 1 19.21

31.77

2

WIDTH

53

61

85

62

70

66 10.83 16.36

MEDIUM BM

6.5

49.2

35.1

38.7

27.5

31.4 1 14.26

45.44

2

WIDTH

42

71

47

42

65

53 12.21 22.86

SMALL BM

47.7

1.3

38.2

78.5

33.3

39.8 1 24.84

62.38

2

WIDTH

42

42

58

112

43

59 26.99 45.44

1 - Mean standard value deviates from expected.

2 - Variability in standard results is high.

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

Example 3 Figure 3 is a QA run with the standard upside down and backwards. Spillover was measured through the white delrin plastic plug and Tissue Value was measured through the brass Spillover piece.

QUALITY ASSURANCE RESULTS

X-Ray Voltage (kVp) 76.0 X-Ray Current (mA) 150.0

Date

02/05/96

System

0

DETECTOR AMPLIFIER COUNTS COUNTS SETTING LOW keV HIGH keV 250 58074 925 300 66726 1315
DETECTOR
AMPLIFIER
COUNTS
COUNTS
SETTING
LOW keV
HIGH keV
250
58074
925
300
66726
1315
350
55702
4397
400
45568
21466
450
56755
50368
500
73466
65661
550
71539
57549
600
48643
42989
650
24173
50483
700
9754
68138
750
3837
74771
AMPLIFIER SETTING
PROCEDURE
VALUE
EVALUATION
-
Pass
515 units
Pass
0 cps
Pass
0 cps
Pass
-
Pass
95.40%
Fail
5
Pass
143640 cps
Fail
455003 cps
Pass
3.17
Fail
12398/12401 steps
19755 /19754 steps
Pass
Pass
1.599
Fail
2.389
Fail

C

O

U

N

T

S

Lights Peak Setting Background (Low keV) (High keV) Beam Stop Action Percent Spillover Chi Square Air Counts (Low keV) (High keV)

Air Ratio Transverse Mechanics Longitudinal Mechanics Tissue Value Collimation Ratio

 

1

2

3

4

5

MEAN

SD

%CV

LARGE BM

1974.4

1986.7 1968.4 1966.0 1983.2

1975.8 1

8.10

0.41

WIDTH

385

390

379

383

382

384

3.66

0.95

MEDIUM BM

2357.7

2362.0 2359.0 2343.3 2340.1 2352.4 1

8.90

0.38

WIDTH

450

447

451

449

454

450

2.32

0.51

SMALL BM

2746.2

2755.5 2729.8 2741.3 2728.9 2742.3 1

8.44

0.31

WIDTH

526

523

518

520

519

521

2.93

0.56

1 - Mean standard value deviates from expected.

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DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

Example 4 Misplacing the standard by approximately 1" toward the foot end will give results as in figure 4. Spillover is measured through the air and the Air Counts and Peak are measured through the brass.

QUALITY ASSURANCE RESULTS

X-Ray Voltage (kVp) 76.0 X-Ray Current (mA) 150.0

Date

02/05/96

System

0

DETECTOR AMPLIFIER COUNTS COUNTS C SETTING LOW keV HIGH keV O U N 250 2224
DETECTOR
AMPLIFIER
COUNTS
COUNTS
C
SETTING
LOW keV
HIGH keV
O
U
N
250
2224
3
300
2390
10
T
350
1523
144
S
400
486
909
450
150
1824
500
173
2285
550
154
1996
600
80
678
650
70
240
700
26
176
750
3
154
AMPLIFIER SETTING
PROCEDURE
VALUE
EVALUATION
Lights
Peak Setting
Background (Low keV)
(High keV)
Beam Stop Action
Percent Spillover
Chi Square
Air Counts (Low keV)
(High keV)
-
Pass
510 units
Pass
1 cps
Pass
1 cps
Pass
-
Pass
129.84%
Fail
3
Pass
318 cps
Fail
14625 cps
Fail
Air Ratio
Transverse Mechanics
Longitudinal Mechanics
Tissue Value
Collimation Ratio
45.93
Fail
12399/12401 steps
19754 /19754 steps
Pass
Pass
-0.623
Fail
2.123
Fail
 

1

2

3

4

5

LARGE BM

0.2

0.1

-0.4

1.6

4.1

WIDTH

1

1

1

1

1

MEDIUM BM

0.2

0.1

-0.4

1.6

4.1

WIDTH

1

1

1

1

1

SMALL BM

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

WIDTH

-48

-40

-22

-13

-13

MEAN

SD

1.1

1.61

1.1

0.00

-27 14.33

0.0

1.61

0.00

0.00

1

1

1

1

1

%CV

142.44 2

0.00

142.44 2

0.00

0.00

0.00

1 - Mean standard value deviates from expected.

2 - Variability in standard results is high.

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Rev. E (3/98)

Example 5 The QA in figure 5 is what would happen in the rare instance that someone would inadvertently remove the standard during the QA (after the Peak) and then replace it having realized the QA was in progress (after the Tissue Value Test). Although the five lines are scanned across the block as normal, the errant Air Counts will cause the BM values and widths to deviate from expected.

QUALITY ASSURANCE RESULTS

X-Ray Voltage (kVp) 76.0 X-Ray Current (mA) 150.0

Date

02/05/96

System

0

DETECTOR AMPLIFIER COUNTS COUNTS SETTING LOW keV HIGH keV 250 57565 768 300 66736 1245
DETECTOR
AMPLIFIER
COUNTS
COUNTS
SETTING
LOW keV
HIGH keV
250
57565
768
300
66736
1245
350
56262
4445
400
44794
21453
450
56982
49398
500
75050
66630
550
73011
57766
600
49197
43491
650
25197
50310
700
10186
69146
750
3846
75318
AMPLIFIER SETTING
PROCEDURE
VALUE
EVALUATION
-
Pass
515 units
Pass
1 cps
Pass
1 cps
Pass
-
Pass
129.66%
Fail
1
Pass
318 cps
Fail
3605174 cps
Fail
11322.78
Fail
12398/12401 steps
19756 /19754 steps
Pass
Pass
1.264
Fail

2.127

MEAN

0.2

1

0.2

0.2

1

Fail

SD

0.2

0.00

0.2

1

0.00

0.2

0.00

1

1

1

%CV

10.91

0.00

10.91

0.00

10.91

0.00

2

2

2

C

O

U

N

T

S

Lights Peak Setting Background (Low keV) (High keV) Beam Stop Action Percent Spillover Chi Square Air Counts (Low keV) (High keV)

Air Ratio Transverse Mechanics Longitudinal Mechanics Tissue Value Collimation Ratio

 

1

2

3

4

5

LARGE BM

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

WIDTH

1

1

1

1

1

MEDIUM BM

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

WIDTH

1

1

1

1

1

SMALL BM

0.2

0.3

0.2

0.2

0.2

WIDTH

1

1

1

1

1

1 - Mean standard value deviates from expected.

2 - Variability in standard results is high.

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Rev. E (3/98)

Example 6 Placing the standard backwards with the brass piece toward the rear and the delrin plug forward, yet both toward the foot end, will result in Spillover and Tissue Value being taken through the black plastic of the block and Air Counts and Peak are taken through the delrin plug (see figure 6).

QUALITY ASSURANCE RESULTS

X-Ray Voltage (kVp) 76.0 X-Ray Current (mA) 150.0

Date

02/05/96

System

0

DETECTOR AMPLIFIER COUNTS COUNTS SETTING LOW keV HIGH keV 250 40941 480 300 47661 579
DETECTOR
AMPLIFIER
COUNTS
COUNTS
SETTING
LOW keV
HIGH keV
250
40941
480
300
47661
579
350
40710
2317
400
30253
13773
450
34890
34957
500
44995
47395
550
43933
40989
600
29830
29962
650
14794
31216
700
5702
41411
750
2272
45334
AMPLIFIER SETTING
PROCEDURE
VALUE
EVALUATION
-
Pass
515 units
Pass
1 cps
Pass
0 cps
Pass
-
Pass
115.22%
Fail
2
Pass
318 cps
Fail
316090 cps
Pass
992.74
Fail
12398/12400 steps
19753 /19754 steps
Pass
Pass
0.203
Fail
5.601
Fail

C

O

U

N

T

S

Lights Peak Setting Background (Low keV) (High keV) Beam Stop Action Percent Spillover Chi Square Air Counts (Low keV) (High keV)

Air Ratio Transverse Mechanics Longitudinal Mechanics Tissue Value Collimation Ratio

 

1

2

3

4

5

MEAN

SD

%CV

LARGE BM

5.0

592.9

621.3

-5.8 645.3

371.7

1 304.35 81.87 2 201.56 70.43

WIDTH

42

400

493

42

454

286

MEDIUM BM

12.0

717.8

657.3

687.4 728.3

560.5

1 275.41 49.13 2

WIDTH

42

501

485

502

533

413 185.95 45.07

SMALL BM

-0.2

898.3

109.3

95.0

55.2

231.5

1 335.55 144.94 2 218.25 126.01

WIDTH

42

608

94

76

46

173

1 - Mean standard value deviates from expected.

2 - Variability in standard results is high.

If a customer reports a QA failure on a scanner that seemed to be operating fine and showed no signs of mechanical problems while running the QA, the QA results should be examined for characteristics like the above examples. Ask the customer to check the position of the standard if it is still on the table, or have them rerun the QA making sure the block is placed correctly.

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8.4 Electrical Noise

If the Low Air Count numbers have suddenly increased or decreased by over 100,000 counts,

this may be the result of noise on the AMP-04 signal when it reaches the DCA. If the noise has been amplified to the 1.25V needed to be counted as a Low Channel signal, each noise spike will be counted in addition to the normal Low Air Counts. The possibility of noise problems in the scanner has been virtually eliminated by placing the AMP-03 very close to the Scintillation Detector. However, these symptoms could result from a broken or partially connected coaxial cable in any one of the coaxial cables between the Scintillation Detector and the AGS.

Check the signal at TP4 of the AGS board with an oscilloscope. Look for noise on the wave form. This test-point is the input for the AGS, so noise here means a problem somewhere towards the PMT. Also, check TP19 on the AGS with an oscilloscope. This is the output of the AGS and would be a good indication of the AGS board's condition. If a storage oscilloscope is

a If
a
If

used to look at these wave forms, they will look similar to the channel 1 signal (see Figure 1). If

normal oscilloscope is used, the signal will appear as a superimposed multitude of bipolar signals with different amplitudes.

the TP19 wave form looks abnormal, replace either the AGS or the AGSDCA printed circuit

board assemblies. If the spare part is not immediately available, then disconnect J8 on the AGS and run a calibration. This will run the signal through the AGS at unity gain. If normal results reappear after this modification, the cause of the problem is confined to a defective AGS or AGSDCA board.

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Rev. E (3/98)

8.5 Air Counts

8.5.1 Unstable Counts

To examine the scanner's ability to count detector pulses consistently over longer periods of time, run the Air Matrix option from the DIAGS program. If time permits, use the default parameters and begin the scan. A smaller scan area can be done by selecting fewer Scan Lines and Scan Points. (See "Performing an Air Matrix Test" in section 5.1 and "Failing Air Matrix Results" in section 8.10.)

If the "End of Exposure Alarm" rings during the time the Air Matrix scan is running, see "Alarm Pings During Scan" in section 8.11. If the Shutter Open or the X-ray On lamps on the front panel blink, during the test, see section 8.11 also.

-
-

While the Air Matrix scan is running, measure the voltage at test points 1, 2, 5 and 6 of the

XORB board. They should have approximately the following values respectively:

0.150VDC, 3.8VDC, 0.150VDC, and 3.8VDC. A pure DC voltage on an oscilloscope at test point 1 and 5 of the XORB will verify that there is constant current through the filament of the X- ray Insert. If there is AC ripple in excess of 0.2 Vpp, the power supplies should be replaced.

Start and stop the x-rays several times while observing the voltage at TP3 and TP7 of the XORB board. This is the programming voltage from the SBC, and although this voltage is dependent on the feedback information returned to the SBC, the voltages at the XORB board test points should be approximately the same each time the x-rays are produced. The AC ripple on this signal must be less than 0.2 Vpp. Replace the SBC board if the proper control signal is not present.

When the x-rays are off between scans, verify that the shutter and collimator slide apertures line up with the aperture to the Tube Head beneath. Take some alignment pictures and verify that the image is a bright, round image. If the image is slightly elliptical, the collimator, shutter and Tube Head apertures are not aligned. Open and close the shutter and collimator to make sure that they return to the same position each time. Turn the x-rays back on, and make sure that you obtain nearly the same count rate each time the shutter is opened or the collimator is cycled. Either the shutter or the collimator slide may be adjusted by loosening the set screw on the solenoid mounting bracket and rotating the solenoid. Tighten the set screw after adjustment.

8.5.2 No Counts

When the table to the right of the peak graph on the Quality Assurance Results printout is entirely filled with zeros, use the Static Counter program in the Diagnostics (see section 5.1) to create x-rays at 76 kV and 150 uA and open the Shutter for sampling. Then check the following items :

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I. Is the amber X-ray On LED illuminated?

A. If it is, skip to part II.

B. If not, the voltage or current ramping has probably failed. Are both the red and green LED's on the MAX Board illuminated?

1. Voltage or Current Ramping Failures If not, is the red LED illuminated?

a.

X-ray Relay or OINK If not, measure the output of the 28 Volt Power Supply. Check the operation of the X-ray Relay or the OINK Board which controls its operation. If all of the above are working, the red LED may be defective.

b. 2. a. b.
b.
2.
a.
b.

MAX Board Fuse If so, the fuse is blown on the MAX Board (see section 8.9).

If the red and green MAX Board LED's are illuminated, verify the following test point voltages:

Current Ramping Failure XORB TP1 is approximately 0.150 VDC. If incorrect, go to step d. If this test point is correct, verify that XORB TP5 is also approximately 0.150 VDC. If this voltage is incorrect, substitute a new Positive High Voltage Power Supply.

Voltage Ramping Failure XORB TP2 and XORB TP6 are approximately 3.8 VDC. If these voltages are incorrect, verify that the voltages on XORB TP3 and XORB TP7 are approximately 3.8 VDC. If TP3 and TP7 are not equal the XORB jumper at J26 is set in the wrong position. If they are equal but incorrect, test the cable from the SBC to XORB, or substitute a new SBC Board.

c. X-ray On LED Test the X-Ray On LED by inserting it into the Power On receptacle. Replace if defective.

d. High Voltage System Current ramping has failed. If TP1 and TP5 are zero and do not change, check the polarity of the High Voltage Cables. The X-ray Insert is essentially a diode, and will not conduct current from the anode to the cathode.

If either of the test points is at 1.0 VDC, the High Voltage Power Supply is delivering as much current as it possibly can, and has automatically limited the voltage.

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Check TP2 and TP6. If the voltage is approximately 3.8 VDC, the voltage has been set properly.

Feel the heat sinks on the back of the High Voltage Power Supplies. If one of the power supplies is cold, this is usually the defective one. If one is warm and the other is hot, replace the hot one. The best troubleshooting technique may be to substitute power supplies.

If either TP2 or TP6 are incorrect, the possibility exists that one of the High Voltage Cables or the Tube Head is shorted. The short may be possible to find with an ohm meter, but often it takes several kV to break down the defective component. It will be difficult to troubleshoot this problem by any method other than part substitution.

CAUTION:
CAUTION:
problem by any method other than part substitution. CAUTION: Do not attempt to ramp the power

Do not attempt to ramp the power supply above 50 kv without a cable connected, or arcing will occur near the connector.

Ramping between 40 and 50 kV is a good way to determine whether the power supplies are able to increase voltage from 0 to 50 kV.

II.

Detection Electronics Problem Are the yellow and green LED's on the AGS Board illuminated?

A.

Defective DCA or SBC If so, check the signals at DCA-TP3 (see channel 1, figure 1) and at DCA-TP17 (see channel 2, figure 2). If neither signal is present, check the cable from the AGS to the DCA. If the signal at TP3 is present but no signal is present at TP17, replace the DCA. If both signals are correct, replace the SBC or the cable connecting the DCA and SBC.

replace the DCA. If both signals are correct, replace the SBC or the cable connecting the

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Rev. E (3/98)

B. No AGS Yellow or Green LED's If the AGS green and yellow LED's are out, turn off the scanner, and remove the arm panel and the AMP enclosure. Set a voltmeter on the highest scale (at least 1000 VDC) and clip the positive lead onto AMP-TP1. (It is recommended that a voltmeter with clip on probes be used. If this test point is shorted to ground during the measurement, AMP-U1 will be destroyed.)

CAUTION: Never disconnect any connectors from the AMP board when the power is on, or
CAUTION:
Never disconnect any connectors from the AMP board when the
power is on, or AMP-U1 will be destroyed.
1.
Defective AMP Board
If TP1 on the AMP board is between +600 to +900 VDC when the
scanner is turned on, then turn the power off, and remove the voltmeter
probes. Power up the scanner and begin sampling with the Diagnostic
program. Check the signal at AMP-TP6. This signal should be similar to
the Channel 1 signal in figure 2. If there is no signal, substitute the AMP
Board, detector, or the connecting cable. Usually a defective AMP Board
has a defective U1, and when these fail, they are usually hot enough to
blister a finger.
WARNING:
Do not touch U1 on a defective AMP board to avoid blistering.

If there is a signal, check the continuity of the coaxial cable with the yellow strain reliefs. Remember that this cable passes through a connector at the Arm Bulkhead, and a poor connection there could be the cause of the problem.

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2.

No PMT High Voltage If TP1 is not in the +600 to +900 Volt range, check SBC-TP18 which is a monitor output from the Bertan PMT-10A reading 1 mV for each Volt of output. If it looks like the power supply output is correct, check the coaxial cable with the orange strain relief for continuity. Remember that this cable passes through a connector at the Arm Bulkhead and may have a loose connection at this point. If SBC-TP18 is not in the range of 0.600 - 0.900 Volt, check TP20 on the SBC. If TP20 is not between 5 and 8 VDC, substitute the SBC. If Tp20 is between 5 and 8 VDC, substitute the Bertan PMT-10A power supply and the connecting cable until the defective part is discovered.

the connecting cable until the defective part is discovered. 8.5.3 Decreasing Air Counts A long term,

8.5.3

Decreasing Air Counts

A long term, continuous decrease in the Air Counts unaccompanied by a change in Air Ratio is

a serious problem. A count rate of at least 500,000 Low Channel Air Counts is necessary to

maintain precision of results when scanning thick patients. Air Count values should change by less than 10% from the day of installation. The possible causes are:

I. Collimator/Shutter/Tube Head Alignment The Collimator and the Shutter, or the shutter aperture and the Tube Head opening may be changing their positions relative to one another. The result would be a smaller beam over time, and therefore, lower counts. Check this alignment as follows :

Mark the position of the large and small collimator apertures on the slide channel edge. Then lift the Collimator, taking care not to damage the limit switch, and mark the open and close position of the shutter aperture center. Lift the shutter slide, taking care not to damage the limit switch, and visually determine if the apertures above match up with the bottom aperture.

Take another picture with the alignment film holder. The x-ray image should be round. If the image is even slightly elliptical, the apertures are not aligned.

Remove the Collimator assembly from the Tube Head, and hold it up to a light. Look through the aperture with the Shutter open and closed and the Collimator in each position.

II. Lead Filings - Shutter/Collimator Wear A rough edge around the shutter aperture may be wearing away the lead on the collimator slide above. The lead filings fall through the shutter aperture and gather on the filter below, causing a reduction in x-rays over time. The collimator and shutter slides may be rotated back (taking care not to damage the limit switches) in order to perform an inspection. Any wear should be easily visible on the underside of the collimator slide. If there is visible wear, the lead dust must be removed from the top of the filter. The Collimator assembly must be removed, the filter cleaned, and then the Collimator assembly reinstalled and realigned.

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III. A Change in Current Control Settings Use the Static Counter option of the Diagnostic Program to produce x-rays. Select 76 kV and 750 µA operation. Do not open the Shutter.

Verify that the SBC is properly controlling the current. TP11 of the MAX board should be approximately 0.75 volts. This voltage is dependent on feedback information from the power supplies, which makes it difficult to troubleshoot by any means other than SBC substitution.

Check the current through the X-ray Insert. The absolute value of the voltage at test points 1 and 5 on the XORB board is proportional to the current through the X-ray Insert. 1 millivolt is equal to 1 micro-ampere of current. A current setting of 750 µA should give a reading of 0.750 VDC at test points 1 and 5. If either of these voltages vary from the expected by more than 10 millivolts, the MAX board could be at fault. If TP1 and TP5 are more than 15 millivolts apart, substitute new high voltage power supplies.

at fault. If TP1 and TP5 are more than 15 millivolts apart, substitute new high voltage

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8.6

Arcing

The X-ray Tube Head Insert is an evacuated glass enclosure. An AC current is applied to the filament inside the insert. It glows like the filament in a light bulb, and electrons are boiled off into the evacuated space. A high voltage is applied between the anode and the cathode causing electrons to rush toward the anode, striking it and creating x-rays. As long as the insert is properly evacuated, there can be no internal arc. However, no insert can be totally evacuated and impurities can be ionized creating a lightning like effect; arcing. During the arc the resistance of the insert is dramatically decreased and a large amount of current flows.

The significant amounts of electromagnetic energy released inside the scanner can cause problems with the electronics of the scanner system and may result in abnormal operations of the scanner. An arcing scanner will have one or more of the following symptoms :

scanner will have one or more of the following symptoms : complete lock up of the

complete lock up of the system requiring rebooting the computer,

a diagnostic error code message which is undefined or inappropriate,

receiving a screen that says an error has occurred refer to appendix I in the manual,

a stripe or artifact in the image of the patient's scan, or

15-4 Transverse Motion Failure message.

To specifically locate the source of an arc, it is necessary to find out which high voltage power supply provides the excessive current. This may be done by recording the power supply current monitors at TP1 and TP5 of the XORB board with a storage oscilloscope. An arc typically draws 1.5 mA from the power supply for about 1 ms. The trigger voltage should therefore be set at 1.5V for TP1 and for TP5.

Arcing can also occur inside the high voltage connectors. This will usually result in a plainly visible black or brown carbon track through the grease on the connector. In any case, once the high voltage connectors have been removed from the Tube Head and the power supplies, they should not be re-connected without first being cleaned and regreased (see procedure DXSV0002 in chapter 6 appendix).

After cleaning the old grease off of the connectors, they should be carefully inspected for carbon tracks. Look for these tracks on both the rubber cable connectors and on the phenolic sockets of the Tube Head. If such tracks are found after cleaning, the following are the options for returning the scanner to service:

If carbon tracks are found on the rubber cable connectors, they can be removed by excising the damaged section with a sharp blade. Severe tracks can burn quite deep into the rubber, so care must taken to remove all the damaged rubber. After the carbon tracks have been removed, additional grease must be used when repacking the connection to fill in the volume of the removed rubber.

If the above procedure requires too much rubber to be removed, or the carbon track looks very severe, another option is to replace the high voltage cable.

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Arc tracks will be impossible to see on the sockets in the Tube Head. Therefore, if arc tracks are seen on the rubber cable connectors, the sockets should be sanded with emory cloth as a precaution. After sanding the socket, remember to flush the socket with cleaning solution to remove any particles.

If the tracking inside the socket is too severe or the carbon track cannot be removed, another option is to replace the Tube Head.

IT IS VERY IMPORTANT TO REMOVE ANY CARBON TRACKS ON THESE SURFACES! Carbon tracks that are simply covered by grease or not completely removed will still provide a path for arcs to follow.

that are simply covered by grease or not completely removed will still provide a path for

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8.7 Mechanical Failures

8.7.1 Transverse Motion Failure

Turn off the power to the scanner and move the affected parts by hand. Feel the motion for spots where the carriages are more difficult to move. Listen for unusual noises.

High Voltage Cable Routing One of the most common problems is a failure of the Source and Detector to reach the rear Limit Switch due to the Tube Head running into its own high voltage cables. These cables must have a hump formed at the Rear Longitudinal Carriage that allows the lower portion of the Tube Head to pass under the cables.

the lower portion of the Tube Head to pass under the cables. The High Voltage Cables

The High Voltage Cables can also impede transverse motion toward the front Limit Switch. This is caused when the cables have been tied down without enough play for the Tube Head and Detector to move all the way forward. These problems should be investigated by manually tripping both Limit Switches while inspecting for cable conflicts, binding, or tension problems.

Gear And Pulley Positioning Check all appropriate gears and pulleys. Verify that the set screws are tightened and the gears and pulleys are not out of position.

Limit Switch Positioning If the transverse motion seems to be acceptable, but the number of steps in the Quality Assurance Test is failing, check the position of the Limit Switches.

On Total Body scans, a limit switch out of position could allow the Source/Detector Carriages to hit the frame or panels before the Limit Switch is actuated.

Wiring In rare instances, the wires from the Shutter Solenoid and/or Fans can snag on the bolts that protrude through the frame on the foot end of the scanner. This is solved by properly tying down these wires.

Transverse Motor Check the Transverse Motor for a broken wire in one of the internal coils, or a bad electrical connection to its Centent Motor Controller.

Transverse Centent The Centent Motor Controller, if defective, will cause transverse motion problems. Sometimes the controller works well enough to acquire some scans, but it will not provide enough torque to complete every fast scan. The CURRENT SET voltage at terminal 11 on a properly operating controller should be 14 to 16 VDC (transverse motor wired in parallel).

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Transverse Belt The Transverse Belt should not be excessively tightened or this will cause excessive binding in the transverse mechanism. It should be possible to deflect the belt by 4 cm when it is properly tightened. Sometimes the spare belt material near the clamp on the Tube Head Carriage comes into contact with the forward gear and prevents the scanner from going all the way to Home position.

Drive Wheels The wheels that support the Tube Head and Detector Carriages must be adjusted so that they come into perfect contact with the Transverse Rails. These wheel are best inspected with the table top, front panel and arm covers off so one can sight down the extrusions. However, it is possible to test the wheels by preventing any wheel from turning and seeing if the carriage will still move. By preventing any wheel from turning, you should be able to tell that it slides along the extrusion while the others roll. This indicates that the wheel has not been excessively tightened down. This is least likely to be the source of transverse motion problems, as it is unlikely that the adjustment of the wheels would have become any tighter over time. They would be more likely to loosen over time and fail alignment tests (see Air Matrix Test, section 5.1). Adjustments can be made by loosening and rotating the eccentric bearings of any of the lower wheels.

rotating the eccentric bearings of any of the lower wheels. 8.7.2 Longitudinal Motion Failures Turn off

8.7.2

Longitudinal Motion Failures

Turn off the power to the scanner and move the affected parts by hand. Feel the motion for spots where the arm is more difficult to move. Listen for unusual noises. NOTE: When moving the arm longitudinally, only push on the arm column. Pushing on the forward parts of the arm can ruin Tube Head/Detector alignment.

Cable Track The major impediment to longitudinal motion is the plastic Cable Track that runs through the trough at the rear of the scanner.

This track is attached at two points: at the Rear Longitudinal Carriage and to the scanner frame (low, rear and center) each spot by 4 bolts. Also, adequate slack must be left in the cables inside the Cable Track or they will stop the arm from moving fully to the foot end.

Should the Cable Track detach from the scanner frame, it will slide freely in the trough and will eventually cause trouble. This can allow the Cable Track to get in between the Rear Longitudinal Carriage and the scanner frame on the foot end preventing the tripping of the limit switch.

Tube Head Cable Routing Problems at the head end of the scanner can be caused by a limit switch being out of position (thus the arm runs into the frame before the Limit Switch) or because the High Voltage Cables are tied down incorrectly where they snake around from the Rear Longitudinal Carriage to the panel under the Tube Head (High Voltage Cable Trough). If the cables are tied down too far toward the head end (at the point where the three tie downs are), they can run into the Longitudinal Motor Assembly and hold the arm away from the head end Limit Switch.

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Slip Clutch

A slip clutch is part of the longitudinal motion system to limit torque. This is a feature to protect

the patient should he/she pinch an arm or leg between the back side of the scanner and the Arm Column. If the Slip Clutch is set too loose, it will fail to move the belt and will just "slip" as the motor turns. This may produce the following symptoms:

failure of Quality Assurance scan Mechanics test

compressed image in limited areas of the image

a Diagnostic Failure #23-3

Gear and Pulley Positioning Check all appropriate gears and pulleys. Verify that the set screws are tightened and the gears and pulleys are not out of position.

and the gears and pulleys are not out of position. Limit Switch Positioning the longitudinal motion

Limit Switch Positioning

the longitudinal motion seems to be acceptable, but the number of steps in the Quality Assurance Test is failing, check the position of the Limit Switches.

If

On Total Body scans, a limit switch out of position could allow the Source/Detector Carriages to hit the frame or panels of the scanner before the Limit Switch.

If

which part of the Arm Assembly is in contact with the Table Assembly. The front part of the Lower Transverse Extrusion is clamped to the Longitudinal Drive Cable at the front of the scanner. If the Lower Transverse Extrusion is not clamped in such a way that it forms a 90 degree angle with the length of the table, the rollers at the front end of the Lower Transverse Extrusion may strike the end of the scan table before the Limit Switch is actuated.

the mechanical stop is reached before the Limit Switch is actuated, check carefully to see

Longitudinal Motor Check the motor for a broken wire in one of the internal coils, or a bad electrical connection to the Centent Motor Controller.

Longitudinal Centent The longitudinal Centent Motor Controller may be the cause of a failure. The current set voltage should be roughly 9-11 volts at terminal 11 on a properly operating controller. If this voltage is not correct, replace the Centent Controller.

Longitudinal Belt The Longitudinal Belt should not be tightened too much or this will cause the brackets holding the gears to deform at either end of the scanner. When the belt is properly tightened, it should be possible to deflect the upper and lower sides of the belt so that they touch within 8 cm of the gears at either end.

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Drive Wheels The rollers in front and the wheels in back that support the Arm must be adjusted so that they come into perfect contact with the Longitudinal Rails. Test them by preventing any wheel from turning and see if the carriage will still move. By preventing any wheel from turning, it should be possible to slide the carriage along the rail with one wheel dragging while the others roll. This indicates that the wheel has not been excessively tightened down. Adjustments can be made by loosening and rotating the eccentric bearings of any of the lower wheels.

8.7.3 Limit Switch Tripped During Scan

a Limit Switch is tripped during an install test, verify the Limit Switches' location with the Tools Diskette. If this problem occurs any time after install, see the problem description below.

If

time after install, see the problem description below. If If tripped during a scan. This will

If

tripped during a scan. This will usually only happen during a total body scan or during an Air Matrix test since both of these scans involve full-width scanning. Once the switch is closed, the motors stop, the End-of-Exposure Alarm sounds, the amber SHUTTER OPEN lamp turns off and after a few seconds a Diagnostic Failure #15-4 appears on the screen.

the transverse mechanics of the scanner become imprecise, it may cause a Limit Switch to be

During full-width scanning, the Detector Carriage comes very close to the Limit Switches, so any imprecision will cause a Limit Switch to be tripped and the scan will be aborted with a Diagnostic Failure message for Transverse Motion Failure.

A

Transverse Motor to the first Reduction Pulley. This loosening causes the belt to "walk" on the pulleys causing enough imprecision in the motion to trip a switch. To tighten the belt, first remove the Pulley Shroud and loosen all four nuts that hold the motor in place. Then, while holding the motor such that the belt is pulled taught, tighten the nuts to secure the motor in place. Replace the shroud and test the scanner (an Air Matrix test works well).

cause of this problem is a loosening of the first drive Reduction Belt which connects the

If

be impossible for the scanner to complete all of the necessary transverse steps away from the operator. Consequently, on each scan line the detector will move closer to the front transverse limit switch, and the switch may be eventually closed. Form the cable bundle exiting from the cable track into an arch such that the Tube Head cables will move under the arch rather than

running into the bundle. This arch must not be too high. If it is, there will not be sufficient slack

in the Tube Head cable bundle to allow the Tube Head to move to the front transverse limit

switch. Also, if the arch is too small, it may cause too much slack when the Tube Head is at the

forward side of the table. This causes the Tube Head cable bundle to rub against the inside of the front panel causing a scraping noise to be heard. If the above does not solve the problem then check the other mechanical components. Electrical components that could cause such a failure are the Centent Motor Controller, the Transverse Motor, the OINK board or the SBC board.

the Tube Head cables come into contact with the cable bundle entering the cable track, it may

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8.8 Imaging Problems

White, Blue, or Grey in the first or second scan line:

The software is not perfect in its ability to determine the correct grey level of the entire scan based on the first line of data. Sometimes the grey levels will be set incorrectly during acquisition. During analysis the grey level is easily adjusted to give a good image, and the results are not affected by this imaging problem. This problem is most often found on very thin patients. Adding extra tissue equivalent material (rice bag or saline solution) to a very thin patient may be all that is necessary to cure the symptom.

patient may be all that is necessary to cure the symptom. Femur Scan Problems Most image

Femur Scan Problems

Most image discontinuity problems occur in femur images performed at 3 mA on thin or

osteoporotic subjects.

These lines usually occur in the trochanter area where the x-ray beam is

least attenuated by tissue.

These lines are caused by Automatic Gain Stabilizer (AGS) trying to adjust the input signal

which is at an excessively high count rate. However, the AGS is not at fault, and the correct action is for the customer to attenuate the x-ray beam. For an x-ray beam generated at 3 mA

the tissue areas need to be the equivalent of 12 cm.

If the patient does not have 12 cm of

tissue, the operator must make up the difference with rice. Lunar normally recommends placing a rice bag (on its side to create 12 cm of rice in the x-ray beam) along the side of the patient's thigh for thin or osteoporotic patients.

AP-Spine Image Problems: Probable causes

the shutter closes (causes blue lines, the shutter open lamp to go out, and the End of Exposure Alarm to sound).

increase or reduction of high voltage to the detector (causes white and blue speckles).

loss of the signal from the detector (this causes white and blue speckles)

loss of current to the x-ray insert filament (causes blue lines, the orange lamp to go out, and the End of Exposure Alarm to sound).

bad x-ray relay contacts (providing power to tube head power supplies)

reduction in AC Line voltage

loss of proper high voltage on the x-ray tube

faulty operation of the AGS system (white lines are short and found only where scan lines move from air into tissue).

arcing (may cause either white or blue points or lines)

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Example of Imaging problems It is possible to duplicate AGS imaging problems in the following manner: Start a fast AP-Spine scan of the aluminum phantom in 15 cm of water at 750 mA. After a few lines remove the phantom and water from the table top. The image will show all white lines for a few lines, and then some blue lines. When the phantom and the water are inserted back into position, the lines turn back to white with no image of the phantom. When the scan is analyzed, blue lines are found in the area where the phantom had been removed, but the image is correct both before and after. These symptoms are caused by rollover in the AGS when insufficient material is in the x-ray beam.

Offset Image in the Middle of a Scan Although image offset from one line to the next is usually due to patient movement, it may also be due to hesitation of the motor during the transverse motion. This would cause the image to be offset thereafter. When using the Auto Width feature, the transverse scan range should be offset with the image. The problem is usually reproduced more readily by scanning in the fast mode. If the scanner has problems with hesitations or improper transverse motion, see Transverse Motion Failures.

improper transverse motion, see Transverse Motion Failures. AGS Resolution Problem White lines in 3 mA scans

AGS Resolution Problem White lines in 3 mA scans are often caused by AGS problems. Service action is to 1) analyze the condition of the detector and replace it if necessary, or 2) perform the AGS test and adjustment found in section 6.2. The adjustment is accomplished by adjusting the potentiometer nearest to AGSDCA-T4 until the low channel counts produced with an 150 mA x- ray beam are stable to ±5000 counts and are greater than the high channel counts. When the aluminum wedge is inserted into the beam, both counts should decrease.

In the case the last test fails, perhaps the voltage at AGSDCA-T4 needs to be increased 10 or 20 mV. Check the rollover at AGS-T12 with an oscilloscope and an x-ray beam at 150 mA to verify that there is no roll-over or roll-under when this voltage is increased. If stability can not be maintained in air at 150 mA and in 5-18 cm of water at 3 mA then it will be necessary to replace some parts to determine which item is causing the instability. The following items can cause this stability problem : detector, AGS board, both DCA boards, and the AMP-03 board.

Trouble-shooting AGS Resolution Problems If the problem occurs often enough, use an oscilloscope to monitor the bipolar AMP-03 signal at the input (TP4), and the output (TP19) of the AGS board. If the amplitude at TP19 changes suddenly while the amplitude at TP4 remains constant, and at the same time a white line appears in the scan image, the problem is due to faulty gain stabilization. The cause is either the AGS or AGSDCA boards.

If the signal changes suddenly at AGS-TP4, the cause must be the circuitry that controls the high voltage to the Scintillation Detector, the Scintillation Detector itself, the circuitry on the AMP-03, or the coaxial cables carrying the signals up the Scanner Arm. Measure the signal at AGS-TP4, while taking voltage measurements at AMP-TP1 (the high voltage to the Scintillation Detector) and SBC-TP20 (the control voltage from the SBC to the Bertan PMT-10A).

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If the AMP-TP1 voltage changes at the same time the AGS-TP4 amplitude changes, but the SBC-TP20 signal does not change, then the Bertan PMT-10A power supply or the coaxial cable from the power supply to the AMP-03 must be faulty.

If the SBC-TP20 voltage changes at the same time the AGS-TP4 amplitude changes (AMP-TP1 will also change), replace the SBC.

Shutter Failures Certain problems can cause the shutter to close intermittently completely attenuating the x-rays. The shutter-open lamp should turn off and the end of exposure alarm will sound. A "Shutter Failure" error message should appear on the monitor screen. Scanning should cease at this moment, but if it does continue, blue lines should be expected in the image. Always ask the operator if a "ping" sound (the end of exposure alarm) is heard, and whether the Shutter Open or X-Ray On lamp turns off. In the case of a shutter problem, the Shutter Open light will turn off.

of a shutter problem, the Shutter Open light will turn off. The cause of these shutter

The cause of these shutter failures could be:

a faulty shutter solenoid,

a broken wire in the shutter/collimator/fan cable assembly, or

a broken wire or bad connection in the shutter lamp circuit.

Broken Signal Cable The coaxial cables which carry the voltage to the detector and return the signal from the amplifier are part of the upper and lower cable bundle assemblies. Any break or significant pinch of the cable can cause reduction in counts in either or both channels. This could result in either white or blue lines.

Loss of tube head current The tube head control cable contains the wires which provide power to the filament transformer. If the wire to the transformer center tap breaks, the x-rays will stop, the orange lamp will go off, and the end-of-exposure alarm will sound. If either of the other two wires break, the MAX board fuse will blow. Always ask the operator if a "ping" sound (the end of exposure alarm) is heard, and whether the Shutter Open or X-Ray On lamp turns off. In the case of a tube head current problem, the X-Ray On light will turn off.

X-Ray Relay Failure The x-ray relay is the easiest item to inspect, because the transparent plastic cover allows you to visibly inspect the contacts without disassembly.

Unstable AC Line If the customer's AC line conditions are unstable, voltages below 95 VAC will begin to drop the high voltage on the x-ray tube. The counts will drop significantly with only a change of a few kV. However, this normally causes black or dark grey lines in the scan image.

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Arcing If the tube head is arcing, the arcs will be more likely to occur at the higher current settings. Arcing generally also causes other strange symptoms such as:

Scanner stops in the middle of a patient or QA scan with no error message or with Diagnostic failure 15-4 or 31-6 message.

Scanner stops during a QA scan with the error message "Print Buffer Error"

The QA scan fails intermittently because the "Mean value deviates from expected" or because there is "Excessive variation in standard values"

The scanner periodically leaves the message on the screen "Starting X-rays Please Wait" for a longer than normal period of time (more than 10 seconds)

a longer than normal period of time (more than 10 seconds) If there is evidence of

If there is evidence of failures in the mean BM value :

If you see arcing symptoms, try the following service action:

1. View the Quality Assurance History (see section 8.15). In particular note the trend in BM Values as discussed in the Failing QA's section of this chapter.

2. Repack the high voltage connections as described in procedure HVC-1 in Chapter 6 appendix 6.G. Note if an arc track is visible in the insulation compound.

3. Replacement of the tube head if no arc tracks are discovered, or if the repacking of the connectors does not eliminate all arcing symptoms.

Summary Except for the x-ray relay, the cause of the problem will be difficult to find. Try to obtain some additional information. If the customer is hearing the end-of-exposure alarm, or seeing the yellow x-ray on lamp flickering, you can deduce the tube head control cable is bad. Likewise, it is possible to decide on the shutter/collimator/fan cable. In the case of no alarm or lamp indications, or in the case where large deviations occur in the peak, the upper and lower cable bundles should be replaced, as problems with the coaxial cable will be too expensive to troubleshoot.

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8.9 Femur Scan Problems

If the automatic width feature is not working properly, or unreasonable results are being obtained, the patient may have unusually low bone mass, they may not have adequate tissue around the femur or the scan may be going out of the patient and into air.

Check the size of the trochanter, neck and Ward's areas and verify that the sizes are reasonable. The software may not have correctly selected the baseline causing the bone edges to be improperly fixed. This false baseline could be due to one or more of the following problems:

There are not enough lines below the pelvis and above the trochanter (>25 lines) for an adequate baseline to be established. The Operator's manual recommends starting the scan 5.1 cm below the trochanter, and verifying that there are 15-20 lines before the ischium appears in the image.

are 15-20 lines before the ischium appears in the image. If the x-ray beam passes into

If the x-ray beam passes into air during the femur scan, the software will incorrectly set the baseline. White lines on the edge of the image, or unreasonable bone areas are indications that the beam has passed into air. If this happens, the patient must be rescanned with a soft tissue equivalent material (such as bages of uncooked rice) placed against their hip.

New systems will be delivered with LUNAR Tissue Bags (p/n 0784). These bags are to be used as described above. Extra bags may be ordered through the LUNAR Customer Service Department.

Be sure the customer places the ROI box near the pelvis end of the neck with nearly equal amounts of soft tissue in each end of the box and none of the ischium or trochanter. The software moves the box down the neck towards the trochanter during the search for the Ward's Triangle area.

To insure proper baselines, Lunar recommends that tissue equivalent material (as mentioned above) be placed along side of and on top of the hips of very thin or osteoporotic patients.

In the case of a patient having unusually low bone mass, the program may have difficulty in locating bone edges as it scans. In this case the only option is to slow down to Slow or even Detail mode, and the automatic width option may have to be changed to manual if the bone edges are still not tracked properly.

If the white lines that occur in the image when the beam passes into air continue to be white when the beam passes back into the patient's body, the Automatic Gain Stabilizer (AGS) may not be properly adjusted. There is a test for proper AGS operation (see ASG Calibration Test).

If manual analysis is used, the ROI boxes must be inside bone image only to obtain a correct BMD. Include no soft tissue points in manual ROI's.

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Method of Determining Ward's Triangle Ward's Triangle region is delineated by the square placed on the image with sides roughly equal to one half of the width of the femoral neck (the actual anatomical region is triangular in shape, thus Ward's Triangle. The Lunar software places the small square box around what it determines to be that region). This square is placed along the centerline of the neck in an area where we expect the minimum density. The bone mineral density is then calculated for the square. Then the square is moved again slightly and the BMD is recalculated. This repositioning and calculating continues until the position of lowest density is found. This lowest density square is selected as the Ward's Triangle region.

density is found. This lowest density square is selected as the Ward's Triangle region. 8-40 Femur

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8.10 Failing Air Matrix Results

The six categories (Chi Squared, Skew and Kurtosis for each of the Low and High Channels) of the Air Matrix scan in the Overall Results (see section 5.1) should all pass, but it failure is acceptable if the value is close to the software limits. The service limits are as follows:

Category Limit Chi Squared 45 Skew ±.07 Kurtosis ±.07 All six categories MUST PASS during
Category
Limit
Chi Squared
45
Skew
±.07
Kurtosis
±.07
All six categories MUST PASS during testing for new installations!

NOTE:

Chi Squared values £45 that fail should be considered in the light that the Air Matrix test is a statistical evaluation, and therefore, there is a statistical chance that a properly functioning scanner could fail the Air Matrix test. Skew and Kurtosis values will pass between -0.07 and

0.07.

1/4" (6 mm) of aluminum in the beam. Limits for scans made with more or less aluminum have not been determined.

Anything outside of these limits is failing.

These limits are valid only for scans made with

If

Deviation Image (see below). If that looks good, run another Air Matrix (perhaps a shortened test depending on time limits). The second test should pass. If not, a problem exists in the scanner.

the failing Air Matrix has values that are close to passing (as described above), check the

A

cause before parts substitution is used to solve the problem, refer to the AGS Adjustment Procedure in Section 6.2. NOTE: This test and adjustment procedure will not be of use if the PMT Detector is defective. Verify that the Detector is good by examining QA History trends in %Spillover, Air Ratio and Air Counts (see Section 8.14).

misadjusted AGS DCA could be the cause of a failing Air Matrix. To determine if this is the

Otherwise, the following parts should be substituted until passing Air Matrix results can be obtained:

Scintillation Detector

Automatic Gain Stabilizer Board (AGS)

AGS DCA

DPX DCA

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Deviation Image

The Deviation Image is a graphic illustration of the counts recorded during the Air Matrix scan.

A good image has a black field with evenly distributed grey dots and perhaps a few randomly

distributed dots of various colors (green or blue usually).

A poor Deviation Image will have colored lines, streaks or spots (indicating counts higher or

lower than expected). Colored lines or streaks going longitudinally in the image indicate an alignment problem. Recheck the alignment of the scanner including the levelness of the scanner. Also, check the scanner frame for any bending that may have occurred at the site or during shipment.

that may have occurred at the site or during shipment. Colored lines or streaks going transversely

Colored lines or streaks going transversely across the image indicate a problem with the AGS, the AGS DCA or the DPX DCA (also see section 6.2). Again, replace parts until a passing Air Matrix is obtained.

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8.11 Indicator Failures

X-ray On LED Blinking The amber X-RAY ON LED should glow steadily once it is illuminated, until the x-rays are turned off. If the X-RAY ON LED blinks while the shutter is open for a patient scan, the End of Exposure Alarm should sound.

The amber LED is controlled by a comparator on the OINK Board. This LED illuminates when approximately 40µA (or greater) of current is passing through the X-ray Insert. On Spellman system scanners the amber light may appear to fade out slowly when x-rays are ramped down. This due to the Spellman power supplies bleeding off current and is not a problem.

power supplies bleeding off current and is not a problem. If the voltage ramping fails, the

If the voltage ramping fails, the High Voltage Power Supplies must be shut completely off before

a second ramping attempt is made. If the amber X-RAY ON LED turns on momentarily, then

turns off for a few seconds before coming on steadily, the system is having difficulty ramping the

high voltage. One of the High Voltage Power Supplies may be defective.

The SBC does not monitor the Insert current once the proper level has been reached. Therefore, if the current to the Insert is interrupted, the SBC will not recognize the problem and will not alert the computer, or terminate the exposure.

the X-RAY ON LED blinks once the x-ray high voltage has been set, there must be a problem in one of the following areas:

If

Tube Head Control Cable—The most likely cause of an intermittent problem in this circuit is a broken wire in the Tube Head Control Cable. The Red wire is most likely the broken one, as a broken blue or black wire should blow the MAX Board Fuse. Turn the scanner off and test for continuity between MAX Board test points TP4, TP5, and TP13.

MAX Board—The MAX Board may be operating intermittently. Verify that the wave forms on TP4, and TP5 match the wave forms on page 9.17 and 9.18. Substitute a replacement MAX Board.

OINK Board—Noise may be present on the line extending from pin 3 of U5 to the SBC board. This noise would cause the bell to ring after every scan line during Total Body scans at 150 A current modes. Adding a 0.1 F capacitor between pins 1 and 3 of U5 on the OINK Board should attenuate this noise (see section 7, ECO #1393).

Shutter Open LED Blinking The amber Shutter Open LED is controlled by the Limit Switch on the Shutter/Collimator Assembly. If the Limit Switch is defective or improperly adjusted, the Shutter Open LED may be switched on and off. This will usually be accompanied by the sound of the End of Exposure Alarm if an exposure is underway.

If the Shutter is actually opening and closing intermittently and uncontrollably, the problem is either on the OINK, or a broken wire between the OINK and the Shutter/Collimator Assembly. Remove connector J11 from the OINK Board and measure the resistance between pin 5 and pin 6. This will be a measurement of the resistance of the Shutter Solenoid and the cable

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through the Cable Track. If the problem occurs on every scan, run a scan while making this continuity check. If the cable and solenoid seem to be working properly, substitute a new OINK Board.

Shutter Not Operating If the Shutter Solenoid will not open, the problem may be caused by one of the following:

The Shutter Open LED—If the Shutter Open LED fails, a properly operating OINK board will prevent operation of the Shutter Solenoid. Check the LED for continuity, replace it, or substitute a working amber LED temporarily.

Solenoid Cable—Remove J11 from the OINK Board and check continuity between pin 5 and 6 (see Shutter Open LED Blinking above).

between pin 5 and 6 (see Shutter Open LED Blinking above). The OINK is faulty. The

The OINK is faulty.

The SBC is faulty.

OINK Board—Replace the OINK Board.

End of Exposure Alarm During Scan If the sharp "Ping" sound of the End of Exposure Alarm is heard during a scan, look at the computer display to see if a Diagnostic Failure Code is being reported. If so, see section 8.1.

If no Diagnostic Failure Code is reported, the scanner may still be in motion continuing with the scan. Abort the scan and remove the patient from the table. In any case, note the status of the SHUTTER OPEN light and the X-RAY ON light.

Both the SHUTTER OPEN light and the X-RAY ON light are on and steady. This would indicate a faulty OINK board. Replace it.

The SHUTTER OPEN light is off. This could indicate the following:

The LED becomes defective during the scan and since the shutter solenoid and this light are wired in series, the Shutter closed and the Alarm sounded.

The cable to the amber Shutter Open light broke during the scan with the same result as above.

The X-RAY ON light is off. This could indicate the following:

The shutter solenoid failed and the Shutter closed followed by the Alarm sounding .

X-ray production has halted. This turns off the Xray On light and sounds the Alarm.

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8.12 Communications Failures

Should the scanner and computer lose communications with each other, there are a number of things to check:

Check the I/O cable connections at the serial port on the back of the computer and at the SBC. Be sure both connections are tight and that the thumb screws are used to hold the connectors firmly together. Also, inspect the 25 pin connector on the SBC. This connector is very fragile and may have been damaged. Be very careful when connecting the I/O cable to the SBC.

the ports are properly configured and communication still fails, then the probable causes are:

If

communication still fails, then the probable causes are: If A faulty I/O cable. A faulty SBC.

A faulty I/O cable.

A faulty SBC.

A faulty system board async (serial) port.

Replacement of these parts is the best troubleshooting method. The system board async port is

a

part of the computer's system board.

Another possibility is that the SBC has lost its firmware or the firmware has become corrupted. This can be remedied by downloading the program again. See Monitor Directory, section 5.1, for instructions.

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8.13 Start Up Software

The following printouts are CONFIG.SYS, AUTOEXEC.BAT and MSDOS.SYS files created by the DPX-IQ software at install. Each system may be slightly different dependant on any other software installed on it. The first CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT are created for DOS based installations while the second of each are created for a Windows '95 installation. The last file, MSDOS.SYS, is for the Windows '95 installation. The DOS installation does not require a MSDOS.SYS file.

DOS Installation

DOS version: 6.20 DOS version: 6.20
DOS version: 6.20
DOS version: 6.20

CONFIG.SYS

rem LUNAR Corporation, 313 West Beltline Hwy, Madison, WI 53713. (608) 274-2663

rem File: config.sys

= 50

files

buffers = 45

stacks = 0,0

dos

shell

device

device

= high,umb = C:\command.com C:\ /P /e:900 = C:\dos\himem.sys = C:\dos\emm386.exe 64 ram

AUTOEXEC.BAT

PATH=C:\;C:\DOS

@rem LUNAR Corporation, 313 West Beltline Hwy, Madison, WI 53713. (608) 274-2663

@rem File: autoexec.bat

@echo off break off prompt $p$g C:\dos\smartdrv.exe 512 call C:\LUNAR\setdpx :--- (check disk integrity and) cls echo RUNNING CHKDSK ON DRIVES for %%f in (C:) do if EXIST %%f\nul chkdsk %%f /F :--- (Create a temporary timestamp file for todays date) echo. | date > C:\defrag.tmp :--- (Check to see if the official timestamp file exists) if not exist C:\defrag.dat goto CheckDate :--- (A timestamp file exists, check if this is a new day by comparing files) fc C:\defrag.tmp C:\defrag.dat | find "no differences encountered" > \nul

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

if not errorlevel 1 goto DefragDone :CheckDate :--- (If this is a Monday, then a full defrag will be performed) find "Mon" C:\defrag.tmp > \nul if errorlevel 1 goto FastDefrag defrag c: /f goto :CheckDefragStatus :FastDefrag defrag c: /u :CheckDefragStatus :--- (If defrag completed successfully, then update the timestamp) if errorlevel 1 goto DefragDone copy/y C:\defrag.tmp C:\defrag.dat > \nul :DefragDone :--- (Remove the temporary timestamp file) del C:\defrag.tmp if exist c:\windows\win.com goto skip_fastopen if exist c:\wfw\win.com goto skip_fastopen loadhigh C:\dos\fastopen.exe c:=100 :skip_fastopen loadhigh C:\dos\doskey C:

cd \

DOS version: 7.0
DOS version: 7.0

Windows '95 Installation

CONFIG.SYS

rem LUNAR Corporation, 313 West Beltline Hwy, Madison, WI 53713. (608) 274-2663

rem File: config.sys

switches = /f

[menu] menuitem=dos,Start MS-DOS menuitem=win,Start Windows '95 menuitem=dpx,Start Lunar DPX

menudefault=dpx,8

[common]

files

buffers = 45 device=C:\windows\himem.sys /testmem:off dos=high,umb shell=C:\windows\command.com /p

= 50

[dos] device=C:\windows\emm386.exe ram highscan noems

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

device=C:\cdrom\nec_ide.sys /d:mscd001

[dpx]

[win]

AUTOEXEC.BAT

PATH=C:\;C:\WINDOWS;C:\WINDOWS\COMMAND;C:\LUNAR

@rem LUNAR Corporation, 313 West Beltline Hwy, Madison, WI 53713. (608) 274-2663

@rem File: autoexec.bat

DOS version: 7.0

@echo off break off prompt $p$g goto %config% :dpx :dos lh C:\windows\smartdrv 512 call C:\LUNAR\setdpx
@echo off
break off
prompt $p$g
goto %config%
:dpx
:dos
lh C:\windows\smartdrv 512
call C:\LUNAR\setdpx
lh C:\mouse\mouse.exe /Q
lh C:\windows\command\doskey
if %config%==dos goto end
C:
cd
\LUNAR
call dpx
goto end
:win
call C:\LUNAR\setdpx
win
:end
echo.
C:
cd
\

MSDOS.SYS

[Paths]

WinDir=C:\WINDOWS

WinBootDir=C:\WINDOWS

HostWinBootDrv=C

[Options]

Logo=0

BootGUI=0

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

BootMulti=0

;

;The following lines are required for compatibility with other programs. ;Do not remove them (MSDOS.SYS needs to be >1024 bytes). ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxa ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxb ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxc ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxd ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxe ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxf ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxg ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxh ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxi ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxj ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxk ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxl ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxm ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxn ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxo ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxp ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxq ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxr ;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxs

;xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxs 8-50 Start Up Software

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

8.14 Viewing Quality Assurance Trends

DPX-IQ software includes the capability to view, print or graph data contained in the Quality Assurance database (C:\LUNAR\ANC\DPXS.DBF). View and print display selected results of many of the tests run during the Daily Quality Assurance in tabular form. The graph feature will graph the results of only one of the Quality Assurance parameters. All features allow for the user to select the time period to be examined.

To use these features press F4 at the Main Menu to select Database Utilities and then press F2 to select QA History.

Database Utilities and then press F2 to select QA History. The Quality Assurance History screen displays

The Quality Assurance History screen displays three columns of data results that are stored in the database. The 11 highlighted categories are selected by default. Using the arrow keys and F4, F5 and F6 keys, the various categories can be selected or deselected depending on what needs to be examined. Since only one category can be graphed at a time, simply move the highlight to the item to be graphed and press F3.

Pressing F1, F2 or F3 selects View, Print or Graph and the next option is to enter the starting and ending dates for the time period to be examined. Once that is done to view the data, press [Esc] to start the printout or generate the graph.

When viewing the 11 default categories, or more, all the information will not fit on the screen. Use the arrow keys to view the data off the screen to the right. All 11 default categories will fit on one printed page. Printing more data will simply place the overflow on a separate page. In graphing, it is possible to use the arrow, PgUp and PgDn keys to highlight a particular date's QA. Note that the point on the graph for the highlighted date is also highlighted. The exact value of the category is also displayed by the date.

What to Look for in the QA History All categories should remain steady over time. Check the PASSED column for 0's, meaning a failed QA. If a failing QA is found, try to determine the cause, including operator error (see section 8.2).

LUNAR tries to analyze every system's QA History database file (DPXS.DBF) in order to discover systems in need of service. This database file is converted to a Lotus 1-2-3 spreadsheet so that the data can be easily analyzed. LUNAR has determined, through these analyses, acceptable limits for the variability observed for three important factors: Low Channel Air Counts, Air Ratio and % Spillover.

The acceptable limit of change for Low Channel Air Counts can be expressed three ways: 1) no more than 1% change/month, 2) no more than 10% change from the value at install or 3) no change greater than 300 counts/QA.

The limits for Air Ratio are: 1) no change greater than 0.002/month, 2) no more than 0.02 change from the value at install or 3) no more than 0.0001 change/QA.

The limits for % Spillover are: 1) no change greater than 0.05/month or 2) no more than 0.002 change/QA.

LUNAR ®

DPX-IQ Service Manual

Rev. E (3/98)

The Peak setting normally drifts up or down. A long term upward trend is expected as the Detector ages, but a downward trend is not unusual. The ideal operating peak is 500 units ±25. However, Peaks between 400 and 600 units are acceptable. If the Peak is found to be further from 500 than ±100 units, it should be adjusted (see section 6.1) until the Peak is 500 units again (±25).

NOTE:

The changes per month and per QA must be consistent over a three month period or 63 QA's to be considered valid. Changes from time of install are invalid if major parts were replaced since install, such as the Tube Head or PMT. Changes should be compared to values after these replacements.

should be compared to values after these replacements. If any sudden jumps are noticed in the

If any sudden jumps are noticed in the values of any of the categories, determine first if these are due to service work such as a Tube Head replacement. If service work causes a shift in the QA values, then compare present values to those obtained only after the service.

For complete analysis of the QA History database, Lunar suggests periodically sending a copy of the DPXS.DBF file to the Lunar Customer Service Department.