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INTRODUCTION TO

GROSS ANATOMY

Angeles University Foundation


College of Allied Medical Professions
Department of Physical Therapy
ANATOMY

•is the science of the structure and function of the


body.
CLINICAL ANATOMY

•is the study of the macroscopic structure and


function of the body as it relates to the practice
of medicine and other health sciences.
BASIC ANATOMY

•the study of the minimal amount of anatomy


consistent with the understanding of the overall
structure and function of the body.
TERMS RELATED TO POSITION
ANATOMIC POSITION

1. Standing erect.
2. Upper limbs by the sides.
3. Face and palms of the hands directed forward.
CARDINAL PLANES
OF THE BODY

1. Median Sagittal/Sagittal Plane


2. Frontal/Coronal Plane
3. Horizontal/Transverse Plane
FRONTAL PLANE

•a.k.a. “ Coronal Plane” or (XY plane)


•Z - axis
•Divides the body into equal front and back parts.
TRANSVERSE PLANE

•a.k.a. “ Horizontal Plane” or (XZ plane)


•Y - axis
•Divides the body into upper and lower parts.
SAGITTAL PLANE

•a.k.a. “ Median Sagittal Plane” or (YZ plane)


•X - axis
•Divides the body into equal right and left sides.

• Paramedian
DIRECTIONAL TERMS OF
THE HUMAN BODY
Terms Definition Example

Right Towards the body’s right side. The right hand.

Left Towards the body’s left side. The left hand.

Superior Above. The forehead is superior to the


eyes.
Inferior Below. The nose is inferior to the eyes.
DIRECTIONAL TERMS OF
THE HUMAN BODY
Terms Definition Example

Anterior Toward the front of the body. The teeth are anterior to the
throat.
Posterior Toward the back of the body. The brain is posterior to the
eyes.
Dorsal Toward the back. The spine is dorsal to the
breastbone.
Ventral Toward the belly. The navel is ventral to the
spine.
DIRECTIONAL TERMS OF
THE HUMAN BODY
Terms Definition Example
Proximal Closer to a point of The shoulder is proximal to the
attachment. elbow.
Distal Farther from a point of The hand is distal to the wrist.
attachment
Lateral Away from the midline of the The nipple is lateral to the
body. sternum.
Medial Toward the middle or midline The nose bridge is medial to
of the body. the eyes.
DIRECTIONAL TERMS OF
THE HUMAN BODY
Terms Definition Example
Superficial Toward or on the surface. The skin is superficial to the
muscle.
Deep Away or from surface. The lungs are deep to the ribs.

Internal Used to describe the relative Internal carotid artery found


distance of a structure from the inside the cranial cavity.
External center of an organ External carotid artery found
outside the cranial cavity.
DIRECTIONAL TERMS OF
THE HUMAN BODY
Terms Definition Example
Ipsilateral Same side of the body. The left hand and left foot are
ipsilateral.
Contralateral Opposite side of the body. The left biceps brachii and right
rectus femoris are
contralateral.
Supine Lying on back.

Prone Lying face downward.


TERMS RELATED TO
MOVEMENT
• Flexion • Abduction • Internal/medial
• Extension • Adduction rotation

• Hyperextension • Ulnar deviation • External/lateral


rotation
• Dorsiflexion • Radial deviation
• Pronation
• Plantarflexion • Lateral flexion
• Supination
• Inversion
• Eversion
• Retraction
• Protraction
BASIC STRUCTURES
SKIN

•2 parts:
• Epidermis
• Dermis

• Superficial fascia/subcutaneous tissue?


EPIDERMIS

• is a stratified epithelium whose cells become flattened as they mature


and rise to the surface.
• 5 layers of the epidermis (superficial to deep):
• Stratum corneum
• Stratum lucidum
• Stratum granulosum
• Stratum spinosum
• Stratum basale
DERMIS

• Is composed of dense connective tissue containing:


• Hair follicles
• Smooth muscle
• Glands
• Blood vessels
• Lymphatic vessels
• Nerves
APPENDAGES OF THE SKIN

•Nails
•Hair follicles
•sebaceous (oil) glands
•sweat glands
NAILS

• The nails are keratinized plates on the dorsal surfaces of the tips of
the fingers and toes.
• Nail root
• Nail folds
• Nail bed
HAIR

• Hairs grow out of follicles, which are invaginations of the


epidermis into the dermis.

• Hair bulbs
• Hair shaft
FASCIA

The fasciae of the body can be divided into two types:

1. Superficial fascia/Subcutaneous Tissue


2. Deep fascia

*Lie between the skin and the underlying muscles and bones.
MUSCLE

3 Types of Muscle:
1. Skeletal muscle
2. Smooth muscle
3. Cardiac muscle
MUSCLE

• Origin
• Insertion
• Belly
• Tendon
JOINTS

•site where two or more bones come together.

•Whether or not movement occurs between them.


FIBROUS JOINTS
CARTILAGINOUS JOINTS
SYNOVIAL JOINTS
LIGAMENTS

•is a cord or band of connective tissue uniting two


structures.

•Commonly found in association with joints.


BURSAE

•is a lubricating device consisting of a closed fibrous


sac lined with a delicate smooth membrane.

•Found wherever tendons rub against bones, ligaments,


or other tendons.
SYNOVIAL SHEATH

•Is a tubular bursa that surrounds a tendon.


BLOOD VESSELS

•Artery
•Vein
•Capillary
BLOOD VESSELS

•Artery
•Vein
•Capillary
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM

• The lymphatic system consists of:


• Lymphatic tissues = (thymus, the lymph nodes, the spleen, and the
lymphatic nodules.)
• Lymphatic vessels = are tubes that assist the cardiovascular system in the
removal of tissue fluid from the tissue spaces of the body; the vessels then
return the fluid to the blood.
• Lymph = tissue fluid once it has entered a lymphatic vessel.
eripheral Nervous System

NERVOUS SYSTEM
• 2 Major Divisions of the Nervous System:
• Central Nervous System =
• Brain
• Spinal Cord
• Peripheral Nervous System =
• 12 pairs of cranial nerves
• 31 pairs of spinal nerves
• Associated ganglia
NERVOUS SYSTEM

•Functional Division of the Nervous System


•Somatic nervous system = which controls
voluntary activities
• Autonomic nervous system =which controls
involuntary activities.
MUCOUS MEMBRANE

•lining of organs or passages that communicate with the


surface of the body.
SEROUS MEMBRANE

•line the cavities of the trunk and are reflected onto the
mobile viscera lying within these cavities.

•Parietal layer = lining the wall of cavity


•Visceral layer = covers the viscera
BONE

•is a living tissue capable of changing its structure as the


result of the stresses to which it is subjected.
• Protective function
• Lever
• Storage
• Blood formation
CARTILAGE

•Hyaline cartilage
• Fibrous cartilage
• Elastic cartilage