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Peridotite is a coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock that is composed almost entirely of olivine.

It
may contain small amounts of amphibole, feldspar, quartz, or pyroxene.

Pegmatite is a light-colored, extremely coarse-grained intrusive igneous rock. It forms near the
margins of a magma chamber during the final phases of magma chamber crystallization

Pumice is a light-colored vesicular igneous rock. It forms through very rapid solidification of a melt.
The vesicular texture is a result of gas trapped in the melt at the time of solidification.

Scoria is a dark-colored, vesicular, extrusive igneous rock. The vesicles are a result of trapped gas
within the melt at the time of solidification.

Fire Opal is sometimes found filling cavities in rhyolite. Long after the rhyolite has cooled, silica-rich
ground water moves through the rock, sometimes depositing gems like opal, red beryl, topaz, jasper,
or agate in the cavities of the rock.
Marble is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced from the metamorphism of limestone
or dolostone.

Quartzite is a non-foliated metamorphic rock that is produced by the metamorphism of sandstone.


It is composed primarily of quartz. The specimen above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.

Soapstone is a metamorphic rock that consists primarily of talc with varying amounts of other
minerals such as micas, chlorite, amphiboles, pyroxenes, and carbonates

Hornfels is a fine-grained nonfoliated metamorphic rock with no specific composition. It is produced


by contact metamorphism

Gneiss is a foliated metamorphic rock that has a banded appearance and is made up of granular
mineral grains. It typically contains abundant quartz or feldspar minerals. The specimen shown
above is about two inches (five centimeters) across.
Coal is an organic sedimentary rock that forms mainly from plant debris. The plant debris usually
accumulates in a swamp environment.

Conglomerate is a clastic sedimentary rock that contains large (greater than two millimeters in
diameter) rounded particles.

Dolomite (also known as "dolostone" and "dolomite rock") is a chemical sedimentary rock that is
very similar to limestone.

Shale is a clastic sedimentary rock that is made up of clay-size (less than 1/256 millimeter in
diameter) weathering debris

Oil Shale is a rock that contains significant amounts of organic material in the form of kerogen. Up to
1/3 of the rock can be solid organic material.