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Given:

Pressure Altitude = 5000 ft

OAT = +35C

What is true altitude:

a) 4550 ft

b) 5550 ft <-- Correct

c) 4290 ft

d) 5320 ft

The error is 120 feet per thousand feet and for 5000 feet the error will be 120 x 5 = 600

feet.

Now its a matter of adding or subtracting 600 feet from 5000 feet.

Warm airmass = High Pressure = Indicated Alt Low = True Altitude High.

Given:

Pressure Altitude 29 000 ft

OAT -55oC

What is the density altitude:

b) 31 000 ft

c) 33 500 ft

d) 36 000 ft

ISA temp at 29000 = [15-(29x2)] = -43. OAT = -55. ISA deviation = -12

12 x 120 = 1440 ft. Since its colder than standard, density altitude will be low i.e. 29000

- 1440 = 27560 ft

Your true altitude is 5500 feet, the QNH is 995, and the SAT is +30oC. What is Density

Altitude:

a) 7080 feet

b) 8120 feet

c) 9280 feet <-- Correct

d) 9930 feet

1

First determine the pressure altitude, which comes out to be (18x30=540+5500) 6040.

Then work out the temperature deviation at 6040, which comes out to be ISA +27.

Density altitude becomes (27x120=3240+6040) 9280 feet.

he distance Q to R is 3016 nm; TAS is 480 kts. Flying outbound Q to R the head wind

component is calculated as 90 kts and the tail wind component R to Q is 75 kts. Leaving

Q at 1320 UTC, what is the ETA at the point of Equal Time:

a) 1631 UTC

b) 1802 UTC

c) 1702 UTC

d) 1752 UTC <-- Correct

An aeroplane flying at 180 kts TAS on a track of 090o. The wind is 045o/50 kts. The

distance the aeroplane can fly out and return in one hour is:

a) 88 NM

b) 85 NM <-- Correct

c) 56 NM

d) 176 NM

= 1 x 212/141+212

= 0.6 hrs

Given:

Distance A to B is 360 NM

Wind component A – B is -15 kt

Wind component B – A is +15 kt

TAS is 180 kt

2

PET=195. Distance from PET to B = 360-195 = 165

heading alteration should be made in order to arrive at point B?

a) 8o left

b) 6o right

c) 4o right

d) 8o right <-- Correct

right.

The distance between two waypoints is 200 NM. To calculate compass heading, the

pilot used 2oE magnetic variation instead of 2oW. Assuming that the forecast W/V

applied, what will the off track distance be at the second waypoint?

a) 0 NM

b) 7 NM

c) 14 NM <-- Correct

d) 21 NM

Track error will be 4 deg and not 2. e.g. If magnetic heading is 100 and deviation is 2W

then compass hdg will be 102. If instead of west one applies variation 2E then compass

heading will be 98. A difference of 4 deg (102-98 ).

A pilot receives the following signals from a VOR DME station: radial 180o+/- 1o,

distance = 200 NM. What is the approximate error?

b) +/- 1 NM

c) +/- 2 NM

d) +/- 7 NM

1 deg out for every 60 miles makes 3.33 deg for 200 miles (200/60).

3

Questions on Speed, Time and Distance

You leave A to fly to B, 475 nm away, at 1000 hours. Your ETA at B is 1130. At 1040

you are 190 nm from A. What ground speed is required to arrive on time at B?

a) 317 knots

b) 330 knots

c) 342 knots <-- Correct

d) 360 knots

You are flying at a True Mach No of 0.82 in a SAT of -45oC. At 1000 hours you are 100

nm from the POL DME and your ETA at POL is 1012. ATC ask you to slow down to be

at POL at 1016. What should your new TMN be if you reduce speed at 100 nm distance

to:

a) M .76

b) M .72

c) M .68

d) M .61 <-- Correct

to cross a reporting point five minutes later than planned. Assuming that a zero wind

component remains unchanged, when 360 NM from the reporting point Mach Number

should be reduced to:

a) M 0.76

b) M 0.74 <-- Correct

c) M 0.78

d) M 0.80

Determine the TAS. Find the time to cover 360nm at this TAS. Increase this time by 5

minutes. Find the TAS again for this increased time. Convert it back to Mach.

Mach = TAS/LSS. LSS = Local Speed of Sound which is 39 x squre root of Absolute

temperature (temp in centigrade + 273).

4

Given: Distance A to B is 475 NM, Planned GS 315 kt, ATD 1000 UTC, 1040 UTC - fix

obtained 190 NM along track. What GS must be maintained from the fix in order to

achieve planned ETA at B?

a) 320 kt

b) 360 kt

c) 300 kt

d) 340 kt <-- Correct

average GS of 240 kt. It departs A at 1000 UTC. After flying 150 NM along track from A,

the aircraft is 2 min behind planned time. Using the actual GS experienced, what is the

revised ETA at B?

a) 1203

b) 1206 <-- Correct

c) 1153

d) 1157

The point where it was observed that the aircraft is 2 min behind the planned time is

150nm from A. Call it "X".

It was observed that at X the aircraft was 2 min behind planned ETA. That means that it

took 37.5 + 2 = 39.5 mins from A.

GS = 228

5

Half way between two reporting points the navigation log gives the following

information:

TAS 360 kt

W/V 330o/80 kt

Compass heading 237o

Deviation on this heading -5o

Variation 19oW

a) 360 kt

b) 354 kt

c) 373 kt

d) 403 kt <-- Correct

Course is not given. On E6B, determine the tailwind component and apply to TAS.

You are on ILS 3o glideslope which passes over the runway threshold at 50 feet. Your

DME range is 25 nm from the threshold. What is your height above the runway

threshold elevation? (Use the 1 in 60 rule and 6000 feet = 1 nautical mile)

a) 8010 feet

b) 7450 feet

c) 6450 feet

d) 7550 feet <-- Corrrect

If the given distance (25nm) was from the point where the 3° glide started (beyond the

threshold), then 7500 ft would have been the height from touch down. But since the

distance is given from the threshold (i.e about a 1000 feet less), we have to add 50 feet

(glide path height over the threshold) to get the right answer.

6

When it says by 1 in 60 then dont do trigonometry because through trigonometry,

Height = tan 3 x 150,000 = 7861+50 = 7911 (close to a wrong choice). If its not

specified then cross check for the best answer before selecting it. Many answers are

observed to be accurate with 1 in 60 rule.

An aircraft maintaining a 5.2% gradient is at 7 NM from the runway, on a flat terrain; its

height is approximately:

a) 680 ft

b) 2210 ft <-- Correct

c) 1890 ft

d) 3640 ft

First convert gradient into angle. Tan=5.2/100 then do the rest (0.052x7x6076 = 2211).

This time its flat terrain so there is no need to add the height above threshold.

An aircraft is descending down a 12% slope whilst maintaining a GS of 540 kt. The rate

of descent of the aircraft is approximately:

a) 650 ft/min

b) 6500 ft/min <-- Correct

c) 4500 ft/min

d) 3900 ft/min

7

3) 1 in 60 rule: 6.84 x 9 / 60 = 1.026 nm/min or 6234 ft/min

cross the VOR at FL 80. The mean GS for the descent is 340 kt.

a) 1900 ft/min

b) 1800 ft/min

c) 1600 ft/min

d) 1700 ft/min

S=VxT

Height to loose 27000 feet in 15 minutes or 27000/15 = 1800 feet per minute.

rate of descent is 1800 ft/min and mean GS for descent is 276 kt. The minimum range

from the DME at which descent should start is:

a) 79 NM

b) 69 NM <-- Correct

c) 49 NM

d) 59 NM

S=VxT

S = 276 x 0.25 = 69 nm

Given:

ILS GP angle = 3.5o

GS = 150 kt

a) 1000 ft/min

b) 700 ft/min

c) 900 ft/min <-- Correct

d) 800 ft/min

1) 1 in 60 rule:

8

3.5 = ROD/150 x 60

2) By multiplying Speed with Gradient, its just that gradient needs to be determined

first.

At 0422 an aircraft at FL 370, GS 320 kt, is on the direct track to VOR X 185 NM

distant. The aircraft is required to cross VOR X at FL 80. For a mean rate of descent of

1800 ft/min at a mean GS of 232 kt, the latest time at which to commence descent is:

a) 0448

b) 0445 <-- Correct

c) 0451

d) 0454

Height to loose 29000 feet @1800 fpm descent rate requires (29000/1800) = 16.1 min

(0.268 hrs)

9

Distance required = Velocity x Time = 232 x 0.26 = 62.2 nm

Given:

Magnetic heading 311o

Drift angle 10o left

Relative bearing of NDB 270o

What is the magnetic bearing of the NDB measured from the aircraft?

a) 211

b) 208

c) 221 <-- Correct

d) 180

Relative bearing is measure from the magnetic heading, so in this case: Magnetc

Heading of 311 + 270 = 581 and 581-360 = 221.

Given:

Magnetic variation: 7oE

Drift angle: 5o left

b) 194

c) 204

d) 180

Drifting left = wind from the right = heading into the wind = heading more than track i.e.

192 + 5 = 197T

Magnetic variation: 8oW

Drift angle: 4o right

What is the true track?

10

a) 048

b) 064

c) 056 <-- Correct

d) 072

First get the true heading. Variation west magnetic best so true heading is 60-8= 52.

Drifting right = wind from the left = heading into the wind = track to the right of heading

i.e. 52+4 = 56

The relative bearing to a beacon is 270oR. Three minutes later, at a ground speed of

180 knots, it has changed to 225oR. What was the distance of the closest point of

approach of the aircraft to the beacon?

a) 45 nm

b) 18 nm

c) 9 nm <-- Correct

d) 3 nm

At 1000 hours an aircraft is on the 310 radial from a VOR/DME, at 10 nautical miles

range. At 1010 the radial and range are 040/10 nm. What is the aircraft¿s track and

ground speed?

a) 080 / 85 knots

b) 085 / 85 knots <-- Correct

c) 080 / 80 knots

d) 085 / 90 knots

11

An island appears 45o to the right of the centre line on an airborne weather radar

display. What is the true bearing of the aircraft from the island if at the time of

observation the aircraft was on a magnetic heading (MH) of 215o with the magnetic

variation (VAR) 21oW?

a) 101

b) 059 <-- Correct

c) 239

d) 329

True heading (194) + relative bearing (45) = True bearing to island (239).

12

Be careful! Question asks for "true bearing of the aircraft from the island" so it will be

reciprocal of 239 i.e. 059

An island is observed to be 15o to the left. The aircraft heading is 120o(M), variation

17o(W). The bearing (oT) from the aircraft to the island is:

a) 122

b) 088 <-- Correct

c) 268

d) 302

True heading (103) + relative bearing (345) = True bearing to island 088 (360-448).

A ground feature was observed on a relative bearing of 325o and five minutes later on

a relative bearing of 280o. The aircraft heading was 165o(M), variation 25oW, drift 10o

right and GS 360 kt. When the relative bearing was 280o the distance and true bearing

of the aircraft from the feature was:

b) 40 NM and 110o

c) 40 NM and 290o

d) 30 NM and 060o

13

Relative bearing is from heading: 140 + 325 = 105 and 140 + 280 = 060

Given:An aircraft is flying a track of 255o(M). At 2254 UTC, it crosses radial 360o from

a VOR station. At 2300 UTC, it crosses radial 330o from the same station. At 2300

UTC, the distance between the aircraft and the station is:

b) greater than it was at 2254 UTC

c) randomly different that it was at 2254 UTC

d) less than it was at 2254 UTC

14

The aircraft crosses radial 360 at "A". The Track is 255 and it crosses radial 330 at "B".

This forms a triangle.

Angle at A = 75 (255-180).

Angle at B = 75 ( 180-(75+30) )

This becomes an isosceles triangle which is a triangle in which two angles and their

adjacent sides are equal.

Since angles at A and B are equal, their adjacent sides i.e. distance from A to VOR and

distance from B to VOR will also be equal.

Isosceles Triangle

You are heading 080oT when you get a range and bearing fix from your AWR on a

headland at 185 nm 30o left of the nose. What true bearing do you plot on the chart?

b) 050 from the headland, using the aircraft's meridian

c) 230 from the headland, using the headland's meridian

d) 230 from the headland, using the aircraft's meridian <-- Correct

You are heading 345M, the variation is 20E, and you take a radar bearing of 30 left of

the nose from an island. What bearing do you plot?

15

a) 160T

b) 155T <-- Correct

c) 140T

d) 180T

Dont jump to convert magnetic to true. Bearing 30 deg left is from aircraft nose which is

its heading. Heading given is 345M. So from the aircraft the bearing will be 315. From

the island it will be 135. This will be magnetic. Variation is 20E so magnetic will be least

i.e. true will be 135+20 = 155 to plot.

Chart Symbols

16

17

Questions on Polar Stereographic Chart

Which one of the following statements is correct concerning the appearance of great

circles, with the exception of meridians, on a Polar Stereographic chart whose tangency

is at the pole?

a) The higher the latitude the closer they approximate to a straight line <-- Correct

b) Any straight line is a great circle

c) They are complex curves that can be convex and/or concave to the Pole

d) They are curves convex to the Pole

On a polar stereo the meridians of longitude are straight lines radiating out from the

pole. Meridians are great circles so if you track along a meridian, over the pole and

down its anti-meridian you have flown a great circle track which appears on the polar

stereo as a straight line. Any other great circle will be a curve concave to the pole and

the further away from the pole the greater the amount of curvature. In practise we draw

a straight line on a polar stereo and accept it as being 'near enough' to a great circle

b) radio navigational charts in equatorial regions

c) topographical maps of large east/west extent

d) charts of the great circle route between two points <-- Correct

Oblique Mercator = A cylindrical projection based on any other great circle of tangency.

18

Transverse Mercator projections are used for:

b) maps of large east/west extent in equatorial areas

c) radio navigation charts in equatorial areas

d) plotting charts in equatorial areas

latitude appear as:

a) hyperbolic lines

b) straight lines

c) ellipses <-- Correct

d) parabolas

A Mercator chart has a scale at the equator = 1:3 704 000. What is the scale at latitude

60o S?

b) 1: 7 408 000

c) 1: 3 208 000

d) 1: 185 200

north/south expansion apart from east/west expansion. The scale expands as the

secant of the latitude. Secant (of an angle) = Hypotenuse / Adjacent (= 1/cos). So for a

Mercator:

19

Scale at 60°S = 3704000 x cos60

Thus at 60°S due to scale expansion the earth distance has reduced.

Scale is defined as the ratio of chart distance to earth distance i.e. Scale = Chart

Distance / Earth Distance.

e.g. If Chart Distance is 1 and earth distance is 10 then the scale value is 0.1 (i.e. 1/10).

For a scale to expand (i.e. to become more than 0.1) the denominator (earth distance)

has to decrease. Therefore on a Mercator when we know that scale is expanding with

increase in the latitude then it is mathematically obvious that the earth distance is

decreasing.

Therefore earth distance gets smaller while going away from the equator and gets

bigger while going towards the equator.

a) complex curve

b) curve concave to the equator <-- Correct

c) curve convex to the equator

d) straight line

equator so equator is a straight line. Moving away from equator (i.e. from point of

correct convergency) the great circles become curved, concave to the equator.

b) straight lines

c) rhumb lines

d) curves concave to the nearer pole

b) Expands directly with the secant of the latitude <-- Correct

c) Correct on the standard parallels, expands outside them, contracts within them

d) Expands as the secant of the E/W great circle distance

Secant (of an angle) = Hypotenuse / Adjacent (= 1/cos). Scale at any latitude = Scale at

20

the equator x 1/cos of latitude

On a direct Mercator projection, the distance measured between two meridians spaced

5o apart at latitude 60oN is 8 cm. The scale of this chart at latitude 60oN is

approximately:

a) 1 : 4 750 000

b) 1 : 7 000 000

c) 1 : 6 000 000

d) 1 : 3 500 000 <-- Correct

8cm = 150 nm

18.75nm = 3468750 cm

120 NM on the earth. The same length on the chart will represent on the earth, at

latitude 10oN, a distance of:

b) 117.7 NM

c) 124.2 NM

d) 118.2 NM

On a Mercator, if earth distance is 120 at 15 deg latitude then it will be more on 10 deg

of latitude (see explanation above regarding the previous question). For calculating how

much more we can determine and use a factor that increases the earth distance.

0.9848/0.9658 = 1.019

21

On which of the following chart projections is it NOT possible to represent the north or

south poles?

a) Lamberts conformal

b) Direct Mercator <-- Correct

c) Transverse Mercator

d) Polar stereographic

b) arcs of concentric circles equally spaced

c) straight lines converging above the pole

d) parallel straight lines unequally spaced <-- Correct

the earth convergency?

22

b) At the two parallels of tangency

c) At the poles

d) At the equator <-- Correct

b) The False Meridian

c) The Great Circle of Tangency

d) The Meridian of Tangency <-- Correct

Given: Direct Mercator chart with a scale of 1: 200 000 at equatorChart length from A to

B, in the vicinity of the equator, 11 cm What is the approximate distance from A to B?

a) 21 NM

b) 12 NM <-- Correct

c) 22 NM

d) 14 NM

In the vicinity of the equator (usually within 500nm) the scale can be assumed to be

constant.

Assume a Mercator chart. The distance between positions A and B located on the

same parallel and 10o longitude apart, is 6 cm. The scale at the parallel is 1: 9 260 000.

What is the latitude of A and B?

a) 45o N or S

b) 30o N or S

c) 0o

d) 60o N or S <-- Correct

i.e.

departure = 300nm

23

or

On a particular Direct Mercator wall chart, the 180W to 180E parallel of latitude at 53N

is 133 cm long. What is the scale of the chart at 30S?

a) 1 : 3 000 000

b) 1 : 18 000 000

c) 1 : 21 000 000

d) 1 : 25 000 000 <-- Correct

Scale at 30S: Going towards the equator, earth distance is going to increase (as

discussed earlier). By how much? we can determine a factor:

At latitude 60oN the scale of a Mercator projection is 1:5 000 000. The length on the

chart between C N60o W008o and D N60o E008o is:

a) 19.2 cm

b) 16.2 cm

c) 35.6 cm

d) 17.8 cm <-- Correct

24

The standard parallels of a Lamberts conical orthomorphic projection are 07o40N and

38o20N. The constant of the cone for this chart is:

The sine of the parallel of origin is the constant of the cone or convergency factor (n).

See Conic Projection

Parllel of origin will be between 07°40N and 38°20N i.e. 7.66 + 38.33 = 46/2 = 23

However because of the mathematics invloved, the parallel of origin is slightly closer to

the pole rather than being exactly mid-way between the standard parallels.

Sin of 23 = 0.39

b) constant along a meridian of longitude

c) constant over the whole chart

d) varies with latitude and longitude

b) shows all great circles as straight lines

c) the scale is only correct at parallel of origin

d) the scale is only correct along the standard parallels <-- Correct

what latitude on the chart is earth convergency correctly represented?

The nominal scale of a Lambert conformal conic chart is the: "scale at the standard

parallels"

A straight line is drawn on a Lamberts conformal conic chart between two positions of

different longitude. The angular difference between the initial true track and the final true

25

track of the line is equal to:

a) earth convergency

b) chart convergency <-- Correct

c) conversion angle

d) difference in longitude

How does the chart convergency change with latitude in a Lambert Conformal

projection?

b) It changes with cosine of latitude

c) It increases with increase of latitude

d) It is constant and does not change with latitude <-- Correct

b) is zero throughout the chart

c) varies as the secant of the latitude

d) equals earth convergency at the standard parallels

a) parabolic lines

b) straight lines

c) arcs of concentric circles <-- Correct

d) hyperbolic lines

On a Lambert Conformal Conic chart great circles that are not meridians are:

b) straight lines

c) curves concave to the pole of projection

d) straight lines within the standard parallels

Near to the parallel of origin great circles are not exactly straight but neartly straight. To

be precsie they are very slightly curved, being concave to the parallel of origin. The

distortion is however very small provided the spread of latitudes is controlled. Since the

spread of latitude is controlled, great circles are assumed to be straight lines.

A straight line on a Lambert Conformal Projection chart for normal flight planning

purposes:

26

a) can only be a parallel of latitude

b) is a Loxodromic line

c) is a Rhumb line

d) is approximately a Great Circle <-- Correct

On a Lambert chart (standard parallels 37oN and 65oN), with respct to the straight line

drawn on the map the between A (N49o W030o) and B (N48o W040o), the:

b) great circle and rhumb line are to the north

c) great circle and rhumb line are to the south <-- Correct

d) rhumb line is to the north, the great circle is to the south

Near to the parallel of origin great circles are not exactly straight but neartly straight. To

be precsie they are very slightly curved, being concave to the parallel of origin. The

Straight line in the question is from A (49N) to B (48N) i.e. south of Parallel of Origin at

51N.

Therefore great circle being concave is south of the straight line and rhumb line will be

south of the great circle as it is always on the equator side of the great circle. So both

will be south of the straight line.

On a Lambert conformal conic chart the distance between parallels of latitude spaced

the same number of degrees apart:

b) is constant throughout the chart

c) reduces between, and expands outside, the standard parallels <-- Correct

d) is constant between, and expands outside the standard parallels

Conformal conic chart with a scale of 1:1,000,000 at 60oN. The chart distance between

X and Y is:

a) 33.4 cm

b) 66.7 cm <-- Correct

c) 38.5 cm

d) 36.0 cm

27

Distance between X and Y = 360nm or 66,600,000 cm

= 66.6 cm

b) Estimated time overhead the destination airfield

c) Estimated initial approach fix time <-- Correct

d) Estimated final approach fix time

b) estimated time of arrival at destination <-- Correct

c) estimated time of arrival at an en-route point or fix

d) estimated time en route

You are flying 090oC heading. Deviation is 2oW and Variation is 12E. Your TAS is

160 knots. You are flying the 070 radial outbound from a VOR and you have gone 14

nm in 6 minutes. What is the W/V?

b) 060oT/50

c) 340oT/25

d) 055oT/25

28

The important thing is the application of variation and deviation. Apply variation to

magnetic radial to make it true i.e. 70+12 = 82 which will be the course. Apply variation

and deviation to 090 compass heading to get 100 deg true heading.

Given:

Course 040o(T)

TAS is 120 kt

Wind speed 30 kt

a) 120o

b) 145o

c) 115o

d) 130o <-- Correct

Option (d) is a 90deg crosswind thus max drift angle will be obtained in this condition.

Course 040oT, TAS 120 kt, Wind speed 30 knots. From which direction will the wind

give the greatest drift:

a) 215o

b) 230oT

c) 235oT

d) 240oT <-- Correct

220 will be exact tailwind i.e. no drift. Direction left or right of 220 will create a cross

wind component for drift to occur. Direction farthest from 220 will give the greatest drift,

240 in this case.

a) 145 kt

b) 136 kt <-- Correct

c) 210 kt

d) 35 kt

Not much an isue except the close choice between (a) and (b). For all practical

purposes you just double it i.e. 70 x 2 = 140. However these questions demand exact

calculation.

1 second = 70 meters

29

Variation is 15oE

W/V is 190o(T)/30 kt

CAS is 120 kt at FL 55 in standard atmosphere

b) 055o and 147 kt <-- Correct

c) 052o and 154 kt

d) 056o and 137 kt

Be careful, the course given is magnetic. Calculate everything in True and then apply

the corrections to get magnetic.

OAT -32oC

CAS 200 kt

What is the TAS?

a) 215 kt

b) 200 kt

c) 210 kt

d) 220 kt <-- Marked Correct

Given:

Maximum allowable tailwind component for landing 10 kt

Planned runway 05 (047o magnetic)

The direction of the surface wind reported by ATIS 210o

Variation is 17oE

Calculate the maximum allowable windspeed that can be accepted without exceeding

the tailwind limit?

a) 15 kt

b) 18 kt

c) 8 kt

d) 11 kt <-- Correct

Trigonotery! Make a right angle triangle. "Adjacent" will be the headwind or tailwind

component and "Opposite" will be the crosswind component. "Hypotenuse" will be the

wind speed. The difference between the wind direction and aircraft heading will be the

"Angle".

In this case Tailwind limit of 10 kts makes the "Adjacent" limited to 10.

Wind direction is 210T and aircraft heading is 64T (after correcting for variation). This

shows a tailwind case so to calculate the angle we will take the reciprocal of 64 i.e. 244.

Therefore the angle becomes 244-210 = 34 deg.

30

Cos angle = hypotenuse / adjacent

Wind strength = 12kts. This will be the max limit from a direction of 210 that will ensure

that the 10kts tailwind limit is not exceeded.

Given:

Magnetic heading = 255o

VAR = 40oW

GS = 375 kt

W/V = 235o(T)/120 kt

Calculate the drift angle?

b) 7o right

c) 9o left

d) 16o right

Given:

AD = Air distance

GD = Ground distance

TAS = True airspeed

GS = Ground speed

Which of the following is the correct formula to calculate ground distance (GD) gone?

b) GD = (AD - TAS)/TAS

c) GD = AD X (GS - TAS)/GS

d) GD = TAS/(GS X AD)

Drift angle = 15 left

TAS = 240 kt

a) -55 kt

b) -65 kt <-- Correct

c) -45 kt

d) -35 kt

31

1) Find the W/V

CRS 345 (drift given as 15 left)

TAS 240 (given)

GS 285 (TAS + given tailwind of 45 kts)

W/V 116/82

CRS 165 (reciprocal of 345)

TAS 240

HDG comes out to be 150

Thus the wind component comes out to be TAS-GS (240-178) = 62kts Headwind.

Turning Errors:

When turning through the nearer pole (ie, turning through North in the northern

hemisphere or through South in the Southern Hemisphere):

The magnetic assembly and the aircraft are turning in the same direction

The compass will under-indicate the amount of turn.

The pilot should undershoot the turn/roll out early.

Liquid swirl will increase the turning error.

When turning through the further pole (ie, turning through South in the northern

hemisphere or through North in the Southern Hemisphere):

The magnetic assembly and the aircraft are turning in the opposite direction

The compass will over-indicate the amount of turn.

The pilot should overshoot the turn/roll out late.

Liquid swirl will decrease the turning error.

One of the errors inherent in a magnetic compass in which the compass lags behind the

actual turn when turning through the north and leads when turning through the south in

the Northern Hemisphere. The error is caused by the difference in the location of the

pivot point and the center of gravity of the compass magnet system. The center of

gravity of the magnet is placed below, but some radial distance from, the pivot. The

acceleration forces in the turn—the centripetal and centrifugal forces—set up a couple

in the vertical plane, which imparts a sideways tilt to the magnet system about the pivot.

This is the main reason for the turning error. There are two other reasons for this error:

32

first, the displacement of the center of gravity behind the pivot, and, second, the effect

of liquid swirl. In the latter case, the liquid tends to rotate with the bowl and to drag the

magnet system around with it. This increases the error in turns through the north in the

Northern Hemisphere because the turning error itself causes the magnet to move in the

opposite direction to the turn. This effect will be reduced in turns through the south.

Acceleration Errors:

the nearer pole.

When turning right from 330o (C) to 040o (C) in the northern hemisphere, the reading

of a direct reading magnetic compass will:

a) over-indicate the turn and liquid swirl will decrease the effect

b) under-indicate the turn and liquid swirl will increase the effect <-- Correct

c) under-indicate the turn and liquid swirl will decrease the effect

d) over-indicate the turn and liquid swirl will increase the effect

card of a direct reading magnetic compass will turn:

b) clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the south

c) anti-clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the north <-- Correct

d) anti-clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the south

card of a direct reading magnetic compass will turn:

b) anti-clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the south

c) clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the north

d) anti-clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the north

33

An aircraft is accelerating on a westerly heading in the Northern Hemisphere. The

effect on a Direct Reading Magnetic Compass is:

a) Underreads North

b) Underreads South

c) Overreads North <-- Correct

d) Overreads South

You are in the Northern hemisphere, heading 135C on a Direct Reading Magnetic

Compass. You turn right in a Rate 1 turn for 30 seconds. Do you roll out on an indicated

heading of:

b) less than 225

c) equal to 225

d) not possible to determine

Rate 1 turn is 3 deg per second. 30x3=90. 135+90=225. The compass will over-

indicate.

At the magnetic equator, when accelerating after take off on heading West, a direct

reading compass:

b) overreads the heading

c) indicates the correct heading <-- Correct

d) indicates a turn to the south

The compass is pendulous and symmetrical and will sit level if there is no magnetic field

or if the field is horizontal with no Z component, as on the magnetic equator.

Acceleration and turning errors come into play when the card is out of horizontal with its

CG no longer below the pivot point. Source: When should a DRC be 'swung'?

a) Every 6 months

b) Following a change of magnetic latitude <-- Correct

c) For night use

d) After flying in an area where lightning is visible

DRC = direct reading compass. (d) is not valid because lightning has'nt struck.

2) After an aircraft has passed through a severe electrical storm, or has been struck by

lightning

3) If the aircraft has been subjected to hammering

34

The purpose of compass check swing is to:

b) cancel out the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field

c) measure the angle between Magnetic North and Compass North <-- Correct

d) cancel out the effects of the magnetic fields found on board the aeroplane

b) compass north and the lubber line

The direct reading magnetic compass is made aperiodic (dead beat) by:

b) keeping the magnetic assembly mass close to the compass point and by using

damping wires <-- Correct

c) using long magnets

d) pendulous suspension of the magnetic assembly

b) proportional to the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field <-- Correct

c) inversely proportional to the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field

d) inversely proportional to the vertical and horizontal components of the earth's

magnetic field

magnetism and electrical circuits may be minimised by:

b) the use of repeater cards

c) mounting the detector unit in the wingtip <-- Correct

d) using a vertically mounted gyroscope

Why are the detector units of slaved gyro compasses usually located in the aircraft

wingtips? "To isolate the detector unit from the aircraft deviation sources".

The main reason for usually mounting the detector unit of a remote indicating

compass in the wingtip of an aeroplane is to:

a) facilitate easy maintenance of the unit and increase its exposure to the Earth's

35

magnetic field

b) reduce the amount of deviation caused by aircraft magnetism and electrical circuits <-

- Correct

c) place it is a position where there is no electrical wiring to cause deviation errors

d) place it where it will not be subjected to electrical or magnetic interference from the

aircraft

The main advantage of a remote indicating compass over a direct reading compass

is that it:

a) is able to magnify the earth's magnetic field in order to attain greater accuracy

b) has less moving parts

c) requires less maintenance

d) senses, rather than seeks, the magnetic meridian <-- Correct

b) compensating for deviation

c) setting local magnetic variation

d) setting the heading pointe

What is the meaning of the term standard time? "It is the time set by the legal authorities

for a country or part of a country"

What is the local mean time, position 65o25N 123o45W at 2200 UTC?

Longitude East Greenwich Least

1 dg = 4 mins

22:00

08:15-

----------

or

21:60

36

08:15-

----------

13:45 time at 65°25N 123°45W (less than UTC)

(Refer to figures 061-13 and 061-15)An aircraft takes off from Guam at 2300

Standard Time on 30 April local date. After a flight of 11 HR 15 MIN it lands at Los

Angeles (California). What is the Standard Time and local date of arrival (assume

summer time rules apply)?

b) 1215 on 1 May

c) 1315 on 1 May

d) 1615 on 30 April

Solution:

10:00-

----------

13:00 30th April UTC Departure Time

11:15+ (Flight time)

----------

24:15

or

24:15

24:00- (subtracting 24:00 gains a day & adding 24:00 loses a day)

----------

00:15 1st May UTC Arrival Time at Los Angeles

37

Fig 061-15 (almanac table) shows that California is -08 UTc

08:00-

----------

or

00:15

24:00+ (subtracting 24:00 gains a day & adding 24:00 loses a day)

----------

24:15 30th April UTC Arrival Time at Los Angeles

08:00-

----------

16:15 30th April Arrival - Los Angeles Standard Time

01:00+

----------

17:15 30th April Arrival - Los Angeles Standard Time + Summer Time

Which of the following alternatives is correct when you cross the international date

line?

a) The date will increase if you are crossing on a westerly heading <-- Correct

b) The date will increase if you are crossing on a easterly heading

c) The date will always be the same

d) If you are crossing from westerly longitude to easterly longitude the date will remain

the same

Questions on Magnetism

Which of the following statements concerning the earth's magnetic field is completely

correct?

a) Dip is the angle between total magnetic field and vertical field component

b) The blue pole of the earth's magnetic field is situated in North Canada <-- Correct

c) At the earth's magnetic equator, the inclination varies depending on whether the

geographic equator is north or south of the magnetic equator

d) The earth's magnetic field can be classified as transient semi-permanent or

permanent

What is the dip angle at the South Magnetic Pole? "90 deg"

38

a) is approximately the same at all magnetic latitudes less than 60o

b) weakens with increasing distance from the magnetic poles

c) weakens with increasing distance from the nearer magnetic pole

d) is approximately the same at magnetic latitudes 50oN and 50oS <-- Correct

a) blue pole near the north pole of the earth and the direction of the magnetic force

pointing straight up from the earth's surface

b) red pole near the north pole of the earth and the direction of the magnetic force

pointing straight down to the earth's surface

c) blue pole near the north pole of the earth and the direction of the magnetic force

pointing straight down to the earth's surface <-- Correct

d) red pole near the north pole of the earth and the direction of the magnetic force

pointing straight up from the earth's surface

Area normally referred to as "North magnetic pole" is physically a "Magnetic field south

pole" (pole which the North end of a magnet would point to). Thus the earth's North

Magnetic Pole (actually the magnet's south pole) is coloured blue on maps and charts of

the earth. And the earth's South Magnetic Pole (actually the magnet's north pole) is

coloured red on maps and charts of the earth.

b) In the region of the magnetic South pole

c) In the region of the magnetic North pole

d) On the geographic equator

a) directly with the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field <-- Correct

b) directly with the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field

c) inversely with both vertical and horizontal components of the earth's magnetic field

d) inversely with the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field

b) weakens with increasing distance from the magnetic poles

c) is stronger closer to the magnetic equator <-- Correct

39

d) is approximately the same at all magnetic latitudes less than 60o

The lines on a chart joining places of equal magnetic dip are called:

b) Isogonals (equal variation)

c) Isoclinals <-- Correct

d) Agonic lines (0 variation)

b) hammering, and the effect of the earth's magnetic field, whilst under construction <--

Correct

c) the combined effect of aircraft electrical equipment and the earth's magnetic field

d) the effect of internal wiring and exposure to electrical storms

What is the UTC time of sunrise in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (49N 123

30W) on the 6th December?

a) 2324 UTC

b) 0724 UTC

c) 1552 UTC <--- Correct

d) 0738 UTC

07:39

08:14+

----------

15:53 UTC 6th Dec Sunrise UTC

Civil twilight is defined by: "sun altitude is 6 deg below the celestial horizon"

40

a) between sunset and when the centre of the sun is 12o below the true horizon

b) agreed by the international aeronautical authorities which is 12 minutes

c) needed by the sun to move from the apparent height of 0o to the apparent height of

6o

d) between sunset and when the centre of the sun is 6o below the true horizon <--

Correct

On the 27th of February, at 52oS and 040oE, the sunrise is at 0243 UTC. On the

same day, at 52oS and 035oW, the sunrise is at:

a) 2143 UTC

b) 0243 UTC

c) 0743 UTC <-- Correct

d) 0523 UTC

40E + 35W = 75 deg long. 75/15 = 5 hrs (15 deg/hr). Sun rises in the east first so it will

be 5 hrs later at 35W (0243+5 = 0743).

Another way to look at it is that the local time of sunrise is based on the latitude only

(see the almanac tables). This means that places on the same latitude will have the

same local sunrise time. So if at 52S 040E the sunrise time in UTC is 0243 then sunrise

at local time will be UTC time + 2hrs 40min (40/15 = 2.66 hrs) which becomes 0523

(longitude east UTC least). This means the local time for sunrise will also be 0523 at

position 52S and 035W because the latitude is the same. Converting 0523 local to UTC

time at 35W we have (longitude west UTC best) 0523 + 0220 = 0743.

(49o 50' N 097o 30'W) is:

Fig 061-12 is the almanac table for sunrise and sunset (be careful to read the title

properly).

LMT Sunrise at WINNIPEG (Canada) determined from the Lattude (49°50'N) only is

07:43

07:43

06:30+

----------

41

13:73

or

14:13

In 8 hours and 8 minutes the mean sun has moved how many degrees along the

celestial equator? "122"

The coordinates of the antipodes are:

a) S41o10 W177o43.5

b) S48o50 E177o43.5

c) S48o50 W177o43.5 <-- Correct

d) S41o10 E177o43.5

In geography, the antipodes of any place on Earth is the point on the Earth's surface

which is diametrically opposite to it. Two points that are antipodal to one another are

connected by a straight line running through the centre of the Earth.

Long E2.275°+180 = 182.275° showing that 2.275° has crossed the 180E/W meridian

and has gone into the other hemisphere, so it will be:

N48°50' will simply be S48°50' so option (c) is correct. To visualize you can draw a

diagram viewing the globe from above (for change of long).

An aircraft at latitude 02o20N tracks 180o(T) for 685 km. On completion of the flight

the latitude will be:

b) 04°10S

c) 04°30S

d) 09°05S

42

From a position of 2°20'N travelling towards south (180°T) by 6°10' will take the aircraft

through the equator.

2°20' Out of 6°10' will be in northern hemisphere and the remaining will be in the

southern hemisphere:

6°10'

2°20'-

----------

or

5°70

2°20'-

----------

3°50'S

ground speed of 120 kt. What are the coordinates of the position reached in 6 HR?

Cos 40 = 0.766

Flying West (270°) from E080°00' means the new long will be:

80°00'

15°40'-

-----------

or

79°60

15°40'-

-----------

64°20'E

An aircraft flies the following rhumb line tracks and distances from position 04o00N

030o00W: 600 NM South, then 600 NM East, then 600 NM North, then 600 NM West.

The final position of the aircraft is:

43

b) 04°00N 030°02W

c) 04°00N 030°00W

d) 03°58N 030°02W

From 4N 30W going south by 600nm (10 deg) will end up at 6S 30W

From 6S 30W going east by 600nm (long change = 600/cos6 = 10.06 deg) will end up

at 6S 19.94W

From 6S 19.94W going north by 600nm (10 deg) will end up at 4N 19.94W

From 4N 19.94W going west by 600nm (long change = 600/cos4 = 10.03 deg) will end

up at 6S 29.97W or 6°S 29°58'W

An aircraft starts at position 0411.0S 17812.2W and heads True North for 2950nm,

then turns 90o left maintaining a rhumb line track for 314 km. The aircraft's final position

is:

a) 5500.0N 17412.2W

b) 4500.0N 17412.2W

c) 5500.0N 17713.8E

d) 4500.0N 17713.8E <-- Correct

2950nm North = 2950/60 = 49.16° (takes the aircraft in the northern hemisphere)

From 45N a 90deg left turn for 314km makes the aircraft cross 180EW anti meridian.

314km/1.85 = 169.7nm

178.20W + 4° = 182.2

change of longitude:

a) 81o 30

b) 78o 15

c) 79o 10

d) 80o 05 <-- Correct

44

5 hours 20 minutes and 20 seconds = 5.338 Hours

1 hour = 15 deg

Given:

Position A is N00o E100o

Position B is 240o(T), 200 NM from A

What is the position of B?

a) S01o40 E101o40

b) N01o40 E097o07

c) S01o40 E097o07 <-- Correct

d) N01o40 E101o40

Angles:

240-180 = 60

270-240 = 30

New Position:

An aircraft departs a point 0400N 17000W and flies 600 nm South, followed by 600

nm East, then 600 nm North, then 600 nm West. What is its final position?

a) 0400N 17000W

b) 0600S 17000W

c) 0400N 16958.1W <-- Correct

45

d) 0400N 17001.8W

Flying 600nm South (600/60 = 10 deg) the position becomes 0600S 17000W

Flying 600nm East (600/cos6 = 10.055 deg. 170-10.055 = 159.945) the position

becomes 0600S 159.945W

Flying 600nm North (600/60 = 10 deg) the position becomes 0400N 159.945W

Flying 600nm West (600/cos4 = 10.024 deg. 159.945+10.024 = 169.969) the position

becomes 04°00'N 169°58.1'W

An aircraft at position 2700N 17000W travels 3000 km on a track of 180T, then 3000

km on a track of 090T, then 3000 km on a track of 000T, then 3000 km on a track of

270T. What is its final position?

a) 2700N 17000W

b) 0000N 17000W

c) 2700N 17318W <-- Correct

d) 2700N 14300W

3000 km South means 27 deg (after doing the required conversions). Now the aircraft

flies east on the equator. Meridians dont converge on the equator. Then it flies north for

3000 km i.e. back to Lat 27N. Then it flies west for 3000 km. Meridians will converge

here. For the same distance on equator there will be more change of longitudes here.

So position will be to the west of the original starting position. There is only one option

(c) suggesting that.

are input instead of 35o32.7N 139o46.3E. When the aircraft subsequently passes point

52o N 180oW, the longitude value show on the INS will be:

a) 080o27.4W

b) 099o32.6W <-- Correct

c) 099o32.6 E

d) 080o27.4 E

46

Change of longitude when aircraft reaches 180W = 180-139.77 = 40.23

b) depends on the type of compass installed

c) depends on the magnetic heading

d) varies slowly over time <-- Correct

a) Magnetic equator

b) North and South geographic and magnetic poles <-- Correct

c) North magnetic pole only

d) North and South magnetic poles only

b) Compass North is West of Magnetic North

c) True North is East of Magnetic North <-- Correct

47

d) Magnetic North is West of Compass North

When the Magnetic Pole is West of the True North pole variation is "- and westerly" if

its east then variation is "+ and easterly"

Complete the following statement regarding magnetic variation. The charted values

of magnetic variation on earth normally change annually due to:

b) magnetic pole movement causing numerical values at all locations to increase

c) magnetic pole movement causing numerical values at all locations to increase or

decrease <-- Correct

d) an increasing field strength causing numerical values at all locations to increase

060o15W) can be received. The magnetic variation is 31oW at HO and 28oW at YYR.

What is the radial from YYR?

a) 031

b) 208

c) 028 <-- Correct

d) 332

YYR to HO = 360, variation west magnetic best, 360 + var at YYR 28 = 028

Given:

Drift 17o left

Variation 32oW

Deviation 4oE

What is the compass heading?

a) 007

b) 033 <-- Correct

c) 359

d) 337

Drift left = wind from the right = heading into the wind. True heading to start with will be

348 + 17(drift) = 005. For the rest of calculation use the method Described Earlier

48

b) follows the geographic equator

c) is the shorter distance between the respective True and Magnetic North and South

poles

d) Follows separate paths out of the North polar regions, one currently running through

Western Europe and the other through the USA <-- Correct

b) is a maximum of 180o <-- Correct

c) is always 0o at the magnetic equator

d) is never greater than 90o

The minimum Magnetic Declination (Variation) is 0 degrees and this is along the Agonic

Line or line of zero variation. The maximum Magnetic Declination is 180 degrees and

this will be along a line between the Magnetic North Pole and the Geographic North

Pole - the magnetic compass is pointing at the Magnetic North Pole, whilst the tail of the

needle is pointing at the Geographic North Pole. The same applies at the South Pole.

The distance between the Magnetic and Geographic North Poles is only a few hundred

miles whilst the distance between the Magnetic and Geographic South Poles is roughly

1500 NM.

Source: (http://www.atpforum.eu/showthread.php?t=13955)

Deviation is:

b) a correction to be added to magnetic heading to obtain compass heading

c) a correction to be added to compass heading to obtain magnetic heading <-- Correct

d) an error to be added to compass heading to obtain magnetic heading

49

Difference betwen (b) and (c) is the sequence. Deviation is the angular difference

between the compass and the magnetic heading. Deviation needs to be added to

compass heading in order to obtain the magnetic heading i.e. Compass Heading +

Deviation = Magnetic Heading. So either you add a positive number (east deviation) or

a negative number (west deviation) you'll get the magnetic heading. Same is the case

with Magnetic and True Headings i.e. Magnetic Heading + Variation = True Heading.

Going reverse from True to Magnetic and then to Compass requires subtraction which

makes option (b) incorrect.

located at 5330N 03613W where the variation is 12W. What VOR radial is the aircraft

on?

a) 348

b) 012 <-- Correct

c) 165

d) 015

True bearing is 360. Radials are magnetic bearings FROM a VOR and are measured at

the VOR, therefore, Magnetic Variation is applied at the VOR. Variation at VOR is given

as 12W. 360 + 12 = 012 (variation west magnetic best)

When applying magnetic variation to NDB/ADF and ground feature bearings, we apply

the magnetic variation at the aircraft, as this is where the bearings are measured.

Source: (http://www.atpforum.eu/showthread.php?t=12980)

Route A (44oN 026oE) to B (46oN 024oE) forms an angle of 35o with longitude

026oE. Average magnetic variation between A and B is 3oE. What is the average

magnetic course from A to B?

b) 328o

c) 032o

d) 038o

Track is westerly (26E to 24 E) and it forms an angle of 35 deg with longitude 26E so

50

the track becomes 325 (360-35). True heading will be 325. Variation is 3E so magnetic

heading will be 322.

2) Convergency is the difference between two Great Circle Tracks at two separate

positions, i.e. the difference in Great Circle Tracks between A and B.

3) Conversion Angle is the difference between the Great Circle Tracks and the Rhumb

Line Track at any one position, i.e. either at A or B.

Lambert's Charts, which is a numerical value derived from the fact that Earth

Convergency = Chart Convergency at the Parallel of Origin.

What is the standard formula for convergency? "Convergency = dlong x sin mean

latitude"

A great circle track joins position A (59°S 141°W) and B (61°S 148°W). What is the

difference between the great circle track at A and B?

b) it decreases by 6°

c) it increases by 3°

d) it decreases by 3°

Convergency = 7 x sin 60 = 6°

The angle between the true great-circle track and the true rhumb-line track joining

the following points: A (60oS 165oW) B (60oS 177oE), at the place of departure A, is:

51

b) 9°

c) 15.6°

d) 5.2°

The angle between the true great-circle track and the true rhumb-line track is the

"conversion angle" which is half of convergency.

Change of long = 165+177= 342. Since 342 is greater than 180 we will subtract it from

360 i.e. 360-342 = 18 (change of long).

Given that:

B is N54 E 010

If the true great circle track from A to B is 100T, what is the true Rhumb Line track at

A?

a) 096

b) 107

c) 104 <-- Correct

d) 100

At "A" rhumb line track will be more than 100 and since difference between rhumb line

track and great cicle track is the conversion angle, the rhumb line track will be 104.

Given:

What will be the approximate latitude shown on the display unit of an inertial navigation

system at longitude 025°W?

52

a) 060° 11’S

b) 059° 49'S

c) 060° 00'S

d) 060° 06'S <-- Correct

The aircraft using INS will fly a great circle track. At midpoint (25W) between 30W and

20W the great circle track will be slightly south of rhumb line track. If we know one angle

and one side of the triangle, we can calculate the difference in latitude. The distance

between 30W and 25W (i.e. 150 nm) is one side of the triangle (adjacent). Conversion

angle at 30W is 4.33. Join 30W point to a point on the 25W meridian to make a right

angle triangle. The line will cut the conversion angle of 4.33 into half, so the angle of the

triangle (at 30W) becomes 4.33/2 = 2.16.

60°00'00

00°05'39+

----------

60°06'S

Waypoint 1 is 60N 30W. Waypoint 2 is 60N 20W. The aircraft autopilot is coupled to

the INS steer. What is the latitude on passing 25W?

53

b) 6011N

c) 6032N

d) 5949M

Same logic as the previous question but this time its the northern hemisphere so the

latitude will be slightly north.

A Lambert conformal conic chart has a constant of the cone of 0.80. A straight line

course drawn on this chart from A (53oN 004oW) to B is 080o at A; course at B is

092o(T). What is the longitude of B?

b) 009°36'E

c) 008°E

d) 019°E

Draw the diagram as usual. We need to know the change of longitudes so that they can

be added to position A to find the long of position B.

Given:

A is N55o 000o

B is N54o E010o

The average true course of the great circle is 100. The true course of the rhumbline at

point A is:

b) 096

c) 104

d) 107

54

Avg great circle course is 100 which will be at midpoint. At mid point great circle course

and rhumb line course is equal and since rhumb line course is constant, it will be 100 at

A. Mathematically:

Going towards east Great circle track angle is increasing i.e. 8.14 deg from A to B. So at

at A it will be 100-4.07 = 95.93

Conversion angle (0.5 x convergency) is the difference between Great circle track and

rhumb line track. 4.07 in this case. The diagram shows that at A rhumb line track is

more than great circle track. So Rhumb lin track at A = 95.93 + 4.07 = 100.

The Great Circle bearing from A (70oS 030oW) to B (70oS 060oE) is approximately:

a) 090o (T)

b) 048o (T)

c) 132o (T) <-- Correct

d) 312o (T)

Simple calculation but beware of the tendency to assume 090T considering that latitude

is the same at the two places. Question is asking for great circle bearing from A to B not

between A and B. It will be 90 between A and B. According to the diagram the angle will

be less at B and more at A. Convergency comes out to be 84.57 from A to B so at B the

great circle track at B will be 90-42.3= 47.7 and at A will be 132.3 which is the only

correct option in the question.

How many small circles can be drawn between any two points on a sphere?

"unlimited"

55

In order to fly from position A (10o00N, 030o00W) to position B (30o00N),

050o00W), maintaining a constant true course, it is necessary to fly: " a rhumb line

track"

Parallels of latitude, except the equator are: "Rhumb Lines" (since they cut the

meridians at constant angles)

Radio bearings:

b) cut all meridians at the same angle

c) are Great circles <-- Correct

d) are lines of fixed direction

A Parallel of Latitude is a:

a) Great circle

b) Rhumb line <-- Correct

c) Small circle

d) Meridian of tangency

a) Rhumb line

b) Orthodromic line <-- Correct

c) Equator

d) The rhumb line or great circle depending on the chart used

a) constant-heading track

b) rhumb line <-- Correct

c) great circle

d) constant-drift track

If you are flying along a parallel of latitude, you are flying a rhumb line track.

In which occasions does the rhumb line track and the great circle track coincide on

the surface of the Earth?

56

b) On high latitude tracks directly East-West

c) On East-West tracks in the northern hemisphere north of the magnetic equator

d) On tracks directly North-South and on East-West tracks along the Equator <--

Correct

When flying on a westerly great circle track in the Southern Hemisphere you will:

b) experience an increase in the value of true track <-- Correct

c) always have the rhumb line track between the departure point and the destination to

the left of

d) your great circle track experience a decrease in the value of true track

What is the Rhumb line (RL) direction from 45oN 14o12W to 45oN 12o48E?

a) 270° (T)

b) 090° (T) <-- Correct

c) 090° (M)

d) 270° (M)

Which of the following differences in latitude will give the biggest difference in the

initial Great Circle track and the mean Great Circle track between two points separated

by 10o change of longitude?

b) 60N and 55N <-- Correct

c) 30S and 30N

d) 30S and 25S

The initial great circle track means the track at the begining, the final great circle track

means the track at the end and the mean great circle track is the average track which is

the track at the mid-point of the great circle. The greatest track change for a given

change of longitude will be at the highest mean latitude. Highest mean latitude is 57.5N.

Source: (http://www.atpforum.eu/showthread.php?t=3148)

The following waypoints are entered into an inertial navigation system (INS)

WPT 2: 60N 20W

WPT 3: 60N 10W

The intertial navigation is connected to the automatic pilot on the route WP1-WP2-WP3.

The track change on passing WPT:

a) 1 9 deg increase

57

b) 1 4 deg decrease

c) zero

d) a 9 deg decrease <-- Correct

An aircraft flies a great circle track from 56o N 070o W to 62o N 110o E. The total

distance travelled is:

a) 2040 NM

b) 1788 NM

c) 5420 NM

d) 3720 NM <-- Correct

Change of longitude from 70W to 110E is 180. Two points opposite to each other at

56N and 62N shows that the great circle track from one point to the other will be over

58

the pole. So we just have to calculate the change of latitude. From 56N to Pole = 34

(90-56) and from Pole to 62N = 28 (90-62). Change of lat = 34+28 = 62. 62 x 60 = 3720

nm.

007o30W) is:

a) 150 NM

b) 450 NM

c) 600 NM

d) 300 NM <-- Correct

The rhumb line track between position A (45o00N, 010o00W) and position B

(48o30N, 015o00W) is approximately:

a) 345

b) 300

c) 330

d) 315 <-- Correct

No given track, points at different latitudes, no highest latitudes given, the only option

left is trigonometry.

360-45 = 315

Convergency = 3.64 and conversion angle = 1.8 so Rhumb line track is approx = 313.2

(At A it is less than great circle track).

59

In the Northern Hemisphere the rhumb line track from position A to B is 230o, the

convergency is 6o and the difference in longitude is 10o. What is the initial rhumb line

track from B to A?

b) 053

c) 056

d) 047

Reciprocal of 230 from B to A will be 050. Rhumb line track remains the same. If it was

great circle then we would have applied the conversion angle to get the rhumb line

track. But be careful as options with applied conversion angle are present here.

The great circle bearing of position B from position A in the Northern Hemisphere is

040o. If the Conversion Angle is 4o, what is the great circle bearing of A from B?

b) 212

c) 220

d) 224

This cant be reciprocal of 040 because great circle track (GCT) changes due to

convergency. Convergency in this case will be 8 (double of conversion angle).

If the diagram is drawn it shows that GCT increases while going east in northern

hemisphere. Thus at B the track will be 40+8 = 48. From B to A it will be reciprocal of 48

i.e. 228.

The initial great circle track from A to B is 080o and the rhumb line track is 083o.

What is the initial great circle track from B to A and in which Hemisphere are the two

positions located?

b) 260o and in the southern hemisphere

c) 260o and in the northern hemisphere

d) 266o and in the southern hemisphere

From A to B, Rhumb line track (RLT) of 83 is greater than Great circle track (GCT) of

80. This indicates that RLT is south of GCT i.e. the situation in Northern Hemisphere.

Conversion angle is 3 so convergency will be 6. Initial GCT from A to B is 80 (i.e. at A).

If convergency is 6 then at B GCT will be 86 (going east GCT increases in NH). So GCT

from B to A will be reciprocal of 86 i.e. 266.

Assuming mid-latitudes (40° to 50° N/S). At which time of year is the relationship

between the length of day and night, as well as the rate of change of declination of the

sun, changing at the greatest rate?

60

a) Summer solstice and spring equinox

b) Spring equinox and autumn equinox <-- Correct

c) Summer solstice and winter solstice

d) Winter solstice and autumn equinox

What is the approximate date of perihelion, when the Earth is nearest to the Sun?

b) End of December

c) Beginning of July

d) End of March

At what approximate date is the earth furthest from the sun (aphelion)?

b) End of December

c) Beginning of January

d) End of September

b) inclination of the polar axis with the ecliptic plane <-- Correct

c) Earth's rotation on its polar axis

d) variable distance between Earth and Sun

The angle between the plane of the Equator and the plane of the Ecliptic is: "23.5

deg"

In which two months of the year is the difference between the transit of the Apparent

Sun and mean Sun across the Greenwich Meridian the greatest?

b) February and November <-- Correct

c) June and December

d) April and August

At what time of the year is the Earth at its furthest point from the sun (aphelion)?

b) Late December

c) Early January

d) Mid-June

61

Which is the highest latitude listed below at which the sun will rise above the horizon

and set every day? "66 degrees"

The main reason that day and night, throughout the year, have different duration is

due to the:

b) earth's rotation

c) relative speed of the sun along the ecliptic

d) gravitational effect of the sun and moon on the speed of rotation of the earth

What is the highest latitude listed below at which the sun will reach an altitude of 90o

above the horizon at some time during the year?

a) 0o

b) 45o

c) 66o

d) 23o <-- Correct

a) round

b) an oblate spheroid <-- Correct

c) a globe

d) elliptical

Given: Value for the ellipticity of the Earth is 1/297. Earth's semi-major axis, as

measured at the equator, equals 6378.4 km. What is the semi-minor axis (km) of the

earth at the axis of the Poles?

Equitorial Axis (Semi-Major Axis) is greater than the polar axis (Semi-Minor Axis).

Value for the ellipticity of the Earth is 1/297 (as given in the question).

This means that the semi-minor (polar) axis is 1/297 shorter than the semi-major

(equitorial) axis.

62

If equitorial (semi-major) axis is 6378.4 km then semi-minor (polar) axis is:

At what approximate latitude is the length of one minute of arc along a meridian

equal to one NM (1852 m)

correct?

b) 0°

c) 90°

d) 30°

For most practical navigation purposes, all of the following units are used

interchangeably as the equivalent of one nautical mile:

(b) one minute of arc of a great circle on a sphere having an area equal to that of the

earth;

(c) one minute of arc on the earth’s equator, or 6076.10 ft (1851.9952 m);

(d) one minute of arc of the meridian or one minute of latitude.

This, however, varies between 1843m (6046.58793 ft) at the equator, 1853m

(6079.3963 ft) at 45°N and S latitude, and 1862 m (6108.9238 ft) at the poles because

the earth is an oblate spheroid. However, for the purpose of navigation, the International

Nautical Mile of 1852 m (6076.1033 ft) has been adapted as the standard for air

navigation.

The maximum difference between geocentric and geodetic latitude occurs at about:

b) 60° North and South

c) 45° North and South <-- Correct

d) 0° North and South (equator)

If an aeroplane was to circle around the Earth following parallel 60oN at a ground

63

speed of 480 kt. In order to circle around the Earth along the equator in the same

amount of time, it should fly at a ground speed of:

a) 550 kt

b) 240 kt

c) 960 kt <-- Correct

d) 480 kt

Since equator is double the distance as compared to the parallel 60N the speed will

have tobe doubled i.e. 480 x 2 = 960 to circle in the same time.

Mathematically:

a) 18 500 km

b) 6350 km

c) 12700 km <-- Correct

d) 40000 km

If you know the circumference which is 40,000 km then you can calcualte the radius

from the formula:

Circumference = 2.Pi.r

Diameter = 2 x radius

b) A sphere whose centre is equidistant (the same distance) from the Poles and the

Equator

c) Considered to be a perfect sphere as far as navigation is concerned <-- Correct

d) None of the above statements is correct

Modern navigation systems use reference systems based on the true elliptical shape of

the earth. Most common is the World Geodetic System of 1984 or WGS84.

64

Sunrise, Sunset and Twilight

Sunrise is the time when the sun just rises over the horizon.

Morning civil twilight starts when the sun is 6° below the horizon and ends at sunrise.

Evening civil twilight starts at sunset and ends when the sun is 6° below the horizon.

Sun rises at different times at different longitudes (earth's rotation and different latitudes

because earth's axis is tilted).

a) Sunrise

b) Sunset

These LMT are for different latitudes. They are calculated for Greenwich meridian but

are valid for all longitudes.

e.g. If sun rises at 0600 LMT at 53°N it means that at all longitudes on that particular

day the sun rises at 53°N 6 hours before noon.

An arc to time conversion to UTC followed by a standard time correction will then be

needed to get the standard time of sunrise.

e.g. The sun rises at 0629 LMT on the 6th of March in Sofia, Bulgaria (43°N 019°E).

Find the ST of sunrise?

01:16-

----------

05:13 6th March UTC Sunrise

65

2) Standard Time Correction

The Almanac shows that time correction for Bulgaria is 2 hrs and (for places east of

Greenwich) it has to be added to UTC to get standard time, so:

02:00+

----------

07:13 6th March Standard Time for Sunrise in Sofia

Calculations Involved

Example.1. What is the standard time of sunset on the 5th of February at Tokyo, Japan

(43°N 141°E)?

First we need the LMT of sunset on the 5th of February at Tokyo, from the Air Almanac.

1) Converting to UTC

09:24-

----------

or

66

16:76

09:24-

----------

07:52 5th Feb UTC Sunset

09:00+

----------

16:52 5th Feb Sunset - Tokyo Standard Time

Example.2. What is the duration of morning civil twilight at 52°N 078°W on 8th

January?

Morning civil twilight starts when the sun is 6° below the horizon and ends at sunrise.

According to the table, at 52N and 8th Jan, the start time for morning civil twilight is

07:26

Sunrise time at 52N on the 8th of Jan (according to the table) is 08:06

08:06

07:26-

----------

or

07:66

07:26-

----------

00:40

i.e. 40 minutes

Example.3. An aircraft departs JFK Airport, New York America (41°N 074°W) on a 6

hour 20 minute flight to land at Frankfurt, Germany (51°N 008°E) not later than half an

hour after sunset on the 18th of November. Determine the latest ST for take-off?

67

Sunset time on 18th Nov + 30 minutes

LMT for Sunset at Frankfurt on the 18th of Nov (according to the Air Almanac) is 16:08,

so:

16:08

00:30+

----------

16:38 18th Nov - Frankfurt landing time restriction in LMT

16:38

00:32-

----------

16:06 18th Nov - Landing time restriction in UTC

06:20- (Flight time)

----------

or

15:66

06:20-

----------

09:46 18th Nov (Departure time in UTC from JFK)

05:00-

Standard Time

In order to avoid the problem of having different local times at every longitude of the

country a single time was established for the whole country known as the Standard

Time.

GMT (now called UTC) was adopted as the standard for the United Kingdom.

68

All countries keep a standard time with reference to UTC.

There is a single standard time for the entire country unless it is very large and needs

more than one standard time.

In most cases, standard time is calculated by taking every 15th meridian of longitude

and places 7.5° either side of it will use whole hour increment differences from UTC.

Usually places between 7.5°W and 7.5°E keep UTC as standard time.

Places between 7.5°E and 22.5°E (7.5+15) keep UTC +1 hour as standard time.

Places between 22.5°E and 37.5°E (22.5+15) keep UTC +2 hours as ST and so on.

Example.1. The Standard time in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (11°N 107°E) is 0900 on

the 12th of April. Find the Standard Time in Atlanta, Georgia, USA (34°N 083°W).

The Almanac shows that time correction for Vietnam is 7 hrs and (for places east of

Greenwich) it has to be subtracted from standard time to get UTC, so:

07:00-

----------

02:00 12th April UTC

The Almanac shows that time correction for Georgia is 5 hrs and (for places west of

Greenwich) it has to be subtracted from UTC to get standard time, so:

05:00-

----------

or

05:00-

----------

21:00 11th April Atlanta Standard Time

69

Example.2. A mix of LMT and Standard Time. It is 1927 LMT in Fiji (18°S 178°E) on the

8th of January. Find the ST in Hawaii, USA (19°N 156°W).

11:52-

----------

or

18:87

11:52-

----------

07:35 8th Jan UTC

The Almanac shows that time correction for Hawaii is 10 hrs and (for places west of

Greenwich) it has to be subtracted from UTC to get standard time, so:

10:00-

----------

or

10:00-

----------

21:35 7th Jan Hawaii Standard Time

360° = 24 hrs

70

1° = 4 minutes (0.066 hrs)

While doing the local mean time conversions, it is recommended to go through UTC.

Example .1. It is 1742 LMT on the 30th of July in Bermuda (33°N 065°W). Find the LMT

and date in Madras (14°N 080°E)?

04:20+

----------

21:62

00:60-

----------

22:02 UTC 30th July

05:20+

----------

27:22

24:00- (new day after 2400, date change)

----------

03:22 31st July - LMT Madras

Example .2. It is 0112 LMT on the 25th of October at A (18°S 140°E) what is the LMT at

B (26°N 081°W)?

71

1) Convert LMT of A into UTC

09:20-

----------

or

09:20-

----------

or

09:20-

----------

15:52 UTC 24th October

05:24-

----------

10:28 24th October - LMT at B

72

In our solar system, planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits.

The Earth moves slightly closer and further away from the Sun during its yearly orbit.

The point where the Sun is furthest from the earth is aphelion.

The point where the Sun is closest from the earth is perihelion.

The orbital plane of the Earth is called the ecliptic, or the plane of the ecliptic.

The angle between the plane of the ecliptic and the Earth's equator is 23.5°

Due to tilt of the earth's axis when northern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun it is

summer in northern hemisphere (winter in southern hemisphere).

Due to tilt of the earth's axis when northern hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun it is

winter in northern hemisphere (summer in southern hemisphere).

Tilt of the earth's axis also accounts for longer nights in winter and the longer days in

summer.

Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn are the highest latitudes where the Sun will be directly

overhead.

Sun will be overhead 23.5°N in June (northern hemisphere summer solstice and the

longest day).

Sun will be overhead 23.5°S in December (northern hemisphere winter solstice and the

longest night).

73

The highest latitude at which the Sun will always rise and set is 66.5° (angle between

the Earth's axis and the plane of the ecliptic).

Above 66.5° (extreme northern and southern latitudes) there wil be sometimes in

winters when there is no sunrise.

Between the solstices are the equinoxes, when the Sun is passing over the equator.

Night and day are of equal lengths.

At a given time of year, the angle that the Sun is above or below the equator determines

the season and affects the length of daylight/night.

The angle is known as Declination (analogous in the sky to latitude on the Earth).

The Sun's declination changes annually between 23.5°N (Sun overhead the tropic of

Cancer) through 0° (Sun overhead the Equator) to 23.5°S (Sun overhead the Tropic of

Capricorn) and then back through 0° to 23.5°N.

The length of daylight/night at a given latitude varies with the declination of the Sun.

The rate of change of the length of daylight will therefore be greatest when the rate of

change of declination is greatest.

This situation occurs at the equinoxes (about Mar 21 and Sep 21). Not true in some

cases (when the latitude considered is either the Equator or is above 66° N/S)

74

• First Law: The Orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the foci.

• Second Law: The line joining the planet to the Sun (radius vector) sweeps out equal

area in equal time.

• Third Law: The square of the time a planet takes to go around the Sun (sidereal

period) is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the Sun.

Because of its elliptical orbit, the planet will be at its closest point at P.

At position A, the planet is at a point furthest from the Sun known as "Aphelion".

At position B, while the planet approaches aphelion (A), the radius vector SB will sweep

out the area SBA in the time between B and A.

radius vector SQ (which is shorter than SB) to move faster than SB to ensure that the

area SQP has the same area as SBA.

75

Thus the planet moves faster around its orbit near perihelion than it travels around its

orbit near aphelion.

Change of seasons are not governed by the Earth's distance from the Sun.

The effect of the distance change between 91.4 million statute miles at perihelion and

94.6 million statute miles at aphelion would only be to change the amount of heat

received by the Earth by about 3%.

This is not enough to explain the marked changes between the summer and winter.

The predominant cause of the seasons is the inclination (tilt) of the earth.

The Earth's axis is inclined (tilted) at an angle of 66.5° to its orbital plane and this is

often stated as 23.5' to the normal to the orbital plane, i.e. 90°-66.5° = 23.5°.

76

Measurement of Day

A "day" may be defined as the length of time taken for the Earth to rotate once about its

axis measured against a celestial body, e.g., the Sun or a star.

77

Measurements against the Sun arc called 'solar'.

Civil Day

a) related to periods of light and darkness so that 1200 hrs is always about halfway

between sunrise and sunset. The civil day should therefore be based on the Sun.

b) of a constant length.

Sidereal Day

A Sidereal Day is measured against a distant star and is of nearly constant length.

However, it is not related to light and dark and is not suitable as a civil day.

An observer at position Z would have the Sun and a distant star directly over his

meridian.

After one complete anti-clockwise rotation of the Earth, the Sun and the star would be

over the observer's meridian again.

The apparent solar day and the sidereal day (based on the star) would be equal.

78

However this is is not true because earth is not stationary.

After a 360° revolution, the distant star is again over the observers meridian (a sidereal

day) but an additional rotation and further orbit to position C is needed put the Sun

again over the observer's meridian.

Since the Earth's orbital speed changes throughout the year, an Apparent Solar Day

cannot be of constant length.

The Mean Solar Day is the average length of an apparent solar day (averaged over the

year).

It is used as the 'civil' day and is divided into hours, minutes and seconds of "mean"

time.

In the case of mean time, we consider the mean (average) Sun circling the earth every

24 hours (sun movement is just an assumption to visualize).

The maximum difference between Mean Time and apparent (real) sun time is about 16

minutes and occurs in mid-November.

In November, the real Sun crosses an observer's meridian at 1144 whereas the mean

sun crosses the meridian 16 minutes later at 1200 LMT (by definition).

In February, the real sun crosses a meridian at 1214 whereas the mean sun crosses 14

minutes earlier at 1200 LMT (by definition).

aircraft is 4 NM left of course. To reach destination B, the correction angle on the

79

heading should be:

1 in 60 Rule Solution:

3) Total Correction

Trigonometric Solution:

Tan of Angle = 4 / 15

80

Angle = Inv Tan 0.266

Tan of Angle = 4 / 75

3) Total Correction

Example.2.

A feature is noted on a relative bearing of 085°. Two minutes later the same feature is

on a relative bearing of 090°. If the aircraft has a groundspeed of 120 KT what is the

range of the aircraft from the feature?

Solution:

Tan 5 = 4/Adjacent

81

Bearing and Q Codes

Relative bearing

Relative bearing is the bearing measured from the aircraft fore and aft axis.

If the sum is more than 360 then subtract 360 from it to find the bearing

Example:

An aircraft is heading 100°M and identifies a feature on a bearing of 270° relative. The

magnetic bearing from the aircraft to the feature is 010°M

370-360 = 010

82

2) Heights on the glideslope can be calculated using a formula:

3) Heights on the glideslope can be calculated usg "one in sixty rule" (for just

approximate answers):

i.e. for a 3° glidepath, estimated height is 300 ft per mile from touchdown.

Note: If distance is given from the threshold instead of the touchdown point then you will

have to add 50 feet.

83

Calculating Rates of Descent on a Glidepath

e.g. if glide slope is 3 deg and Ground speed is 140 knots then:

X = rate of descent

Y = 140 knots

84

Rate of Descent = 7.33 nm per hour

or

For a 3 degree glide slope and assuming 6000 feet in a nautical mile the formula can be

simplified to:

e.g. required rate of descent for a 3 deg glidepath at a ground speed of 130 kt is 5 x 130

= 650 ft/min.

However this only applies to a 3 degree glideslope. For glidepaths more or less than 3

deg the rate of descent must be adjusted. e.g.

for a 3.5 deg glidepath and 140 kt of ground speed the rate of descent required is 5 x

140 x 3.5 / 3 = 817 ft/min

Altimeter Calculations

Example.1. An aircraft is flying at FL45 and the highest terrain en route is 3200 ft. If the

QNH is 990 hPa. assuming 1 hPa = 30 ft, the terrain clearance will be:

Answer: 610 ft

Solution:

85

The datum for terrain height is QNH

So when we want to compare two things we need to have the same datum, regardless

of which one we want to use.

In the question the terrain height is 3200 feet above sea level so datum is QNH

Instead of QNE 1013 if we set QNH 990 (given in the question) the altimeter will read

less than it was reading before.

So at a QNH of 990 the aircrfat height will be 4500 - 690 = 3810 ft.

Thus the height difference (or terrain clearance) between aircraft and terrian wil be 3810

- 3200 = 610 ft

The other way of doing it so change the datum for terrain i.e. QNE instead of QNH

Example.2. An aircraft is flying at FL150, with an outside air temperature of -30° above

an airport where the elevation is 1660 ft and the QNH is 993 hPa. Calculate the true

altitude.

Solution:

thumb is first do the baro correction then the temperature.

QNH is 993

Thus setting QNH on subscale will dial down the altimeter by 20hpa

86

So after pressure correction the height will be 15000 - 600 = 14,400 feet

At 14,400 (assuming it to be the same i.e. -30) the ISA deviation is ISA -15

Since the temperature is colder than standard the true aircraft height will be less (see

the meteorology section for reasoning)

Example.1. What is the density altitude when the airfield elevation is 3000 ft amsl and

the surface temperature is +25°C?

Solution:

Surface temperature = 25

When its warmer than standard, the density altitude will be high and vice versa.

Mercator Calculations

Mercator Calculations

Example .1. On a Mercators projection a straight line is drawn between A (40°N 050°W)

and B (50°N 060°W). Calculate the angle between the straight line and the great circle

in position A.

87

Answer: 3.5°

Solution:

Angle between the great circle and the rhumb line is conversion angle which is half of

convergency.

Change of long = 10

Mean Lat = 45

Example .2. Given that the scale at the equator on a Mercator chart is 1:2 000 000 find

the scale at 42°S.

Solution:

Example .3. On a direct Mercator projection, at latitude 45° North a certain length

represents 70 NM. At latitude 30° North, the same length represents approximately?

Answer: 86 NM

Solution:

On a mercator the scale is correct at the equator and expands north and south of it.

Scale is defined as the ratio of chart distance to earth distance i.e. Scale = Chart

Distance / Earth Distance.

e.g. If Chart Distance is 1 and earth distance is 10 then the scale value is 0.1 (i.e. 1/10).

For a scale to expand (i.e. to become more than 0.1) the denominator (earth distance)

has to decrease. Therefore on a Mercator when we know that scale is expanding with

increase in the latitude then it is mathematically obvious that the earth distance is

decreasing.

88

Therefore earth distance gets smaller while going away from the equator and gets

bigger while going towards the equator.

At latitude 30°N the same length represents "More than 70" as earth distance will

increase since we are going towards the equator.

Cos 45 = 0.707

Cos 30 = 0.866

0.866/0.707 = 1.225

If you know the concept that earth distance gets smaller while going away from the

equator and gets bigger while going towards the equator, you cant go wrong even if you

mess up while determining and applying the factor.

0.707/0.866 = 0.816

then 70 x 0.816 = 57 which will indicate that it is less than 70 and not correct as the

answer has to be above 70 since we are going towards the equator.

0.866/0.707 = 1.225 and then instead of multiplying you divide 70 by this, you'll end up

with:

Mercator's Projection

89

It is also referred to as Direct Mercator and is one of the older types.

The projection in this case is on a cylinder of paper wrapped around the reduced earth,

touching at the equator.

It is no longer used in aviation (primarily a nautical chart) except for an occasional met

chart.

Convergency

Great Circles

90

Great circles that cross the equator (meridians) at right angles are straight lines.

Moving away from equator (i.e. from point of correct convergency) the great circles

become curved, concave to the equator.

However near the equator, great circles are close to straight lines.

Rhumb Lines

Rhumb line is a line that cuts all the meridians at the same angle.

Scale

Meridians which normally converge towards the pole are distorted to parallel straight

lines on a mercator.

Thus departure which decreases with latitude on the earth is now constant.

This indicates that there is east/west expansion of the scale with increase in latitude.

The diagram shows that the distance between parallels (which is constant on the earth)

increases with latitude on a mercator.

or

As scale varies with latitude it is normal for Mercator scale to be given at only one

latitude.

91

Mercator scale can be assumed to be constant over small areas (usually within 500NM

of the equator).

Example .1.

The standard parallels of a Lambert's conical projection are 07°40'N and 38°20'N. The

constant of the cone for this chart is approximately?

Answer: 0.39

Solution:

Constant of the cone (convergency factor or "n") is the sine of the latitude of the parallel

of origin.

Latitude of the parallel of origin is roughly halfway between the standard parallels.

46° / 2 = 23°

and

Sine of Latitude of the parallel of origin = Sin 23° = 0.39 (come constant, convergency

factor or "n")

Example .2.

A Lambert conformal conic chart has a constant of the cone of 0.75. The initial course of

a straight line track drawn on this chart from A (40°N 050°W) to B is 043°(T) at A. The

course at B is 055°(T). What is the longitude of B?

Answer: 34°W

Solution:

92

Chart Convergency = Change of Longitutde x Sin of Latitude of Parallel of Origin.

and Sin of Latitude of Parallel of Origin is cone constant which is given as 0.75

so

Increasing track angle in northern hemisphere (40°N) means the direction is from west

to east.

Example .3.

From A (50°05.9'N 013°41.5'E) to B (50°05.9'N 008°38.3'E) the initial true track along

the straight line drawn on the chart is 272°. The constant of the cone of this Lambert

conformal projection is?

Answer: 0.80

Solution:

93

Sin parallel of origin = Convergency / Change of long

The difference between great circle track and rhumb line track is conversion angle

which in this case is 2 (272-270).

So

Example .4.

A straight line from A (53°S 155°E) to B (53°S 170°W) is drawn on a Lambert Conformal

conical chart with standard parallels at 50°S and 56°S. When passing 175°W. the True

Track is?

Ansswer: 080°

Solution:

For determining the direction first visualize the locations by keeping the bigger picture in

mind (looking at the globe from above):

94

Observing from point "X" the direction from point A to B is easterly.

If we know the conversion angle we can calculate the initial great circle track.

95

Chart Convergency = Change of long x Sin Lat Parallel of Origin

or

Change of long = 180 - 155 = 25 and 180 - 170 = 10 making it 35° (25+10)

So

Conversion angle (difference between rhumb line and great circle track) is half of

convergency = 28/2 = 14°

According to the diagram it is less (red line) than great circle track (green line)

According to the diagram, going towards east in southern hemisphere, the great circle

track angle is decreasing (blue line):

Since the cone cuts into the earth it is not literally a projection.

96

Convergency

The Lamberts chart has a parallel of origin where the cone is parallel to the tangent.

The latitude of this parallel still determines the amount of chart convergency.

Great circles that cut the parallel of origin at right angles (meriadians) are also straight

lines.

Near to the parallel of origin great circles are not exactly straight but neartly straight.

To be precsie they are very slightly curved, being concave to the parallel of origin.

The distortion is however very small provided the spread of latitudes is controlled.

Since the spread of latitude is controlled, great circles are assumed to be straight lines.

97

Scale on Lambert's Conformal

In Lambert's conformal there are two latitudes where the chart touches the reduced

earth.

Between the standard parallels, scale will contract (distance on reduced earth is greater

than chart distance).

spacing the standard parallels and limiting the latitudes.

Maximum spread of latitudes on a lamberts chart is 24° with no more than two thirds of

the chart, 16° maximum, being between the standard parallels.

The limit does not preclude taking a smaller spread of latitudes or from creating a large

Lamberts projection and only using sections of it.

Because of the mathematics invloved, the parallel of origin is slightly closer to the pole

rather than being exactly mid-way between the standard parallels.

Lamberts is used for aviation charts (except polar flights), topographical maps and

meteorological charts

Conic Projection

Convergency

When the cone is unwrapped (or developed) the meridians are straight lines and slope

in at a constant angle towards the poles.

However meridians on the earth change their slope relative to each other (zero at the

equator, maximum at the poles).

98

Since the meridians are straight (on this chart) convergency is constant at all latitudes.

However it can only be correct at one the latitude i.e. where the cone is tangential to

and touches the reduced earth.

Earth convergency at the latitude of "the parallel of origin" = Change of Longitude x Sin

latitude of Parallel of Origin.

This formula is correct for both earth and chart convergency at the parallel of origin.

The sine of the parallel of origin (constant of the cone, convergency factor, "n") is

printed on the map itself.

Scale Expansion

The simple conic suffers from scale expansion north and south of the point where the

cone touches the earth.

Scale expansion can be reduced by slicing the cone into the reduced earth.

This ends up with areas where where scale contracts and areas where it expands.

99

However overall there is a larger area where scale does not vary too much.

Chart Projection

Conformal or Orthomorphic

If the angles and distances are shown correctly then the shape will be correct on the

map otherwise it will be distorted.

If a chart shows shapes (and therefore angles and distances) correctly over at least a

small distance then it is called conformal or orthomorphic.

Scale

Chart Projections

Earliest conformal charts were produced by taking a wire model of the earth with a light

source inside it.

Shadows of the wires are then traced onto the paper, which represents the meridians

and parallels.

Since the paper can be wrapped in several ways, several different styles of charts can

be produced.

100

Distortions

earth.

Compass Swing

Deviation varies with magnetic latitude, heading and aircraft electronic equipment.

Aircraft is then positioned lined up with magnetic north, south, east and west.

Residual deviation should be within limits (typically 10 deg for a light aircraft compass).

Deviation is recorded on a compass correction card and positioned near the compass.

• Lightning strike.

Dip

The earth's Geographic and Magnetic Poles are not located at the same positions.

101

The Geographic North Pole is found at 90°N and the South Pole at 90°S.

Actual Magnetic North Pole is located at approximately 83°N and the Magnetic South

Pole at approximately 65°S.

The resultant or total magnetic force can be divided into a horizontal component (H) and

a vertical component (Z).

The horizontal component of earth's magnetic field is known as the "Directive Force",

which aligns the compass needle.

The angle between the earth horizontal and the resultant force is called dip.

Zero dip will be along the magnetic equator i.e the aclinic line (line joining points of zero

zip).

Direct reading compass will be most effective when "Directive Force is Maximum" and

"Dip is Minimum" i.e. at the aclinic line (about half way between the magnetic poles).

At very high latitudes close to the magnetic poles the horizontal component (H) is too

small to use.

This is the compass unreliability area called the six micro tesla zone.

Variation

It is the angle between the true meridian and the magnetic meridian.

102

The line along which variation is zero is called the agonic line.

Lines joining points of equal variation on the earth's surface are called isogonals.

Earth's magnetic pole slowly moves around the true pole causing variation changes

over time.

Variation is measured in degrees and is described as East (+) or West (-) according to

whether magnetic north lies to the east or west of true north.

Deviation

103

The earth's magnetic field is distorted by the metal and the electrical equipment around

it.

Thus the compass needle will deviate from magnetic north and will indicates a direction

which is known as "Compass North"

Difference between the direction of magnetic north and compass north is called

deviation.

Deviation (interference between aircraft's magnetic fields and earth's magnetic field)

varies with:

Example 1: True heading is 005°T, variation 32°W, deviation 4°E What is the compass

heading'?

Solution:

Example 2: Compass heading 233°C, True Heading 246°T, Deviation -3° What is the

variation?

104

Answer: 16°E

Solution:

Magnetism

Not all pieces of iron and steel are magnetic. They can be magnetised and

demagnetised.

Iron that becomes saturated easily also lose magnetism easily and are known as soft

iron.

Iron that is difficult to magnetise keeps its magnetism and is known as hard iron.

Magnetising Methods

3) Placing an iron bar inside a solenoid with a strong DC current passing through it.

Demagnetising Methods

105

1) When the iron is heated it loses its magnetism at around 900°C and stays

demagnetised on cooling.

2) Placing an iron bar in an oscillating magnetic field inside an AC current coil and

gradually reducing the field strength to zero.

Magnetic Field

Magnetic field can be represented by lines of force leaving one pole and going into the

other.

Soft iron placed in a magnetic field will deflect the field lines and can on occasion leave

an air gap where there is no field.

The actual pole is not at the end of the magnet, but some distance inside.

Short fat magnets (like earth) have the pole further in (thus compass needles point

down into the earth near the poles).

106

Area normally referred to as "North magnetic pole" is physically a "Magnetic field south

pole" (pole which the North end of a magnet would point to).

Thus the earth's North Magnetic Pole (actually the magnet's south pole) is coloured blue

on maps and charts of the earth.

And the earth's South Magnetic Pole (actually the magnet's north pole) is coloured red

on maps and charts of the earth.

Rhumb Line

Aircraft that do not have equipment to fly great circle tracks can only fly a constant

direction between two points.

Since great circle track is the shortest distance, lines that are drawn with a constant

direction are longer tracks as compared to great circle tracks.

A rhumb line between any two points will always lie on the equatorial side of the

equivalent great circle.

107

At the mid point the rhumb line track and the great circle track are parallel.

In the diagram, Great circle track is 80 deg at A and 120 deg at B i.e. a convergency of

40.

Half way along the great circle track the direction will be half way between 80 and 120

i.e. 100°

Therefore the rhumb line track direction at this point is also 100°.

Since a rhumb line is a line of constant direction, 100° is also its track direction at A and

at B.

Conversion Angle

The angle between the great circle and the rhumb line is the conversion angle.

This angle between the great circle and rhumb line tracks at either end is half the

convergency.

Example:

108

Given that the initial great circle track between A (44°S 170°E) and B (32°S 160°W) is

078°T find the rhumb line track from A to B measured at 160°W.

Answer: 069°T

Solution:

Carry out the following steps to make a sketch before starting off with calculations.

1. Draw a horizontal line representing the track from one point to another.

2. Look at the latitude. If its the Northern hemisphere then draw the meridians

converging on the top (like they do towards the pole in the northern hemisphere). If its

the Southern hemisphere then draw the meridians converging at the bottom (like they

do towards the pole in the southern hemisphere).

3. Look at the longitudes (i.e. general track direction). If it is easterly then draw it left to

right. If it is westerly draw it right to left.

4. Draw the rhumb line bearing in mind that it lies on the equitorial side (great circle is

on the polar side).

It is the southern hemisphere with an easterly track and rhumb line will be north of great

circle. So the sketch will look like this:

5. The formulas:

109

So 9 degrees (conversion angle) is the difference between rhumb line track and great

circle track.

The fig shows that rhumb line track angle at A is less than the great circle track.

Since great circle track was 078, rhumb line track will be 078 - 9 = 069°T

Since the track direction is the same all along (according to the definition) the answer is

069°T

Therefore straight lines drawn on the earth have different directions along their track.

Since the change of direction on a straight line is due to converging of meridians, the

effect is called convergency.

Convergency is how much the great circle track changes because of converging

meridians.

110

Great Circle tracks mark the shortest distance between two points. This is an advantage

so great circle tracks are used for navigation whenever possible.

Because of convergency great circles usually have a changing track direction along

their length. This is a disadvantage as it requires advanced navigation equipment

(RNAV system) to fly this.

The Equator and all Meridians are Great Circles. These great circles do not have a

changing track direction.

Any circle that is not a great circle is called a small circle e.g. Parallels of latitude.

Track direction changes between two points i.e. convergency can be calculated.

It is also dependent on distance of travel.

A short track will have little changes while there are more changes for a longer track.

111

Formula to calculate convergency is:

e.g. If between two points the change of longitude is 85 and mean latitude is 50 then:

It means that between points A and B the track has changed by 60 degrees.

Example:

Given that the initial great circle track from A (38°N 009°W) to B (25°N 078°W) is 274°T,

find the final great circle track.

Answer: 238°T

Solution:

Carry out the following steps to make a sketch before starting off with calculations.

1. Draw a horizontal line representing the track from one point to another.

2. Look at the latitude. If its the Northern hemisphere then draw the meridians

converging on the top (like they do towards the pole in the northern hemisphere). If its

the Southern hemisphere then draw the meridians converging at the bottom (like they

do towards the pole in the southern hemisphere).

3. Look at the longitudes (i.e. general track direction). If it is easterly then draw it left to

right. If it is westerly draw it right to left.

It is the northern hemisphere and the track is westerly so the sketch will look like this:

112

4. The formula: Convergency = Change of Longitude x Sine Mean Latitude

The diagram shows that the final track angle (at B) is less than than the initial track

angle.

If initial track angle (as given) was 274 then final track angle is 274 - 36 = 238°T

When points lie on opposite meridians i.e. one on a meridian and the other one opposite

on its anti-meridian then the shortest distance between them goes over the pole.

This condition can be checked by adding the longitudes and observing that they add

upto 180.

Example: Find the shortest distance between 56°N 070°W and 62°N 110°E

Answer: 3720 NM

Solution:

Longitudes 70W and 110E adds upto 180 showing that this track is over the pole.

113

Point 1 at 56°N is (90-56) 34 deg below the pole

Thus going from point 1 to 2 over the pole means covering (34+28 ) 62 degrees.

One nautical mile is the distance subtended by one minute of arc on the earth's

circumference.

earth's circumference (0 deg latitude).

Since a Parallel of latitude is not a circumference, the distance becomes less as latitude

is increased.

At the poles (where meridians converge) the distance between the meridians becomes

zero.

Departure is the east/west distance between the poles and the equator along a parallel

of latitude.

Example: An aircraft departs from position A (04°10'S 178°22'W) and flies northward,

following the meridian, for 2950 NM. It then flies westward along the parallel of latitude

for 382 NM to position B. What are the coordinates of position B?

Solution:

NM.

114

2950 minutes / 60 = 49.16 degrees or 49°10'

Starting latitude was 04°10'S and the aircraft flew towards north.

While flying north the change of latitude will be 49°10' (as determined above).

That means out of 49°10' some of the portion (04°10'S) is in the southern hemisphere

while the remaining (49°10' - 04°10') in the northern hemisphere.

From 45°00' latitude (as determined above) the aircraft flies west for 382 NM

or

Starting longitude was 178°22'W and the aircraft flew towards west.

While flying west the change of longitude will be 9° (as determined above).

This indicates that the aircraft will cross the Greenwich antemeridian (180°E/W) and

enetr the easterly longitudes.

Therefore out of 9°some of the portion (180°00' - 178°22'W = 001°38') will be in the

westerly longitudes while the remaining (009°00' - 001°38' = 007°22') in the easterly

longitudes.

Since the longitudes remaining after 180 deg Greenwich antemeridian is 007°22' and

from 180 they will be decreasing, the longitude comes out to be:

Change of Latitude

115

e.g. Change of latitude between 13°20'S and 45°50'N is:

13°20'

+45°50'

-------

58°70'

87°13'

-26°37'

-------

or

86°73'

-26°37'

-------

60°36' is the change in latitude.

Change of Longitude

This can be calculated the same way change in latitudes were calculated.

However the change of longitude is always measured the shortest way around the

earth.

e.g. change of longitude between 178°E and 178°W is not 356°. It is 4° since the

maximum longitude is 180° (near the International Date Line).

So if two longitudes in different hemispheres are added and the total is more than 180

then subtract the total from 360 to find the change of longitude.

160°35'

+086°54'

--------

246°89'

247°29'

116

The shortest way will be:

360°00'

-247°29'

--------

or

359°60'

-247°29'

--------

112°31' is the change in longitude.

1) Latitude will be the same but in the other hemisphere, So it will be 48°21.5'S

180°00.0'

-011°48.1'

----------

or

179°60.0'

-011°48.1'

----------

168°11.9'W

equatorial radius and b is the polar radius.

This is due to the rotation of the earth and gravitational effects causing it to bulge at the

117

Equator.

Accepted ratio of ellepticity derived from the International Ellipsoid Reference (1924) is

1/297 (or 1:297).

Modern navigation systems use reference systems based on the true elliptical shape of

the earth.

Measuring the angle of a line from the centre of the earth above or below the equator is

called the Geocentric (earth centred) Latitude.

Since earth is a spheroid and not a perfect sphere, this line does not emerge from the

surface of the earth perpendicular to it.

An alternative way of measuring Latitude is to draw the line at right angles to the earth's

surface.

The Geocentric and Geodetic latitudes will be the same only at the poles and at the

equator.

The greatest difference in latitude will occur at 45°N or 45°S where it amounts to about

11.6 minutes of arc.

Geodetic latitudes are plotted on charts, the differences between geodetic and

geocentric latitudes are largely ignored.

118

Question: Value for the flattening of the Earth is 1/298. Earth's semi-major axis, as

measured at the equator, equals 6378.4 km. What is the semi-minor axis (km) of the

earth at the axis of the poles?

Answer: 6357 km

Solution:

Ratio of Elipticity means that the semi-minor axis (Polar axis) is 1/298th shorter than the

semi-major axis (Equatorial axis).

Then semi-minor axis is 6378.4 x 1/298 = 21.4 km shorter than semi-major axis i.e.

Note: For calculation purpose we assume that earth is a sphere whereas in reality it is

an ellipsoid and because of being an ellipsoid the distance measured by one minute of

arc subtended on the surface of the earth is actually different at different latitudes as

given below:

119

- 6107 ft at the poles (more than a NM)

Useful Conversions

1 degree = 60 minutes

1 minute = 60 seconds

15 degrees = 1 hour

1 degree = 4 minutes

120

Some symbols on jeppesen enroute charts:

121

122

123

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)Which of the

following lists all the aeronautical chart symbols shown at position N5318.0 W00626.9?

b) Civil airport: VOR: DME

c) Military airport: VOR: NDB

d) Military airport: VOR: DME <-- Correct

following lists all the aeronautical chart symbols shown at position N5318.1 W00856.5?

b) VOR: DME: NDB: compulsory reporting point

c) Civil airport: NDB: DME: non-compulsory reporting point <-- Correct

d) VOR: DME: NDB: compulsory reporting point

124

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart (E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)Which of the

following lists all the aeronautical chart symbols shown at position N5150.4 W00829.7?

b) Civil airport: VOR: DME: compulsory reporting point <-- Correct

c) VOR: DME: NDB: compulsory reporting point

d) VOR: DME: NDB: ILS

shown on the chart at position N5212 W00612?

125

b) WTD NDB

c) KERRY/Farranfore aerodrome

d) Clonbullogue aerodrome

following lists all the aeronautical chart symbols shown at position N5211 W00705?

a) NDB: ILS

b) VOR: NDB

c) civil airport: ILS

d) civil airport: NDB <-- Marked Correct

Symbol for an ILS in this figure could also be for a localizer, LDA or SDF. Therefore ILS

may or may not be there.

5211N 00931W, which of the following denotes all the symbols?

126

b) Civil airport, VOR, ILS

c) Military airport, VOR, ILS

d) Civil airport, ILS, NDB <-- Correct

All options mention ILS, so the same symbol here indicates ILS.

following lists all the aeronautical chart symbols shown at position N5416.7 W00836.0?

b) VOR, DME, NDB, compulsory reporting point

c) civil airport, VOR, DME, non-compulsory reporting point

d) civil airport, NDB, DME, compulsory reporting point <-- Correct

127

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)What feature is

shown on the chart at position N5417 W01005?

a) Cammore aerodrome

b) Belmullet aerodrome

c) EAGLE ISLAND LT.H. NDB <-- Correct

d) Clonbullogue aerodrome

PORTO SANTO NDB (33o03N 016o23W) TAS 450 kt, Forecast W/V 360o/30 kt.

Calculate the ETA at PORTO SANTO NDB:

a) 1341

b) 1344

c) 1348 <-- Correct

d) 1354

128

Its a plotting question. Plot the position and measure the bearing. Real issue is

measuring the distance. Normal trigonometry doesnt work here. For calculation,

spherical trigonometry/Haversine formula is required (see the formulas here or Here).

So just make up a scale by measuring between the two latitudes along a meridian which

is between the two longitudes. This is indicated by the blue line in the figure. Measure

the length of this line, it comes out to be around 8.5 cm.

Length of the line between the required points (red line) is about 12cm. So distance

becomes 12 x 31.76 = 380 nm (approx). Rest is standard stuff.

The problem in these charts is distortion caused by photocopying. That's why using a

129

meridian close to or at the centre of track is helpful based on the idea that that the

meridian and the marked track will have been distorted by similar amounts. This is not

the case in real life since the charts are not photocopied.

(Refer to figure 061-10) What are the average magnetic course and distance

between INGO VOR (N6350 W01640) and Sumburg VOR (N5955 W 00115)?

b) 118o - 440 NM

c) 117o - 494 NM

d) 130o - 440 NM

130

(Refer to figure 061-09) At 1215 UTC LAJES VORTAC (38°46'N 027°05'W) RMI

reads 178°, range 135 NM. Calculate the aircraft position at 1215 UTC:

a) 41°00'N 028°10'W

b) 41°05'N 027°50'W

c) 40°55'N 027°55'W <-- Correct

d) 40°50'N 027°40'W

Bearing to the station is 178°M or radial from Lajes will be 358 (reciprocal of 178). 358

radial is magnetic. Variation is 15W.

(Refer to figure 061-10) An aircraft on radial 315 deg at a range of 150 NM from

MYGGENES NDB (N6206 W00732) is at position?

131

a) N6320 W01205 <-- Correct

b) N6020 W00405

c) N6345 W01125

d) N6040 W00320

SAXAVORD VOR (N6050 W00050) is at position:

a) N6127 W00443

b) N6010 E00255

c) N6109 E00255

d) N6027 E00307 <-- Correct

132

Variation is about 9W so true track to plot will be will be 101.

Since this question does not involve a large deg of lattitude change, calculating the

change of longitudes through "Departure / Cos Lat" also works.

120 / cos 60.5 = 243.6 min or 4.06 deg. Going east from Saxavord by 4.06 deg means

the long is now 3.22 deg or 3°13'

(Refer to figure 061-10) What are the average magnetic course and distance

between position N6000 W02000 and Sumburg VOR (N5955 W 00115)?

b) 091o - 480 NM

c) 091o - 562 NM

d) 105o - 480 NM

133

Draw a straight line on the chart between the two points. Measure the true track angle

at the mid-point (ref True North). Apply variation to find the magnetic course.

This question does not involve a large deg of lattitude change (almost around 60N) so

distance can be calulated through:

radial and DME distance from BEL VOR/DME (N5439.7 W00613.8 ) to position N5410

W00710?

a) 223o - 36 NM

b) 236o - 44 NM <-- Correct

c) 320o - 44 NM

d) 333o - 36 NM

134

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)Given:SHA VOR

(N5243.3 W00853.1) DME 50NM CRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7) DME 41NM

Aircraft heading 270o(M) Both DME distances increasing. What is the aircraft position?

a) N5215 W00745

b) N5215 W00940

c) N5200 W00935 <-- Correct

d) N5235 W00750

With a compass, on SHA VOR draw a 50 DME Arc and on CRK VOR draw a 41 DME

Arc. These arcs will intersect each other at two points. If the two VORs are joined by a

straight line then one of these points will be to the east and other to the west of the

straight line. The aircraft will be at one of these points.

Since the aircraft is heading 270 with increasing DME distance it cannot be on the

eastern side. It is on the western side. Measure the coordinates where the two DME

arcs intersect eachother on the western side.

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11) What is the

average track (oT) and distance between BAL VOR (N5318.0 W00626.9) and CFN

135

NDB (N5502.6 W00820.4)?

a) 335o - 128 NM

b) 327o - 124 NM <-- Correct

c) 325o - 126 NM

d) 320o - 127 NM

N5243.3 W00853.1CON VOR N5354.8 W00849.1Aircraft position N5320

W00950Which of the following lists two radials that are applicable to the aircraft

position?

b) SHA 137o CON 046o

c) SHA 317o CON 226o

d) SHA 145o CON 055o

VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial 129oCRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7) radial 047oWhat

is the aircraft position?

a) N5205 W00755

b) N5215 W00755

c) N5210 W00750

d) N5220 W00750 <-- Correct

radial and DME distance from CRK VOR/DME (N5150.4 W00829.7) to position N5140

W00730?

a) 106o - 38 NM

b) 104o - 76 NM

c) 293o - 39 NM

d) 113o - 38 NM <-- Correct

136

What is the definition of EAT?

b) Estimated time overhead the destination airfield

c) Estimated initial approach fix time <-- Correct

d) Estimated final approach fix time

b) estimated time of arrival at destination <-- Correct

c) estimated time of arrival at an en-route point or fix

d) estimated time en route

You are flying 090oC heading. Deviation is 2oW and Variation is 12E. Your TAS is

160 knots. You are flying the 070 radial outbound from a VOR and you have gone 14

nm in 6 minutes. What is the W/V?

b) 060oT/50

c) 340oT/25

d) 055oT/25

The important thing is the application of variation and deviation. Apply variation to

magnetic radial to make it true i.e. 70+12 = 82 which will be the course. Apply variation

and deviation to 090 compass heading to get 100 deg true heading.

Given:

Course 040o(T)

TAS is 120 kt

Wind speed 30 kt

a) 120o

b) 145o

c) 115o

d) 130o <-- Correct

Option (d) is a 90deg crosswind thus max drift angle will be obtained in this condition.

137

Course 040oT, TAS 120 kt, Wind speed 30 knots. From which direction will the wind

give the greatest drift:

a) 215o

b) 230oT

c) 235oT

d) 240oT <-- Correct

220 will be exact tailwind i.e. no drift. Direction left or right of 220 will create a cross

wind component for drift to occur. Direction farthest from 220 will give the greatest drift,

240 in this case.

a) 145 kt

b) 136 kt <-- Correct

c) 210 kt

d) 35 kt

Not much an isue except the close choice between (a) and (b). For all practical

purposes you just double it i.e. 70 x 2 = 140. However these questions demand exact

calculation.

1 second = 70 meters

Variation is 15oE

W/V is 190o(T)/30 kt

CAS is 120 kt at FL 55 in standard atmosphere

b) 055o and 147 kt <-- Correct

c) 052o and 154 kt

d) 056o and 137 kt

Be careful, the course given is magnetic. Calculate everything in True and then apply

the corrections to get magnetic.

138

True altitude 9000 FT

OAT -32oC

CAS 200 kt

What is the TAS?

a) 215 kt

b) 200 kt

c) 210 kt

d) 220 kt <-- Marked Correct

Given:

Maximum allowable tailwind component for landing 10 kt

Planned runway 05 (047o magnetic)

The direction of the surface wind reported by ATIS 210o

Variation is 17oE

Calculate the maximum allowable windspeed that can be accepted without exceeding

the tailwind limit?

a) 15 kt

b) 18 kt

c) 8 kt

d) 11 kt <-- Correct

Trigonotery! Make a right angle triangle. "Adjacent" will be the headwind or tailwind

component and "Opposite" will be the crosswind component. "Hypotenuse" will be the

wind speed. The difference between the wind direction and aircraft heading will be the

"Angle".

In this case Tailwind limit of 10 kts makes the "Adjacent" limited to 10.

Wind direction is 210T and aircraft heading is 64T (after correcting for variation). This

shows a tailwind case so to calculate the angle we will take the reciprocal of 64 i.e. 244.

Therefore the angle becomes 244-210 = 34 deg.

Wind strength = 12kts. This will be the max limit from a direction of 210 that will ensure

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that the 10kts tailwind limit is not exceeded.

Given:

Magnetic heading = 255o

VAR = 40oW

GS = 375 kt

W/V = 235o(T)/120 kt

Calculate the drift angle?

b) 7o right

c) 9o left

d) 16o right

Given:

TAS = 485 kt

OAT = ISA +10oC

FL 410

a) 0.85

b) 0.90

c) 0.825 <-- Correct

d) 0.87

Standard temperature at 41000 feet is -57 and not -67 [15-(41x2)]. ISA+10 will be -47.

Given:

AD = Air distance

GD = Ground distance

TAS = True airspeed

GS = Ground speed

Which of the following is the correct formula to calculate ground distance (GD) gone?

b) GD = (AD - TAS)/TAS

c) GD = AD X (GS - TAS)/GS

d) GD = TAS/(GS X AD)

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Conversion Between Air Nautical Miles and Ground Nautical Miles

Drift angle = 15 left

TAS = 240 kt

a) -55 kt

b) -65 kt <-- Correct

c) -45 kt

d) -35 kt

CRS 345 (drift given as 15 left)

TAS 240 (given)

GS 285 (TAS + given tailwind of 45 kts)

W/V 116/82

CRS 165 (reciprocal of 345)

TAS 240

HDG comes out to be 150

Thus the wind component comes out to be TAS-GS (240-178) = 62kts Headwind.

Useful Conversions

Useful Conversions

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1 Nautical Mile = 1.85 Kilometers

1 degree = 60 minutes

1 minute = 60 seconds

15 degrees = 1 hour

1 degree = 4 minutes

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