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Questions on Altimetry

Given:
Pressure Altitude = 5000 ft
OAT = +35C
What is true altitude:

a) 4550 ft
b) 5550 ft <-- Correct
c) 4290 ft
d) 5320 ft

4 ft per 1°C deviation from ISA for every 1,000 ft

The airmass is 30 deg warmer than ISA so 4 x 30 = 120

The error is 120 feet per thousand feet and for 5000 feet the error will be 120 x 5 = 600
feet.

Now its a matter of adding or subtracting 600 feet from 5000 feet.

Warm airmass = High Pressure = Indicated Alt Low = True Altitude High.

So its going to be added 5000 + 600 = 5600 ft

Given:
Pressure Altitude 29 000 ft
OAT -55oC
What is the density altitude:

a) 27 500 ft <-- Correct


b) 31 000 ft
c) 33 500 ft
d) 36 000 ft

ISA temp at 29000 = [15-(29x2)] = -43. OAT = -55. ISA deviation = -12

For 1 deg ISA deviation, the correction is 120 ft.

12 x 120 = 1440 ft. Since its colder than standard, density altitude will be low i.e. 29000
- 1440 = 27560 ft

Your true altitude is 5500 feet, the QNH is 995, and the SAT is +30oC. What is Density
Altitude:

a) 7080 feet
b) 8120 feet
c) 9280 feet <-- Correct
d) 9930 feet

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First determine the pressure altitude, which comes out to be (18x30=540+5500) 6040.
Then work out the temperature deviation at 6040, which comes out to be ISA +27.
Density altitude becomes (27x120=3240+6040) 9280 feet.

Questions on ETP and PNR

he distance Q to R is 3016 nm; TAS is 480 kts. Flying outbound Q to R the head wind
component is calculated as 90 kts and the tail wind component R to Q is 75 kts. Leaving
Q at 1320 UTC, what is the ETA at the point of Equal Time:

a) 1631 UTC
b) 1802 UTC
c) 1702 UTC
d) 1752 UTC <-- Correct

Distance to ETP = Distance x GS Home / GS Out + GS Home

= 3016 x 555 / 390 + 555 = 1771nm

Time to ETP = 1771/390 = 4.54hrs or 4hrs:32min

ETA = 1320 + 4:32 = 1752

An aeroplane flying at 180 kts TAS on a track of 090o. The wind is 045o/50 kts. The
distance the aeroplane can fly out and return in one hour is:

a) 88 NM
b) 85 NM <-- Correct
c) 56 NM
d) 176 NM

Time to PSR = Endurance x GS Home / GS Out + GS Home

= 1 x 212/141+212

= 0.6 hrs

Distance = 0.6 x 141 = 84.6nm

Given:
Distance A to B is 360 NM
Wind component A – B is -15 kt
Wind component B – A is +15 kt
TAS is 180 kt

What is the distance from the equal-time-point to B?

Simple but be careful of what is being asked:

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PET=195. Distance from PET to B = 360-195 = 165

Questions on Track Error and Correction

Distance A to B = 120 NM. After 30 NM aircraft is 3 NM to the left of course. What


heading alteration should be made in order to arrive at point B?

a) 8o left
b) 6o right
c) 4o right
d) 8o right <-- Correct

Track error = 3/30x60 = 6. So 6 deg correction will parallel the course.

Correction to come back on course to arrive at B = 3/90x60 = 2. Total correction 8 deg


right.

See Track Error and Correction

The distance between two waypoints is 200 NM. To calculate compass heading, the
pilot used 2oE magnetic variation instead of 2oW. Assuming that the forecast W/V
applied, what will the off track distance be at the second waypoint?

a) 0 NM
b) 7 NM
c) 14 NM <-- Correct
d) 21 NM

Track error will be 4 deg and not 2. e.g. If magnetic heading is 100 and deviation is 2W
then compass hdg will be 102. If instead of west one applies variation 2E then compass
heading will be 98. A difference of 4 deg (102-98 ).

Track error (4) = Off track distance /200 x 60

Off track distance = 4 x 200 / 60 = 13.33 nm

A pilot receives the following signals from a VOR DME station: radial 180o+/- 1o,
distance = 200 NM. What is the approximate error?

a) +/- 3.5 NM <-- Correct


b) +/- 1 NM
c) +/- 2 NM
d) +/- 7 NM

1 deg out for every 60 miles makes 3.33 deg for 200 miles (200/60).

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Questions on Speed, Time and Distance

You leave A to fly to B, 475 nm away, at 1000 hours. Your ETA at B is 1130. At 1040
you are 190 nm from A. What ground speed is required to arrive on time at B?

a) 317 knots
b) 330 knots
c) 342 knots <-- Correct
d) 360 knots

Distance to go 475-190 = 285

Time avaialbale = 1130-1040 = 50 minutes

Speed required = 285/0.833 = 342 knots

You are flying at a True Mach No of 0.82 in a SAT of -45oC. At 1000 hours you are 100
nm from the POL DME and your ETA at POL is 1012. ATC ask you to slow down to be
at POL at 1016. What should your new TMN be if you reduce speed at 100 nm distance
to:

a) M .76
b) M .72
c) M .68
d) M .61 <-- Correct

Required Speed = Distance / Time = 100 / 16min = 375 kts

Local Speed of Sound = 39 x Square root of (-45+273) = 589

Mach Number = 375/589 = 0.63 (0.61 is probably through CRP-5)

An aircraft at FL 310, M0.83, temperature -30oC, is required to reduce speed in order


to cross a reporting point five minutes later than planned. Assuming that a zero wind
component remains unchanged, when 360 NM from the reporting point Mach Number
should be reduced to:

a) M 0.76
b) M 0.74 <-- Correct
c) M 0.78
d) M 0.80

Determine the TAS. Find the time to cover 360nm at this TAS. Increase this time by 5
minutes. Find the TAS again for this increased time. Convert it back to Mach.

Mach = TAS/LSS. LSS = Local Speed of Sound which is 39 x squre root of Absolute
temperature (temp in centigrade + 273).

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Given: Distance A to B is 475 NM, Planned GS 315 kt, ATD 1000 UTC, 1040 UTC - fix
obtained 190 NM along track. What GS must be maintained from the fix in order to
achieve planned ETA at B?

a) 320 kt
b) 360 kt
c) 300 kt
d) 340 kt <-- Correct

Planned Time to B = 475/315 = 1:30

Planned ETA = 1000 (ATD) + 1:30 = 1130

190nm point reached in 40 min, therefore GS is 285

Time left to be on time (1130) at B = 0:50 mins (1130-1040)

GS required = Distance left / time = 285/.833 = 342kts

An aircraft is planned to fly from position A to position B, distance 480 NM at an


average GS of 240 kt. It departs A at 1000 UTC. After flying 150 NM along track from A,
the aircraft is 2 min behind planned time. Using the actual GS experienced, what is the
revised ETA at B?

a) 1203
b) 1206 <-- Correct
c) 1153
d) 1157

The point where it was observed that the aircraft is 2 min behind the planned time is
150nm from A. Call it "X".

According to the planned GS of 240 ETA at X = 150/240 = 37.5 mins from A.

It was observed that at X the aircraft was 2 min behind planned ETA. That means that it
took 37.5 + 2 = 39.5 mins from A.

Time at X = 1000 + 39.5 minutes = 1039.

Ground speed experienced = 150/0.658 = 228 kts.

Revised ETA at B will be:

GS = 228

Distance to go 480-150 = 330

330/228 = 1.447 or 1 hr and 27 mins from point X.

Time at X (1039) + Time to go to B (1:27) = ETA B (1206)

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Half way between two reporting points the navigation log gives the following
information:

TAS 360 kt
W/V 330o/80 kt
Compass heading 237o
Deviation on this heading -5o
Variation 19oW

What is the average ground speed for this leg?

a) 360 kt
b) 354 kt
c) 373 kt
d) 403 kt <-- Correct

Course is not given. On E6B, determine the tailwind component and apply to TAS.

Questions on Glide Path and Rate of Descent

You are on ILS 3o glideslope which passes over the runway threshold at 50 feet. Your
DME range is 25 nm from the threshold. What is your height above the runway
threshold elevation? (Use the 1 in 60 rule and 6000 feet = 1 nautical mile)

a) 8010 feet
b) 7450 feet
c) 6450 feet
d) 7550 feet <-- Corrrect

If the given distance (25nm) was from the point where the 3° glide started (beyond the
threshold), then 7500 ft would have been the height from touch down. But since the
distance is given from the threshold (i.e about a 1000 feet less), we have to add 50 feet
(glide path height over the threshold) to get the right answer.

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When it says by 1 in 60 then dont do trigonometry because through trigonometry,
Height = tan 3 x 150,000 = 7861+50 = 7911 (close to a wrong choice). If its not
specified then cross check for the best answer before selecting it. Many answers are
observed to be accurate with 1 in 60 rule.

An aircraft maintaining a 5.2% gradient is at 7 NM from the runway, on a flat terrain; its
height is approximately:

a) 680 ft
b) 2210 ft <-- Correct
c) 1890 ft
d) 3640 ft

First convert gradient into angle. Tan=5.2/100 then do the rest (0.052x7x6076 = 2211).
This time its flat terrain so there is no need to add the height above threshold.

An aircraft is descending down a 12% slope whilst maintaining a GS of 540 kt. The rate
of descent of the aircraft is approximately:

a) 650 ft/min
b) 6500 ft/min <-- Correct
c) 4500 ft/min
d) 3900 ft/min

1) Speed x % Gradient = 540 x 12 = 6480.

2) Tan Angle = opp/adjacent

Angle = 6.84 deg (inv tan of 12/100)

Adjacent = 540nm/hr or 9nm/min

Rate of Decent (opp) = Tan 6.84 x 9 = 1.079 nm/min or 6556 ft/min

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3) 1 in 60 rule: 6.84 x 9 / 60 = 1.026 nm/min or 6234 ft/min

Glide Path Calculations

An aircraft at FL 350 is required to commence descent when 85 NM from a VOR and to


cross the VOR at FL 80. The mean GS for the descent is 340 kt.

What is the minimum rate of descent required?

a) 1900 ft/min
b) 1800 ft/min
c) 1600 ft/min
d) 1700 ft/min

S=VxT

T = 85/340 = 0.25 hrs or 15 mins

Height to loose 27000 feet in 15 minutes or 27000/15 = 1800 feet per minute.

An aircraft at FL 350 is required to descend to cross a DME facility at FL80. Maximum


rate of descent is 1800 ft/min and mean GS for descent is 276 kt. The minimum range
from the DME at which descent should start is:

a) 79 NM
b) 69 NM <-- Correct
c) 49 NM
d) 59 NM

S=VxT

27000 to loose @ 1800 fpm = 15 minutes or 0.25 hrs

S = 276 x 0.25 = 69 nm

Given:
ILS GP angle = 3.5o
GS = 150 kt

What is the approximate rate of descent?

a) 1000 ft/min
b) 700 ft/min
c) 900 ft/min <-- Correct
d) 800 ft/min

1) 1 in 60 rule:

8
3.5 = ROD/150 x 60

ROD = 3.5 x 150 / 60 = 8.75 nm/hr

or 8.75/60 = 0.145 nm/min or

0.145 x 6080 = 886 feet / min

2) By multiplying Speed with Gradient, its just that gradient needs to be determined
first.

tan 3.5 = opp/adjacent

adjacent = 150nm/60 min or 2.5nm/min

opp = 2.5 x tan3.5 = 0.153

gradient = 0.153/2.5 x 100 = 6.1%

6.1 x 150 = 915 fpm

At 0422 an aircraft at FL 370, GS 320 kt, is on the direct track to VOR X 185 NM
distant. The aircraft is required to cross VOR X at FL 80. For a mean rate of descent of
1800 ft/min at a mean GS of 232 kt, the latest time at which to commence descent is:

a) 0448
b) 0445 <-- Correct
c) 0451
d) 0454

Height to loose 29000 feet @1800 fpm descent rate requires (29000/1800) = 16.1 min
(0.268 hrs)

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Distance required = Velocity x Time = 232 x 0.26 = 62.2 nm

TOD will be 62.2 nm before VOR.

Time to TOD = Distance / Velocity = 185-62.2/320 = 0.383 hrs or 23 minutes

0422 + 23 mins = 0445

Questions on Range and Bearing

Given:
Magnetic heading 311o
Drift angle 10o left
Relative bearing of NDB 270o
What is the magnetic bearing of the NDB measured from the aircraft?

a) 211
b) 208
c) 221 <-- Correct
d) 180

Relative bearing is measure from the magnetic heading, so in this case: Magnetc
Heading of 311 + 270 = 581 and 581-360 = 221.

Given:

True track: 192o


Magnetic variation: 7oE
Drift angle: 5o left

What is the magnetic heading required to maintain the given track?

a) 190 <-- Correct


b) 194
c) 204
d) 180

Drifting left = wind from the right = heading into the wind = heading more than track i.e.
192 + 5 = 197T

Variation east magnetic least so 197-7 = 190M

Given the following:

Magnetic heading: 060o


Magnetic variation: 8oW
Drift angle: 4o right
What is the true track?

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a) 048
b) 064
c) 056 <-- Correct
d) 072

First get the true heading. Variation west magnetic best so true heading is 60-8= 52.

Drifting right = wind from the left = heading into the wind = track to the right of heading
i.e. 52+4 = 56

The relative bearing to a beacon is 270oR. Three minutes later, at a ground speed of
180 knots, it has changed to 225oR. What was the distance of the closest point of
approach of the aircraft to the beacon?

a) 45 nm
b) 18 nm
c) 9 nm <-- Correct
d) 3 nm

For method see: Range Calcualtion

At 1000 hours an aircraft is on the 310 radial from a VOR/DME, at 10 nautical miles
range. At 1010 the radial and range are 040/10 nm. What is the aircraft¿s track and
ground speed?

a) 080 / 85 knots
b) 085 / 85 knots <-- Correct
c) 080 / 80 knots
d) 085 / 90 knots

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An island appears 45o to the right of the centre line on an airborne weather radar
display. What is the true bearing of the aircraft from the island if at the time of
observation the aircraft was on a magnetic heading (MH) of 215o with the magnetic
variation (VAR) 21oW?

a) 101
b) 059 <-- Correct
c) 239
d) 329

Aircraft True Heading = 194 (after correcting for variaton)

True heading (194) + relative bearing (45) = True bearing to island (239).

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Be careful! Question asks for "true bearing of the aircraft from the island" so it will be
reciprocal of 239 i.e. 059

An island is observed to be 15o to the left. The aircraft heading is 120o(M), variation
17o(W). The bearing (oT) from the aircraft to the island is:

a) 122
b) 088 <-- Correct
c) 268
d) 302

True heading (103) + relative bearing (345) = True bearing to island 088 (360-448).

A ground feature was observed on a relative bearing of 325o and five minutes later on
a relative bearing of 280o. The aircraft heading was 165o(M), variation 25oW, drift 10o
right and GS 360 kt. When the relative bearing was 280o the distance and true bearing
of the aircraft from the feature was:

a) 30 NM and 240o <-- Correct


b) 40 NM and 110o
c) 40 NM and 290o
d) 30 NM and 060o

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Relative bearing is from heading: 140 + 325 = 105 and 140 + 280 = 060

Given:An aircraft is flying a track of 255o(M). At 2254 UTC, it crosses radial 360o from
a VOR station. At 2300 UTC, it crosses radial 330o from the same station. At 2300
UTC, the distance between the aircraft and the station is:

a) the same as it was at 2254 UTC <-- Correct


b) greater than it was at 2254 UTC
c) randomly different that it was at 2254 UTC
d) less than it was at 2254 UTC

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The aircraft crosses radial 360 at "A". The Track is 255 and it crosses radial 330 at "B".
This forms a triangle.

Angle at VOR = 30 (360 - 330).

Angle at A = 75 (255-180).

Angle at B = 75 ( 180-(75+30) )

This becomes an isosceles triangle which is a triangle in which two angles and their
adjacent sides are equal.

Since angles at A and B are equal, their adjacent sides i.e. distance from A to VOR and
distance from B to VOR will also be equal.

Isosceles Triangle

You are heading 080oT when you get a range and bearing fix from your AWR on a
headland at 185 nm 30o left of the nose. What true bearing do you plot on the chart?

a) 050 from the headland, using the headland's meridian


b) 050 from the headland, using the aircraft's meridian
c) 230 from the headland, using the headland's meridian
d) 230 from the headland, using the aircraft's meridian <-- Correct

You are heading 345M, the variation is 20E, and you take a radar bearing of 30 left of
the nose from an island. What bearing do you plot?

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a) 160T
b) 155T <-- Correct
c) 140T
d) 180T

Dont jump to convert magnetic to true. Bearing 30 deg left is from aircraft nose which is
its heading. Heading given is 345M. So from the aircraft the bearing will be 315. From
the island it will be 135. This will be magnetic. Variation is 20E so magnetic will be least
i.e. true will be 135+20 = 155 to plot.

Chart Symbols

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Questions on Polar Stereographic Chart

Which one of the following statements is correct concerning the appearance of great
circles, with the exception of meridians, on a Polar Stereographic chart whose tangency
is at the pole?

a) The higher the latitude the closer they approximate to a straight line <-- Correct
b) Any straight line is a great circle
c) They are complex curves that can be convex and/or concave to the Pole
d) They are curves convex to the Pole

On a polar stereo the meridians of longitude are straight lines radiating out from the
pole. Meridians are great circles so if you track along a meridian, over the pole and
down its anti-meridian you have flown a great circle track which appears on the polar
stereo as a straight line. Any other great circle will be a curve concave to the pole and
the further away from the pole the greater the amount of curvature. In practise we draw
a straight line on a polar stereo and accept it as being 'near enough' to a great circle

Questions on Mercator Projetion

A direct Mercator graticule is based on a projection that is: "cylindrical"

An Oblique Mercator projection is used specifically to produce:

a) plotting charts in equatorial regions


b) radio navigational charts in equatorial regions
c) topographical maps of large east/west extent
d) charts of the great circle route between two points <-- Correct

Direct Mercator = A cylindrical projection based on the Equator

Transverse Mercator = A cylindrical projection based on a meridian and anti-meridian

Oblique Mercator = A cylindrical projection based on any other great circle of tangency.

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Transverse Mercator projections are used for:

a) maps of large north/south extent <-- Correct


b) maps of large east/west extent in equatorial areas
c) radio navigation charts in equatorial areas
d) plotting charts in equatorial areas

On a transverse Mercator chart, with the exception of the Equator, parallels of


latitude appear as:

a) hyperbolic lines
b) straight lines
c) ellipses <-- Correct
d) parabolas

Parabola, Hyperbola and Ellipse.

A Mercator chart has a scale at the equator = 1:3 704 000. What is the scale at latitude
60o S?

a) 1: 1 852 000 <-- Correct


b) 1: 7 408 000
c) 1: 3 208 000
d) 1: 185 200

On a Mercator, distance between parallels increases with latitude indicating a


north/south expansion apart from east/west expansion. The scale expands as the
secant of the latitude. Secant (of an angle) = Hypotenuse / Adjacent (= 1/cos). So for a
Mercator:

Scale at any latitude = Scale at the equator x 1/cos latitude

Scale at 60°S = 1/3704000 x 1/cos60

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Scale at 60°S = 3704000 x cos60

Scale at 60°S = 1:1852000

Thus at 60°S due to scale expansion the earth distance has reduced.

Scale is defined as the ratio of chart distance to earth distance i.e. Scale = Chart
Distance / Earth Distance.

e.g. If Chart Distance is 1 and earth distance is 10 then the scale value is 0.1 (i.e. 1/10).
For a scale to expand (i.e. to become more than 0.1) the denominator (earth distance)
has to decrease. Therefore on a Mercator when we know that scale is expanding with
increase in the latitude then it is mathematically obvious that the earth distance is
decreasing.

Therefore earth distance gets smaller while going away from the equator and gets
bigger while going towards the equator.

On a Direct Mercator chart, a rhumb line appears as a: "straight line"

On a Direct Mercator chart a great circle will be represented by a:

a) complex curve
b) curve concave to the equator <-- Correct
c) curve convex to the equator
d) straight line

If convergency is correct, Great circles are straight lines. Convergency is correct at


equator so equator is a straight line. Moving away from equator (i.e. from point of
correct convergency) the great circles become curved, concave to the equator.

On a Direct Mercator chart, great circles are shown as:

a) curves convex to the nearer pole <-- Correct


b) straight lines
c) rhumb lines
d) curves concave to the nearer pole

How does scale change on a normal Mercator chart?

a) Expands as the secant2 (1/2 co-latitude)


b) Expands directly with the secant of the latitude <-- Correct
c) Correct on the standard parallels, expands outside them, contracts within them
d) Expands as the secant of the E/W great circle distance

Secant (of an angle) = Hypotenuse / Adjacent (= 1/cos). Scale at any latitude = Scale at

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the equator x 1/cos of latitude

Option (c) is for Lamberts Conformal

On a direct Mercator projection, the distance measured between two meridians spaced
5o apart at latitude 60oN is 8 cm. The scale of this chart at latitude 60oN is
approximately:

a) 1 : 4 750 000
b) 1 : 7 000 000
c) 1 : 6 000 000
d) 1 : 3 500 000 <-- Correct

8cm = 5 meridians (5 deg or 300 min)

Departure (nm) = change of longitude (in minutes) x cos latitude.

Departure = 300 x cos 60 = 150nm

8cm = 150 nm

1cm = 150/8 = 18.75nm

18.75nm = 3468750 cm

scale = 1:3 500 000

On a Direct Mercator chart at latitude 15oS, a certain length represents a distance of


120 NM on the earth. The same length on the chart will represent on the earth, at
latitude 10oN, a distance of:

a) 122.3 NM <-- Correct


b) 117.7 NM
c) 124.2 NM
d) 118.2 NM

On a Mercator, if earth distance is 120 at 15 deg latitude then it will be more on 10 deg
of latitude (see explanation above regarding the previous question). For calculating how
much more we can determine and use a factor that increases the earth distance.

Cos of 15 = 0.9658 and Cos of 10 = 0.9848

0.9848/0.9658 = 1.019

120 x 1.019 = 122.3 nm

For more explanation see: Mercator Calculations

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On which of the following chart projections is it NOT possible to represent the north or
south poles?

a) Lamberts conformal
b) Direct Mercator <-- Correct
c) Transverse Mercator
d) Polar stereographic

Parallels of latitude on a Direct Mercator chart are:

a) parallel straight lines equally spaced


b) arcs of concentric circles equally spaced
c) straight lines converging above the pole
d) parallel straight lines unequally spaced <-- Correct

Where on a Direct Mercator projection is the chart convergency correct compared to


the earth convergency?

a) All over the chart

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b) At the two parallels of tangency
c) At the poles
d) At the equator <-- Correct

On a Transverse Mercator chart scale is correct at:

a) The 180o meridian


b) The False Meridian
c) The Great Circle of Tangency
d) The Meridian of Tangency <-- Correct

Given: Direct Mercator chart with a scale of 1: 200 000 at equatorChart length from A to
B, in the vicinity of the equator, 11 cm What is the approximate distance from A to B?

a) 21 NM
b) 12 NM <-- Correct
c) 22 NM
d) 14 NM

In the vicinity of the equator (usually within 500nm) the scale can be assumed to be
constant.

scale = chart length/earth distance

1/200,000 = 11/earth distance

earth distance = 11 x 200,000 = 22,00,000 cm or 11.89 nm

Assume a Mercator chart. The distance between positions A and B located on the
same parallel and 10o longitude apart, is 6 cm. The scale at the parallel is 1: 9 260 000.
What is the latitude of A and B?

a) 45o N or S
b) 30o N or S
c) 0o
d) 60o N or S <-- Correct

Scale at the required latitude is 1:9,260,000

6cm = 6 x 9260,000 = 55,560,000 = 300nm

i.e.

departure = 300nm

Change of long = 10 x 60 = 600

Departure = dlong x Cos Lat

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or

Cos Lat = 300/600 = 0.5

Lat = Inv Cos of 0.5 = 60

On a particular Direct Mercator wall chart, the 180W to 180E parallel of latitude at 53N
is 133 cm long. What is the scale of the chart at 30S?

a) 1 : 3 000 000
b) 1 : 18 000 000
c) 1 : 21 000 000
d) 1 : 25 000 000 <-- Correct

Scale at 53N: 133cm = 360 deg

Departure = dlong x cos Lat = (360x60) x cos 53 = 12999 nm

Scale at 53N: 133cm = 12999 nm or 1:97.7 (12999/133)

Scale at 30S: Going towards the equator, earth distance is going to increase (as
discussed earlier). By how much? we can determine a factor:

cos 53 / cos 30 = 1.44

97.7 nm x 1.44 = 140.7 nm

Converting 140.7 nm into cm we have:

Scale at 30S = 1:26,000,000 (closest option "d")

At latitude 60oN the scale of a Mercator projection is 1:5 000 000. The length on the
chart between C N60o W008o and D N60o E008o is:

a) 19.2 cm
b) 16.2 cm
c) 35.6 cm
d) 17.8 cm <-- Correct

Scale = Chart length / Earth Distance

Chart Length = Scale x Earth Distance

Earth distance = dlong (16 x 60) x cos 60 = 480 nm or 88,800,000 cm

Chart Length = 88,800,000/5000000 = 17.8 cm

Questions on Lamberts Conformal Projetion

24
The standard parallels of a Lamberts conical orthomorphic projection are 07o40N and
38o20N. The constant of the cone for this chart is:

b) 0.39 <-- Correct

The sine of the parallel of origin is the constant of the cone or convergency factor (n).
See Conic Projection

Parllel of origin will be between 07°40N and 38°20N i.e. 7.66 + 38.33 = 46/2 = 23

However because of the mathematics invloved, the parallel of origin is slightly closer to
the pole rather than being exactly mid-way between the standard parallels.

Sin of 23 = 0.39

Scale on a Lamberts conformal chart is:

a) constant along a parallel of latitude <-- Correct


b) constant along a meridian of longitude
c) constant over the whole chart
d) varies with latitude and longitude

A Lambert conformal conic projection, with two standard parallels:

a) shows lines of longitude as parallel straight lines


b) shows all great circles as straight lines
c) the scale is only correct at parallel of origin
d) the scale is only correct along the standard parallels <-- Correct

The convergence factor of a Lambert conformal conic chart is quoted as 0.78535. At


what latitude on the chart is earth convergency correctly represented?

b) 51°45' <-- Correct

Convergence factor is the the sine of parallel of origin, so:

Sine of Latitude = 0.78535

Latitude = Inv Sine 0.78535 = 51°45'

The nominal scale of a Lambert conformal conic chart is the: "scale at the standard
parallels"

A straight line is drawn on a Lamberts conformal conic chart between two positions of
different longitude. The angular difference between the initial true track and the final true

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track of the line is equal to:

a) earth convergency
b) chart convergency <-- Correct
c) conversion angle
d) difference in longitude

How does the chart convergency change with latitude in a Lambert Conformal
projection?

a) It changes with sine of latitude


b) It changes with cosine of latitude
c) It increases with increase of latitude
d) It is constant and does not change with latitude <-- Correct

On a Lambert conformal conic chart the convergence of the meridians:

a) is the same as earth convergency at the parallel of origin <-- Correct


b) is zero throughout the chart
c) varies as the secant of the latitude
d) equals earth convergency at the standard parallels

The parallels on a Lambert Conformal Conic chart are represented by:

a) parabolic lines
b) straight lines
c) arcs of concentric circles <-- Correct
d) hyperbolic lines

Parabola and Hyperbola

On a Lambert Conformal Conic chart great circles that are not meridians are:

a) curves concave to the parallel of origin <-- Correct


b) straight lines
c) curves concave to the pole of projection
d) straight lines within the standard parallels

Near to the parallel of origin great circles are not exactly straight but neartly straight. To
be precsie they are very slightly curved, being concave to the parallel of origin. The
distortion is however very small provided the spread of latitudes is controlled. Since the
spread of latitude is controlled, great circles are assumed to be straight lines.

A straight line on a Lambert Conformal Projection chart for normal flight planning
purposes:

26
a) can only be a parallel of latitude
b) is a Loxodromic line
c) is a Rhumb line
d) is approximately a Great Circle <-- Correct

On a Lambert chart (standard parallels 37oN and 65oN), with respct to the straight line
drawn on the map the between A (N49o W030o) and B (N48o W040o), the:

a) great circle is to the north, the rhumb line is to the south


b) great circle and rhumb line are to the north
c) great circle and rhumb line are to the south <-- Correct
d) rhumb line is to the north, the great circle is to the south

Standard parallels 37N and 65N. Parallel of Origin = 37+65/2 = 51N

Near to the parallel of origin great circles are not exactly straight but neartly straight. To
be precsie they are very slightly curved, being concave to the parallel of origin. The
Straight line in the question is from A (49N) to B (48N) i.e. south of Parallel of Origin at
51N.

Therefore great circle being concave is south of the straight line and rhumb line will be
south of the great circle as it is always on the equator side of the great circle. So both
will be south of the straight line.

On a Lambert conformal conic chart the distance between parallels of latitude spaced
the same number of degrees apart:

a) expands between, and reduces outside, the standard parallels


b) is constant throughout the chart
c) reduces between, and expands outside, the standard parallels <-- Correct
d) is constant between, and expands outside the standard parallels

A course of 120o(T) is drawn between X(61o30N) and Y(58o30N) on a Lambert


Conformal conic chart with a scale of 1:1,000,000 at 60oN. The chart distance between
X and Y is:

a) 33.4 cm
b) 66.7 cm <-- Correct
c) 38.5 cm
d) 36.0 cm

27
Distance between X and Y = 360nm or 66,600,000 cm

According to the scale:

1,000,000 cm earth distance = 1 cm chart distance

1 cm earth distance = 1/1,000,000 chart distance

66,600,000 cm earth distance = 1/1,000,000 x 66,600,000 chart distance

= 66.6 cm

Questions on Miscellaneous Topics

What is the definition of EAT?

a) Estimated on-blocks arrival time


b) Estimated time overhead the destination airfield
c) Estimated initial approach fix time <-- Correct
d) Estimated final approach fix time

The ICAO definition of ETA is the:

a) actual time of arrival at a point or fix


b) estimated time of arrival at destination <-- Correct
c) estimated time of arrival at an en-route point or fix
d) estimated time en route

You are flying 090oC heading. Deviation is 2oW and Variation is 12E. Your TAS is
160 knots. You are flying the 070 radial outbound from a VOR and you have gone 14
nm in 6 minutes. What is the W/V?

a) 158oT/51 <-- Correct


b) 060oT/50
c) 340oT/25
d) 055oT/25

28
The important thing is the application of variation and deviation. Apply variation to
magnetic radial to make it true i.e. 70+12 = 82 which will be the course. Apply variation
and deviation to 090 compass heading to get 100 deg true heading.

Given:
Course 040o(T)
TAS is 120 kt
Wind speed 30 kt

Maximum drift angle will be obtained for a wind direction of:

a) 120o
b) 145o
c) 115o
d) 130o <-- Correct

Option (d) is a 90deg crosswind thus max drift angle will be obtained in this condition.

Course 040oT, TAS 120 kt, Wind speed 30 knots. From which direction will the wind
give the greatest drift:

a) 215o
b) 230oT
c) 235oT
d) 240oT <-- Correct

220 will be exact tailwind i.e. no drift. Direction left or right of 220 will create a cross
wind component for drift to occur. Direction farthest from 220 will give the greatest drift,
240 in this case.

The equivalent of 70 m/sec is approximately:

a) 145 kt
b) 136 kt <-- Correct
c) 210 kt
d) 35 kt

Not much an isue except the close choice between (a) and (b). For all practical
purposes you just double it i.e. 70 x 2 = 140. However these questions demand exact
calculation.

1 second = 70 meters

3600 seconds i.e. 1 hour = 3600 x 70 = 252000m or 136nm (252000/1850 = 136nm)

Required course 045o(M)

29
Variation is 15oE
W/V is 190o(T)/30 kt
CAS is 120 kt at FL 55 in standard atmosphere

What are the heading (oM) and GS?

a) 036o and 151 kt


b) 055o and 147 kt <-- Correct
c) 052o and 154 kt
d) 056o and 137 kt

Be careful, the course given is magnetic. Calculate everything in True and then apply
the corrections to get magnetic.

True altitude 9000 FT


OAT -32oC
CAS 200 kt
What is the TAS?

a) 215 kt
b) 200 kt
c) 210 kt
d) 220 kt <-- Marked Correct

It comes out to be 215.6 on E6B. Perhaps its 220 on CRP-5

Given:
Maximum allowable tailwind component for landing 10 kt
Planned runway 05 (047o magnetic)
The direction of the surface wind reported by ATIS 210o
Variation is 17oE
Calculate the maximum allowable windspeed that can be accepted without exceeding
the tailwind limit?

a) 15 kt
b) 18 kt
c) 8 kt
d) 11 kt <-- Correct

Trigonotery! Make a right angle triangle. "Adjacent" will be the headwind or tailwind
component and "Opposite" will be the crosswind component. "Hypotenuse" will be the
wind speed. The difference between the wind direction and aircraft heading will be the
"Angle".

In this case Tailwind limit of 10 kts makes the "Adjacent" limited to 10.

Wind direction is 210T and aircraft heading is 64T (after correcting for variation). This
shows a tailwind case so to calculate the angle we will take the reciprocal of 64 i.e. 244.
Therefore the angle becomes 244-210 = 34 deg.

30
Cos angle = hypotenuse / adjacent

hypotenuse (wind strength) = 10 / cos 34

Wind strength = 12kts. This will be the max limit from a direction of 210 that will ensure
that the 10kts tailwind limit is not exceeded.

Given:
Magnetic heading = 255o
VAR = 40oW
GS = 375 kt
W/V = 235o(T)/120 kt
Calculate the drift angle?

a) 7o left <-- Correct


b) 7o right
c) 9o left
d) 16o right

Given:
AD = Air distance
GD = Ground distance
TAS = True airspeed
GS = Ground speed

Which of the following is the correct formula to calculate ground distance (GD) gone?

a) GD = (AD X GS)/TAS <-- Correct


b) GD = (AD - TAS)/TAS
c) GD = AD X (GS - TAS)/GS
d) GD = TAS/(GS X AD)

Conversion Between Air Nautical Miles and Ground Nautical Miles

For a given track the:

Wind component = +45 kt


Drift angle = 15 left
TAS = 240 kt

What is the wind component on the reverse track?

a) -55 kt
b) -65 kt <-- Correct
c) -45 kt
d) -35 kt

31
1) Find the W/V

Hdg 360 (not given so assume any)


CRS 345 (drift given as 15 left)
TAS 240 (given)
GS 285 (TAS + given tailwind of 45 kts)

W/V comes out to be 116/82

2) Find HDG and GS on reciprocal course

W/V 116/82
CRS 165 (reciprocal of 345)
TAS 240

GS comes out to be 178


HDG comes out to be 150

Thus the wind component comes out to be TAS-GS (240-178) = 62kts Headwind.

Questions on Compass and its Errors

Turning Errors:

When turning through the nearer pole (ie, turning through North in the northern
hemisphere or through South in the Southern Hemisphere):

The compass is SLUGGISH.


The magnetic assembly and the aircraft are turning in the same direction
The compass will under-indicate the amount of turn.
The pilot should undershoot the turn/roll out early.
Liquid swirl will increase the turning error.

When turning through the further pole (ie, turning through South in the northern
hemisphere or through North in the Southern Hemisphere):

The compass is LIVELY.


The magnetic assembly and the aircraft are turning in the opposite direction
The compass will over-indicate the amount of turn.
The pilot should overshoot the turn/roll out late.
Liquid swirl will decrease the turning error.

One of the errors inherent in a magnetic compass in which the compass lags behind the
actual turn when turning through the north and leads when turning through the south in
the Northern Hemisphere. The error is caused by the difference in the location of the
pivot point and the center of gravity of the compass magnet system. The center of
gravity of the magnet is placed below, but some radial distance from, the pivot. The
acceleration forces in the turn—the centripetal and centrifugal forces—set up a couple
in the vertical plane, which imparts a sideways tilt to the magnet system about the pivot.
This is the main reason for the turning error. There are two other reasons for this error:

32
first, the displacement of the center of gravity behind the pivot, and, second, the effect
of liquid swirl. In the latter case, the liquid tends to rotate with the bowl and to drag the
magnet system around with it. This increases the error in turns through the north in the
Northern Hemisphere because the turning error itself causes the magnet to move in the
opposite direction to the turn. This effect will be reduced in turns through the south.

Acceleration Errors:

Acceleration on E or W in either hemisphere always gives an APPARENT turn towards


the nearer pole.

When turning right from 330o (C) to 040o (C) in the northern hemisphere, the reading
of a direct reading magnetic compass will:

a) over-indicate the turn and liquid swirl will decrease the effect
b) under-indicate the turn and liquid swirl will increase the effect <-- Correct
c) under-indicate the turn and liquid swirl will decrease the effect
d) over-indicate the turn and liquid swirl will increase the effect

When accelerating on a westerly heading in the northern hemisphere, the compass


card of a direct reading magnetic compass will turn:

a) clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the north


b) clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the south
c) anti-clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the north <-- Correct
d) anti-clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the south

When decelerating on a westerly heading in the Northern Hemisphere, the compass


card of a direct reading magnetic compass will turn:

a) clockwise giving an apparent turn toward the south <-- Correct


b) anti-clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the south
c) clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the north
d) anti-clockwise giving an apparent turn towards the north

33
An aircraft is accelerating on a westerly heading in the Northern Hemisphere. The
effect on a Direct Reading Magnetic Compass is:

a) Underreads North
b) Underreads South
c) Overreads North <-- Correct
d) Overreads South

You are in the Northern hemisphere, heading 135C on a Direct Reading Magnetic
Compass. You turn right in a Rate 1 turn for 30 seconds. Do you roll out on an indicated
heading of:

a) greater than 225 <-- Correct


b) less than 225
c) equal to 225
d) not possible to determine

Rate 1 turn is 3 deg per second. 30x3=90. 135+90=225. The compass will over-
indicate.

At the magnetic equator, when accelerating after take off on heading West, a direct
reading compass:

a) underreads the heading


b) overreads the heading
c) indicates the correct heading <-- Correct
d) indicates a turn to the south

The compass is pendulous and symmetrical and will sit level if there is no magnetic field
or if the field is horizontal with no Z component, as on the magnetic equator.
Acceleration and turning errors come into play when the card is out of horizontal with its
CG no longer below the pivot point. Source: When should a DRC be 'swung'?

a) Every 6 months
b) Following a change of magnetic latitude <-- Correct
c) For night use
d) After flying in an area where lightning is visible

DRC = direct reading compass. (d) is not valid because lightning has'nt struck.

A direct reading compass should be swung when:

1) There is a large, and permanent, change in magnetic latitude


2) After an aircraft has passed through a severe electrical storm, or has been struck by
lightning
3) If the aircraft has been subjected to hammering

34
The purpose of compass check swing is to:

a) cancel out the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field


b) cancel out the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field
c) measure the angle between Magnetic North and Compass North <-- Correct
d) cancel out the effects of the magnetic fields found on board the aeroplane

One purpose of a compass calibration is to reduce the difference, if any, between:

a) compass north and magnetic north <-- Correct


b) compass north and the lubber line

The direct reading magnetic compass is made aperiodic (dead beat) by:

a) using the lowest acceptable viscosity compass liquid


b) keeping the magnetic assembly mass close to the compass point and by using
damping wires <-- Correct
c) using long magnets
d) pendulous suspension of the magnetic assembly

The sensitivity of a direct reading magnetic compass is

a) inversely proportional to the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field


b) proportional to the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field <-- Correct
c) inversely proportional to the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field
d) inversely proportional to the vertical and horizontal components of the earth's
magnetic field

In a remote indicating compass system the amount of deviation caused by aircraft


magnetism and electrical circuits may be minimised by:

a) positioning the master unit in the centre of the aircraft


b) the use of repeater cards
c) mounting the detector unit in the wingtip <-- Correct
d) using a vertically mounted gyroscope

Why are the detector units of slaved gyro compasses usually located in the aircraft
wingtips? "To isolate the detector unit from the aircraft deviation sources".

The main reason for usually mounting the detector unit of a remote indicating
compass in the wingtip of an aeroplane is to:

a) facilitate easy maintenance of the unit and increase its exposure to the Earth's
35
magnetic field
b) reduce the amount of deviation caused by aircraft magnetism and electrical circuits <-
- Correct
c) place it is a position where there is no electrical wiring to cause deviation errors
d) place it where it will not be subjected to electrical or magnetic interference from the
aircraft

The main advantage of a remote indicating compass over a direct reading compass
is that it:

a) is able to magnify the earth's magnetic field in order to attain greater accuracy
b) has less moving parts
c) requires less maintenance
d) senses, rather than seeks, the magnetic meridian <-- Correct

The annunciator of a remote indicating compass system is used when:

a) synchronising the magnetic and gyro compass elements <-- Correct


b) compensating for deviation
c) setting local magnetic variation
d) setting the heading pointe

Questions on Time Calculation

What is the meaning of the term standard time? "It is the time set by the legal authorities
for a country or part of a country"

What is the local mean time, position 65o25N 123o45W at 2200 UTC?

a) 1345 <-- Correct

Longitude West Greenwich Best


Longitude East Greenwich Least

This longitude is west so Greenwich time will be ahead.

Difference in longitude from Greenwich (0 deg) is 123.75 deg

1 dg = 4 mins

123.75 x 4 = 495 mins (or 8 hrs and 15 mins)

22:00
08:15-
----------
or

21:60

36
08:15-
----------
13:45 time at 65°25N 123°45W (less than UTC)

(Refer to figures 061-13 and 061-15)An aircraft takes off from Guam at 2300
Standard Time on 30 April local date. After a flight of 11 HR 15 MIN it lands at Los
Angeles (California). What is the Standard Time and local date of arrival (assume
summer time rules apply)?

a) 1715 on 30 April <-- Correct


b) 1215 on 1 May
c) 1315 on 1 May
d) 1615 on 30 April

Solution:

Step 1) Convert Guam standard departure time to UTC departure time

Step 2) Determine the UTC arrival time at Los Angeles

Step 3) Convert UTC arrival time to Los Angeles standard time

Step 4) Add one hour for summer time.

Step 1) Convert Guam standard departure time to UTC departure time:

Fig 061-13 (almanac table) shows that Guam is +10 UTc

23:00 30th April Guam Standard Departure Time


10:00-
----------
13:00 30th April UTC Departure Time

Step 2) Determine the UTC arrival time at Los Angeles

13:00 30th April UTC Departure Time


11:15+ (Flight time)
----------
24:15
or

24:15
24:00- (subtracting 24:00 gains a day & adding 24:00 loses a day)
----------
00:15 1st May UTC Arrival Time at Los Angeles

Step 3) Convert UTC arrival time to Los Angeles standard time

37
Fig 061-15 (almanac table) shows that California is -08 UTc

00:15 1st May UTC Arrival Time at Los Angeles


08:00-
----------
or

00:15
24:00+ (subtracting 24:00 gains a day & adding 24:00 loses a day)
----------
24:15 30th April UTC Arrival Time at Los Angeles
08:00-
----------
16:15 30th April Arrival - Los Angeles Standard Time

Step 4) Add one hour for summer time

16:15 30th April Arrival - Los Angeles Standard Time


01:00+
----------
17:15 30th April Arrival - Los Angeles Standard Time + Summer Time

Which of the following alternatives is correct when you cross the international date
line?

a) The date will increase if you are crossing on a westerly heading <-- Correct
b) The date will increase if you are crossing on a easterly heading
c) The date will always be the same
d) If you are crossing from westerly longitude to easterly longitude the date will remain
the same

Questions on Magnetism

Which of the following statements concerning the earth's magnetic field is completely
correct?

a) Dip is the angle between total magnetic field and vertical field component
b) The blue pole of the earth's magnetic field is situated in North Canada <-- Correct
c) At the earth's magnetic equator, the inclination varies depending on whether the
geographic equator is north or south of the magnetic equator
d) The earth's magnetic field can be classified as transient semi-permanent or
permanent

What is the dip angle at the South Magnetic Pole? "90 deg"

The horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field:

38
a) is approximately the same at all magnetic latitudes less than 60o
b) weakens with increasing distance from the magnetic poles
c) weakens with increasing distance from the nearer magnetic pole
d) is approximately the same at magnetic latitudes 50oN and 50oS <-- Correct

The aclinic is the line of zero magnetic dip

The Earth can be considered as being a magnet with the:

a) blue pole near the north pole of the earth and the direction of the magnetic force
pointing straight up from the earth's surface
b) red pole near the north pole of the earth and the direction of the magnetic force
pointing straight down to the earth's surface
c) blue pole near the north pole of the earth and the direction of the magnetic force
pointing straight down to the earth's surface <-- Correct
d) red pole near the north pole of the earth and the direction of the magnetic force
pointing straight up from the earth's surface

Area normally referred to as "North magnetic pole" is physically a "Magnetic field south
pole" (pole which the North end of a magnet would point to). Thus the earth's North
Magnetic Pole (actually the magnet's south pole) is coloured blue on maps and charts of
the earth. And the earth's South Magnetic Pole (actually the magnet's north pole) is
coloured red on maps and charts of the earth.

For DIP Read This

Where is a compass most effective?

a) About midway between the earth's magnetic poles <-- Correct


b) In the region of the magnetic South pole
c) In the region of the magnetic North pole
d) On the geographic equator

The force acting on the needle of a direct reading compass varies:

a) directly with the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field <-- Correct
b) directly with the vertical component of the earth's magnetic field
c) inversely with both vertical and horizontal components of the earth's magnetic field
d) inversely with the horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field

The horizontal component of the earth's magnetic field:

a) weakens with increasing distance from the nearer magnetic pole


b) weakens with increasing distance from the magnetic poles
c) is stronger closer to the magnetic equator <-- Correct

39
d) is approximately the same at all magnetic latitudes less than 60o

The lines on a chart joining places of equal magnetic dip are called:

a) Aclinic lines (0 dip)


b) Isogonals (equal variation)
c) Isoclinals <-- Correct
d) Agonic lines (0 variation)

Permanent magnetism in aircraft arises chiefly from:

a) exposure to the earth's magnetic field during normal operation


b) hammering, and the effect of the earth's magnetic field, whilst under construction <--
Correct
c) the combined effect of aircraft electrical equipment and the earth's magnetic field
d) the effect of internal wiring and exposure to electrical storms

For explanation see: Magnetism

Questions on Sunrise/Sunset/Twilight Time Calculations

What is the UTC time of sunrise in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada (49N 123
30W) on the 6th December?

a) 2324 UTC
b) 0724 UTC
c) 1552 UTC <--- Correct
d) 0738 UTC

According to Air Almanac Tables:

07:39 6th Dec Sunrise LMT British Columbia

British Columbia is at long 123.5W

Arc to time conversion: 123.5 x 4 = 494 mins (8:14)

Long west Greenwich best

07:39
08:14+
----------
15:53 UTC 6th Dec Sunrise UTC

Civil twilight is defined by: "sun altitude is 6 deg below the celestial horizon"

The duration of civil twilight is the time:

40
a) between sunset and when the centre of the sun is 12o below the true horizon
b) agreed by the international aeronautical authorities which is 12 minutes
c) needed by the sun to move from the apparent height of 0o to the apparent height of
6o
d) between sunset and when the centre of the sun is 6o below the true horizon <--
Correct

On the 27th of February, at 52oS and 040oE, the sunrise is at 0243 UTC. On the
same day, at 52oS and 035oW, the sunrise is at:

a) 2143 UTC
b) 0243 UTC
c) 0743 UTC <-- Correct
d) 0523 UTC

40E + 35W = 75 deg long. 75/15 = 5 hrs (15 deg/hr). Sun rises in the east first so it will
be 5 hrs later at 35W (0243+5 = 0743).

Another way to look at it is that the local time of sunrise is based on the latitude only
(see the almanac tables). This means that places on the same latitude will have the
same local sunrise time. So if at 52S 040E the sunrise time in UTC is 0243 then sunrise
at local time will be UTC time + 2hrs 40min (40/15 = 2.66 hrs) which becomes 0523
(longitude east UTC least). This means the local time for sunrise will also be 0523 at
position 52S and 035W because the latitude is the same. Converting 0523 local to UTC
time at 35W we have (longitude west UTC best) 0523 + 0220 = 0743.

(Refer to figure 061-12) The UTC of sunrise on 6 December at WINNIPEG (Canada)


(49o 50' N 097o 30'W) is:

d) 1413 <-- Correct

Fig 061-12 is the almanac table for sunrise and sunset (be careful to read the title
properly).

These tables give the LMT for sunrise or sunset.

LMT Sunrise at WINNIPEG (Canada) determined from the Lattude (49°50'N) only is
07:43

Question is asking for UTC time.

Longitude West UTC Best

Longitude = 97.5 deg (97.5 x 4= 390 mins or 6 hrs:30 mins)

07:43
06:30+
----------

41
13:73
or
14:13

In 8 hours and 8 minutes the mean sun has moved how many degrees along the
celestial equator? "122"

8 hrs and 8 mins is 8.13 hrs

With a movement rate of 15 deg per hour

After 8.13 hrs it will be 8.13 x 15 = 122

Questions on Lat/Long Calculations

Given:The coordinates of the heliport at Issy les Moulineaux are:N48o50 E002o16.5


The coordinates of the antipodes are:

a) S41o10 W177o43.5
b) S48o50 E177o43.5
c) S48o50 W177o43.5 <-- Correct
d) S41o10 E177o43.5

In geography, the antipodes of any place on Earth is the point on the Earth's surface
which is diametrically opposite to it. Two points that are antipodal to one another are
connected by a straight line running through the centre of the Earth.

Opposite of N48°50' E002°16.5' is:

Long E2.275°+180 = 182.275° showing that 2.275° has crossed the 180E/W meridian
and has gone into the other hemisphere, so it will be:

180-2.275 = 177.725°W or 177°43.5'W

N48°50' will simply be S48°50' so option (c) is correct. To visualize you can draw a
diagram viewing the globe from above (for change of long).

An aircraft at latitude 02o20N tracks 180o(T) for 685 km. On completion of the flight
the latitude will be:

a) 03°50S <-- Correct


b) 04°10S
c) 04°30S
d) 09°05S

685 km / 1.85 = 370NM

370NM / 60 = 6.17° or 6°10'

42
From a position of 2°20'N travelling towards south (180°T) by 6°10' will take the aircraft
through the equator.

2°20' Out of 6°10' will be in northern hemisphere and the remaining will be in the
southern hemisphere:

6°10'
2°20'-
----------
or

5°70
2°20'-
----------
3°50'S

An aircraft departing A(N40°00' E080°00') flies a constant true track of 270° at a


ground speed of 120 kt. What are the coordinates of the position reached in 6 HR?

b) N40°00' E064°20' <-- Correct

Departure (NM) = Change of Longitude (in minutes) x Cosine of Latitude

Distance 120 x 6 = 720

Cos 40 = 0.766

Change of Long = 720/0.766 = 940' or

940/60 = 15.66° or 15°40'

Flying West (270°) from E080°00' means the new long will be:

80°00'
15°40'-
-----------
or

79°60
15°40'-
-----------
64°20'E

An aircraft flies the following rhumb line tracks and distances from position 04o00N
030o00W: 600 NM South, then 600 NM East, then 600 NM North, then 600 NM West.
The final position of the aircraft is:

a) 04°00N 029°58W <-- Correct

43
b) 04°00N 030°02W
c) 04°00N 030°00W
d) 03°58N 030°02W

From 4N 30W going south by 600nm (10 deg) will end up at 6S 30W

From 6S 30W going east by 600nm (long change = 600/cos6 = 10.06 deg) will end up
at 6S 19.94W

From 6S 19.94W going north by 600nm (10 deg) will end up at 4N 19.94W

From 4N 19.94W going west by 600nm (long change = 600/cos4 = 10.03 deg) will end
up at 6S 29.97W or 6°S 29°58'W

An aircraft starts at position 0411.0S 17812.2W and heads True North for 2950nm,
then turns 90o left maintaining a rhumb line track for 314 km. The aircraft's final position
is:

a) 5500.0N 17412.2W
b) 4500.0N 17412.2W
c) 5500.0N 17713.8E
d) 4500.0N 17713.8E <-- Correct

Starting Position = 04°11.0'S 178°12.2'W

2950nm North = 2950/60 = 49.16° (takes the aircraft in the northern hemisphere)

49.16 - 4.18 = 44.98 = 177°48'

From 45N a 90deg left turn for 314km makes the aircraft cross 180EW anti meridian.

314km/1.85 = 169.7nm

Change of long = 169.7/cos45 = 240' or 240/60 = 4°

178.20W + 4° = 182.2

360-182.2 = 177.8 or 177°48'

Final Position = 45N 177°48'E

5 hours 20 minutes and 20 seconds hours time difference is equivalent to which


change of longitude:

a) 81o 30
b) 78o 15
c) 79o 10
d) 80o 05 <-- Correct

44
5 hours 20 minutes and 20 seconds = 5.338 Hours

1 hour = 15 deg

5.338 hrs = 15 x 5.338 = 80.08 deg or 80°05'

Given:
Position A is N00o E100o
Position B is 240o(T), 200 NM from A
What is the position of B?

a) S01o40 E101o40
b) N01o40 E097o07
c) S01o40 E097o07 <-- Correct
d) N01o40 E101o40

Angles:

240-180 = 60

270-240 = 30

New Position:

Sin 30 x 200 = 100/60 = 1.66 deg South

Cos 30 x 200 = 173.2/60 = 2.88 deg West

An aircraft departs a point 0400N 17000W and flies 600 nm South, followed by 600
nm East, then 600 nm North, then 600 nm West. What is its final position?

a) 0400N 17000W
b) 0600S 17000W
c) 0400N 16958.1W <-- Correct

45
d) 0400N 17001.8W

Starting at 0400N 17000W

Flying 600nm South (600/60 = 10 deg) the position becomes 0600S 17000W

Flying 600nm East (600/cos6 = 10.055 deg. 170-10.055 = 159.945) the position
becomes 0600S 159.945W

Flying 600nm North (600/60 = 10 deg) the position becomes 0400N 159.945W

Flying 600nm West (600/cos4 = 10.024 deg. 159.945+10.024 = 169.969) the position
becomes 04°00'N 169°58.1'W

An aircraft at position 2700N 17000W travels 3000 km on a track of 180T, then 3000
km on a track of 090T, then 3000 km on a track of 000T, then 3000 km on a track of
270T. What is its final position?

a) 2700N 17000W
b) 0000N 17000W
c) 2700N 17318W <-- Correct
d) 2700N 14300W

Same as the previous question but this time without calculations.

3000 km South means 27 deg (after doing the required conversions). Now the aircraft
flies east on the equator. Meridians dont converge on the equator. Then it flies north for
3000 km i.e. back to Lat 27N. Then it flies west for 3000 km. Meridians will converge
here. For the same distance on equator there will be more change of longitudes here.
So position will be to the west of the original starting position. There is only one option
(c) suggesting that.

As the INS position of the departure aerodrome, co-ordinates 35o32.7N 139o46.3W


are input instead of 35o32.7N 139o46.3E. When the aircraft subsequently passes point
52o N 180oW, the longitude value show on the INS will be:

a) 080o27.4W
b) 099o32.6W <-- Correct
c) 099o32.6 E
d) 080o27.4 E

46
Change of longitude when aircraft reaches 180W = 180-139.77 = 40.23

Longitude shown on INS = 139.77-40.23 = 99.54 or 99°32.4'W

Questions on Variation and Deviation

What is a line of equal magnetic variation? "Isogonal"

At a specific location, the value of magnetic variation:

a) depends on the true heading


b) depends on the type of compass installed
c) depends on the magnetic heading
d) varies slowly over time <-- Correct

Isogonals converge at the:

a) Magnetic equator
b) North and South geographic and magnetic poles <-- Correct
c) North magnetic pole only
d) North and South magnetic poles only

If variation is West; then:

a) True North is West of Magnetic North


b) Compass North is West of Magnetic North
c) True North is East of Magnetic North <-- Correct

47
d) Magnetic North is West of Compass North

Variation West means Magnetic North is West of True North.

When the Magnetic Pole is West of the True North pole variation is "- and westerly" if
its east then variation is "+ and easterly"

Complete the following statement regarding magnetic variation. The charted values
of magnetic variation on earth normally change annually due to:

a) a reducing field strength causing numerical values at all locations to decrease


b) magnetic pole movement causing numerical values at all locations to increase
c) magnetic pole movement causing numerical values at all locations to increase or
decrease <-- Correct
d) an increasing field strength causing numerical values at all locations to increase

An aircraft is over position HO (55o30N 060o15W), where YYR VOR (53o30N


060o15W) can be received. The magnetic variation is 31oW at HO and 28oW at YYR.
What is the radial from YYR?

a) 031
b) 208
c) 028 <-- Correct
d) 332

YYR to HO = 360, variation west magnetic best, 360 + var at YYR 28 = 028

Given:

True track is 348o


Drift 17o left
Variation 32oW
Deviation 4oE
What is the compass heading?

a) 007
b) 033 <-- Correct
c) 359
d) 337

Drift left = wind from the right = heading into the wind. True heading to start with will be
348 + 17(drift) = 005. For the rest of calculation use the method Described Earlier

The agonic line (that connects positions that have 0 variation):

a) is midway between the magnetic North and South poles

48
b) follows the geographic equator
c) is the shorter distance between the respective True and Magnetic North and South
poles
d) Follows separate paths out of the North polar regions, one currently running through
Western Europe and the other through the USA <-- Correct

The value of magnetic variation:

a) varies between maximum values of 45oE and 45oW


b) is a maximum of 180o <-- Correct
c) is always 0o at the magnetic equator
d) is never greater than 90o

The minimum Magnetic Declination (Variation) is 0 degrees and this is along the Agonic
Line or line of zero variation. The maximum Magnetic Declination is 180 degrees and
this will be along a line between the Magnetic North Pole and the Geographic North
Pole - the magnetic compass is pointing at the Magnetic North Pole, whilst the tail of the
needle is pointing at the Geographic North Pole. The same applies at the South Pole.
The distance between the Magnetic and Geographic North Poles is only a few hundred
miles whilst the distance between the Magnetic and Geographic South Poles is roughly
1500 NM.
Source: (http://www.atpforum.eu/showthread.php?t=13955)

Deviation is:

a) an error to be added to magnetic headings


b) a correction to be added to magnetic heading to obtain compass heading
c) a correction to be added to compass heading to obtain magnetic heading <-- Correct
d) an error to be added to compass heading to obtain magnetic heading

49
Difference betwen (b) and (c) is the sequence. Deviation is the angular difference
between the compass and the magnetic heading. Deviation needs to be added to
compass heading in order to obtain the magnetic heading i.e. Compass Heading +
Deviation = Magnetic Heading. So either you add a positive number (east deviation) or
a negative number (west deviation) you'll get the magnetic heading. Same is the case
with Magnetic and True Headings i.e. Magnetic Heading + Variation = True Heading.
Going reverse from True to Magnetic and then to Compass requires subtraction which
makes option (b) incorrect.

An aircraft is at 5530N 03613W where the variation is 15W. It is tuned to a VOR


located at 5330N 03613W where the variation is 12W. What VOR radial is the aircraft
on?

a) 348
b) 012 <-- Correct
c) 165
d) 015

True bearing is 360. Radials are magnetic bearings FROM a VOR and are measured at
the VOR, therefore, Magnetic Variation is applied at the VOR. Variation at VOR is given
as 12W. 360 + 12 = 012 (variation west magnetic best)

When applying magnetic variation to NDB/ADF and ground feature bearings, we apply
the magnetic variation at the aircraft, as this is where the bearings are measured.
Source: (http://www.atpforum.eu/showthread.php?t=12980)

Route A (44oN 026oE) to B (46oN 024oE) forms an angle of 35o with longitude
026oE. Average magnetic variation between A and B is 3oE. What is the average
magnetic course from A to B?

a) 322o <-- Correct


b) 328o
c) 032o
d) 038o

Track is westerly (26E to 24 E) and it forms an angle of 35 deg with longitude 26E so

50
the track becomes 325 (360-35). True heading will be 325. Variation is 3E so magnetic
heading will be 322.

Question on Convergency and Conversion Angle

Some Basic Stuff

1) Conversion Angle is equal to 1/2 x Convergency

2) Convergency is the difference between two Great Circle Tracks at two separate
positions, i.e. the difference in Great Circle Tracks between A and B.

3) Conversion Angle is the difference between the Great Circle Tracks and the Rhumb
Line Track at any one position, i.e. either at A or B.

4) The Convergence Factor is a constant (Sine of Parallel of Origin) applied to


Lambert's Charts, which is a numerical value derived from the fact that Earth
Convergency = Chart Convergency at the Parallel of Origin.

5) Convergency = Change of Longitude x Sine of the Mean Latitude

6) Convergency = Change of Longitude x Convergence Factor (Lambert's Chart)

7) Convergency = Change of Longitude (Polar Stereographic Chart)

What is the standard formula for convergency? "Convergency = dlong x sin mean
latitude"

dlong = difference of longitudes

A great circle track joins position A (59°S 141°W) and B (61°S 148°W). What is the
difference between the great circle track at A and B?

a) it increases by 6° <-- Correct


b) it decreases by 6°
c) it increases by 3°
d) it decreases by 3°

Difference between the great circle track at A and B is simply "Convergency"

Convergency = Change of long x Sin mean lat

Convergency = 7 x sin 60 = 6°

The angle between the true great-circle track and the true rhumb-line track joining
the following points: A (60oS 165oW) B (60oS 177oE), at the place of departure A, is:

a) 7.8° <-- Correct

51
b) 9°
c) 15.6°
d) 5.2°

The angle between the true great-circle track and the true rhumb-line track is the
"conversion angle" which is half of convergency.

Convergency = Change of long x Sin mean lat

Change of long = 165+177= 342. Since 342 is greater than 180 we will subtract it from
360 i.e. 360-342 = 18 (change of long).

Sin Lat 60 = 0.866

Convergency = 18 x 0.866 = 15.58

Conversion Angle is half of convergency i.e. 15.58/2 = 7.79°

Given that:

A is N55 E/W 000


B is N54 E 010

If the true great circle track from A to B is 100T, what is the true Rhumb Line track at
A?

a) 096
b) 107
c) 104 <-- Correct
d) 100

Draw a diagram as explained under Convergency and Great Circle Tracks

Convergency = 10 x sin 54.5 = 8

Conversion angle is half of convergency = 4

At "A" rhumb line track will be more than 100 and since difference between rhumb line
track and great cicle track is the conversion angle, the rhumb line track will be 104.

Given:

Waypoint 1 = 60°S 030°W

Waypoint 2 = 60°S 020°W

What will be the approximate latitude shown on the display unit of an inertial navigation
system at longitude 025°W?

52
a) 060° 11’S
b) 059° 49'S
c) 060° 00'S
d) 060° 06'S <-- Correct

The aircraft using INS will fly a great circle track. At midpoint (25W) between 30W and
20W the great circle track will be slightly south of rhumb line track. If we know one angle
and one side of the triangle, we can calculate the difference in latitude. The distance
between 30W and 25W (i.e. 150 nm) is one side of the triangle (adjacent). Conversion
angle at 30W is 4.33. Join 30W point to a point on the 25W meridian to make a right
angle triangle. The line will cut the conversion angle of 4.33 into half, so the angle of the
triangle (at 30W) becomes 4.33/2 = 2.16.

tan 2.16 = opp(ch of lat)/150

ch of lat = tan 2.16 x 150 = 5.65 nm

So INS at 25W will read:

60°00'00
00°05'39+
----------
60°06'S

Waypoint 1 is 60N 30W. Waypoint 2 is 60N 20W. The aircraft autopilot is coupled to
the INS steer. What is the latitude on passing 25W?

a) 6005N <-- Correct

53
b) 6011N
c) 6032N
d) 5949M

Same logic as the previous question but this time its the northern hemisphere so the
latitude will be slightly north.

A Lambert conformal conic chart has a constant of the cone of 0.80. A straight line
course drawn on this chart from A (53oN 004oW) to B is 080o at A; course at B is
092o(T). What is the longitude of B?

a) 011°E <-- Correct


b) 009°36'E
c) 008°E
d) 019°E

Draw the diagram as usual. We need to know the change of longitudes so that they can
be added to position A to find the long of position B.

On a Lambert conformal, Convergency = change of longitude x conversion factor or

Change of longitude = Convergency / 0.8

Course at A is 080 and at B is 092 i.e. 12 deg of change is the convergency

Change of longitude = 12 / 0.8 = 15 deg.

From 4w going 15 deg East, the long of B is 11E

Given:
A is N55o 000o
B is N54o E010o

The average true course of the great circle is 100. The true course of the rhumbline at
point A is:

a) 100 <-- Correct


b) 096
c) 104
d) 107

54
Avg great circle course is 100 which will be at midpoint. At mid point great circle course
and rhumb line course is equal and since rhumb line course is constant, it will be 100 at
A. Mathematically:

Convergency = 10 x sin 54.5 = 8.14

Conversion angle = 4.07

Going towards east Great circle track angle is increasing i.e. 8.14 deg from A to B. So at
at A it will be 100-4.07 = 95.93

Conversion angle (0.5 x convergency) is the difference between Great circle track and
rhumb line track. 4.07 in this case. The diagram shows that at A rhumb line track is
more than great circle track. So Rhumb lin track at A = 95.93 + 4.07 = 100.

The Great Circle bearing from A (70oS 030oW) to B (70oS 060oE) is approximately:

a) 090o (T)
b) 048o (T)
c) 132o (T) <-- Correct
d) 312o (T)

Simple calculation but beware of the tendency to assume 090T considering that latitude
is the same at the two places. Question is asking for great circle bearing from A to B not
between A and B. It will be 90 between A and B. According to the diagram the angle will
be less at B and more at A. Convergency comes out to be 84.57 from A to B so at B the
great circle track at B will be 90-42.3= 47.7 and at A will be 132.3 which is the only
correct option in the question.

Questions on Great Circles and Rhumb Lines

How many small circles can be drawn between any two points on a sphere?
"unlimited"

55
In order to fly from position A (10o00N, 030o00W) to position B (30o00N),
050o00W), maintaining a constant true course, it is necessary to fly: " a rhumb line
track"

Parallels of latitude, except the equator are: "Rhumb Lines" (since they cut the
meridians at constant angles)

Radio bearings:

a) are Rhumb lines


b) cut all meridians at the same angle
c) are Great circles <-- Correct
d) are lines of fixed direction

A Parallel of Latitude is a:

a) Great circle
b) Rhumb line <-- Correct
c) Small circle
d) Meridian of tangency

Generally what line lies closer to the pole?

a) Rhumb line
b) Orthodromic line <-- Correct
c) Equator
d) The rhumb line or great circle depending on the chart used

Orthodromic Track = Great-circle Track

An aircraft is following the 45oN parallel of latitude. The track followed is a:

a) constant-heading track
b) rhumb line <-- Correct
c) great circle
d) constant-drift track

If you are flying along a parallel of latitude, you are flying a rhumb line track.

In which occasions does the rhumb line track and the great circle track coincide on
the surface of the Earth?

a) On East-West tracks in polar areas

56
b) On high latitude tracks directly East-West
c) On East-West tracks in the northern hemisphere north of the magnetic equator
d) On tracks directly North-South and on East-West tracks along the Equator <--
Correct

When flying on a westerly great circle track in the Southern Hemisphere you will:

a) fly a spiral and finally end up at the south pole


b) experience an increase in the value of true track <-- Correct
c) always have the rhumb line track between the departure point and the destination to
the left of
d) your great circle track experience a decrease in the value of true track

For explanation See: Convergency

What is the Rhumb line (RL) direction from 45oN 14o12W to 45oN 12o48E?

a) 270° (T)
b) 090° (T) <-- Correct
c) 090° (M)
d) 270° (M)

Which of the following differences in latitude will give the biggest difference in the
initial Great Circle track and the mean Great Circle track between two points separated
by 10o change of longitude?

a) 60N and 60S


b) 60N and 55N <-- Correct
c) 30S and 30N
d) 30S and 25S

The initial great circle track means the track at the begining, the final great circle track
means the track at the end and the mean great circle track is the average track which is
the track at the mid-point of the great circle. The greatest track change for a given
change of longitude will be at the highest mean latitude. Highest mean latitude is 57.5N.
Source: (http://www.atpforum.eu/showthread.php?t=3148)

The following waypoints are entered into an inertial navigation system (INS)

WPT 1: 60N 30W


WPT 2: 60N 20W
WPT 3: 60N 10W

The intertial navigation is connected to the automatic pilot on the route WP1-WP2-WP3.
The track change on passing WPT:

a) 1 9 deg increase

57
b) 1 4 deg decrease
c) zero
d) a 9 deg decrease <-- Correct

An aircraft flies a great circle track from 56o N 070o W to 62o N 110o E. The total
distance travelled is:

a) 2040 NM
b) 1788 NM
c) 5420 NM
d) 3720 NM <-- Correct

Change of longitude from 70W to 110E is 180. Two points opposite to each other at
56N and 62N shows that the great circle track from one point to the other will be over

58
the pole. So we just have to calculate the change of latitude. From 56N to Pole = 34
(90-56) and from Pole to 62N = 28 (90-62). Change of lat = 34+28 = 62. 62 x 60 = 3720
nm.

The rhumb-line distance between points A (60o00N 002o30E) and B (60o00N


007o30W) is:

a) 150 NM
b) 450 NM
c) 600 NM
d) 300 NM <-- Correct

Departure = Change of Longitude (in minutes) x Cosine of Latitude

The rhumb line track between position A (45o00N, 010o00W) and position B
(48o30N, 015o00W) is approximately:

a) 345
b) 300
c) 330
d) 315 <-- Correct

No given track, points at different latitudes, no highest latitudes given, the only option
left is trigonometry.

Tan angle = opp/adjacent = 210/205.5 = 1.02

Angle = Inv Tan = 45.5

360-45 = 315

Convergency = 3.64 and conversion angle = 1.8 so Rhumb line track is approx = 313.2
(At A it is less than great circle track).

59
In the Northern Hemisphere the rhumb line track from position A to B is 230o, the
convergency is 6o and the difference in longitude is 10o. What is the initial rhumb line
track from B to A?

a) 050 <-- Correct


b) 053
c) 056
d) 047

Reciprocal of 230 from B to A will be 050. Rhumb line track remains the same. If it was
great circle then we would have applied the conversion angle to get the rhumb line
track. But be careful as options with applied conversion angle are present here.

The great circle bearing of position B from position A in the Northern Hemisphere is
040o. If the Conversion Angle is 4o, what is the great circle bearing of A from B?

a) 228 <-- Correct


b) 212
c) 220
d) 224

This cant be reciprocal of 040 because great circle track (GCT) changes due to
convergency. Convergency in this case will be 8 (double of conversion angle).

If the diagram is drawn it shows that GCT increases while going east in northern
hemisphere. Thus at B the track will be 40+8 = 48. From B to A it will be reciprocal of 48
i.e. 228.

The initial great circle track from A to B is 080o and the rhumb line track is 083o.
What is the initial great circle track from B to A and in which Hemisphere are the two
positions located?

a) 266o and in the northern hemisphere <-- Correct


b) 260o and in the southern hemisphere
c) 260o and in the northern hemisphere
d) 266o and in the southern hemisphere

From A to B, Rhumb line track (RLT) of 83 is greater than Great circle track (GCT) of
80. This indicates that RLT is south of GCT i.e. the situation in Northern Hemisphere.
Conversion angle is 3 so convergency will be 6. Initial GCT from A to B is 80 (i.e. at A).
If convergency is 6 then at B GCT will be 86 (going east GCT increases in NH). So GCT
from B to A will be reciprocal of 86 i.e. 266.

Questions on Solar System

Assuming mid-latitudes (40° to 50° N/S). At which time of year is the relationship
between the length of day and night, as well as the rate of change of declination of the
sun, changing at the greatest rate?

60
a) Summer solstice and spring equinox
b) Spring equinox and autumn equinox <-- Correct
c) Summer solstice and winter solstice
d) Winter solstice and autumn equinox

For explanation see: Solar System

What is the approximate date of perihelion, when the Earth is nearest to the Sun?

a) Beginning of January <-- Correct


b) End of December
c) Beginning of July
d) End of March

At what approximate date is the earth furthest from the sun (aphelion)?

a) Beginning of July <-- Correct


b) End of December
c) Beginning of January
d) End of September

Seasons are due to the:

a) Earth's elliptical orbit around the Sun


b) inclination of the polar axis with the ecliptic plane <-- Correct
c) Earth's rotation on its polar axis
d) variable distance between Earth and Sun

The angle between the plane of the Equator and the plane of the Ecliptic is: "23.5
deg"

In which two months of the year is the difference between the transit of the Apparent
Sun and mean Sun across the Greenwich Meridian the greatest?

a) March and September


b) February and November <-- Correct
c) June and December
d) April and August

At what time of the year is the Earth at its furthest point from the sun (aphelion)?

a) Early July <-- Correct


b) Late December
c) Early January
d) Mid-June
61
Which is the highest latitude listed below at which the sun will rise above the horizon
and set every day? "66 degrees"

The main reason that day and night, throughout the year, have different duration is
due to the:

a) inclination of the ecliptic to the equator <-- Correct


b) earth's rotation
c) relative speed of the sun along the ecliptic
d) gravitational effect of the sun and moon on the speed of rotation of the earth

What is the highest latitude listed below at which the sun will reach an altitude of 90o
above the horizon at some time during the year?

a) 0o
b) 45o
c) 66o
d) 23o <-- Correct

Question on Form of Earth

he earth may be referred to as:

a) round
b) an oblate spheroid <-- Correct
c) a globe
d) elliptical

Earth is oblate spheroid or ellipsoid.

Given: Value for the ellipticity of the Earth is 1/297. Earth's semi-major axis, as
measured at the equator, equals 6378.4 km. What is the semi-minor axis (km) of the
earth at the axis of the Poles?

a) 6 356.9 <-- Correct

Earth is not a perfect sphere. It is spheroid.

Equitorial Axis (Semi-Major Axis) is greater than the polar axis (Semi-Minor Axis).

Value for the ellipticity of the Earth is 1/297 (as given in the question).

This means that the semi-minor (polar) axis is 1/297 shorter than the semi-major
(equitorial) axis.

62
If equitorial (semi-major) axis is 6378.4 km then semi-minor (polar) axis is:

6378.4 x 1/297 = 21.476 km shorter than the semi-major (equitorial) axis.

Therefore semi-minor axis = 6378.4 - 21.476 = 6356.9 km

At what approximate latitude is the length of one minute of arc along a meridian
equal to one NM (1852 m)
correct?

a) 45° <-- Correct


b) 0°
c) 90°
d) 30°

For most practical navigation purposes, all of the following units are used
interchangeably as the equivalent of one nautical mile:

(a) 6076.11549 ft or 1852 m;


(b) one minute of arc of a great circle on a sphere having an area equal to that of the
earth;
(c) one minute of arc on the earth’s equator, or 6076.10 ft (1851.9952 m);
(d) one minute of arc of the meridian or one minute of latitude.

This, however, varies between 1843m (6046.58793 ft) at the equator, 1853m
(6079.3963 ft) at 45°N and S latitude, and 1862 m (6108.9238 ft) at the poles because
the earth is an oblate spheroid. However, for the purpose of navigation, the International
Nautical Mile of 1852 m (6076.1033 ft) has been adapted as the standard for air
navigation.

The maximum difference between geocentric and geodetic latitude occurs at about:

a) 90° North and South


b) 60° North and South
c) 45° North and South <-- Correct
d) 0° North and South (equator)

For explanation see Form of Earth

The circumference of the Earth is approximately: "21600 NM" (40,000 km)

The circumference of the parallel of latitude at 60°N is approximately: 10,800 NM

At 60N it is half of what it is at the equator (21600/2 = 10,800)

If an aeroplane was to circle around the Earth following parallel 60oN at a ground

63
speed of 480 kt. In order to circle around the Earth along the equator in the same
amount of time, it should fly at a ground speed of:

a) 550 kt
b) 240 kt
c) 960 kt <-- Correct
d) 480 kt

Since equator is double the distance as compared to the parallel 60N the speed will
have tobe doubled i.e. 480 x 2 = 960 to circle in the same time.

Mathematically:

Time to circle at 60N = 10800/480 = 22.5

Speed to circle at equator in the same time of 22.5 = 21600/22.5 = 960

The diameter of the Earth is approximately:

a) 18 500 km
b) 6350 km
c) 12700 km <-- Correct
d) 40000 km

If you know the circumference which is 40,000 km then you can calcualte the radius
from the formula:

Circumference = 2.Pi.r

Diameter = 2 x radius

The Earth is:

a) A sphere which has a larger polar circumference than equatorial circumference


b) A sphere whose centre is equidistant (the same distance) from the Poles and the
Equator
c) Considered to be a perfect sphere as far as navigation is concerned <-- Correct
d) None of the above statements is correct

The Earth has been charted using: WGS84

Modern navigation systems use reference systems based on the true elliptical shape of
the earth. Most common is the World Geodetic System of 1984 or WGS84.

Sunrise, Sunset and Twilight

64
Sunrise, Sunset and Twilight

Sunrise is the time when the sun just rises over the horizon.

Sunset is the time it just disappears below the horizon.

Morning civil twilight starts when the sun is 6° below the horizon and ends at sunrise.

Evening civil twilight starts at sunset and ends when the sun is 6° below the horizon.

Sun rises at different times at different longitudes (earth's rotation and different latitudes
because earth's axis is tilted).

LMT is used to list the times of sunrise, sunset and twilight.

Air Almanac tables give LMT for:

a) Sunrise

b) Sunset

c) Start of morning civil twilight

d) End of evening civil twilight

These LMT are for different latitudes. They are calculated for Greenwich meridian but
are valid for all longitudes.

e.g. If sun rises at 0600 LMT at 53°N it means that at all longitudes on that particular
day the sun rises at 53°N 6 hours before noon.

An arc to time conversion to UTC followed by a standard time correction will then be
needed to get the standard time of sunrise.

e.g. The sun rises at 0629 LMT on the 6th of March in Sofia, Bulgaria (43°N 019°E).
Find the ST of sunrise?

1) Arc to Time Conversion to UTC

Sofia, Bulgaria at 19E = 19x4 = 76 mins

Long East Greenwich Least

i.e. 06:29 - 76 mins (1:16)

06:29 6th March Sofia Sunrise


01:16-
----------
05:13 6th March UTC Sunrise

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2) Standard Time Correction

The Almanac shows that time correction for Bulgaria is 2 hrs and (for places east of
Greenwich) it has to be added to UTC to get standard time, so:

05:13 6th March UTC Sunrise


02:00+
----------
07:13 6th March Standard Time for Sunrise in Sofia

Calculations Involved

Example.1. What is the standard time of sunset on the 5th of February at Tokyo, Japan
(43°N 141°E)?

First we need the LMT of sunset on the 5th of February at Tokyo, from the Air Almanac.

The dates are given with an interval of 3, so interpolation might be required.

So at Tokyo's Latitude 43N the LMT for Sunset is 1716

1) Converting to UTC

Tokyo's Long 141E = 141x4 = 564 mins (9:24)

Long East Greenwich Least

17:16 5th Feb Tokyo LMT for Sunset


09:24-
----------
or

66
16:76
09:24-
----------
07:52 5th Feb UTC Sunset

2) Converting to Tokyo's Standard Time

According to Almanac, Japan is UTC +9, so

07:52 5th Feb UTC Sunset


09:00+
----------
16:52 5th Feb Sunset - Tokyo Standard Time

Example.2. What is the duration of morning civil twilight at 52°N 078°W on 8th
January?

Morning civil twilight starts when the sun is 6° below the horizon and ends at sunrise.

i.e. the duration will be bewteen these two limits.

Air Almanac gives the start time of morning civil twilight.

According to the table, at 52N and 8th Jan, the start time for morning civil twilight is
07:26

Sunrise time at 52N on the 8th of Jan (according to the table) is 08:06

So the duration of morning civil twilight is:

08:06
07:26-
----------
or

07:66
07:26-
----------
00:40

i.e. 40 minutes

Example.3. An aircraft departs JFK Airport, New York America (41°N 074°W) on a 6
hour 20 minute flight to land at Frankfurt, Germany (51°N 008°E) not later than half an
hour after sunset on the 18th of November. Determine the latest ST for take-off?

1) Frankfurt landing time restriction in LMT:

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Sunset time on 18th Nov + 30 minutes

LMT for Sunset at Frankfurt on the 18th of Nov (according to the Air Almanac) is 16:08,
so:

16:08
00:30+
----------
16:38 18th Nov - Frankfurt landing time restriction in LMT

2) Landing time restriction in UTC:

Frankfurt at 8E = 8x4 = 32 mins above UTC, so

16:38
00:32-
----------
16:06 18th Nov - Landing time restriction in UTC

3) Departure time in UTC:

16:06 18th Nov (Landing time restriction in UTC)


06:20- (Flight time)
----------
or

15:66
06:20-
----------
09:46 18th Nov (Departure time in UTC from JFK)

4) Departure time in JFK Standard Time:

According to Air Almanac, JFK Newyork is -5 from UTC, so:

09:46 18th Nov (Departure time in UTC from JFK)


05:00-

Standard Time and Air Almanac

Standard Time

In order to avoid the problem of having different local times at every longitude of the
country a single time was established for the whole country known as the Standard
Time.

GMT (now called UTC) was adopted as the standard for the United Kingdom.

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All countries keep a standard time with reference to UTC.

Standard times are set by the government or ruling authority of a country.

There is a single standard time for the entire country unless it is very large and needs
more than one standard time.

In most cases, standard time is calculated by taking every 15th meridian of longitude
and places 7.5° either side of it will use whole hour increment differences from UTC.

Usually places between 7.5°W and 7.5°E keep UTC as standard time.

Places between 7.5°E and 22.5°E (7.5+15) keep UTC +1 hour as standard time.

Places between 22.5°E and 37.5°E (22.5+15) keep UTC +2 hours as ST and so on.

Standard times are listed in the Air Almanac

Time caluclahons using the Almanac

Example.1. The Standard time in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam (11°N 107°E) is 0900 on
the 12th of April. Find the Standard Time in Atlanta, Georgia, USA (34°N 083°W).

1) Convert Standard Time of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam into UTC

The Almanac shows that time correction for Vietnam is 7 hrs and (for places east of
Greenwich) it has to be subtracted from standard time to get UTC, so:

09:00 12th April Ho Chi Minh City


07:00-
----------
02:00 12th April UTC

2) Convert UTC to Standard Time of Atlanta, Georgia, USA

The Almanac shows that time correction for Georgia is 5 hrs and (for places west of
Greenwich) it has to be subtracted from UTC to get standard time, so:

02:00 12th April UTC


05:00-
----------
or

02:00 + 24:00 and Change the Date

26:00 11th April UTC


05:00-
----------
21:00 11th April Atlanta Standard Time

69
Example.2. A mix of LMT and Standard Time. It is 1927 LMT in Fiji (18°S 178°E) on the
8th of January. Find the ST in Hawaii, USA (19°N 156°W).

1) Convert LMT of Fiji into UTC

Fiji at 178E = 178x4 = 712 mins

Longitude East Greenwich Least

i.e. 1927 - 712 (11:52)

19:27 8th Jan Fiji


11:52-
----------
or

18:87
11:52-
----------
07:35 8th Jan UTC

2) Convert UTC to Standard Time of Hawaii.

The Almanac shows that time correction for Hawaii is 10 hrs and (for places west of
Greenwich) it has to be subtracted from UTC to get standard time, so:

07:35 8th Jan UTC


10:00-
----------
or

07:35 + 24:00 and Change the Date

31:35 7th Jan UTC


10:00-
----------
21:35 7th Jan Hawaii Standard Time

Arc to Time Conversions (Local Mean Time)

Arc to Time Conversion (Local Mean Time)

Mean sun travels 360 degrees in 24 hours. Therefore:

360° = 24 hrs

70
1° = 4 minutes (0.066 hrs)

While doing the local mean time conversions, it is recommended to go through UTC.

Longitude East Greenwich Least

Longitude West Greenwich Best

Least means earlier and Best means later

Example .1. It is 1742 LMT on the 30th of July in Bermuda (33°N 065°W). Find the LMT
and date in Madras (14°N 080°E)?

1) Convert LMT of Bermuda into UTC

Bermuda at 65W and UTC at 0 = 65 x 4 = 260 mins

Longitude West Greenwich Best

i.e. 1742 + 260 mins (04:20)

17:42 30th July


04:20+
----------
21:62
00:60-
----------
22:02 UTC 30th July

2) Calculate LMT Madras from UTC

Madras at 80E = 80 x 4 = 320 mins

Longitude East Greenwich Least

i.e. 2202 + 320 mins (05:20)

22:02 30th July


05:20+
----------
27:22
24:00- (new day after 2400, date change)
----------
03:22 31st July - LMT Madras

Example .2. It is 0112 LMT on the 25th of October at A (18°S 140°E) what is the LMT at
B (26°N 081°W)?

71
1) Convert LMT of A into UTC

A at 140E = 140 x 4 = 560 mins

Longitude East Greenwich Least

i.e. 0112 - 560 mins (09:20)

01:12 25th October


09:20-
----------
or

01:12 + 24:00 and change the date

25:12 24th October


09:20-
----------
or

24:72 24th October


09:20-
----------
15:52 UTC 24th October

2) Calculate LMT at B from UTC

B at 81W = 81 x 4 = 324 mins

Longitude West Greenwich Best

i.e. 1552 - 324 mins (05:24)

15:52 24th October


05:24-
----------
10:28 24th October - LMT at B

The Solar System

The Solar System

Click on the image to open it in a new page for better readability:

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In our solar system, planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits.

The Earth moves slightly closer and further away from the Sun during its yearly orbit.

The point where the Sun is furthest from the earth is aphelion.

The point where the Sun is closest from the earth is perihelion.

The orbital plane of the Earth is called the ecliptic, or the plane of the ecliptic.

The angle between the plane of the ecliptic and the Earth's equator is 23.5°

Due to tilt of the earth's axis when northern hemisphere is tilted towards the Sun it is
summer in northern hemisphere (winter in southern hemisphere).

Due to tilt of the earth's axis when northern hemisphere is tilted away from the Sun it is
winter in northern hemisphere (summer in southern hemisphere).

Tilt of the earth's axis also accounts for longer nights in winter and the longer days in
summer.

Latitudes 23.5°N is called the Tropic of Cancer

Latitudes 23.5°S is called the Tropic of Capricorn

Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn are the highest latitudes where the Sun will be directly
overhead.

Sun will be overhead 23.5°N in June (northern hemisphere summer solstice and the
longest day).

Sun will be overhead 23.5°S in December (northern hemisphere winter solstice and the
longest night).
73
The highest latitude at which the Sun will always rise and set is 66.5° (angle between
the Earth's axis and the plane of the ecliptic).

Above 66.5° (extreme northern and southern latitudes) there wil be sometimes in
winters when there is no sunrise.

Similary there will be some times in summers when there is no sunset.

Between the solstices are the equinoxes, when the Sun is passing over the equator.
Night and day are of equal lengths.

For more on: Solstices and Equinox

At a given time of year, the angle that the Sun is above or below the equator determines
the season and affects the length of daylight/night.

The angle is known as Declination (analogous in the sky to latitude on the Earth).

The Sun's declination changes annually between 23.5°N (Sun overhead the tropic of
Cancer) through 0° (Sun overhead the Equator) to 23.5°S (Sun overhead the Tropic of
Capricorn) and then back through 0° to 23.5°N.

The length of daylight/night at a given latitude varies with the declination of the Sun.

The rate of change of the length of daylight will therefore be greatest when the rate of
change of declination is greatest.

This situation occurs at the equinoxes (about Mar 21 and Sep 21). Not true in some
cases (when the latitude considered is either the Equator or is above 66° N/S)

Kepler Laws of Planetary Motion

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• First Law: The Orbit of each planet is an ellipse with the Sun at one of the foci.

• Second Law: The line joining the planet to the Sun (radius vector) sweeps out equal
area in equal time.

• Third Law: The square of the time a planet takes to go around the Sun (sidereal
period) is proportional to the cube of its mean distance from the Sun.

1) Keppler's First Law:

A planet travels around the Sun in an elliptical orbit as shown.

The Sun is at one of the foci (F1) of the ellipse.

Because of its elliptical orbit, the planet will be at its closest point at P.

This is known as "Perihelion" (peri-near, helios-sun).

At position A, the planet is at a point furthest from the Sun known as "Aphelion".

Perihelion occurs in early January (approx 4th).

Aphelion occurs in early July (approx 4th).

2) Kepler's Second Law:

At position B, while the planet approaches aphelion (A), the radius vector SB will sweep
out the area SBA in the time between B and A.

However, a corresponding situation at Q as the planet approaches (P) requires the


radius vector SQ (which is shorter than SB) to move faster than SB to ensure that the
area SQP has the same area as SBA.

75
Thus the planet moves faster around its orbit near perihelion than it travels around its
orbit near aphelion.

Change of seasons are not governed by the Earth's distance from the Sun.

The effect of the distance change between 91.4 million statute miles at perihelion and
94.6 million statute miles at aphelion would only be to change the amount of heat
received by the Earth by about 3%.

This is not enough to explain the marked changes between the summer and winter.

The predominant cause of the seasons is the inclination (tilt) of the earth.

The Earth's axis is inclined (tilted) at an angle of 66.5° to its orbital plane and this is
often stated as 23.5' to the normal to the orbital plane, i.e. 90°-66.5° = 23.5°.

76
Measurement of Day

A "day" may be defined as the length of time taken for the Earth to rotate once about its
axis measured against a celestial body, e.g., the Sun or a star.

Measurements against a star are called 'sidereal'

77
Measurements against the Sun arc called 'solar'.

Civil Day

A civil day should be:

a) related to periods of light and darkness so that 1200 hrs is always about halfway
between sunrise and sunset. The civil day should therefore be based on the Sun.

b) of a constant length.

Sidereal Day

A Sidereal Day is measured against a distant star and is of nearly constant length.

However, it is not related to light and dark and is not suitable as a civil day.

Apparent Solar Day

An apparent Solar Day is measured against the real or apparent Sun.

However the Apparent Solar Day is not of a constant length.

Consider the Earth at position A but assuming it is stationary.

An observer at position Z would have the Sun and a distant star directly over his
meridian.

After one complete anti-clockwise rotation of the Earth, the Sun and the star would be
over the observer's meridian again.

The apparent solar day and the sidereal day (based on the star) would be equal.

78
However this is is not true because earth is not stationary.

While rotating, the Earth travels around its orbit to position B.

After a 360° revolution, the distant star is again over the observers meridian (a sidereal
day) but an additional rotation and further orbit to position C is needed put the Sun
again over the observer's meridian.

Therefore an apparent solar day is longer than a sidereal day.

Since the Earth's orbital speed changes throughout the year, an Apparent Solar Day
cannot be of constant length.

Mean Solar Day

The Mean Solar Day is the average length of an apparent solar day (averaged over the
year).

It is of constant length and related to light and darkness

It is used as the 'civil' day and is divided into hours, minutes and seconds of "mean"
time.

In the case of mean time, we consider the mean (average) Sun circling the earth every
24 hours (sun movement is just an assumption to visualize).

This is the basis of Local Mean Time (LMT).

The maximum difference between Mean Time and apparent (real) sun time is about 16
minutes and occurs in mid-November.

A second maximum occurs in mid-February at about 14 minutes difference.

In between these maxima, the difference reduces.

The difference is known as the Equation of Time.

In November, the real Sun crosses an observer's meridian at 1144 whereas the mean
sun crosses the meridian 16 minutes later at 1200 LMT (by definition).

In February, the real sun crosses a meridian at 1214 whereas the mean sun crosses 14
minutes earlier at 1200 LMT (by definition).

Track Error and Range Calculation

Example.1. The distance between A and B is 90 NM. At a distance of 15 NM from A the


aircraft is 4 NM left of course. To reach destination B, the correction angle on the

79
heading should be:

1 in 60 Rule Solution:

Track Error Angle = Distance Off Track / Distance Along Track x 60

1) Track Error (to get Parallel to course)

Track Error = 4/15 x 60 = 16°

2) Course Correction (to get back to course at the end of leg)

Track Correction = 4/75 x 60 = 3°

3) Total Correction

Total Correction = 16 + 3 = 19°

Trigonometric Solution:

Tan of Angle = Opposite / Adjacent

1) Track Error (to get Parallel to course)

Tan of Angle = 4 / 15

Tan of Angle = 0.266

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Angle = Inv Tan 0.266

Angle (Track Error) = 15°

2) Course Correction (to get back to course at the end of leg)

Tan of Angle = 4 / 75

Tan of Angle = 0.053

Angle = Inv Tan 0.053

Angle (Course Correction) = 3°

3) Total Correction

Total Correction = 15 + 3 = 18°

Example.2.

A feature is noted on a relative bearing of 085°. Two minutes later the same feature is
on a relative bearing of 090°. If the aircraft has a groundspeed of 120 KT what is the
range of the aircraft from the feature?

Solution:

Tan of Angle = Opposite / Adjacent

Tan 5 = 4/Adjacent

Adjacent = 4/Tan5 = 4/0.0874

Adjacent or Range = 45.7 nm

81
Bearing and Q Codes

Bearing and Q Codes

The direction from one point to another is called its bearing.

QUJ - True Bearing TO

QTE - True Bearing FROM

QDM - Magnetic Bearing TO

QDR - Magnetic Bearing FROM

Relative bearing

Relative bearing is the bearing measured from the aircraft fore and aft axis.

True Heading + Relative Bearing = True Bearing TO (QUJ)

Magnetic Heading + Relative Bearing = Magnetic Bearing TO (QDM)

If the sum is more than 360 then subtract 360 from it to find the bearing

Example:

An aircraft is heading 100°M and identifies a feature on a bearing of 270° relative. The
magnetic bearing from the aircraft to the feature is 010°M

Heading + Relative Bearing = Bearing TO (QDM)

100 + 270 = 370

370-360 = 010

Glide Path Calculations

Calculation of Glide Path Height

1) Heights on the glideslope can be calculated using trigonometry:

82
2) Heights on the glideslope can be calculated using a formula:

Height = Glidepath Angle x Distance to go (in ft) / 60

3) Heights on the glideslope can be calculated usg "one in sixty rule" (for just
approximate answers):

i.e. for a 3° glidepath, estimated height is 300 ft per mile from touchdown.

Note: If distance is given from the threshold instead of the touchdown point then you will
have to add 50 feet.

Converting Glide Path given in Percentage to Degrees

If the glide path is given as 9% it means 9/100

i.e. a vertical distance of 9 feet for a 100 feet horizontal distance.

83
Calculating Rates of Descent on a Glidepath

1) Through trigonometry the solution is:

e.g. if glide slope is 3 deg and Ground speed is 140 knots then:

X = rate of descent

Y = 140 knots

X (Rate of descent) = tan 3 x 140

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Rate of Descent = 7.33 nm per hour

or

Rate of Descent = 743 ft/min

2) Formula for rate of descent is:

Rate of Descent = Glide angle/60 x Ground Speed/60 x 6080

For a 3 degree glide slope and assuming 6000 feet in a nautical mile the formula can be
simplified to:

Rate of Descent = 5 x Groundspeed

e.g. required rate of descent for a 3 deg glidepath at a ground speed of 130 kt is 5 x 130
= 650 ft/min.

However this only applies to a 3 degree glideslope. For glidepaths more or less than 3
deg the rate of descent must be adjusted. e.g.

for a 3.5 deg glidepath and 140 kt of ground speed the rate of descent required is 5 x
140 x 3.5 / 3 = 817 ft/min

3) For multiplying by 5 without a calculator (during flying):

Add a zero and then take half of it

e.g. If GS is 140 then:

Add a zero i.e. 1400

Then take half of it i.e. 700 ft/min.

Altimeter and Density Altitude Calculations

Altimeter Calculations

Example.1. An aircraft is flying at FL45 and the highest terrain en route is 3200 ft. If the
QNH is 990 hPa. assuming 1 hPa = 30 ft, the terrain clearance will be:

Answer: 610 ft

Solution:

The datum for Flight levels is QNE i.e. 1013

85
The datum for terrain height is QNH

So when we want to compare two things we need to have the same datum, regardless
of which one we want to use.

In the question the terrain height is 3200 feet above sea level so datum is QNH

The aircraft is at FL45 so datum is QNE 1013.

Instead of QNE 1013 if we set QNH 990 (given in the question) the altimeter will read
less than it was reading before.

The difference in terms of hpa will be 1013 - 990 = 23 hpa

The difference in terms of feet will be 23 x 30 = 690 ft

So at a QNH of 990 the aircrfat height will be 4500 - 690 = 3810 ft.

Thus the height difference (or terrain clearance) between aircraft and terrian wil be 3810
- 3200 = 610 ft

The other way of doing it so change the datum for terrain i.e. QNE instead of QNH

3200 + 960 = 3890 ft

4500 - 3890 = 610 ft.

Example.2. An aircraft is flying at FL150, with an outside air temperature of -30° above
an airport where the elevation is 1660 ft and the QNH is 993 hPa. Calculate the true
altitude.

Answer: 13,536 feet

Solution:

This question involves correction for both Pressure and Temperature.

Where there is a barometric correction and a temperature correction, the rule of


thumb is first do the baro correction then the temperature.

FL150 is measured from the QNE 1013 datum.

QNH is 993

Difference in pressure is 20 hpa

Thus setting QNH on subscale will dial down the altimeter by 20hpa

In terms of feet: 20 x 30 = 600 feet.

86
So after pressure correction the height will be 15000 - 600 = 14,400 feet

Now the temperature correction.

4 ft per 1°C deviation from ISA per 1,000 ft

OAT is given as -30 at FL150

At 14,400 (assuming it to be the same i.e. -30) the ISA deviation is ISA -15

That makes the temperature correction to be 14.4 x 4 x 15 = 864

Since the temperature is colder than standard the true aircraft height will be less (see
the meteorology section for reasoning)

So the aircraft altitude becomes 14,400 - 864 = 13536 feet

Density Altitude Calculations

Density altitude is pressure altitude adjusted for non-standard temperature.

Example.1. What is the density altitude when the airfield elevation is 3000 ft amsl and
the surface temperature is +25°C?

Answer: 4920 feet

Solution:

ISA temperature at 3000 ft = (15 – (3 x 2)) = 9

Surface temperature = 25

Temp Deviation = 25 – 9 = ISA +16

Temperature correction is 120 ft per deg of ISA deviation.

When its warmer than standard, the density altitude will be high and vice versa.

So the correction becomes 16 x 120 = 1920 ft

Density altitude = 3000 + 1920 = 4920 ft

Mercator Calculations

Mercator Calculations

Example .1. On a Mercators projection a straight line is drawn between A (40°N 050°W)
and B (50°N 060°W). Calculate the angle between the straight line and the great circle
in position A.

87
Answer: 3.5°

Solution:

Straight line is rhumb line on mercator.

Angle between the great circle and the rhumb line is conversion angle which is half of
convergency.

Convergency = Change of Longitude x Sin Mean Lat

Change of long = 10

Mean Lat = 45

Convergency = 10 x sin 45 = 7.07°

Conversion angle = 7.07/2 = 3.5°

Example .2. Given that the scale at the equator on a Mercator chart is 1:2 000 000 find
the scale at 42°S.

Solution:

Scale at any latitude = Scale at the equator x 1/cos latitude

Scale at 42°S = 1/2 000 000 x 1/cos 42°

Scale at 42°S = 2 000 000 x 0.743

Scale at 42°S = 1:1486000

Example .3. On a direct Mercator projection, at latitude 45° North a certain length
represents 70 NM. At latitude 30° North, the same length represents approximately?

Answer: 86 NM

Solution:

On a mercator the scale is correct at the equator and expands north and south of it.

Scale is defined as the ratio of chart distance to earth distance i.e. Scale = Chart
Distance / Earth Distance.

e.g. If Chart Distance is 1 and earth distance is 10 then the scale value is 0.1 (i.e. 1/10).
For a scale to expand (i.e. to become more than 0.1) the denominator (earth distance)
has to decrease. Therefore on a Mercator when we know that scale is expanding with
increase in the latitude then it is mathematically obvious that the earth distance is
decreasing.

88
Therefore earth distance gets smaller while going away from the equator and gets
bigger while going towards the equator.

Coming back to the original question,

At latitude 45°N a certain length represents 70 NM

At latitude 30°N the same length represents "More than 70" as earth distance will
increase since we are going towards the equator.

By how much will it increase?

You can determine a factor to solve this:

Cos 45 = 0.707

Cos 30 = 0.866

0.866/0.707 = 1.225

70 x 1.225 = 86nm (Answer)

If you know the concept that earth distance gets smaller while going away from the
equator and gets bigger while going towards the equator, you cant go wrong even if you
mess up while determining and applying the factor.

e.g. instead of 0.866/0.707 = 1.225 if you do:

0.707/0.866 = 0.816

then 70 x 0.816 = 57 which will indicate that it is less than 70 and not correct as the
answer has to be above 70 since we are going towards the equator.

So all what you have to do is:

70/0.816 = 86 to get the correct answer.

Similarly if you do:

0.866/0.707 = 1.225 and then instead of multiplying you divide 70 by this, you'll end up
with:

70 / 1.225 = 57 indicating the wrong answer.

So all what you have to do is:

70 x 1.225 = 86 to get the right answer.

Mercator's Projection

89
It is also referred to as Direct Mercator and is one of the older types.

The projection in this case is on a cylinder of paper wrapped around the reduced earth,
touching at the equator.

Subsequently it was created mathematically.

Polar areas cannot be shown on this.

It is no longer used in aviation (primarily a nautical chart) except for an occasional met
chart.

Convergency

Convergency is correct at the equator (chart tangential to earth at equator).

Convergency is constant across the chart (due to straight meridians).

Earth convergency is zero at the equator (parllel meridians).

At the equator, Chart convergency = Earth convergency

So chart convergency is zero throughout the chart.

Great Circles

If convergency is correct, Great circles are straight lines.

Convergency is correct at equator so equator is a straight line.

90
Great circles that cross the equator (meridians) at right angles are straight lines.

Moving away from equator (i.e. from point of correct convergency) the great circles
become curved, concave to the equator.

However near the equator, great circles are close to straight lines.

Rhumb Lines

Rhumb line is a line that cuts all the meridians at the same angle.

Since the meridians are all parallel straight lines.

Rhumb line is also straight.

Scale

Meridians which normally converge towards the pole are distorted to parallel straight
lines on a mercator.

Thus departure which decreases with latitude on the earth is now constant.

This indicates that there is east/west expansion of the scale with increase in latitude.

The diagram shows that the distance between parallels (which is constant on the earth)
increases with latitude on a mercator.

This indicates a north/south expansion apart from east/west expansion.

The scale expands as the secant of the latitude.

Scale at any latitude = Scale at the equator x Secant of the latitude

or

Scale at any latitude = Scale at the equator x 1/cos of latitude

Secant Function: sec (of an angle) = Hypotenuse / Adjacent (= 1/cos)

Cosecant Function: csc (of an angle) = Hypotenuse / Opposite (= 1/sin)

Cotangent Function: cot (of an angle) = Adjacent / Opposite (= 1/tan)

As scale varies with latitude it is normal for Mercator scale to be given at only one
latitude.

This is called the scale latitude.

91
Mercator scale can be assumed to be constant over small areas (usually within 500NM
of the equator).

Scale at other latitudes have to be calculated using the formula:

Scale at Equator x 1/cos of Latitude

Calculations Involved in Lamberts Charts

Example .1.

The standard parallels of a Lambert's conical projection are 07°40'N and 38°20'N. The
constant of the cone for this chart is approximately?

Answer: 0.39

Solution:

Constant of the cone (convergency factor or "n") is the sine of the latitude of the parallel
of origin.

Latitude of the parallel of origin is roughly halfway between the standard parallels.

The standard parallels are 07°40'N and 38°20'N

Therefore the in between value is:

07°40' + 38°20' = 46°00'

46° / 2 = 23°

i.e. Latitude of the parallel of origin = 23°

and

Sine of Latitude of the parallel of origin = Sin 23° = 0.39 (come constant, convergency
factor or "n")

Example .2.

A Lambert conformal conic chart has a constant of the cone of 0.75. The initial course of
a straight line track drawn on this chart from A (40°N 050°W) to B is 043°(T) at A. The
course at B is 055°(T). What is the longitude of B?

Answer: 34°W

Solution:

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Chart Convergency = Change of Longitutde x Sin of Latitude of Parallel of Origin.

or what we need to find:

Change of Longitutde = Convergency / Sin of Latitude of Parallel of Origin

Change in the straight line track is 55 - 43 = 12° which is convergency.

and Sin of Latitude of Parallel of Origin is cone constant which is given as 0.75

so

Change of longitude = 12 / 0.75 = 16°

The track is 43° at A and 55° at B i.e. increasing.

Increasing track angle in northern hemisphere (40°N) means the direction is from west
to east.

So the longitude of B is east of A

i.e. 50W - 16 = 34°W

Example .3.

From A (50°05.9'N 013°41.5'E) to B (50°05.9'N 008°38.3'E) the initial true track along
the straight line drawn on the chart is 272°. The constant of the cone of this Lambert
conformal projection is?

Answer: 0.80

Solution:

Chart Convergency = Change of long x Sin parallel of origin

or what we need to find:

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Sin parallel of origin = Convergency / Change of long

The direction is from East (13.69°E) to West (8.64°E)

Since the two points are at the same latitude (50°05.9'N)

The rhumb line track between them can be assumed as 270°

Great circle track is given as 272°

The difference between great circle track and rhumb line track is conversion angle
which in this case is 2 (272-270).

Conversion angle is half of convergency so convergency becomes 4.

Change of long = 013°41.5' - 008°38.3' = approx 5

So

Sin parallel of origin (or constant of the cone) = 4/5 = 0.80

Example .4.

A straight line from A (53°S 155°E) to B (53°S 170°W) is drawn on a Lambert Conformal
conical chart with standard parallels at 50°S and 56°S. When passing 175°W. the True
Track is?

Ansswer: 080°

Solution:

Draw the diagram for the southern hemisphere (53°S):

For determining the direction first visualize the locations by keeping the bigger picture in
mind (looking at the globe from above):

94
Observing from point "X" the direction from point A to B is easterly.

Points A and B are on the same latitude.

That means the rhumb line track between them is 090°

So the diagram becomes:

If we know the convergency we can calculate conversion angle

If we know the conversion angle we can calculate the initial great circle track.

95
Chart Convergency = Change of long x Sin Lat Parallel of Origin

Change of long = 155 + 170 = 325 so 360-325 = 35°

or

Change of long = 180 - 155 = 25 and 180 - 170 = 10 making it 35° (25+10)

Standard Parallel at 50 and 56 making parallel of origin at 50+56/2 = 53

So

Convergency = 35 x Sin 35 = 28°

Conversion angle (difference between rhumb line and great circle track) is half of
convergency = 28/2 = 14°

At "A" rhumb line track is 90° (as determined above)

According to the diagram it is less (red line) than great circle track (green line)

So Great circle track at A = 90 + 14 = 104°

The question is asking for the true track at 175°W.

If Great circle track at A = 104°

Then convergency between point A and 175°W is:

Convergency = Change of long x Sin Lat

Change of long = 155 + 175 = 330 and 360-330 = 30

Convergency = 30 x Sin 53 =24°

According to the diagram, going towards east in southern hemisphere, the great circle
track angle is decreasing (blue line):

So Track at 175°W will be Track at A - 24

i.e. 104 - 24 = 80°

Lamberts Conformal Projection

Since the cone cuts into the earth it is not literally a projection.

The chart has to be mathematically produced using formulas.

96
Convergency

The Lamberts chart has a parallel of origin where the cone is parallel to the tangent.

The latitude of this parallel still determines the amount of chart convergency.

Formula for chart convergency on conics still applies i.e.

Chart convergency = Change of Longitude x Sin Parallel of Origin.

Lines on Lambert's Conformal

Great circles are straight lines at the parallel of origin.

Great circles that cut the parallel of origin at right angles (meriadians) are also straight
lines.

Near to the parallel of origin great circles are not exactly straight but neartly straight.

To be precsie they are very slightly curved, being concave to the parallel of origin.

The distortion is however very small provided the spread of latitudes is controlled.

Since the spread of latitude is controlled, great circles are assumed to be straight lines.

Rhumb lines are curves concave to the pole.

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Scale on Lambert's Conformal

The Lamberts chart is different from the simple conic.

In Lambert's conformal there are two latitudes where the chart touches the reduced
earth.

These are called the standard parallels.

At these latitudes scale will be correct.

Between the standard parallels, scale will contract (distance on reduced earth is greater
than chart distance).

Outside the standard parallels, scale will expand.

The scale reaches its minimum value at the parallel of origin.

Scale expansion and contraction can be controlled (assuming it to be constant) by


spacing the standard parallels and limiting the latitudes.

This limiting achieves two things:

1) Assumption of a constant scale.

2) Assumption of great circles to be straight lines.

Maximum spread of latitudes on a lamberts chart is 24° with no more than two thirds of
the chart, 16° maximum, being between the standard parallels.

The limit does not preclude taking a smaller spread of latitudes or from creating a large
Lamberts projection and only using sections of it.

Because of the mathematics invloved, the parallel of origin is slightly closer to the pole
rather than being exactly mid-way between the standard parallels.

Lamberts is used for aviation charts (except polar flights), topographical maps and
meteorological charts

Conic Projection

It is derived by placing a cone over the reduced earth

Convergency

When the cone is unwrapped (or developed) the meridians are straight lines and slope
in at a constant angle towards the poles.

However meridians on the earth change their slope relative to each other (zero at the
equator, maximum at the poles).

98
Since the meridians are straight (on this chart) convergency is constant at all latitudes.

However it can only be correct at one the latitude i.e. where the cone is tangential to
and touches the reduced earth.

This is called the parallel of origin.

Earth convergency at the latitude of "the parallel of origin" = Change of Longitude x Sin
latitude of Parallel of Origin.

This formula is correct for both earth and chart convergency at the parallel of origin.

On earth it will be inaccurate if moved away from the parallel of origin.

However on chart convergency is constant.

Formula for chart convergency on conics is:

Chart convergency = Change of Longitude x Sin Parallel of Origin

The sine of the parallel of origin (constant of the cone, convergency factor, "n") is
printed on the map itself.

When convergency is correct, great circles will be straight lines.

When convergency is incorrect, great circles will be concave.

Scale Expansion

The simple conic suffers from scale expansion north and south of the point where the
cone touches the earth.

Scale expansion can be reduced by slicing the cone into the reduced earth.

This ends up with areas where where scale contracts and areas where it expands.

99
However overall there is a larger area where scale does not vary too much.

This is the Lambert's Conformal Conic Projection.

Chart Projection

Conformal or Orthomorphic

A shape is a collection of angles and distances.

If the angles and distances are shown correctly then the shape will be correct on the
map otherwise it will be distorted.

Two conditions for a map to show shape correctly are:

1) Scale must be the same in all directions at any one point.

2) The meridians and parallels must cross at right angles.

If a chart shows shapes (and therefore angles and distances) correctly over at least a
small distance then it is called conformal or orthomorphic.

Scale

Scale is defined as the ratio of chart distance to earth distance.

Scale = Chart Distance / Earth Distance

It can be written as e.g. 1/1000,000 or 1:1000,000

Chart Projections

Earliest conformal charts were produced by taking a wire model of the earth with a light
source inside it.

The wire model of earth is called the "reduced earth".

Paper is wrapped around the outside of reduced earth.

Shadows of the wires are then traced onto the paper, which represents the meridians
and parallels.

Since the paper can be wrapped in several ways, several different styles of charts can
be produced.

These are called chart projections.

100
Distortions

A projected chart is most accurate where it touches or is tangential to the reduced


earth.

Further away from this point there will be distortions.

Compass Swing

Deviation varies with magnetic latitude, heading and aircraft electronic equipment.

The only way to determine deviation on a particular heading is to measure it.

This procedure is called a compass swing.

Aircraft is positioned on a calibrated datum away from magnetic interference.

Aircraft is then positioned lined up with magnetic north, south, east and west.

On each cardinal heading the compass will be adjusted to minimise errors.

Aircraft will then be turned around to measuring deviation every 30°.

Residual deviation should be within limits (typically 10 deg for a light aircraft compass).

Deviation is recorded on a compass correction card and positioned near the compass.

Practical accuracy is around 2° to 3°.

An aircraft needs a compass swing in the following cases:

• Transferred to another base involving a large change in latitude.

• Major changes in equipment.

• Lightning strike.

• Parked for a long time pointing in the same direction.

• New compass fitted.

• When compass or recorded deviation is suspect.

• When specified in the aircraft maintenance schedule.

Dip

The earth's Geographic and Magnetic Poles are not located at the same positions.

101
The Geographic North Pole is found at 90°N and the South Pole at 90°S.

Actual Magnetic North Pole is located at approximately 83°N and the Magnetic South
Pole at approximately 65°S.

The resultant or total magnetic force can be divided into a horizontal component (H) and
a vertical component (Z).

The horizontal component of earth's magnetic field is known as the "Directive Force",
which aligns the compass needle.

The angle between the earth horizontal and the resultant force is called dip.

Maximum dip (90°) will be at the poles.

Zero dip will be along the magnetic equator i.e the aclinic line (line joining points of zero
zip).

Lines joining points of equal dip are isoclinic lines or isoclines.

Direct reading compass will be most effective when "Directive Force is Maximum" and
"Dip is Minimum" i.e. at the aclinic line (about half way between the magnetic poles).

At very high latitudes close to the magnetic poles the horizontal component (H) is too
small to use.

This is the compass unreliability area called the six micro tesla zone.

Variation and Deviation

Variation

It is the angle between the true meridian and the magnetic meridian.

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The line along which variation is zero is called the agonic line.

Lines joining points of equal variation on the earth's surface are called isogonals.

Isogonals converge at the magnetic poles and at the true poles.

Earth's magnetic pole slowly moves around the true pole causing variation changes
over time.

Variation is measured in degrees and is described as East (+) or West (-) according to
whether magnetic north lies to the east or west of true north.

True heading plus or minus variation equals magnetic heading.

Variation East - Magnetic Least

Variation West - Magnetic Best

Deviation

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The earth's magnetic field is distorted by the metal and the electrical equipment around
it.

Thus the compass needle will deviate from magnetic north and will indicates a direction
which is known as "Compass North"

Difference between the direction of magnetic north and compass north is called
deviation.

Deviation is measured in degrees and is described as East (+) or West (-).

Magnetic heading plus or minus deviation equals compass heading.

Deviation East - Compass Least

Deviation West - Compass Best

Deviation (interference between aircraft's magnetic fields and earth's magnetic field)
varies with:

• Magnetic Latitude: Strength of the earth's magnetic field varies.

• Electronic Equipment: Producing interfering magnetic fields.

• Aircraft Heading: Orientation of the interfering magnetic field changes.

Variation and Deviation Calculations

Example 1: True heading is 005°T, variation 32°W, deviation 4°E What is the compass
heading'?

Answer: 033 deg Compass Heading

Solution:

Example 2: Compass heading 233°C, True Heading 246°T, Deviation -3° What is the
variation?

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Answer: 16°E

Solution:

Magnetism

Molecular Theory of Magnetism

Not all pieces of iron and steel are magnetic. They can be magnetised and
demagnetised.

In the unmagnetised state the iron molecules point in all directions.

When the iron is magnetised the molecules line up.

Intensity of magnetism can be varied.

When iron attains its maximum magnetism it is said to be saturated.

Iron that becomes saturated easily also lose magnetism easily and are known as soft
iron.

Iron that is difficult to magnetise keeps its magnetism and is known as hard iron.

Magnetising Methods

1) Placing iron in a magnetic field for it to slowly magnetise.

2) If the metal is hammered the iron is more quickly magnetised.

3) Placing an iron bar inside a solenoid with a strong DC current passing through it.

Demagnetising Methods

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1) When the iron is heated it loses its magnetism at around 900°C and stays
demagnetised on cooling.

2) Placing an iron bar in an oscillating magnetic field inside an AC current coil and
gradually reducing the field strength to zero.

3) Hammering the metal by positioning it at right angles to a magnetic field.

Magnetic Field

Magnetic field can be represented by lines of force leaving one pole and going into the
other.

The poles are labelled north or red and south or blue.

Soft iron placed in a magnetic field will deflect the field lines and can on occasion leave
an air gap where there is no field.

The actual pole is not at the end of the magnet, but some distance inside.

Long thin magnets have their poles near the ends.

Short fat magnets (like earth) have the pole further in (thus compass needles point
down into the earth near the poles).

The Earth's Magnetism

The iron core of the earth behaves like a huge magnet.

The magnetic pole is not coincident with the geographic pole.

106
Area normally referred to as "North magnetic pole" is physically a "Magnetic field south
pole" (pole which the North end of a magnet would point to).

Thus the earth's North Magnetic Pole (actually the magnet's south pole) is coloured blue
on maps and charts of the earth.

And the earth's South Magnetic Pole (actually the magnet's north pole) is coloured red
on maps and charts of the earth.

Rhumb Line and Conversion Angle

Rhumb Line

Aircraft that do not have equipment to fly great circle tracks can only fly a constant
direction between two points.

Lines of constant direction are called rhumb lines.

Since great circle track is the shortest distance, lines that are drawn with a constant
direction are longer tracks as compared to great circle tracks.

A rhumb line between any two points will always lie on the equatorial side of the
equivalent great circle.

107
At the mid point the rhumb line track and the great circle track are parallel.

In the diagram, Great circle track is 80 deg at A and 120 deg at B i.e. a convergency of
40.

Half way along the great circle track the direction will be half way between 80 and 120
i.e. 100°

Therefore the rhumb line track direction at this point is also 100°.

Since a rhumb line is a line of constant direction, 100° is also its track direction at A and
at B.

Conversion Angle

The angle between the great circle and the rhumb line is the conversion angle.

This angle between the great circle and rhumb line tracks at either end is half the
convergency.

Conversion Angle = 1/2 x Convergency

Example:

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Given that the initial great circle track between A (44°S 170°E) and B (32°S 160°W) is
078°T find the rhumb line track from A to B measured at 160°W.

Answer: 069°T

Solution:

Carry out the following steps to make a sketch before starting off with calculations.

1. Draw a horizontal line representing the track from one point to another.

2. Look at the latitude. If its the Northern hemisphere then draw the meridians
converging on the top (like they do towards the pole in the northern hemisphere). If its
the Southern hemisphere then draw the meridians converging at the bottom (like they
do towards the pole in the southern hemisphere).

3. Look at the longitudes (i.e. general track direction). If it is easterly then draw it left to
right. If it is westerly draw it right to left.

4. Draw the rhumb line bearing in mind that it lies on the equitorial side (great circle is
on the polar side).

Regarding the above question:

It is the southern hemisphere with an easterly track and rhumb line will be north of great
circle. So the sketch will look like this:

5. The formulas:

Convergency = Change of Longitude x Sine Mean Latitude

Change of longitude = 170°E to 160°W = 30°

Mean Latitude = 44 + 32 / 2 = 38°

Convergency = 30 x sin 38 = 18.5

Conversion Angle = 1/2 x Convergency = 9.25 or 9

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So 9 degrees (conversion angle) is the difference between rhumb line track and great
circle track.

The fig shows that rhumb line track angle at A is less than the great circle track.

Since great circle track was 078, rhumb line track will be 078 - 9 = 069°T

The question asks for the rhumb line track A to B at 160°W

Since the track direction is the same all along (according to the definition) the answer is
069°T

Convergency and Great Circle Tracks

The meridians converge into the pole.

Therefore straight lines drawn on the earth have different directions along their track.

Since the change of direction on a straight line is due to converging of meridians, the
effect is called convergency.

Convergency is how much the great circle track changes because of converging
meridians.

110
Great Circle tracks mark the shortest distance between two points. This is an advantage
so great circle tracks are used for navigation whenever possible.

Because of convergency great circles usually have a changing track direction along
their length. This is a disadvantage as it requires advanced navigation equipment
(RNAV system) to fly this.

The Equator and all Meridians are Great Circles. These great circles do not have a
changing track direction.

Any circle that is not a great circle is called a small circle e.g. Parallels of latitude.

Track direction changes between two points i.e. convergency can be calculated.

Convergency is dependent on latitude.

It will be zero at the equator where meridians are parallel.

It will be maximum at the poles where meridians converge the most.


It is also dependent on distance of travel.

A short track will have little changes while there are more changes for a longer track.

111
Formula to calculate convergency is:

Convergency = Change of Longitude x Sine Mean Latitude

e.g. If between two points the change of longitude is 85 and mean latitude is 50 then:

Convergency = 85 x sin50 = 65 degrees

It means that between points A and B the track has changed by 60 degrees.

Example:

Given that the initial great circle track from A (38°N 009°W) to B (25°N 078°W) is 274°T,
find the final great circle track.

Answer: 238°T

Solution:

Carry out the following steps to make a sketch before starting off with calculations.

1. Draw a horizontal line representing the track from one point to another.

2. Look at the latitude. If its the Northern hemisphere then draw the meridians
converging on the top (like they do towards the pole in the northern hemisphere). If its
the Southern hemisphere then draw the meridians converging at the bottom (like they
do towards the pole in the southern hemisphere).

3. Look at the longitudes (i.e. general track direction). If it is easterly then draw it left to
right. If it is westerly draw it right to left.

Regarding the above question:

It is the northern hemisphere and the track is westerly so the sketch will look like this:

112
4. The formula: Convergency = Change of Longitude x Sine Mean Latitude

Change of longitude = 009°W to 078°W = 69°

Mean Latitude = 38 + 25 / 2 = 31.5°

Convergency = 69 x sin 31.5 = 36

The diagram shows that the final track angle (at B) is less than than the initial track
angle.

If initial track angle (as given) was 274 then final track angle is 274 - 36 = 238°T

If it was southern hemisphere the diagram would look like this:

In this case from east to west the angle is increasing.

Distance over Poles

When points lie on opposite meridians i.e. one on a meridian and the other one opposite
on its anti-meridian then the shortest distance between them goes over the pole.

This condition can be checked by adding the longitudes and observing that they add
upto 180.

Example: Find the shortest distance between 56°N 070°W and 62°N 110°E

Answer: 3720 NM

Solution:

Longitudes 70W and 110E adds upto 180 showing that this track is over the pole.

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Point 1 at 56°N is (90-56) 34 deg below the pole

Point 2 at 62°N is (90-62) 28 deg below the pole

Thus going from point 1 to 2 over the pole means covering (34+28 ) 62 degrees.

In nautical miles it will be 62 x 60 = 3720 NM

Departure and Change of Longitudes

One nautical mile is the distance subtended by one minute of arc on the earth's
circumference.

So one degree change of latitude, running north/south along a meridian is 60 NM.

However one degree change of longitude, running east/west is 60 NM only at the


earth's circumference (0 deg latitude).

Since a Parallel of latitude is not a circumference, the distance becomes less as latitude
is increased.

At the poles (where meridians converge) the distance between the meridians becomes
zero.

Departure is the east/west distance between the poles and the equator along a parallel
of latitude.

Departure is not the shortest distance except when at the equator.

The formula for finding out the departure is:

Departure (NM) = Change of Longitude (in minutes) x Cosine of Latitude

Note: Change of Longitude has to be in minutes to get the right answer.

Example: An aircraft departs from position A (04°10'S 178°22'W) and flies northward,
following the meridian, for 2950 NM. It then flies westward along the parallel of latitude
for 382 NM to position B. What are the coordinates of position B?

Solution:

Step 1: Working out the latitude

Aircraft flies north along a meridian and meridian is a circumference, so 1 minute = 1


NM.

Distance travelled by the aircaft = 2950 NM.

So change of latitude towards north = 2950 minutes.

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2950 minutes / 60 = 49.16 degrees or 49°10'

Starting latitude was 04°10'S and the aircraft flew towards north.

While flying north the change of latitude will be 49°10' (as determined above).

That means out of 49°10' some of the portion (04°10'S) is in the southern hemisphere
while the remaining (49°10' - 04°10') in the northern hemisphere.

So the latitude comes out to be 49°10' - 04°10' = 45°00'

Step 2: Working out the longitude

From 45°00' latitude (as determined above) the aircraft flies west for 382 NM

Therefore we have to determine the change of longitudes now.

Departure (NM) = Change of Longitude (in minutes) x Cosine of Latitude

or

Change of Longitude (in minutes) = Departure (NM) / Cosine of Latitude

Change of longitude = 382 / cos 45 = 540 minutes

540 minutes / 60 = 9 degrees.

Starting longitude was 178°22'W and the aircraft flew towards west.

While flying west the change of longitude will be 9° (as determined above).

This indicates that the aircraft will cross the Greenwich antemeridian (180°E/W) and
enetr the easterly longitudes.

Therefore out of 9°some of the portion (180°00' - 178°22'W = 001°38') will be in the
westerly longitudes while the remaining (009°00' - 001°38' = 007°22') in the easterly
longitudes.

Since the longitudes remaining after 180 deg Greenwich antemeridian is 007°22' and
from 180 they will be decreasing, the longitude comes out to be:

180°00' - 007°22 = 172°38'E

Thus the aircraft position is 45°00'N 172°38'E

Calculating Changes of Latitude and Longitude

Change of Latitude

If the latitudes are in different hemispheres then add.

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e.g. Change of latitude between 13°20'S and 45°50'N is:

13°20'
+45°50'
-------
58°70'

Since minutes cannot be more than 60 the change in latitude is 59°10'

If the latitudes are in the same hemispheres then subtract.

e.g. Change of latitude between 87°13'S and 26°37'S is:

87°13'
-26°37'
-------
or

86°73'
-26°37'
-------
60°36' is the change in latitude.

Change of Longitude

This can be calculated the same way change in latitudes were calculated.

However the change of longitude is always measured the shortest way around the
earth.

e.g. change of longitude between 178°E and 178°W is not 356°. It is 4° since the
maximum longitude is 180° (near the International Date Line).

So if two longitudes in different hemispheres are added and the total is more than 180
then subtract the total from 360 to find the change of longitude.

e.g. change of longitude between 160°35'E and 086°54'S is:

160°35'
+086°54'
--------
246°89'

Since minutes cannot be more than 60 the change in longitude is:

247°29'

This is more than 180° so it cannot be the shortest way around.

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The shortest way will be:

360°00'
-247°29'
--------
or

359°60'
-247°29'
--------
112°31' is the change in longitude.

Calculating a Position on the Opposite Side of the Earth

Coordinates on the opposite side of N48°21.5' E011°48.1' are:

1) Latitude will be the same but in the other hemisphere, So it will be 48°21.5'S

2) Longitude will be:

180°00.0'
-011°48.1'
----------
or

179°60.0'
-011°48.1'
----------
168°11.9'W

So coordinates on the opposite side are 48°21.5'S 168°11.9'W

Form of The Earth

Earth is not a perfect sphere. It is spheroid or ellipsoid.

Its equitorial circumference is approx 40,000 Km or 21,600 NM.

From equator to pole it is 10,000 Kilometer or 5400 NM.

Therefore its radius differ slightly with latitude.

Equatorial radius is 6378.14 km

Polar radius is 6356.75 km

This distortion may be expressed as a ratio of ellipticity or (a-b)/a where a is the


equatorial radius and b is the polar radius.

This is due to the rotation of the earth and gravitational effects causing it to bulge at the

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Equator.

Accepted ratio of ellepticity derived from the International Ellipsoid Reference (1924) is
1/297 (or 1:297).

Modern navigation systems use reference systems based on the true elliptical shape of
the earth.

Most common is the World Geodetic System of 1984 or WGS84.

Measuring the angle of a line from the centre of the earth above or below the equator is
called the Geocentric (earth centred) Latitude.

Since earth is a spheroid and not a perfect sphere, this line does not emerge from the
surface of the earth perpendicular to it.

An alternative way of measuring Latitude is to draw the line at right angles to the earth's
surface.

This gives the Geodetic or Geographic Latitude.

The Geocentric and Geodetic latitudes will be the same only at the poles and at the
equator.

The greatest difference in latitude will occur at 45°N or 45°S where it amounts to about
11.6 minutes of arc.

Geodetic latitudes are plotted on charts, the differences between geodetic and
geocentric latitudes are largely ignored.

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Question: Value for the flattening of the Earth is 1/298. Earth's semi-major axis, as
measured at the equator, equals 6378.4 km. What is the semi-minor axis (km) of the
earth at the axis of the poles?

Answer: 6357 km

Solution:

Ratio of Elipticity means that the semi-minor axis (Polar axis) is 1/298th shorter than the
semi-major axis (Equatorial axis).

If Semi-major axis = 6378.4 km

Then semi-minor axis is 6378.4 x 1/298 = 21.4 km shorter than semi-major axis i.e.

Semi-minor axis = 6378.4 - 24 = 6357km

Note: For calculation purpose we assume that earth is a sphere whereas in reality it is
an ellipsoid and because of being an ellipsoid the distance measured by one minute of
arc subtended on the surface of the earth is actually different at different latitudes as
given below:

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- 6107 ft at the poles (more than a NM)

- 6076 ft at 45°N and 45°S (exactly a NM)

- 6045 ft at the equator (less than a NM)

Useful Conversions

1 Nautical Mile = 1.15 Statute Miles

1 Nautical Mile = 1.85 Kilometers

1 Nautical Mile = 6080 Feet (6076.16 to be precise)

1 Statute Mile = 1.61 Kilometers

1 Statute Mile = 5280 Feet

1 Kilometer = 3280 feet

1 degree = 60 minutes

1 minute = 60 seconds

1 degree = 60 nautical miles (on earth's circumference)

1 minute = 1 nautical miles (on earth's circumference)

Circumference of the earth = 360 x 60 = 21,600 NM

Distance from equator to pole = 90 X 60 = 5400 NM

360 degrees = 24 hours

15 degrees = 1 hour

1 degree = 4 minutes

Questions on Chart Plotting

120
Some symbols on jeppesen enroute charts:

121
122
123
(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)Which of the
following lists all the aeronautical chart symbols shown at position N5318.0 W00626.9?

a) VOR: DME: danger area


b) Civil airport: VOR: DME
c) Military airport: VOR: NDB
d) Military airport: VOR: DME <-- Correct

Baldonnel Airfield, is a military airbase located to the south west of Dublin.

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)Which of the


following lists all the aeronautical chart symbols shown at position N5318.1 W00856.5?

a) Civil airport: VOR: DME: non-compulsory reporting point


b) VOR: DME: NDB: compulsory reporting point
c) Civil airport: NDB: DME: non-compulsory reporting point <-- Correct
d) VOR: DME: NDB: compulsory reporting point

124
(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart (E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)Which of the
following lists all the aeronautical chart symbols shown at position N5150.4 W00829.7?

a) Civil airport: VOR: non-compulsory reporting point


b) Civil airport: VOR: DME: compulsory reporting point <-- Correct
c) VOR: DME: NDB: compulsory reporting point
d) VOR: DME: NDB: ILS

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)What feature is


shown on the chart at position N5212 W00612?

a) TUSKAR ROCK LT.H. NDB <-- Correct

125
b) WTD NDB
c) KERRY/Farranfore aerodrome
d) Clonbullogue aerodrome

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)Which of the


following lists all the aeronautical chart symbols shown at position N5211 W00705?

a) NDB: ILS
b) VOR: NDB
c) civil airport: ILS
d) civil airport: NDB <-- Marked Correct

Symbol for an ILS in this figure could also be for a localizer, LDA or SDF. Therefore ILS
may or may not be there.

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)At position


5211N 00931W, which of the following denotes all the symbols?

a) Military airport, ILS, NDB

126
b) Civil airport, VOR, ILS
c) Military airport, VOR, ILS
d) Civil airport, ILS, NDB <-- Correct

All options mention ILS, so the same symbol here indicates ILS.

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)Which of the


following lists all the aeronautical chart symbols shown at position N5416.7 W00836.0?

a) VOR, DME, NDB non-compulsory reporting point


b) VOR, DME, NDB, compulsory reporting point
c) civil airport, VOR, DME, non-compulsory reporting point
d) civil airport, NDB, DME, compulsory reporting point <-- Correct

As it is clearly visible in this high resolution image

127
(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)What feature is
shown on the chart at position N5417 W01005?

a) Cammore aerodrome
b) Belmullet aerodrome
c) EAGLE ISLAND LT.H. NDB <-- Correct
d) Clonbullogue aerodrome

(Refer to figure 061-09)1300 UTC DR position 37o30N 021o30W alter heading


PORTO SANTO NDB (33o03N 016o23W) TAS 450 kt, Forecast W/V 360o/30 kt.
Calculate the ETA at PORTO SANTO NDB:

a) 1341
b) 1344
c) 1348 <-- Correct
d) 1354

128
Its a plotting question. Plot the position and measure the bearing. Real issue is
measuring the distance. Normal trigonometry doesnt work here. For calculation,
spherical trigonometry/Haversine formula is required (see the formulas here or Here).
So just make up a scale by measuring between the two latitudes along a meridian which
is between the two longitudes. This is indicated by the blue line in the figure. Measure
the length of this line, it comes out to be around 8.5 cm.

So 8.5 cm = 4.5 deg or 270nm therefor 1cm = 31.76nm.

Length of the line between the required points (red line) is about 12cm. So distance
becomes 12 x 31.76 = 380 nm (approx). Rest is standard stuff.

The problem in these charts is distortion caused by photocopying. That's why using a

129
meridian close to or at the centre of track is helpful based on the idea that that the
meridian and the marked track will have been distorted by similar amounts. This is not
the case in real life since the charts are not photocopied.

(Refer to figure 061-10) What are the average magnetic course and distance
between INGO VOR (N6350 W01640) and Sumburg VOR (N5955 W 00115)?

a) 131o - 494 NM <-- Correct


b) 118o - 440 NM
c) 117o - 494 NM
d) 130o - 440 NM

Scale: 10.5cm = 4 deg or 240nm and 1cm = 22.85nm

Required Distance: 21.5 x 22.85 = 491.2nm

130
(Refer to figure 061-09) At 1215 UTC LAJES VORTAC (38°46'N 027°05'W) RMI
reads 178°, range 135 NM. Calculate the aircraft position at 1215 UTC:

a) 41°00'N 028°10'W
b) 41°05'N 027°50'W
c) 40°55'N 027°55'W <-- Correct
d) 40°50'N 027°40'W

Bearing to the station is 178°M or radial from Lajes will be 358 (reciprocal of 178). 358
radial is magnetic. Variation is 15W.

Therefore true bearing to plot will be 358-15 = 343°T.

Scale: 3.9cm = 2 deg or 120nm and 1cm = 30.7nm

Required Distance: 135nm which will be equal to 4.4cm (135/30.7)

Mark a point at 4.4cm on a bearing of 343 from Lajes.

Read the coordinates against the lat/long scale.

(Refer to figure 061-10) An aircraft on radial 315 deg at a range of 150 NM from
MYGGENES NDB (N6206 W00732) is at position?

131
a) N6320 W01205 <-- Correct
b) N6020 W00405
c) N6345 W01125
d) N6040 W00320

Variation is about 13W so true track to plot will be will be 302.

Scale: 5.3cm = 2 deg or 120nm and 1cm = 22.64nm

Required Distance: 150nm which will be equal to 6.6cm (150/22.64)

Mark a point at 6.6cm on a bearing of 302 from Myggenes.

Read the coordinates against the lat/long scale.

(Refer to figure 061-10)An aircraft on radial 110o at a range of 120 NM from


SAXAVORD VOR (N6050 W00050) is at position:

a) N6127 W00443
b) N6010 E00255
c) N6109 E00255
d) N6027 E00307 <-- Correct

132
Variation is about 9W so true track to plot will be will be 101.

Scale: 3.7cm = 1 deg or 60nm and 1cm = 16.2nm

Required Distance: 120nm which will be equal to 7.4cm (120/16.2)

Mark a point at 7.4cm on a bearing of 101 from Saxavord.

Read the coordinates against the lat/long scale.

Since this question does not involve a large deg of lattitude change, calculating the
change of longitudes through "Departure / Cos Lat" also works.

120 / cos 60.5 = 243.6 min or 4.06 deg. Going east from Saxavord by 4.06 deg means
the long is now 3.22 deg or 3°13'

(Refer to figure 061-10) What are the average magnetic course and distance
between position N6000 W02000 and Sumburg VOR (N5955 W 00115)?

a) 105o - 562 NM <-- Correct


b) 091o - 480 NM
c) 091o - 562 NM
d) 105o - 480 NM

133
Draw a straight line on the chart between the two points. Measure the true track angle
at the mid-point (ref True North). Apply variation to find the magnetic course.

This question does not involve a large deg of lattitude change (almost around 60N) so
distance can be calulated through:

Departure = dlong (in min) x cos lat

dlong = 18.75 deg (1125')

Departure = 1125 x cos 60 = 562

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart (E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)What is the


radial and DME distance from BEL VOR/DME (N5439.7 W00613.8 ) to position N5410
W00710?

a) 223o - 36 NM
b) 236o - 44 NM <-- Correct
c) 320o - 44 NM
d) 333o - 36 NM

134
(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)Given:SHA VOR
(N5243.3 W00853.1) DME 50NM CRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7) DME 41NM

Aircraft heading 270o(M) Both DME distances increasing. What is the aircraft position?

a) N5215 W00745
b) N5215 W00940
c) N5200 W00935 <-- Correct
d) N5235 W00750

With a compass, on SHA VOR draw a 50 DME Arc and on CRK VOR draw a 41 DME
Arc. These arcs will intersect each other at two points. If the two VORs are joined by a
straight line then one of these points will be to the east and other to the west of the
straight line. The aircraft will be at one of these points.

Since the aircraft is heading 270 with increasing DME distance it cannot be on the
eastern side. It is on the western side. Measure the coordinates where the two DME
arcs intersect eachother on the western side.

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11) What is the
average track (oT) and distance between BAL VOR (N5318.0 W00626.9) and CFN

135
NDB (N5502.6 W00820.4)?

a) 335o - 128 NM
b) 327o - 124 NM <-- Correct
c) 325o - 126 NM
d) 320o - 127 NM

Simple but close answers.

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)Given:SHA VOR


N5243.3 W00853.1CON VOR N5354.8 W00849.1Aircraft position N5320
W00950Which of the following lists two radials that are applicable to the aircraft
position?

a) SHA 325o CON 235o <-- Correct


b) SHA 137o CON 046o
c) SHA 317o CON 226o
d) SHA 145o CON 055o

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11) Given:SHA


VOR (N5243.3 W00853.1) radial 129oCRK VOR (N5150.4 W00829.7) radial 047oWhat
is the aircraft position?

a) N5205 W00755
b) N5215 W00755
c) N5210 W00750
d) N5220 W00750 <-- Correct

(Refer to Jeppesen Student Manual - chart E(LO)1 or figure 061-11)What is the


radial and DME distance from CRK VOR/DME (N5150.4 W00829.7) to position N5140
W00730?

a) 106o - 38 NM
b) 104o - 76 NM
c) 293o - 39 NM
d) 113o - 38 NM <-- Correct

Questions on Miscellaneous Topics

136
What is the definition of EAT?

a) Estimated on-blocks arrival time


b) Estimated time overhead the destination airfield
c) Estimated initial approach fix time <-- Correct
d) Estimated final approach fix time

The ICAO definition of ETA is the:

a) actual time of arrival at a point or fix


b) estimated time of arrival at destination <-- Correct
c) estimated time of arrival at an en-route point or fix
d) estimated time en route

You are flying 090oC heading. Deviation is 2oW and Variation is 12E. Your TAS is
160 knots. You are flying the 070 radial outbound from a VOR and you have gone 14
nm in 6 minutes. What is the W/V?

a) 158oT/51 <-- Correct


b) 060oT/50
c) 340oT/25
d) 055oT/25

The important thing is the application of variation and deviation. Apply variation to
magnetic radial to make it true i.e. 70+12 = 82 which will be the course. Apply variation
and deviation to 090 compass heading to get 100 deg true heading.

Given:
Course 040o(T)
TAS is 120 kt
Wind speed 30 kt

Maximum drift angle will be obtained for a wind direction of:

a) 120o
b) 145o
c) 115o
d) 130o <-- Correct

Option (d) is a 90deg crosswind thus max drift angle will be obtained in this condition.

137
Course 040oT, TAS 120 kt, Wind speed 30 knots. From which direction will the wind
give the greatest drift:

a) 215o
b) 230oT
c) 235oT
d) 240oT <-- Correct

220 will be exact tailwind i.e. no drift. Direction left or right of 220 will create a cross
wind component for drift to occur. Direction farthest from 220 will give the greatest drift,
240 in this case.

The equivalent of 70 m/sec is approximately:

a) 145 kt
b) 136 kt <-- Correct
c) 210 kt
d) 35 kt

Not much an isue except the close choice between (a) and (b). For all practical
purposes you just double it i.e. 70 x 2 = 140. However these questions demand exact
calculation.

1 second = 70 meters

3600 seconds i.e. 1 hour = 3600 x 70 = 252000m or 136nm (252000/1850 = 136nm)

Required course 045o(M)


Variation is 15oE
W/V is 190o(T)/30 kt
CAS is 120 kt at FL 55 in standard atmosphere

What are the heading (oM) and GS?

a) 036o and 151 kt


b) 055o and 147 kt <-- Correct
c) 052o and 154 kt
d) 056o and 137 kt

Be careful, the course given is magnetic. Calculate everything in True and then apply
the corrections to get magnetic.

138
True altitude 9000 FT
OAT -32oC
CAS 200 kt
What is the TAS?

a) 215 kt
b) 200 kt
c) 210 kt
d) 220 kt <-- Marked Correct

It comes out to be 215.6 on E6B. Perhaps its 220 on CRP-5

Given:
Maximum allowable tailwind component for landing 10 kt
Planned runway 05 (047o magnetic)
The direction of the surface wind reported by ATIS 210o
Variation is 17oE
Calculate the maximum allowable windspeed that can be accepted without exceeding
the tailwind limit?

a) 15 kt
b) 18 kt
c) 8 kt
d) 11 kt <-- Correct

Trigonotery! Make a right angle triangle. "Adjacent" will be the headwind or tailwind
component and "Opposite" will be the crosswind component. "Hypotenuse" will be the
wind speed. The difference between the wind direction and aircraft heading will be the
"Angle".

In this case Tailwind limit of 10 kts makes the "Adjacent" limited to 10.

Wind direction is 210T and aircraft heading is 64T (after correcting for variation). This
shows a tailwind case so to calculate the angle we will take the reciprocal of 64 i.e. 244.
Therefore the angle becomes 244-210 = 34 deg.

Cos angle = hypotenuse / adjacent

hypotenuse (wind strength) = 10 / cos 34

Wind strength = 12kts. This will be the max limit from a direction of 210 that will ensure

139
that the 10kts tailwind limit is not exceeded.

Given:
Magnetic heading = 255o
VAR = 40oW
GS = 375 kt
W/V = 235o(T)/120 kt
Calculate the drift angle?

a) 7o left <-- Correct


b) 7o right
c) 9o left
d) 16o right

Given:
TAS = 485 kt
OAT = ISA +10oC
FL 410

Calculate the Mach Number?

a) 0.85
b) 0.90
c) 0.825 <-- Correct
d) 0.87

Standard temperature at 41000 feet is -57 and not -67 [15-(41x2)]. ISA+10 will be -47.

Given:
AD = Air distance
GD = Ground distance
TAS = True airspeed
GS = Ground speed

Which of the following is the correct formula to calculate ground distance (GD) gone?

a) GD = (AD X GS)/TAS <-- Correct


b) GD = (AD - TAS)/TAS
c) GD = AD X (GS - TAS)/GS
d) GD = TAS/(GS X AD)

140
Conversion Between Air Nautical Miles and Ground Nautical Miles

For a given track the:

Wind component = +45 kt


Drift angle = 15 left
TAS = 240 kt

What is the wind component on the reverse track?

a) -55 kt
b) -65 kt <-- Correct
c) -45 kt
d) -35 kt

1) Find the W/V

Hdg 360 (not given so assume any)


CRS 345 (drift given as 15 left)
TAS 240 (given)
GS 285 (TAS + given tailwind of 45 kts)

W/V comes out to be 116/82

2) Find HDG and GS on reciprocal course

W/V 116/82
CRS 165 (reciprocal of 345)
TAS 240

GS comes out to be 178


HDG comes out to be 150

Thus the wind component comes out to be TAS-GS (240-178) = 62kts Headwind.

Useful Conversions

Useful Conversions

1 Nautical Mile = 1.15 Statute Miles

141
1 Nautical Mile = 1.85 Kilometers

1 Nautical Mile = 6080 Feet (6076.16 to be precise)

1 Statute Mile = 1.61 Kilometers

1 Statute Mile = 5280 Feet

1 Kilometer = 3280 feet

1 degree = 60 minutes

1 minute = 60 seconds

1 degree = 60 nautical miles (on earth's circumference)

1 minute = 1 nautical miles (on earth's circumference)

Circumference of the earth = 360 x 60 = 21,600 NM

Distance from equator to pole = 90 X 60 = 5400 NM

360 degrees = 24 hours

15 degrees = 1 hour

1 degree = 4 minutes

142