Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 8

Phonetics and Phonology

Thesis-1

Submitted to: Sir Hasan Naqvi


Supervisor

Submitted by: Humara Aakfah Riyadh

Roll No. PET01161026

M Phil Applied Linguistics


Speech problems of Pakistani English Speakers
Introduction (Previous):
Speech is considered to be an exclusive human mode of communication. Speech is
the reflection of language that means the refleaction of thoughts. “Language is the expression of
ideas by means of speech sound combined into words. Words are combined into sentences, this
combination answering to that of ideas into thoughts”(henry sweet). It is an observed that when
Pakistani English Speakers come in contact, a variety of phonological Features comes to meet
their own sound system. Phonological pattern of L2 is affected with phonological pattern of L1
(Siama, 2016|).

The process of speech does not rely only on drill pattern and natural expoure but also acquires
immitative response. B F Skinner says that “learning needs change in behaviour”. Correct
pronunciation needs good habits of speech formed by the corect sense of immatation.
“Mispronunciation of words is inherited from generation to generation” (Saima, 2016). There is
a corelation between language and linguistics. Both language (mode of communication) and
linguistic features like syntax, morphology, lexis, phonology and pregmatics has great influnce
on language speakers. Dialects and accent have strong impact of Pakistani English speakers.

“Words pronounce according to its surrounding” (Sana, 2015). Pakistani English speakers
encounter with defficulty when they use English as medium of speech. Speech needs segmental
like onset and rhyme and super segmental features like stress, tone and intonation to convey the
correct meaning of thoughts.This is because of the compexity of linguistics structure. Every
language has its own Lingiuistics worth and value. Pakistani English Speakers are not familiar
with these linguistics worth like stress, pattern, letters with multipule sounds and diphthongs of
English Languange. In the absence of the native like enviroment, it is more tough for Urdu
speaker to speak in British accent (Ali, 2015). when Pakistani Egnglish speakers have weak grip
on the structure of English syllable then they become unawear of types of consonant cluster. A
single letter is a single sound but at differen position in cluster, change its sound. Some time, it
becomes silent sound that mean giving no sound. When letters come together in many words,
the position of one letter makes its sound prominunt and other is silent. The sound melts with
other sound or converts into new sound. Some words have hidden sounds and Pakistani English
Speakers do not recognize these sounds in words. The result is in wrong pronunciation.

English has “26” letters in numbers but these letters have about “44” sounds of speech. There is
the absence of link between spelling (letters) and pronunciation (sounds) which creates problem
for Pakistani Urdu Speaker (Sabahat,2013). Vowel sounds are proudced without obstruction
(Peter,1997). There are some vowel sounds in English which share simimlar manner of
articulation that is used by Urdu speakers and have equivelent sounds in Urdu. Pakistani
Eenglish speakers face problem when they restructure the new sound system. The educated
Pakistani speakers, have strong tendency in vowels varities (Qaisera, 2012).There is a lack of
awearness about spelling and sound.

In pakistan, English speech of the students is in miserable condition. Pakistani educational


system pay more stress only on reading and writing. Pakistani English Speakers depends on
spellings. Weak in spelling means weak in sound and weak in sound means weak in articulation.
Manner of articulation deals with human speech apparatus.These speech apparatus come in
contact with each other to produce differnt sounds. English has variations in vowel sounds like
cardinal vowels, long vowels, diphthongs and triphthongs. Variation in vowel length creats a lot
of speech problems for Pakistani English spearkers. Vowels sounds have various vowel letters
and vowel letters have various vowel sounds (Samina, 2016). Learning environment stimulates
the learner. Learners influnce their ability with the help of skilled teachers. Educational
environment works as motivator to bring the proficiency in speaking. Motivation is an
influential factors in the success of any activity( Sheikh,2014). But ineffective learning
environment like old methods, lake of teachers trainings and native mood of communication
creats hurdles for pakistani English speakers. Pakistani intitutes neglect the importance of
pronunciation(samina,2016).

In Pakistani educational enviroment , more attention is paied to writing and reading skills. The
purpose of getting educationis to achieve the better quality of life and well social interaction.
But the concept of most of the students is to pass the examination rather than to become
productive by improving their speaking skills. Students of English reach secondary school level
after 8 to 10 years of education but are not capable to speak English effectivly (Ahmad,2013).
There are various problems of Pakistani English speakers like low vocabulary collection, poor
listening apportunities, domination of native phonological effect, unavailability of the effective
educational environment that urges to speak English, low educational back ground(rural areas),
lack of motivational factors to improve language skills, no separate efacilities of English spoken
classes, unavailability of specialist English teachers (linguists).

Itroduction (Current):
In Pakistan, the English language students face pronunciation problems because the articulation
of manner changes the sound with a very little change in the structure of words. Most
frequently, this problem is present when the nouns become verbs and vice versa. Phonological
interference of native tongue in learning non native language basically is because of interference
of Phonemes of native tongue. These types of Phonemes create problems in pronunciation and
understanding of the real words. The interference of native sound pattern is very common that
speakers can not be ableled to fight successfully with pronunciation problems. When we make
comparison of the structure of sounds of both languages, we know that there are many sounds
that are absent in English sound system and vice versa. There is no diphthong in Saraiki which
ends with schwa sound. The diphthong/əʊ/ is not present in Saraiki, replaced by /ɔ/. English
sound /el/ is replaced by /e:/. Saraiki students replac Schwa /ə/ sound as /ʌ/, /a:/ and / æ /. Their
accent is like native language because native tongue has great impact on the accent of L2.
(Bashir, 2016). Good and proper pronunciation need proper accent, which reflects the proper
manner of articulation and place of articulation of the required langugage system (Ali, 2015).
Pakistani English Speakers have a variety of accent absed on phonological features. Errors
always follow the phonotactic restriction. Phonological structures of many languages is limited.
Bilingual children follow two separate phonological system. Phonological mixing is refered to a
form of accent (Holem and Dodd, 1999). Bilingual children have two phonological patterns that
depends on known and unknown systems. Unknown system more imposes on to the initial
system which is combining the characteristics of separete phonological patterns (Wasten, 1991).
British Received Pronunciation has forty four major sounds. Most of them are familiar to
Pakistani Urdu speakers but when they come in contact with unfamiliar sounds /ɜ:/, /ɒ/, /ɔː/, /θ/,
/ð/, /eɪ/, and/əʊ/ they face problem in pronunciation ( Ali, 2015). Linguistic pattern comes from
speech perception. Phonemic sequence and syllable structure are assential part of speech
competence. Catagorical phonotenctic restrictions refers to unviolation in a given language. It
may be involved either single segments(The restrition against the word-initial ɳ in English) or
(The restriction against the word-initial bn in English) series of sounds (Zamuner, 2009).
Pakistani English Speakers has distinctive pattern of speech. Urdu and Punjabi speakers do share
most of the phonological features of English (Rehman, 2015)
Punjabi consists of segmental phonemes (38 consonants and 20 vowels) and super segmental
phonemes(Tippi and Vindi). Presence of segmental and super segmentals changes the meaning (
Luthra and Singh, 2012).
Learners unconciously follow the phonological principle of their native tongue. Only five
English vowel sounds are used for twenty two vowel sounds that make EFL learners
mispronounce the words. Pakistani learners change many English diphthong /əʊ/ with
diphthong /o:/ use in the Punjabi language with result mispronunciation problems. It has been
observed that /ɜ:/ is abscent in Punjabi language and replace it with short /ə/ vowel and sometime
with /r/. Short vowel /ʌ/ is an English short vowel which is mispronounced and replaced with /ə/
(Noor, 201 6). In the absence of the native like enviroment, it is more tough for Urdu speaker to
speak in British accent (Ali, 2015). Pakistani speakers, have strong tendency in vowels varities
(Qaisera, 2012).There is a lack of awearness about spelling and sound. Vowels sounds have
various vowel letters and vowel letters have various vowel sounds (Samina, 2016).

 Statement of the Problem:


English teachers and M.A English students face difficulties in pronunciation of dental
fricatives consonents /ɵ/, / ð / and vowels /ə/, /eɪ/, /əʊ/, /ɒ/ due to the poor knowledge about
the correct place of articulators in pronunciation.

Research Questions:
 Question
 Question
 Question

Objectives of the Study:
 To analyze the major problems of Pakistani English speakers face during the
pronunciation of dental fricatives /ɵ/, / ð / and vowel /ə/, /eɪ/, /əʊ/, /ɒ/.
 To handle the sound differnces of vowels /ə/, /eɪ/, /əʊ/, /ɒ/ carefully.
 To understand well- designed structure of English consonents and vowels.
 To overcome the hindrance that present during pronunciation of English words.
 To evaluate the value and worth of English phonetics and phonolgy.
Literature Review:
English has “26” letters in numbers but these letters have about “44” sounds of speech.
There is the absence of link between spelling (letters) and pronunciation (sounds) which creates
problem for Pakistani Urdu Speaker (Sabahat,2013). Pakistani intitutes neglect the importance
of pronunciation(samina,2016). Phonological interference of native tongue in learning non native
language basically is because of interference of Phonemes of native tongue. These types of
Phonemes create problems in pronunciation and understanding of the real words(Bashir,2016).
There is no diphthong in Saraiki which ends with schwa sound. The diphthong/əʊ/ is not present
in Saraiki, replaced by /ɔ/. English sound /el/ is replaced by /e:/. Saraiki students replac Schwa
/ə/ sound as /ʌ/, /a:/ and / æ /. Their accent is like native language because native tongue has
great impact on the accent of L2(Bashir, 2016). Good and proper pronunciation need proper
accent, which reflects the proper manner of articulation and place of articulation of the required
langugage system (Ali, 2015). Pakistani English Speakers have a variety of accent absed on
phonological features. Errors always follow the phonotactic restriction. Bilingual children follow
two separate phonological system. Phonological mixing is refered to a form of accent (Holem
and Dodd, 1999). Bilingual children have two phonological patterns that depends on known and
unknown systems. Unknown system more imposes on to the initial system which is combining
the characteristics of separete phonological patterns (Wasten, 1991). British Received
Pronunciation has forty four major sounds. Most of them are familiar to Pakistani Urdu speakers
but when they come in contact with unfamiliar sounds /ɜ:/, /ɒ/, /ɔː/, /θ/, /ð/, /eɪ/, and/əʊ/ they face
problem in pronunciation ( Ali, 2015). Linguistic pattern comes from speech perception.
Phonemic sequence and syllable structure are assential part of speech competence. Catagorical
phonotenctic restrictions refers to unviolation in a given language. It may be involved either
single segments(The restrition against the word-initial /ɳ/ in English) or (The restriction against
the word-initial “bn” in English) series of sounds (Zamuner, 2009).Pakistani English Speakers
has distinctive pattern of speech. Urdu and Punjabi speakers do share most of the phonological
features of English (Rehman, 2015). Punjabi consists of segmental phonemes (38 consonants and
20 vowels) and super segmental phonemes(Tippi and Vindi). Presence of segmental and super
segmentals changes the meaning ( Luthra and Singh, 2012). Learners unconciously follow the
phonological principle of their native tongue. Only five English vowel sounds are used for
twenty two vowel sounds that make EFL learners mispronounce the words. Pakistani learners
change many English diphthong /əʊ/ with diphthong /o:/ use in the Punjabi language with result
mispronunciation problems. It has been observed that /ɜ:/ is abscent in Punjabi language and
replace it with short /ə/ vowel and sometime with /r/. Short vowel /ʌ/ is an English short vowel
which is mispronounced and replaced with /ə/ (Noor, 201 6). In Pakistani educational
enviroment , more attention is paied to writing and reading skills. The purpose of getting
educationis to achieve the better quality of life and well social interaction. But the concept of
most of the students is to pass the examination rather than to become productive by improving
their speaking skills. Students of English reach secondary school level after 8 to 10 years of
education but are not capable to speak English effectivly (Ahmad,2013).

Research Methodology:
 Type of research
Qualitative approach will be used in this study. A word list will be prepared and twenty words
will be selected. Data will be recorded in the form of interview and will be quantified into
percentage.
 Research Tool:
A word list will prepared, containing numerous words with voiceless dental fricative /ɵ/,
voiced dental fricative / ð/, short vowels /ə/, /ɒ/ and diphthongs /eɪ/, /əʊ/. This word list will
be validated by the supervisor.
 Population and Sample:
The population of the study will be all the Punjabi English teachers and students of M.A
English in city Jhang (Pakistan). All English teachers and M.A English students will be
included in the sample. Purposive sampling techniques will be used for the selection of
sample. English teachers and students will be selected from different private and government
colleges. The teachers and students will be asked to read the slected words and data will be
recorded. The researcher will be able to repeat the pronunciation sample many times to
analyze the errors of speakers. So the recording will be an appropriate mood for this study.

Significance of the study:


The study will identify the major problems face by the English teachers and M.A English
students during pronunciation of dental fricatives and vowels.The correct knowledge of place
and manner of articulation of English vowels and dental fricatives will reduced the complexity in
spoken and enhance the level of correct pronunciation by taking knowledge of English phonetic
and phonology.It will helpful to overcome the mispronunciation of dental fricatives /ɵ/, / ð / and
vowels /ə/, /eɪ/, /əʊ/, /ɒ/.

Delimitation of the study:


Due to limited resources and time, the study will conduct in city of Jhang (Pakistan). It will a
limited scope of containing few teachers and students. English dental fricatives and few
vowels will be discussed only. Researcher can investigate it on large scale. For this purpose
maximum resources and time will be required.Problems in the articulation of consonants and
vowels of English are under discussion.

Tentative chapter outline


 Abstract
 Chap 1: Introduction
 Chap 2: Review of literature
 Chap 3: Material and Methods
 Chap 4: Results
 Chap 5: Discussion
 Chap 6: Conclusion and Recommendation

References (Previous):
Saima, B. (2016). Identification of the Problems of Saraiki Speakers of English in the Production
of English Vowels at Secondery Level. Journal of literature, language and linguistics, vol, 25.
Humaira, I. (2017). The Posgraduate Students and their Teachers’ Preceptions of the Use of
Pakistani English (PakE) in Pakistani Universities. Journel of Research and Reflections in
Education,vol,11,No 1, pp38-48.
Sana, N., Aisha, U., Muffasira, T., Maria, Z., Anam, B and Saba, A. (2015). DIFFICULTIES
FACING BY STUDENTS OF L1 IN ADOPTING L2 Department of English Universtiy of
Sargodha, PAKISTAN, Eurpoean Journal of English Language, Linguistics and Literature, Vol.
2 No. 2.
Aziz A. A., Umar, M., Dilshad, F and Mustafa. LEARNING DIFFICULTIES AND
STRATEGIES OF STUDENTS AT HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN PUNJAB. Journal
of policy research, 1(2), 55-61.55.
Mahboob, A. (2014). Pakistani English: morpholgy syntax, Vol. 2.pp 1046-1057.
Bilal, H. A., Rehman, A., Rashid, C. A., Adnan, R and Abbas Muneer (2013). Problems in
speaking English with L2 Learners of Rural Area School of Pakistan,
Language in India.Vol. 13:10.
Parveen, S and Mehmood, A. (2013). A Study on Attitude towards Varieties of Spoken English
in Pakistani, Language in india, Vol. 13:3.
Urea, R. (2012).The influence of the teacher’s communication style on the pupils’ attitude
towards the learning process. Roxana Ureal/ procedia- Social and Behavioral Science 47,41-44.
Sheikh, A., Bibi, N and Nawaz, A. (2014). The Role of Motivation in Learning English
Language for Pakistani Learners, International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol.4
No.1.
References (Current):
Bashir, S. 2016; Identification of the Problems of Saraiki Speakers of English in the Production
of English Vowels at Secondary Level, Journal of Literature, Languages and Linguistics ISSN
2422-8435 An International Peer-reviewed Journal, Vol.25.

Holem, A. and Dodd, B. 1999; Differential diagnosis of phonoligical disorder in two bilingual
children acquiring Itlalian and English clinical linguistics and phonetics.

Wasten, I. 1991; phonological processing in two languages. In Bialystok, E. , editor, Long


processing in bilingual children, cambridge: Cambridge University press.

Ali, M. 2015. The pronunciation difficulties of Urdu speakers learning British Accent.
Internations Journal of Research in Management, Vol. 2.

Zamuner, T.S, and Kharlamov, V. (accepted). “Phonatics and Syllable Structure”. In J. Lidz, W.
Synder, & J. Peter (Eds), Oxford Handbook of Developmental Linguistics Oxford : Oxford
University Press.

Rehman, T. 2015. Pakistani English . the Linguistic description of non-native variety of English,
Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistani Studies.

Noor, A. , Gulzar, M.A. , Javid, C.Z. 2016. Pronunciation of Monophthongs and Diphthongs
among Punjabi speaking EFL Learners. EFL Annual Research Journal 18, 153-168.

Luthra, S. & Singh. 2012. Punjabi Speech Generation System based on phonemes, Vol. 49-No.
13. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975-8887).

Sheikh, Q.A. (2012). An Analysis of the Vowel Sounds of Pakistani English. Bulletin of
Education and Research, Vol. 34, No. 1 pp.1-18