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AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE

(AAE011)

By
Dr. P K Mohanta
and
Dr. Y D Dwivedi

1
UNIT-I

INTRODUCTION TO
AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE

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AIR-BREATHING ENGINES

 The role and design mission of  The propulsive forces


an aircraft  The thrust production engines
 Performance requirements and  Power producing engines
mission profile  Variation of thrust
 Aircraft design performance  Propulsive power and specific
 The standard atmosphere fuel consumption with altitude
 Off-standard and design and flight speed
atmosphere  The minimum drag speed
 Measurement of air data  Minimum power speed
 Air data computers  Aerodynamic relationships for a
 Equations of motion for parabolic drag polar
performance
 The aircraft force system
 Total airplane drag estimation
 Drag reduction methods
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Total Drag

Drag breakdown possibilities


UNIT –I
AIR-BREATHING ENGINES
Total Airplane Drag Estimation

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Aspect Ratio

𝑏 𝑏.𝑏
Chord
AR= =
𝑐 𝑐.𝑏
UNIT –I
AIR-BREATHING ENGINES

Total Airplane Drag Estimation

7
UNIT –I
AIR-BREATHING ENGINES

Total Airplane Drag Estimation

Factors Affecting Drag

Shape and size


Velocity and inclination to flow
Mass, Viscosity, Compressibility

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Drag Polar
HOW TO ESTIMATE INDUCED DRAG

 For all wings in general


 Define a span efficiency factor, e (also called span efficiency
factor)
 Elliptical planforms, e = 1
 The word planform means shape as view by looking down
on the wing
 For all other planforms, e < 1
 0.85 < e < 0.99
2
C
C D ,i  L Goes with square of CL
eAR Inversely related to AR

Span Efficiency Factor Drag due to lift


DRAG POLAR
2
C
C D  cd  L
eAR
Total Drag = Profile Drag + Induced Drag

cd {
OVERALL AIRPLANE DRAG

Drag for complete airplane, not just wing


2
CL C L2
C D  Cd  CD  CD,0 
eAR eAR
Wing or airfoil Entire Airplane

Engine Nacelles Tail Surfaces

Landing Gear

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UNIT –I
AIR-BREATHING ENGINES

Total Airplane Drag Estimation


Shape Affecting Drag

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UNIT –I
AIR-BREATHING ENGINES
Drag Reduction Methods

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Rib lets
Boundary Layer Suction
Hybrid Layer Flow Control
Boundary Layer Flow Control
Wing Tips /Wing Lets
Vortex generators
Questions
Thank You!