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GEOGRAPHICAL TYPES OF NETWORK be remotely connected to each other over one large network

to communicate even when they’re miles apart.


(11 Types of Networks in Use Today)
The Internet is the most basic example of a WAN,
connecting all computers together around the world.
Because of a WAN’s vast reach, it is typically owned and
1. Personal Area Network (PAN) maintained by multiple administrators or the public.
The smallest and most basic type of network, a
PAN is made up of a wireless modem, a computer or two,
phones, printers, tablets, etc., and revolves around one 7. Storage-Area Network (SAN)
person in one building. These types of networks are typically
found in small offices or residences, and are managed by As a dedicated high-speed network that connects
one person or organization from a single device. shared pools of storage devices to several servers, these
types of networks don’t rely on a LAN or WAN. Instead, they
move storage resources away from the network and place
them into their own high-performance network. SANs can be
2. Local Area Network (LAN) accessed in the same fashion as a drive attached to a
server. Types of storage-area networks include converged,
LANs connect groups of computers and low- virtual and unified SANs.
voltage devices together across short distances (within a
building or between a group of two or three buildings in close
proximity to each other) to share information and resources.
Enterprises typically manage and maintain LANs. 8. System-Area Network (also known as SAN)

This term is fairly new within the past two decades.


It is used to explain a relatively local network that is designed
3. Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) to provide high-speed connection in server-to-server
applications (cluster environments), storage area networks
Functioning like a LAN, WLANs make use of (called “SANs” as well) and processor-to-processor
wireless network technology, such as WiFi. Typically seen in applications. The computers connected on a SAN operate as
the same types of applications as LANs, these types of a single system at very high speeds.
networks don’t require that devices rely on physical cables to
connect to the network.

9. Passive Optical Local Area Network (POLAN)


4. Campus Area Network (CAN) As an alternative to traditional switch-based
Ethernet LANs, POLAN technology can be integrated into
Larger than LANs, but smaller than MANs, these structured cabling to overcome concerns about supporting
types of networks are typically seen in universities or small traditional Ethernet protocols and network applications such
businesses. They can be spread across several buildings as PoE (Power over Ethernet). A point-to-multipoint LAN
that are fairly close to each other so users can share architecture, POLAN uses optical splitters to split an optical
resources. signal from one strand of single mode optical fiber into
multiple signals to serve users and devices.

5. Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)


10. Enterprise Private Network (EPN)
These types of networks are larger than LANs but
smaller than WANs – and incorporate elements from both These types of networks are built and owned by
types of networks. MANs span an entire geographic area businesses that want to securely connect its various
(typically a town or city, but sometimes a campus). locations to share computer resources.
Ownership and maintenance is handled by either a single
person or company (a local council, a large company, etc.).

11. Virtual Private Network (VPN)


6. Wide Area Network (WAN) By extending a private network across the Internet,
a VPN lets its users send and receive data as if their devices
Slightly more complex than a LAN, a WAN were connected to the private network – even if they’re not.
connects computers together across longer physical Through a virtual point-to-point connection, users can access
distances. This allows computers and low-voltage devices to a private network remotely.
THE 7 LAYERS OF THE OSI

In the OSI model, control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at
the application layer (Layer 7) in one station, and proceeding to the
bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the
hierarchy. The OSI model takes the task of inter-networking and divides
that up into what is referred to as a vertical stack that consists of the
following 7 layers.

Application (Layer 7)
OSI Model, Layer 7, supports application and end-user processes.
Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified,
user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on
data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific.
This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet
and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part
of this layer.
Presentation (Layer 6)
This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating
from application to network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the
form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network,
providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer.
Session (Layer 5)
This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. The session layer sets
up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each
end. It deals with session and connection coordination.
Transport (Layer 4)
OSI Model, Layer 4, provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is
responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data transfer.
Network (Layer 3)
Layer 3 provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for
transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as
addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing.
Data Link (Layer 2)
At OSI Model, Layer 2, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission protocol
knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame
synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer
and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains
access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control
and error checking.
Physical (Layer 1)
OSI Model, Layer 1 conveys the bit stream - electrical impulse, light or radio signal — through the network
at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a
carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols
with physical layer components.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF LAN CONNECTION

Ring networks
Each computer is connected to each of its neighbors, and the data is transmitted
through the network.
Advantages: Performs better than a star network when the traffic is very heavy.
Disadvantages: A faulty connection between two computers results in the entire network crashing.
Adding a new device is a bit complicated, as the new device has to go between the two existing
devices.

Bus networks
A bus network has each device connected to a common spine. When a computer
or a device sends data, it will travel along the spine, until it reaches the target
computer end of the spine has a terminator so that the data doesn’t disappear into
thin air.
Advantages: It is easy to connect a new device to the network. If one of the devices fails, the rest
of the network can carry on as normal. It does not have to rely on a hub or switch, less cable,
therefore lower costs, compared to a star network.
Disadvantages: Difficult to identify the cause of the problem if the entire network breaks down. If
there is a fault on the spine, all computers shut down. The technology being employed is
considered to be old fashioned.

Star networks
A star network has each computer or a device connected to a central hub, or a
switch. Each computer sends its data along a cable to the hub, and then the hub
sends the data to all other computers and devices on the network.
Advantages: If one computer or device fails, the rest of the network can carry on. If there is a
problem with the network, each device or a computer can be inspected without disturbing the
others.
Disadvantages: If the concentrator breaks down, the whole network will crash.

Hybrid networks
A hybrid network is made up of star networks where each hub and the server
are connected to a common bus-type backbone. This type of network is very
popular with network managers.
Advantages: It employs the advantages of star network with those of the bus network.
Disadvantages: It can be difficult to wire the sections together. Same limitations as the star
network, if the hub doesn’t work the entire network fails. If there is a fault in the spine, the network
fails as well.
ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION

A digital signal is superior to an analog signal. To change an analog signal to digital data have to
techniques, pulse code modulation and delta modulation.

COMPONENTS OF PCM
ENCODER

THREE DIFFERENT SAMPLING


METHODS FOR PCM

According to the Nyquist theorem, the


sampling rate must be at least 2 times the
highest frequency contained in the signal.

NYQUIST SAMPLING RATE FOR LOW-


PASS AND BAND-PASS SIGNALS

QUANTIZATION AND ENCODING OF A


SAMPLED SIGNAL
Example: what is the SNRdB in the example of Figure above?

Solution: we can use the formula to find the quantization. We have eight
levels and 3 bits per sample, so

SNRdB = 6.02(3) + 1.76 = 19.82 dB

Increasing the number of levels increases the SNR.


COMPONENTS OF PCM DECODER

THE PROCESS OF DELTA MODULATION

DELTA MODULATION COMPONENTS

DELTA DEMODULATION COMPONENTS