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DEFINITION OF TERMS ON INSTITUTIONAL CORRECTIONS

(COADJE1)

1. AGE OF REFORMATION - Replaced corporal punishment, exile, and physical disfigurement with
the penitentiary.

2. AGE OF REHABILITATION - Assumed that criminals were handicapped persons suffering from
mental or emotional deficiencies.

3. AGE OF REINTEGRATION - Society becomes the "patient" as well as the offender. Much more
emphasis is placed on the pressure exerted on the offender by the social groups to which he
belongs and on the society which regulates his opportunities to achieve his goals.

4. ALCATRAZ - A US federal penitentiary, often referred to as "The Rock", the small island of
Alcatraz was developed with facilities for a lighthouse, a military fortification, a military prison
(1868), and a federal prison from 1933 until 1963.

5. ALEXANDER MACONOCHIE - Was a Scottish naval officer, geographer, and penal reformer. He
is known as the Father of Parole.

6. ARREST - the taking of a person in custody in order that he may be bound to answer for the
commission of an offense.

7. ASSISTANT WARDEN - Undertakes the development of a systematic process of treatment.

8. AUBURN PRISON SYSTEM - The prison system called the "Congregate System". Prisoners are
confined in their own cells during the night and congregate work in shops during the day.

9. BANISHMENT - Sending or putting away of an offender which was carried out either by prohibition
against coming into a specified territory.

10. BJMP (BUREAU OF JAIL MANAGEMENT AND PENOLOGY) - Government agency mandated
by law (RA 6975) to take operational and administrative control over all city, district and municipal
jails. It takes custody of detainees accused before a court who are temporarily confined in such
jails while undergoing investigation, waiting final judgment and those who are serving sentence
promulgated by the court 3 years and below.

11. BJMP DEPUTY CHIEF FOR ADMINISTRATION - The 2nd highest ranking BJMP officer.
Appointed by the President upon recommendation of the DILG Secretary.

12. BJMP DEPUTY CHIEF FOR OPERATIONS - The 3rd highest ranking BJMP officer. Appointed by
the President upon recommendation of the DILG Secretary.

13. BJMP CHIEF OF THE DIRECTORIAL STAFF - The 4th highest BJMP officer. Appointed by the
President upon recommendation of the DILG Secretary.

14. BODY CAVITY SEARCH - Is a search that probes the rectum and/or vagina for contraband. This
type of search shall only be conducted by a doctor or nurse and with a written waiver, from the
subject.

15. BOARD OF DISCIPLINE - Hears complaints and grievances with regard to violations of prison
rules and regulations.

16. BORSTAL - A custodial institution for young offenders.

17. BORSTAL SYSTEM - Rehabilitation method formerly used in Great Britain for delinquent boys
aged 16 to 21. The idea originated (1895) with the Gladstone Committee as an attempt to reform
young offenders. The first institution was established (1902) at Borstal Prison, Kent, England.

18. BRANDING - S\widely used for the identification of cattle, usually involves the burning of a
distinctive mark, or brand into an animal’s hide with a hot iron.

19. BRIDEWELL PRISON AND WORKHOUSE - Was the first correctional institution in England and
was a precursor of the modern prison. Built initially as a royal residence in 1523, Bridewell Palace
was given to the city ofLondon to serve as the foundation for as system of Houses of Correction
known as “Bridewells.” These institutions, eventually numbering 200 in Britain, housed vagrants,
homeless children, petty offenders, disorderly women, prisoners of war, soldiers, and colonists
sent to Virginia.

20. BRIDEWELL PRISON AND HOSPITAL - Was established in a former royal palace in 1553 with
two purposes: the punishment of the disorderly poor and housing of homeless children in the City
of London.

21. BRIDLE - Iron cage to fit over the head and had a front plate that was sharpened.

22. BUREAU OF CORRECTIONS - Has for its principal task the rehabilitation of national prisoners or
those sentenced to serve a term of imprisonment of more than three years.

23. BURNING AT STAKE - A form of ancient punishment by tying the victim in a vertical post and
burning him/her.

24. CERTIFICATION - A credentialing process, usually involving testing and career development
assessment through which the skills, knowledge and abilities of correctional personnel can be
formally recognized.

25. CESARE BECCARIA - An Italian criminologist, jurist, philosopher and politician best known for his
treaties On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty, and
was a founding work in the field of penology and the Classical School of criminology.

26. CHARLES MONTESQUIEU - A French lawyer, who analyzed law as an expression of justice. He
is famous for his articulation of the theory of separation of powers, which is implemented in many
constitutions throughout the world.

27. CHIEF OF THE BJMP - Highest ranking BJMP officer. Appointed by the President upon
recommendation of DILG Secretary. Rank is Director.

28. CITY PRISONERS - Those sentenced to suffer a term of imprisonment from 1 day to 3 years.

29. CLASSIFICATION BOARD - Classifies inmates according to their security status.

30. CLASSICAL SCHOOL - This maintains the "doctrine of psychological hedonism" or "freewill".
That the individual calculates the pleasure and pains in advance of action and regulates his
conduct by the result of his calculations.

31. CODE OF JUSTINIAN - Formally Corpus Juris Civilis (“Body of Civil Law”), Justinian I the
collections of laws and legal interpretations developed under the sponsorship of the Byzantine
emperor Justinian I from AD 529 to 565.

32. COMMITMENT ORDER - Is an act of sending a person to prison by means of such a warrant or
order.

33. COMMUNITY BASED CORRECTIONS - It is a non-incarcerated sanction in which offenders


serve all or portion of their sentence in the community.

34. CONCURRENT SENTENCING - Sentences that are served together at the same time. All charges
are served together versus serving one after another.

35. CONSECUTIVE SENTENCING - When the sentencing are served one after another.

36. CONTRABAND - Any article, item or thing prohibited by law and/or forbidden by jail rules that
would pose as security hazards or endanger; the lives of inmates.

37. CONTROL MODEL - Prisoners’ obedience and worked education. Enforcement of discipline.

38. CORPORAL PUNISHMENT - It was typically imposed in public as means of setting an example
for other potential offender and its inflicted pain on the offender as well, serving a retributive
function.

39. CORRECTION - Is a concept which describes both a wide range of diversified programs,
agencies, and institutions an equally broad range of philosophical goals, ideals and theory about
the nature of human's society, crime and the criminal offender.

40. CORRECTIONAL ADMINISTRATION - Study of practice of a systematic management and


concerned with the custody, treatment, and rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

41. CORRECTIONS PROFESSIONAL - A dedicated person of moral character & personal integrity
who is employed in the field of corrections & takes professionalism to heart.

42. CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM - Is the machinery of any government in the control and prevention
of crime.

43. CUSTODIAL MODEL - Emphasizes the maintenance of discipline, security and order. Discipline is
strictly applied and most aspect of behavior is regulated.

44. DARTMOOR PRISON - Once known as the House of Halfway to Hell, located in Devonshire,
England, originally constructed to house French prisoners.

45. DEATH ROW - Refers to incarcerated persons who have been sentenced to death and are
awaiting execution.

46. DETENTION PRISONERS - Those cases is under investigation, awaiting or undergoing trial and
awaiting for final judgment.

47. DETERMINATE SENTENCING - Aka "fixed sentence" this sentence maybe reduced by good
time. Parole does NOT review. Prisoners know when they will be released. With Good Time
inmates can reduce time by earning credits and earned by demonstrating good behavior.

48. DETERRENCE - Punishment gives lesson to the offender by showing to others what would
happen to them if they violate the law.

49. DILG - Supervises the provincial, district, city and municipal jails through the provincial
governments and the Bureau of Jail Management and Penology, respectively.

50. DIRECTOR CHARLES S. MONDEJAR - The first Chief of BJMP. He took his oath of office on
July 1 of 1991.

51. DISTIERRO - Penalty of banishing a person from the place where he committed a crime,
prohibiting him to get near or enter 25 kilometers perimeter.

52. DISTRICT JAIL - Is a cluster of small jails, each having a monthly average population of ten or
less inmates, and is located in the vicinity of the court.

53. DRACO - Was the first legislator of ancient Athens, Greece, 7th century BC. He replaced the
prevailing system of oral law and blood feud by a written code to be enforced only by a court.

54. DSWD - Supervises the regional rehabilitation centres for youth offenders through the Bureau of
Child and Youth Welfare.

55. DUCKING TOOL - Ducked on a chair and suspended over a body of water.

56. DUNGEON - A dark cell, usually underground where prisoners are confined.

57. EDUCATIONAL ASSIGNMENTS - Prisoners maybe assigned to either general education,


vocational or physical education.

58. ECLECTIC - It means selecting the best of various styles or ideas.

59. ELECTROCUTION - A method of inflicting the death penalty on a convicted criminal by passing an
electric current through the body.

60. ELIZABETH FRY - Was the most famous of Quaker reformers, though others were equally
influential in raising public awareness.

61. ELMIRA REFORMATORY - Located in New York, was originally a prison opened to contain
Confederate prisoners of war during the Civil War. It became known as a “death camp” because of
the squalid conditions and high death rate in its few years of operation. Established 1876.

62. ELMIRA SYSTEM - An American penal system named after Elmira Reformatory, in New York. In
1876 Zebulon R. Brockway became an innovator in the reformatory movement by establishing
Elmira Reformatory for young felons. The Elmira system classified and separated various types of
prisoners, gave them individualized treatment emphasizing vocational training and industrial
employment, used indeterminate sentences.

63. ERGASTULUM - Is a Roman prison used to confine slaves. They were attached to work benches
and forced to do hard labor in period of imprisonment.

64. EVIDENCE-BASED CORRECTIONS - The application of social scientific techniques to the study
of everyday corrections procedures for the purpose of increasing effectiveness & enhancing the
efficient use of available resources.

65. EXEMPLARITY - The criminal is punished to serve as an example to others to deter further
commission of crime.

66. EXIGENT CIRCUMSTANCES - An event or series of events which if taken individually or


collectively could create a situation wherein failure to act may result in the serious or significant
injury or death to self or another.

67. EXPIATION - This was in the form of group vengeance, as distinguished from retribution, where
punishment is exacted publicity for the purpose of appeasing the social group.

68. FATHER COOK - A chaplain of the Boston Prison visited the courts and gained acceptance as an
advisor who made enquiries into the circumstances of both adult and juvenile offenders

69. FELONY - A serious criminal offenses; specifically one punishable by death or incarceration in a
prison facility for more than a year

70. FINE - An amount given as a compensation for a criminal act.

71. FIRING SQUAD - Soldiers ordered to shoot: a group of soldiers who carry out an execution by
gunfire or deliver a ceremonial volley over a grave.

72. FIRST CLASS INMATE - One whose known character and credit for work while in detention
earned assignment to this class upon commencement of sentence.

73. FIRST WOMEN'S PRISON - Opened in Indiana 1873. Based on the reformatory model.

74. FLOGGING - (FLOG) Beat (someone) with a whip or stick as a punishment.

75. FRED T. WILKINSON - Last warden of the Alcatraz prison.

76. GAGS - Devices that were used to shame.

77. GALLEYS - Long, low narrow, single-decked ships propelled by sails and cars, usually rowed by
criminals.

78. GAOLS - Are [poorly constructed, incinerate, damp, drafty or airless, gloomy dungeons, foul
smelling places of detention in England in the early eighteenth century.

79. GAS CHAMBER - Is an airtight room in which persons are killed with poison gas. As a method of
executing condemned prisoners it was first used in Nevada in 1924

80. GENERAL AND ACADEMIC EDUCATION - To eradicate illiteracy among prisoners.

81. GENERAL DETERRENCE - Use of individual punishment to persuay others from committing
crimes.

82. GUILLOTINE - An ancient form of capital punishment by cutting the head.

83. HALFWAY HOUSE - A center for helping former drug addicts, prisoners, psychiatric patients, or
others to adjust to life in general society.
84. HANGING - Method of capital punishment by suspending the condemned person by the neck,
usually with a noosed rope or cord, from a frame with a crosspiece commonly known as a gallows.

85. HAMMURABI'S CODE - An ancient code which contain both civil and criminal law. First known
codified law prior to Roman law. Better organized and comprehensive than biblical law. One of its
laws is lex taliones (an eye for an eye).

86. HEDONISM - The ethical theory that pleasure (in the sense of the satisfaction of desires) is the
highest good and proper aim of human life.

87. HULKS - These were abandoned or unusual warships that were converted to prisons as means of
relieving congestion or prisoner when transportation system was abandoned. Also called as
Floating Hell or Hell Holes.

88. ILLEGAL PER SE - Unlawful in itself and not because of some extraneous circumstance.

89. IMPALEMENT - (IMPALING) A form of capital punishment, is the penetration of an organism by


an object such as a stake, pole, spear or hook, by complete (or partial) perforation of the body,
often the central body mass. Killing by piercing the body with a spear or sharp pole.

90. IMPRISONMENT - Putting the offender in the prison for the purpose of protecting the public and
the same time rehabilitating the prisoners.

91. INCAPACITATION AND PROTECTION - The public will be protected if the offender has being
held in conditioning where he cannot harm others especially the public.

92. INSTITUTIONAL BASED CORRECTIONS - The role of prison or correctional system is to make
society a safer place, prisons are based on the idea that some people are so inherently evil that
they must be cut off from, the rest of society and closely monitored.

93. INSULAR OR NATIONAL PRISONERS - Those persons sentenced to suffer a term of 3 years
and 1 day to life imprisonment.

94. INTELLIGENCE AND INVESTIGATION TEAM - Gathers, collects and submits intelligence
information to the office of the warden on matter regarding the jail condition.

95. JAIL - Is defined as a place of confinement for inmates under investigation or undergoing trial, or
serving short-term sentences.

96. JAIL INSPECTORATE SECTION - Inspect facilities, personnel, and prisoners and submit reports
to the warden.

97. JAIL OFFICER OF THE DAY - A jail officer who has been delegated authority from the Jail
Warden on an assigned day to ensure that the routine operations and security of the jail facility are
carried out.

98. JAMES V. BENNETT - Was a leading American penal reformer and prison administrator who
served as director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons (FBOP) from 1937 to 1964. He was one of the
strongest advocates in the movement in persuading Congress to close Alcatraz and replace it with
a new maximum-security prison, eventually successful in 1963 when it closed.

99. JANUARY 2, 1991 - The Bureau of Jail Management and Penology was created thru Republic Act
6975 as a line Bureau under the Department of Interior and Local Government.

100. JEAN JACQUES VILLAIN - Pioneered classification to separate women and children from
hardened criminals.

101. JEREMY BENTHAM - A prison reformer, believed that the prisoner should suffer a severe regime,
but that it should not be detrimental to the prisoner's health. He designed the Panopticon in 1791.

102. JOHN AUGUSTUS - Father of Probation. Augustus was born in Woburn,Massachusetts in 1785.
By 1829, he was a permanent resident of Boston and the owner of a successful boot-making
business.
103. JOHN BELLERS - Was the earliest British Friend to pay serious and systematic attention to social
reform. He pleaded for the abolition of the death penalty, the first time this plea had been made.

104. JOHN HOWARD - A philanthropist and the first English prison reformer.

105. JUSTICE - Crime must be punished by the state as an act of retributive justice, vindication of
absolute right and moral law violated by the criminal.

106. LAPIDATION (STONING) - The act of pelting with stones; punishment inflicted by throwing stones
at the victim.

107. LETHAL INJECTION - Is method of capital punishment by which a convicted criminal is injected
with a deadly close of barbiturates through an intravenous tube inserted into arm.

108. LEX TALIONES - An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth.

109. LOCK-UP JAILS - A security facility, common to police stations, used for temporary confinement
of an individual held for investigation.

110. MAINTENANCE ASSIGNMENT - This assignment involves labor related to care and up keeping
of the institution properties.

111. MAMERTIME PRISON - The only Roman place of confinement, which was built under the main
sewer of Rome in 64 B.C. by Ancus Maritus.

112. MANDATORY SENTENCES - A sentence required by law under certain circumstances. Such as
conviction of a specified crime or a series of offense of a specified type. These sentences allow
judges no leeway in sentencing

113. MARK SYSTEM - Developed in Australia by Alexander Maconochie, whereby credits, or marks,
were awarded for good behavior, a certain number of marks being required for release.

114. MAXIMUM SECURITY FACILITY - Usually enclosed by a thick wall about 18-25ft high, on top are
catwalk in every corner a tower post manned by heavily armed guards.

115. MEDIUM SECURITY FACILITY - Usually enclosed by a two layer wire fences, the inner fence is
12-14ft high with top guard, the outer fence is 8-12ft high.

116. MERELY PROHIBITED - Are these that may not be classified as illegal under the law but are
forbidden by jail rules.

117. MINIMUM SECURITY FACILITY - The fencing if there us such, is intended not for the prisoners
but from civilians to deter them from entering the premise.

118. MISDEMEANOR - A relatively minor violation of the criminal law, such as petty theft or simple
assault, punishable by confinement for 1 year or less

119. MITTIMUS - Is a process issued by the court after conviction to carry out the final judgment, such
as commanding a prison warden to hold the accused, in accordance with the terms of the
judgment. Mittimus is often attached on the commitment order issued by the court whenever the
convict is to be transferred to prison for service of sentence.

120. MORAL AND SPIRITUAL PROGRAMS - Develops moral uprightness and a God-centered prison
life for total reformation.

121. MORTALITY RATE - A measure of the frequency of deaths in a defined population during a
specified interval of time.

122. MUNICIPAL PRISONERS - Those confined in municipal jails to serve an imprisonment from 1 day
to 6 months.

123. MUTILATION OR MAIMING - An ancient form of punishment is an act of physical injury that
degrades the appearance or function of any living body, sometimes causing death.

124. NATIONAL PRISONS ASSOCIATION - Was organized in Cincinnati in 1870.


125. NEO-CLASSICAL SCHOOL - It maintained that while the classical doctrine is correct in general, it
should be modified in certain details.

126. NEWGATE PRISON - Not a real prison but an abandoned copper mine of Simsbury Connecticut.
Inmates are confined underground (Black hole of horrors).

127. OPERATIONAL CAPACITY - The number of inmates that can be accommodated based on a
facility's staff, existing programs, and services.

128. ORDINARY JAILS - The type of jail commonly used to detain a convicted criminal offender to
serve sentences less than three years.

129. PANOPTICAN PRISON - A type of prison conceived by Bentham which would consist of large
circular building of case irons and glass containing multi-tiered cells round the periphery.

130. PANOPTICON - A prison design, allowed a centrally placed observer to survey all the inmates, as
prison wings radiated out from this central position.

131. PAROLE - Conditional release of a prisoner after serving part of his/her sentence in prison.

132. PAROLE AND PROBATION ADMINISTRATION (PPA) - Was created pursuant to Presidential
Decree (P.D.) No.968, as amended, to administer the probation system. Under Executive Order
No. 292, the Probation Administration was renamed as the Parole and Probation Administration,
and given the added function of supervising prisoners who, after serving part of their sentence in
jails are released on parole or granted conditional pardon. The PPA and the Board of Pardons and
Parole are the agencies involved in the non-institutional treatment of offenders.

133. PAT/FRISK SEARCH - Is a search wherein the officer pats or squeezes the subject's clothing to
attempt to detect contraband.

134. PENAL MANAGEMENT - Is the manner or practice of managing or controlling places of


confinement as in jails or prisons.

135. PENALTY - Is the suffering that is inflicted 0by the state for the transgression of a law.

136. PENNSYLVANIA AND NEW YORK - Pioneered the penitentiary movement by developing two
competing systems of confinement. The Pennsylvania system and the Auburn system.

137. PENNSYLVANIA PRISON SYSTEM - The prison system called "Solitary System". Prisoners are
confined in single cells day and night where they lived, they slept. They ate and receive religious
instructions.

138. PENNSYLVANIA REFORM ACT - It abolished corporal punishment and limited capital offense
was reduced to only one that is first degree murder, imprisonment at hard labor was instituted as
punishment for other serious crimes.

139. PENNSYLVANIA SYSTEM - An early system of U.S. penology in which inmates were kept in
solitary cells so that they could study religious writings, reflect on their misdeeds, and perform
handicraft work.

140. PENOLOGY - Is the study of punishment for crime, or criminal offenders. It includes that study of
control and prevention of crime through punishment of criminal offenders.

141. PHYSICAL EDUCATION - Designed for those who have physical disabilities.

142. PHYSICAL TORTURE - Maiming, muti8lation, whipping and other inhumane or barbaric forms of
inflicting pain, pillory/gibbeting (public scorn).

143. PILLORIES - A wooden framework with holes in the head and hands. Enabling the public to
assault or ridicule a person so imprisoned.

144. POLICE POWER - The right of the state to protect itself both physically and morally.

145. POSITIVIST SCHOOL - The school that denied individual responsibility and reflected non-punitive
reactions to crime and criminality.
146. PRINCIPLE OF PARENTS PATRIAE - Gives the state the right to act as guardian of all persons
who are incompetent.

147. PRISON - Which refers to the national prisons or penitentiaries managed and supervised by the
Bureau of Corrections, an agency under the Department of Justice.

148. PRISON EDUCATION - The process or result of formal training in school or classrooms intended
to shape the mind and attitude of prisoners towards good upon their release.

149. PRISON HULKS - (1776-1857) Were ships which were anchored in the Thames, and at
Portsmouth and Plymouth. Those sent to them were employed in hard labour during the day and
then loaded, in chains, onto the ship at night.

150. PRISON REFORM - Is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, aiming at a more effective
penal system.

151. PROBATION - Disposition whereby a defendant after conviction of an offense, the penalty of
which does not exceed six years imprisonment; is released subject to the conditions imposed by
the releasing court.

152. PROBATION REVOCATION - The formal termination of an offender’s conditional freedom.

153. PROFESSION - An occupation granted high social status by virtue of the personal integrity of its
member

154. PROVINCIAL JAIL - Under the office of the Governor. Where the imposable penalty for the crime
committed is more than six months and the same was committed within the municipality, the
offender must serve his or her sentence in the provincial jail.

155. PROVINCIAL PRISONERS - Those persons sentenced to suffer a term of imprisonment from 6
months and 1 day to 5 years.

156. PUBLIC RELATION OFFICE - Maintain public relation to obtain the necessary and adequate
public support.

157. PUNISHMENT - It is inflicted by the group in its corporate capacity upon who is regarded as a
member of the same group. Punishment involves pain or suffering produced by design and
justified by some value that the suffering is assumed to have.

158. QUAKERS - Are members of a family of religious movements collectively known as the Religious
Society of Friends. Many Quakers have worked for reform of the criminal justice systems of their
day. Quakers believe that people can always : their focus has been on reforms that make positive
change more likely, such as increased opportunities for education, improved prison conditions,
help with facing up to violent impulses, and much else.

159. RACK - A form of torture or punishment wherein pain is inflicted to the body through stretching.

160. RATED CAPACITY - The number of beds or inmates assigned by a rating official to institutions
within the jurisdiction.

161. RECEPTION AND DIAGNOSTIC CENTRE (RDC)- Receives studies and classifies inmates
committed to Bureau of Corrections.

162. REFORMATION/REHABILITATION - The establishment of the usefulness and responsibility of


the offender.

163. REFORMATORY MOVEMENT - The reformatory movement was based on principles adopted at
the 1870 meeting of the National Prison Association.

164. REHABILITATION MODEL - Security and housekeeping activities framework for rehabilitative
effects.

165. REINTEGRATION MODEL - Linked to the structures and goals of community corrections.
166. RESPONSIBILITY MODEL - Prisoners are given significant degree of freedom and held to
account for their actions.

167. RESTORATION - The process of returning to their previous condition all those involved in or
affected by crime-including victims, offenders & society.

168. RESTORATIVE JUSTICE - A response to wrongdoings that emphasizes healing the wounds of
victims, offenders, and communities caused or revealed by crime.

169. RETRIBUTION - The punishment should be provided by the state whose sanction is violated to
afford the society or the individual the opportunity of imposing upon the offender suitable
punishment as might be enforced.

170. REVOCATION HEARING - A due process hearing that must be held to determine whether the
conditions of probation have been violated before probation can be revoked and the offender
removed from the community.

171. RUB SEARCH - Is a search wherein the officer rubs and/or pats the subject's body over the
clothing but in a more intense and thorough manner.

172. SECOND CLASS INMATE - A newly arrived inmate demoted from first class; or one promoted
from the third class.

173. SECURITY LEVEL - A designation applied to a facility to describe the measures taken, both inside
and outside, to preserve security and custody.

174. SENIOR SUPERINTENDENT - The rank from which the BJMP chief is appointed. This is the rank
of the BJMP Directors of the Directorates in the National Headquarters. This is also the rank of the
Regional Director for Jail Management and Penology.

175. SENTENCED PRISONERS - Offenders who are committed to the jail or prison in order to serve
their sentence after final conviction by a competent court.

176. SING SING PRISON - Was the third prison built by New York State. It is a maximum security
prison.

177. SIR EVELYN RUGGLES BRISE - Was a British prison administrator and reformer, and founder of
the Borstal system.

178. SIR WALTER CROFTON - The director of Irish prisons. In his program, known as the Irish
system, prisoners progressed through three stages of confinement before they were returned to
civilian life.

179. SOCIAL DEGRADATION - Putting the offender into shame or humiliation.

180. SPECIAL DETERRENCE - Deterrence of individual being punished for committing additional
crimes.

181. ST. BRIDGET'S WELL - First house correction for looking up and whipping beggars, prostitutes
and night walkers of all sorts.

182. STOCKS - Used as outside jails to punish the idle.

183. STRIP SEARCH - Is a search which involves the visual inspection of disrobed or partially disrobed
subject.

184. SUPER MAXIMUM SECURITY FACILITY - The Alcatraz is the best example of a super maximum
security facility.

185. THIRD CLASS INMATE - One who has either been previously committed for 3 or more times as a
sentenced inmate, except those imprisoned for non-payment of a fine and those who had been
reduced from a higher class.
186. TRANSPORTATION - A punishment in which offenders were transported from their home nation
to one of that nation's colony to work.

187. TREATMENT PROGRAM - The treatment of inmates shall be focused on the provision of services
designed to encourage them to return to the fold of justice and enhance their self-respect, dignity,
and sense of responsibility.

188. TWELVE TABLES - The Law of the Twelve Tables (Latin: Leges Duodecim Tabularum or
Duodecim Tabulae) was the ancient legislation that stood at the foundation of Roman law.

189. UNDERGROUND CISTERN - A reservoir for storing liquids, underground tank for storing water.
This was also used prison in ancient times.

190. UTILITARIANISM - A tradition stemming from the late 18th- and 19th-century English
philosophers and economists Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill that an action is right if it
tends to promote happiness and wrong if it tends to produce the reverse of happiness—not just
the happiness of the performer of the action but also that of everyone affected by it.

191. VISITOR - A person who enters a jail facility for a definite period of time to meet an inmate or
personnel of the Bureau of conduct an official business or activity inside the jail.

192. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION - Institutional maintenance works and industrial projects.

193. VOLTAIRE - Believes that fear of shame is a deterrent to crime.

194. WALNUT STREET JAIL - Opened in 1790 in Philadelphia. Considered the 1st state prison.
Inmates labored in solitary cells and received large doses of religious training.

195. WARDEN - Responsible for the direction, coordination, and control of the jail.

196. WILLIAM PENN - Founder of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony
and the future Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Was the first great Quaker prison reformer.

197. WORK PROGRAMS - These are programs conducive to change behavior in morale by training
prisoners for a useful occupation.

198. WORKHOUSES, JAIL FARM OR CAMP - A facility that houses minimum custody offenders who
are serving. Short sentences.

199. WULNUT STREET JAIL - Originally constructed as a detention jail in Philadelphia. It was
converted into a state prison and because the first American penitentiary.

200. ZEBULON REED BROCKWAY - Was a penologist and is sometimes regarded as the Father of
prison reform and Father of American Parole in the United States.