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SYLLABUS - ASAN 491P

Islam in the Philippines


(Online course)

Spring 2009, TR 5:00-6:15 pm, Moore 111


University of Hawaii at Manoa

Instructor: Dr.Federico V. Magdalena


Moore Hall 415
Email: fm@hawaii.edu
Tel: (808) 956-6086

Course Description:
This course examines the history, growth and manifestations of Islam in the Philippines. It also
attempts to relate its dynamics with events after 9/11 in some countries in Southeast Asia,
particularly Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Although a predominantly Catholic country, Islam
is a minority religion that significantly influences Philippine society and culture, antedating
colonial history and the coming of Catholicism in Southeast Asia. Class/gender/ethnic identity,
economy, religion, peace and security, separatism and violence, and national development are the
central issues that frame the focus of this course.

The course incorporates alternative pedagogical methods with the usual lecture-and-text approach
to enhance learning while it harnesses recent advances in digital technology by taking students to
a “cyber classroom.” Here, the students from UH Manoa meet and discuss with their Filipino
counterparts (at Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology, or MSU-IIT) who are
equally interested in studying Islam and its impact in the Philippines and Southeast Asia. As they
meet in a virtual environment, both groups of students will learn from each other and gain new
insights during such interactions as they discuss issues relating to ethnicity, religion, economy,
history, and security, among others.

The two groups of students work with their mentors from UH Manoa and MSU-IIT, who guide
them through the semester, starting on January 13 to May 5, 2009. Dr. Federico Magdalena will
handle the course at UH Manoa as ASAN 491P, while at MSU-IIT the students take the course as
History 3 (History of Muslims & Other Indigenous Peoples in Mindanao), under Dr. Jamail A.
Kamlian, Professor of History. The MSU-IIT students begin their semester in November 2008.
For uniformity, a course pack derived from relevant literature on Islam in the Philippines will be
prepared as an aid to instruction, and lay the basis for discussion among the students. Guide
questions will be provided to frame the interaction and debate.

Each student is expected to come to the “classroom” prepared with concepts, ideas and questions
based on the readings. Among the course requirements are a major research paper, two minor
essays (critique/review), one long exam, and quality participation in class discussions.

Text: The required readings and references are available as a Course Pack.

UH Manoa students may buy a copy from Professional Image, 2633 King Street, Honolulu, HI ,
Phone: 973-6599. In addition to the Course Pack, there will be readings from internet resources,
Syllabus – ASAN 419P 2

documentaries, books and showing of some videos. Students from MSU-IIT (Philippines) may
obtain their copies of the text (Course Pack) from Dr. Jamail Kamlian, Tel 0917 7162529.

Supplementary texts include the following:

1. Abinales, Patricio N. Making Mindanao : Cotabato and Davao in the Formation of the
Philippine Nation-State. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila Press, 2000. UH Manoa:
Hamilton Asia, DS688.S68 A25 2000.
2. Casino, Eric S. Mindanao Statecraft and Ecology: Moros, Lumads and Settlers Across
the Lowland-Highland Continuum. Cotabato City: Notre Dame University, 2000. UH
Manoa: Hamilton Asia, DS689. C85 2000.
3. Kamlian, Jamail A. Bangsamoro Society and Culture: A Book of Readings on Peace and
Development in Southern Philippines. Iligan City: Mindanao State University-Iligan
Institute of Technology, 1999. UH Manoa: Hamilton Asia, DS688.M2 K36 1999.
4. Jubair, Salah. Bangsamoro: A Nation Under Endless Tyranny. Kuala Lumpur: IQ Marin
SDN BHD. 1999.
5. Majul, Cesar Adib. Muslims in the Philippines. Quezon City: University of the
Philippines Press, 1973. UH Manoa: Hamilton Asia, DS666. M7 M34 1973.
6. Rodil, B. R. A Story of Mindanao and Sulu in Question and Answer. Davao City:
MINCODE, 2003. UH Manoa: Hamilton Asia, DS688.M2 R647 2003.
7. Vitug, Marites D. & Glenda M. Gloria. Under the Crescent Moon: Rebellion in
Mindanao. Quezon City, Philippines : Ateneo Center for Social Policy & Public Affairs :
Institute for Popular Democracy, 2000. UH Manoa: Hamilton Asia, DS688.M2 V57
2000.
8. Yegar, Moshe. Between Integration and Secession: The Muslim Communities of the
Southern Philippines, Southern Thailand, and Western Burma/Myanmar. Lanham,
Maryland: Lexington Books, 2002. UH Manoa: Hamilton Asia, DS 570 M85 Y44 2002.

Other references are available online, as follows:

• Newspapers in the Philippines/SEA - http://russia.shaps.hawaii.edu/dbadv.html


• Bibliography of recent published articles –
http://www.hawaii.edu/asiaref/seasia/sub_islam.htm

General Information/Country Profile:


The following background materials on countries in Southeast Asia with significant Muslim
population may be downloaded from the internet:

Library of Congress: http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/

Indonesia
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Indonesia.pdf

Malaysia
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Malaysia.pdf

Philippines
http://www.bartleby.com/151/rp.html
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Philippines.pdf
Syllabus – ASAN 419P 3

Thailand
http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Thailand.pdf

Grading:
For ASAN 491P, the course grade is calculated from the following requirements:

1. Research paper, 35% (between 15-20 double-spaced pages)


2. Two short essays (e.g., Critique/book review), 15% (5-7 pages)
3. Class participation, 30%
4. Attendance, extra credit & miscellany, 20%

Schedule and Topic (Subject to Change)

1st Week. Tuesday – Jan 13, 2009

Introduction of seminar participants and explanation of course requirements.

1st Week, Thursday – Jan 15 “Coming of Islam in Southeast Asia and the Philippines”

1) Billman, “Islam in Sulu”


2) *”Islam: A Worldwide Religion and its Impact in Southeast Asia,” Extract from Anthony
Reid’s Southeast Asia in the Early Modern Era: Trade, Power, and Belief. (1993)
3) *LaRousse, Chapter One, “Arrival of Islam and Christianity”
4) *Majul, Muslims in the Philippines (see short summaries: “How Islam Came to Mindanao,”
“The Coming of Islam to Sulu,” “The Maguindanao Sultanate”
5) Sarangani, “Islamic penetration in Mindanao and Sulu”
6) *Shih, Anthony. “The Roots and Societal Impact of Islam in Southeast Asia.” (Interview with
Professor Mark Mancall)

*Video: ”Journeys into Islamic Southeast Asia,” UH Manoa DVD 5608 (47 mins)
*Required readings/video

2nd Week, Tuesday – Jan 20 (Note: Wednesday, 11:00-12:15pm, Jan. 21, in the Philippines)
Online: First online meeting of the two classes from UH Manoa and MSU-Iligan Institute of
Technology

The online discussion is conducted in a designated computer lab for students at MSU-IIT, or any
personal computer wired to the net (in the case of UH Manoa students), and guided by their
respective instructors. A short brief with photo is required of each student, which will be posted
online at Laulima (https://laulima.hawaii.edu/portal)..
Syllabus – ASAN 419P 4

2nd Week, Thursday – Jan 22 “Who are the Moros?”

1)*Abbahil, “The Bangsa Moro: Their self image and inter-group ethnic attitudes”
2)*Bara, Hannbal. “The History of Muslim in the Philippines”
3)*Lingga, Abhoud Syed M. “Muslim Minority in the Philippines”
4)*Library of Congress. “Muslim Filipinos”

*Video: Nur Misuari on “Bangsamoro and Filipino,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?


v=amE8OweUnTg (4.25 mins)

*Required readings

3rd Week, Tuesday – Jan 27 Online discussion (Wednesday, 11:00-12:12pm, Jan 28 in the
Philippines). Discussion guidelines:

1. Discuss Moro (or Bangsamoro) ethnicity and identity.


2. When did Moro nationalism begin? What factors are responsible for this awakening?
3. Are the Moros united as a people? Why or why not?

3rd Week, Thursday – Jan 29 “Spanish & American colonial histories in Mindanao”

1)*Abinales, “American Military Presence in the Southern Philippines”


2) Ahmad, “400 year war—Moro struggle in the Philippines”
3) *Byler, Charles. “Pacifying the Moros”
http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/milreview/byler.pdf
*Required readings

4th Week, Tuesday – Feb 3 Online discussion (Wednesday, 11:00-12:12pm, Feb. 4 in the
Philippines)

4th Week, Thursday - Feb 5 “Moros, Lumads and Christians: The Peoples of Mindanao”

1) *LaRousse, Chapter Three: “Muslim Christian Relations – Migration: 1898-1965”


2) *Rodil, The Minoritization of theIndigenous Communities of Mindanao and Sulu..

5th Week, Tuesday – Feb 10 Online discussion (Wednesday, 11:00-12:12pm, Feb. 11 in the
Philippines)

1. Discuss the tri-people concept in Mindanao.


2. What are the commonalities and differences between and among the Moros, Lumads and
Christian Filipinos?
3. What role does colonialism play in the origins of these ethnic labels/identities?
Syllabus – ASAN 419P 5

5th Week, Thurs - Feb 12 “Moro-Christian Relations, Moro Secessionism and


Autonomy”

1) Gowing, ““Of different minds: Muslim and Christian perceptions of the Mindanao problem”
2) *Jumaani, “Muslim-Christian Relations: Redefining the Conflict”
3) *Kamlian, “Ethnic and Religious Conflict in Southern Philippines”
4) *Magdalena, “Moro-American Relations in the Philippines”

Video: “The Philippines Forgotten War,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u-


r2uUEgHjA&NR=1. Aljazeera (Veronica Pedrosa inside MILF camp, 2007), 3.09 mins.
*Required readings

6th Week, Tues – Feb 17 Online discussion (Wednesday, 11:00-12:12pm, Feb. 18 in the
Philippines). Guides for discussion:

1. Describe the relationship between and among these three groups of people in Mindanao?
2. How do members of civil society and religious organizations forge Muslim-Christian
amity?
Note: Submission of First Essay Requirement

6th Week, Thurs - Feb 19 “Origins of the Moro Struggle”

1)*Muslim. Chapter IV -“Historical Roots of the Moro Struggle”


2) Alim. “The Bangsamoro Struggle for Self-Determination”
3)*David, “The Causes and Prospect of Secessionist Movement,”
http://www.law.emory.edu/ihr/worddocs/jamail1.doc

Video: “People and Power – Gun Culture,” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dkIK-


FAlLu4&NR=1 (Aljazeera English, 10.5 mins)
*Required readings

7th Week, Thurs - Feb 24 Online discussion (Wednesday, 11:00-12:12pm, Feb. 25 in the
Philippines). Guides for discussion:

1. What are the bases of Moro grievances or discontent, and their more expressive struggle?
2. Is it justified to call it a Muslim-Christian conflict?
3. What are the prospects of integration or assimilation?

7th Week, Tues – Feb 26 “Mindanao Economy”

1) *Gustafsson. “The Social Impact of Slavery in the Sulu Sultanate”


2)*Muslim. “Overview of Mindanao and the Moros.”
3) *Tadem. “The Political Economy of Mindanao: An Overview.”
4) *Warren, James Francis. “The Sulu Zone, the World Capitalist Economy and the Historical
Imagination;” see also: The Sulu Zone: The World Capitalist Economy and the Historical
Imagination.
Syllabus – ASAN 419P 6

8th Week, Tues – March 3 Online discussion (Wednesday, 11:00-12:12pm, March 4 in the
Philippines). Guides for discussion:

1. Why is Mindanao called a “milking cow”


2. How does slavery and conflict work to the advantage of the Moros?
3. Does historical memory serve to reinforce or mitigate old animosities and conflict
between the Christian Filipinos and Moros?

8th Week, Tues - March 5 “The Peace Process: 1976 Tripoli Agreement, 1996 Final
Peace Agreement (with the MNLF)”

1) *Bacani, “The Mindanao Peace Talks”


2) *May. “The Moro Conflict and the Philippine Experience with Muslim Autonomy”
3) Muslim, “Sustaining the constituency for Moro autonomy”
4) *Magdalena. “The Peace Process in Mindanao”
5) *Martin & Tuminez. “Toward Peace in the Southern Philippines”

*Required readings

9th Week, Tues - March 10, Online discussion (Wednesday, 11:00-12:12pm, March 11
in the Philippines). Guides for discussion:

1. What has happened to the social experiment on “Muslim autonomy”?


2. Is the ARMM a failure or a good lesson to be learned ?
3. Why does the Moro struggle continue despite the grant of Moro autonomy?

9th Week, Thurs - March 12, “Ancestral Domain and Indigenous People of Mindanao
(Lumad); Proposed Memo of Agreement on Ancestral Domain (MOA-AD) with the MILF”

1) *Bernas. “Ancestral Domain vs. Regalian Doctrine”


2) *Bernas. “The MOA-AD Decision (of the Supreme Court)”
3) *Mercado. “Primer on MOA Part 1”
4) *”Memorandum of Agreement on the Ancestral Domain Aspect of the GRP-MILF Tripoli
Agreement on Peace of 2001.”
5) *Rodil. “Ancestral Domain: A Central Issue in the Lumad Struggle for Self-Determination”
5) *Tuminez, “Ancestral Domain”
6) Tiu, Macario D. (2002), “Identity, land and the politics of add and rule”

10th Week, Tues - March 17 Online discussion (Wednesday, 11:00-12:12pm, March 18


in the Philippines). Guides for discussion:

1. Why did the peace talks collapse? Find out the reasons for the impasse.
2. Is there “light at the end of the tunnel” for real peace in Mindanao?
3. What does the government do to resolve the Moro demands for ancestral domain and
self-determination?
4. What happens to the Lumad in this peace process?
Syllabus – ASAN 419P 7

10th Week, Thurs - March 19, “Rido and violent conflict among Moros”

1) *Abinales. “Getting Rid of Rido”


2) *Torres, Rido: Clan Feuding and Conflict Management in Mindanao (also read
Kamlian, Matuan & Doro’s articles)
3) Tan, Armando L. “Shame, reciprocity, and revenge”
4) Summary of Rido at http://asiafoundation.org/publications/index.php?q=rido

*Video: “People and Power – Gun Culture,” (Clan feuds)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aA6OQolVRyE&feature=channel. (Aljazeera, 11.4 mins)
*Required readings/video

11th Week, Thurs - March 23-27, Spring Recess (No Class at UH Manoa; also Online
interaction is suspended during the break)

12th Week, Tues - March 31 (April 1in the Philippines, 11:00-12:15pm). Online discussion,
guidelines:

1. How does rido occur and get perpetuated?


2. How can rido be stopped?
3. What are the consequences of rido in the community?

Note: Submission of Second Essay Requirement

12th Week, Thurs - April 2, Lecture/Video on Terrorism

“Terrorism, Peace, Stability and Development”

1) *Abuza, “Al Qaida and Radical Islam in Southeast Asia”


2) Frake, “Abu Sayyaf”
3) *May. “Beyond Ethnic Separatism: Recent Developments in the Southern Philippines.”
4) * Turbiville, Jr., Graham H. “Bearers of the Sword Radical Islam, Philippines
Insurgency, and Regional Stability.”

*Video: “Gracia Burnham…” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MWfnyMUzPDs (5.5 mins)

13th Week, Tues - April 7, Online Discussion (April 8 in the Philippines, 11:00-12:15pm).

This may be the end of the online chat for UH Manoa and MSU-IIT classes. Continue discussion
on ancestral domain, Islam and terrorism, and the prospects of long-term peace in Mindanao.

13th Week, Tues - April 9, Lecture/Video presentation on Muslim-Christian Harmony

*Video: Reconciling Christian and Muslim communities in Manila


Syllabus – ASAN 419P 8

14th Week, Thurs - April 14, Lecture/video on the Lumad

1) *InPeace. “A Situationer on the Indigenous Peoples of Mindanao,”


www.davaonews.com/IndigenousPeoples.pdf.
3) *Rodil. “Ancestral Domain”
2) *Rodriguez. “Lumad demand self-determination”

1) *Video: “Return to Lakag” (33 mins), Videotape 11532


*Required readings/video

15th Week, Tues - April 16, “Civil Society, Zones of Peace and Reconciliation“

1) *Blume, “Peace Zones: Exemplars and Potential.” http://acorn.sbu.edu/xSpring-Summer


%201993/Spr93-Peace%20Zones-pg5pg13.pdf.
2) *Rodil, “Peace Zones: People’s way of rejecting war,”
http://www.afrim.org.ph/Archives/2000/Philippine%20Daily%20Inquirer/May/27/Peace
%20zones%20%20People%20s%20way%20of%20rejecting%20war.txt.
3) *Rood, “Forging Sustainable Peace in Mindanao: Role of Civil Society,”
www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/PS017.pdf.

15th Week, Thurs - April 21, “Moderating Islamic response” (Guest Lecturer)

16th Week, Tues - April 23, “Federalism: Answer to the Mindanao Problem?” (Guest
Lecturer)

16th Week, Thurs - April 28, “The Politics of Mindanao/Political Islam”

1) *Magdalena, “Islam and the Politics of Identity: Lessons from the Philippines and Southeast
Asia”

17th Week, Tues – April 30 “Mindanao on the Horizon: Peace and development, or
continuing conflict and instability?”

1) *Rebollos, “Shared Steps Toward the Peace Agenda in Western Mindanao”


2) *Rodil, “For Peace in Mindanao…”

17th Week, Thurs – May 5, Winding Up; Submission of Research Paper

18th Week, Tues – May 12, Final Exam


Syllabus – ASAN 419P 9

SELECTED REFERENCES (*Asterisked titles are Required Readings)

*Abbahil, Abdulsiddik A (1984), “The Bangsa Moro: Their self image and inter-group
ethnic attitudes,” Dansalan Quarterly (Marawi City, Philippines) 5(4): 197-250.

*Abinales, Patricio N. “American Military Presence in the Southern Philippines: A Comparative


Historical Overview,” http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/PSwp007.pdf.

*Abinales, Patricio N. “Getting Rid of Rido.” Newsbreak, October 25, 2004.

Abinales, Patricio N. Making Mindanao: Cotabato and Davao in the Formation of the
Philippine Nation-State. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila Press, 2000. UH Manoa:
Hamilton Asia, DS688.S68 A25 2000.

Abuza, Zachary. “Al Qaida and Radical Islam in Southeast Asia,” Militant Islam in Southeast
Asia: Crucible of Terror. Boulder Co.: Lynne Rienner, 2003. UH Manoa: Hamilton Asia
HV6433.A785 A28 2003. See also
http://www.rienner.com/title/Militant_Islam_in_Southeast_Asia_Crucible_of_Terror

Ahmad, Aijaz (1982), “400 year war—Moro struggle in the Philippines,” Southeast Asia
Chronicle, 82: 1.

Alim, Guiamel M. “The Bangsamoro Struggle for Self-Determination,”


http://www.philsol.nl/solcon/Guiamel-95.htm.

*Bacani, Benedicto R. “The Mindanao Peace Talks: Another opportunity to resolve the Moro
conflict in the Philippines,” Washington, D.C. US Institute of Peace, 2005.
http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr131.html.

*Bara, Hannbal. “The History of Muslim in the Philippines,” http://www.ncca.gov.ph/about-


culture-and-arts/articles-on-c-n-a/article.php?igm=4&i=232

*Bernas, “Ancestral Domain vs. Regalian Doctrine” (in three parts). Philippine Daily Inquirer,
Sept. 22, 2008, Sept. 29, 2008, Oct. 6, 2008. http://services.inquirer.net/print/print.php?
article_id=20080922-162061

*Bernas. “The MOA-AD Decision,” Philippine Daily Inquirer. Oct. 19, 2008.
http://services.inquirer.net/print/print.php?article_id=20081019-167323.

Billman, Cuthbert (1960), “Islam in Sulu,” Philippine Studies, 8(1): 51-57.

*Blume, Francine. “Peace Zones: Exemplars and Potential.” http://acorn.sbu.edu/xSpring-


Summer%201993/Spr93-Peace%20Zones-pg5pg13.pdf.

*Byler, Charles. “Pacifying the Moros,”


http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/milreview/byler.pdf.

Casino, Eric S. Mindanao Statecraft and Ecology: Moros, Lumads and Settlers Across the
Lowland-Highland Continuum. Cotabato City: Notre Dame University, 2000. UH Manoa:
Syllabus – ASAN 419P 10

Hamilton Asia, DS689. C85 2000.

*David, Ricardo Jr. “The Causes and Prospect of the Southern Philippines Secessionist
Movement,” www.ccc.nps.navy.mil/research/theses/David03.pdf.

Feith, Peter. “Aceh Peace Process.” Washington, D.C. US Institute of Peace, 2007.
http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS86742

Frake, Charles O. “Abu Sayyaf: Displays of violence and the proliferation of contested identities
among Philippine Muslims,” American Anthropologist 100(1998): 41-54.

*GRP-MILF Memorandum of Agreement on Ancestral Domain.”


http://www.mindanews.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=4876.

Gowing, Peter G (1977), “Of different minds: Muslim and Christian perceptions of the Mindanao
problem,” Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society (Cebu City) 5(4) 243-252.

*Gustafsson, Per. “The Social Impact of Slavery in the Sulu Sultanate.” http://e-
articles.info/e/a/title/The-Social-Impact-of-Slavery-in-the-Sulu-Sultanate

*InPeace. “A Situationer on the Indigenous Peoples of Mindanao,”


http://www.davaonews.com/IndigenousPeoples.pdf.

Jubair, Salah. Bangsamoro. A Nation Under Endless Tyranny, 3rd ed. Kuala Lumpur: IQ Marin,
1999. UH Manoa: Hamilton Asia, DS666. M8 J82 1999.

*Jumaani, Amilussin A. “Muslim-Christian Relations in the Philippines:


Redefining the Conflict ,” http://www.philsol.nl/A01a/Jumaani-redefining-oct00.htm.

*Kamlian, Jamail A. “Ethnic and Religious Conflict in Southern Philippines: A Discourse on Self-
Determination, Political Autonomy and Conflict Resolution.”
http://www.law.emory.edu/ihr/worddocs/jamail1.doc.

Kamlian, Jamail A. Bangsamoro Society and Culture: A Book of Readings on Peace and
Development in Southern Philippines. Iligan City: Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of
Technology, 1999. UH Manoa: Hamilton Asia, DS688.M2 K36 1999.

*LaRousse, William. Walking Together Seeking Peace: The Local Church of Mindanao-Sulu
Journeying in Dialogue with the Muslim Community (1965-2000). Quezon City: Claretian
Publicans, Inc., 2001. UH Manoa: Hamilton Asia, BP 172 L377 2001.

*Library of Congress.“Muslim Filipinos,” http://countrystudies.us/philippines/38.htm

*Lingga, Abhoud Syed M. “Muslim Minority in the Philippines.” Paper presented during the
SEACSN Conference 2004: “Issues and Challenges for Peace and Conflict Resolution in
Southeast Asia,” Shangri-La Hotel, Penang, Malaysia, January 12-15, 2004. See
http://www.islamawareness.net/Asia/Philippines/

*Majul, Cesar Adib. Muslims in the Philippines. Quezon City: University of the Philippines
Press, 1973. UH Manoa: Hamilton Asia, DS666. M7 M34 1973. (see summaries:
Syllabus – ASAN 419P 11

“How Islam Came to Mindanao,” “The Coming of Islam to Sulu,” and “The Maguindanao
Sultanate,” and other articles. http://mnlf.net/History.htm.

*Martin, G. Eugene and Astrid S. Tuminez. “Toward Peace in the Southern Philippines: A
Summary and Assessment of the USIP Philippine Facilitation Project, 2003-2007.” Washington,
D.C. US Institute of Peace, 2008. http://www.usip.org/pubs/specialreports/sr202.html

*Magdalena, Federico V, “Moro-American relations in the Philippines,” Philippine Studies


(Quezon City) 44(1996): 427-438.

*Magdalena, Federico V. “Islam and the Politics of Identity: Lessons from the Philippines and
Southeast Asia.” http://www.hawaii.edu/cps/identity.html.

May, R.J. (1992), “The religious factor in three minority movements: the Moro of the Philippines,
the Malays of Thailand, and Indonesia's West Papuans,” Contemporary Southeast Asia
(Singapore) 13(4): 396-414 (Mar).

*May, R. J.. “Beyond Ethnic Separatism: Recent Developments in the Southern Philippines.”
http://rspas.anu.au/conflict/publications.php.

McKenna, Thomas M. Muslim Rulers and Rebels: Everyday Politics and Armed Separatism in
the Southern Philippines. Manila: Anvil Publishing, 1998. UH Manoa: Hamilton Asia,
DS689.C67 M35 1998.

*Mercado, Eliseo. “Primer on MOA Part 1,” http://blogs.gmanews.tv/jun-mercado/archives/18-


Primer -on-MOA-part-1.html.

*Memorandum of Agreement on the Ancestral Domain Aspect of the GRP-MILF Tripoli


Agreement on Peace of 2001.” Contains all the basic documents, with maps, on MOA-AD.
http://www.mindanews.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=4876.

Muslim, Macapado A. “Sustaining the constituency for Moro autonomy,” http://www.c-r.org/our-


work/accord/philippines-mindanao/sustaining-constituency.php. (April 1999)

*Muslim, Macapado A. The Moro Armed Struggle in the Philippines: The Non-Violent Autonomy
Alternative. Marawi City: Mindanao State University, 1994.

*Rebollos, Grace J. “Shared Steps Toward the Peace Agenda in Western Mindanao,”
http://cpn.nd.edu/Shared%20steps%20abridged.pdf

*Rodil, B. R. “For Peace in Mindanao: Mutual Acceptance, not Cultural Solidarity,”


http://earthmusic.mindanaoculture.com/literature/mutual.htm

*Rodil, B.R. “Ancestral Domain: A Central Issue in the Lumad Struggle for Self-Determination,”
in Mark Turner, R. J. May & Lulu Respall turner (eds.) Mindanao: Land of Unfulfilled Promise.
Quezon City: New Day Publishers, 1992.
Rodil, B. R. A Story of Mindanao and Sulu in Question and Answer. Davao City: Mincode, 2003.

Rodil, B. R. The Minoritization of theIndigenous Communities of Mindanao and the Sulu


Archipelago. Davao City: Alternate Forum for Research in Mindanao, 2004. UH Manoa:
Syllabus – ASAN 419P 12

Hamilton Asia, GN671.P5 R64 2004.

*Rodriguez, Cecilia. “Lumad demand self-determination.” http://www.iwpr.net/?


p=phl&s=f&o=346827&apc_state=henh

Rood, Steven. “Forging Sustainable Peace in Mindanao: Role of Civil Society.”


www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/PS017.pdf .

Sarangani, Datumanong – “Islamic Penetration in Mindanao and Sulu,” Mindanao Journal, Vol 1
(1974):49-73. Marawi City: Mindanao State University.

*Shih, Anthony. “The Roots and Societal Impact of Islam in Southeast Asia.” (Interview with
Professor Mark Mancall). Stanford Journal of East Asian Affairs, Spring 2002, Vol. 2.
www.stanford.edu/group/sjeaa/journal2/geasia2.pdf.

*Tadem, Eduardo C. “The Political Economy of Mindanao: An Overview,” in Mark Turner, R. J.


May & Lulu Respall turner (eds.) Mindanao: Land of Unfulfilled Promise. Quezon City: New
Day Publishers, 1992.

Tan, Armando L. “Shame, reciprocity, and revenge: some reflections on the ideological basis of
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