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RADAR OVERVIEW & MAINTENANCE CONTENTS Pages 1

Contents

SECTION 1 : RADAR OVERVIEW ........................................................................ 1


1.1 Principles of Radar ........................................................................................ 1
1.1.1 Electromagnetic Energy.......................................................................... 1
1.1.2 Basic Radar Systems ............................................................................. 2
1.1.2.1 Primary Radar .................................................................................. 2
1.1.2.2 Secondary Radar ............................................................................. 2
1.1.3 Radar In Air Traffic Control ..................................................................... 2
1.2 Primary Radar ............................................................................................... 3
1.2.1.1 Transmission Block .......................................................................... 3
1.2.1.2 Trigger Unit (Master Timing) ............................................................ 3
1.2.1.3 The Modulator Unit ........................................................................... 3
1.2.1.4 Transmitter Unit (Magnetron or Klystron) ......................................... 4
1.2.1.5 Reception Block ............................................................................... 4
1.2.1.6 Antenna Unit ..................................................................................... 5
1.2.1.7 Display Block .................................................................................... 5
1.2.1.8 Basic System.................................................................................... 6
1.3 Transmission & Reception of Radar energy ................................................. 7
1.3.1 Electric Field Reference ......................................................................... 7
1.3.2 Polarisation ............................................................................................. 8
1.3.3 Velocity of Propagation ........................................................................... 8
1.3.4 Wavelength ............................................................................................. 9
1.3.5 Frequency ............................................................................................... 9
1.3.6 Relationship between Wavelength and Frequency .............................. 10
1.3.7 Phase .................................................................................................... 10
1.3.8 Radiation Patterns ................................................................................ 11
1.3.9 Beamwidth ............................................................................................ 12
1.3.9.1 Vertical Radiation Patterns ............................................................. 13
1.3.9.2 The Cosecant-Squared Radiation Pattern ..................................... 13
1.3.9.3 Vertical Coverage Diagrams .......................................................... 14
1.3.9.4 Unit Coverage Diagrams ................................................................ 14
1.4 Antennas ..................................................................................................... 15
1.4.1 Practical Arrangements ........................................................................ 15
1.4.2 Linear Arrays ........................................................................................ 15
1.4.3 Shaped Reflectors ................................................................................ 16
1.5 The Radar Equation & Radar Range .......................................................... 17
1.5.1 Free Space Radar Equation ................................................................. 17
1.5.2 Aircraft Reflection Characteristics ........................................................ 19
1.5.3 Equivalent Echoing Area (A)................................................................. 19
1.5.4 Pulse Length & Pulse Recurrence Frequency...................................... 20
1.5.5.1 Radar Path Length ......................................................................... 20
1.5.6 Maximum Range................................................................................... 21
1.5.7 Minimum Range.................................................................................... 21
1.6 Choice of Wavelength ................................................................................. 23
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Page 2 RADAR OVERVIEW & MAINTENANCE CONTENTS
1.6.1 Range ................................................................................................... 23
1.6.2 Vertical Coverage ................................................................................. 24
1.6.3 Atmospheric Effects .............................................................................. 24
1.6.3.1 Attenuation by Gases and Vapour ................................................. 25
1.6.3.2 Attenuation by Rain Drops ............................................................. 26
1.6.3.3 Attenuation by Cloud and Fog ........................................................ 26
1.6.3.4 Attenuation by Hail ......................................................................... 26
1.6.3.5 Echoes from Rain ........................................................................... 27
1.6.3.6 Super-Refraction ............................................................................ 27
1.6.4 Transmitter Power ................................................................................ 29
1.6.5 Antenna Dimensions............................................................................. 29
1.6.6 Equivalent Echoing Area of Aircraft ...................................................... 29
1.6.7 Minimum Identifiable Signal Power ...................................................... 29
1.6.8 Pulse Length ......................................................................................... 29
1.7 Display ........................................................................................................ 30
1.7.1 Plan Position Indicator .......................................................................... 30
1.7.2 Range ................................................................................................... 32
1.7.3 Range Resolution ................................................................................. 32
1.7.4 Second Trace Return............................................................................ 34
1.7.5 Bearing ................................................................................................. 35
1.7.6 Bearing Resolution ............................................................................... 36
1.7.7 Scanning Rate ...................................................................................... 36
1.7.8 Accuracy ............................................................................................... 37
1.7.9 Examples of Displays ........................................................................... 37
1.7.9.1 Analogue Displays .......................................................................... 37
1.7.9.2 Raster Display ................................................................................ 38
1.7.9.3 Cursive Display .............................................................................. 38
1.7.9.4 Synthetic Displays (used with Plot Extracted Radars) ................... 38
1.8 Anti-Clutter Devices .................................................................................... 39
1.8.1 Fast Time Constant (F.T.C) Circuit ....................................................... 40
1.8.2 Swept Gain ........................................................................................... 41
1.8.3 The Logarithmic Receiver ..................................................................... 42
1.8.4 Instantaneous Automatic Gain Control (IAGC) ..................................... 42
1.8.5 Tapered Brilliance ................................................................................. 42
1.8.6 Rejection of Rain Clutter ....................................................................... 43
1.8.7 Moving Target Indicator (M.T.I.) ........................................................... 44

SECTION 2: OVERVIEW of PRIMARY RADAR ................................................... 1


2.1 Thomson TRAC 2000 I 2300 Features ......................................................... 1
2.1.1 Moving Target Detection (MTD) ............................................................. 1
2.1.2 Frequency Diversity ................................................................................ 1
2.1.3 Primary Radar Sub System .................................................................... 2
2.1.3.1 Remote Control & Monitoring Sub System....................................... 2
2.1.3.2 Auxiliary Equipment .......................................................................... 2
2.1.4 Specifications .......................................................................................... 5
2.1.4.1 Specifications of the Antennas ......................................................... 5
2.1.4.2 Specification of the RR 2000L Generation I Reception Cabinet ...... 7

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR OVERVIEW & MAINTENANCE CONTENTS Pages 3
2.1.4.3 Specifications of the ER 2000L Transmitter ..................................... 7
2.1.4.4 Specifications of the TVD 900 Doppler Video Processor ................. 7
2.1.4.5 Specification of the TPR 1000 Tracking Processor .......................... 8
2.1.4.6 Mechanical characteristics antennas ............................................... 8
2.1.5 List of Logos ........................................................................................... 9
2.1.6 List of Abbreviations ............................................................................. 10
2.1.7 Pulse Compression Operation .............................................................. 16
2.1.7.1 Surface Acoustic Wave delay line (SAW). ......................................... 17
2.1.7.2 Time Side lobes ................................................................................. 19
2.1.8 Purpose of Short Pulses ....................................................................... 19
2.1.9 Transmission Sequence ................................................................... 20
2.1.9.1 Reception ....................................................................................... 21
2.1.10 Automatic Configuration ..................................................................... 22
2.2 Transmitter .................................................................................................. 25
2.2.1 Purpose ................................................................................................ 25
2.2.2 TRAC 2300 ........................................................................................... 26
2.2.3 Overview of ER 2000L .......................................................................... 31
2.2.4 RF Pulse Amplification.......................................................................... 33
2.2.5 Low-Voltage Power Supply................................................................... 33
2.2.6 Cooling System..................................................................................... 39
2.2.7 Hydraulic Circuit.................................................................................... 39
2.2.9 The Synchronization & Protection Function: ........................................ 40
2.2.10 BITE .................................................................................................... 40
2.3 RF Line........................................................................................................ 41
2.3.1 Equipment ............................................................................................. 41
2.3.2 Characteristics ...................................................................................... 41
2.3.2.1 Waveguide ..................................................................................... 41
2.3.2.2 Coaxial Cable With Spiral Dielectric ............................................... 41
2.3.2.3 Diplexer (MH 2000) ........................................................................ 41
2.3.2.4 Duplexer ......................................................................................... 42
2.3.2.5 Limiter LH 2000 .............................................................................. 42
2.3.2.6 Low Noise Amplifier RF 820 L/L 1 .................................................. 42
2.3.3 RF Line Overview ................................................................................. 51
2.4 Receiver RR2000-L .................................................................................... 52
2.4.1 Cabinet Overview ................................................................................. 52
2.4.2 Purpose ................................................................................................ 52
2.4.3 TGR 2000 Rack .................................................................................... 53
2.4.4 Generator/receiver TGR 2000 Overview .............................................. 55
2.5 TVD 900 Doppler Video Processor ............................................................. 56
2.5.1 Purpose ................................................................................................ 56
2.5.2 Acronyms .............................................................................................. 56
2.5.3 Associated Equipment .......................................................................... 58
2.5.4 Overview of Modules ............................................................................ 60
2.5.4.1 Board TTE 147 ............................................................................... 60
2.5.4.2 Board TTE 148 ............................................................................... 60
2.5.4.3 Board TTE 151 ............................................................................... 60

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Page 4 RADAR OVERVIEW & MAINTENANCE CONTENTS
2.5.4.4 Board TTE 150 ............................................................................... 61
2.5.4.5 BITE TTE 152 ................................................................................. 61
2.5.4.6 Solid-State Board TTE 167 ............................................................ 61
2.5.4.7 Display Function (BSQ05) .............................................................. 61
2.5.4.8 Power Supply ................................................................................. 61
2.5.4.9 FILTER BANK ................................................................................ 61
2.5.5 CFAR Thresholding & Detection........................................................... 63
2.5.5.1 Fast Threshold (FTC) ..................................................................... 63
2.5.5.2 Slow Threshold (PAC) .................................................................... 63
2.5.5.3 The ORing of Target Presences..................................................... 63
2.5.6 Load Limitation ..................................................................................... 66
2.5.7 Plot Extraction ....................................................................................... 68
2.5.8 Video Integration ................................................................................... 71
2.5.9 Radar Synchroniser .............................................................................. 71
2.5.10 High I Low Beam Selection ................................................................ 71
2.5.11 Adaptive STC...................................................................................... 71
2.5.12 BITE .................................................................................................... 73
2.5.13 Local control mode: ............................................................................ 73
2.5.14 Off Line Tests ..................................................................................... 73
2.5.15 On line tests ........................................................................................ 73
2.5.16 TVD Microterminal .............................................................................. 74
2.5.17 Menus And Sub-Menus ...................................................................... 74
2.5.17.1 Dialogue principle ......................................................................... 74
2.5.18 Menu Content ..................................................................................... 77
2.6 Tracking Processor ..................................................................................... 97
2.6.1 Tracking Functions ............................................................................... 97
2.6.2 Correlation: ........................................................................................... 97
2.6.2.1 In azimuth ....................................................................................... 97
2.6.2.2 In range .......................................................................................... 97
2.6.3 Tracks Processing ............................................................................ 99
2.6.3.1 Track Updating: .............................................................................. 99
2.6.3.2 Speed Updating: ............................................................................. 99
2.6.3.3 Tracks Initialisation and Termination .............................................. 99
2.6.3.4 System capacity ........................................................................... 100
2.6.4 TPR 1000 Output Message ............................................................ 100
2.6.4.1 Track reports ................................................................................ 100
2.6.4.2 Sectorisation and Status Information ........................................... 100
2.6.4.3 Monitor Outputs (IEEE) ................................................................ 100
2.6.5 TPR 1000 Messages ...................................................................... 103
2.6.5.1 TPR 1000 - Gateway Message Format ........................................ 103
2.6.5.2 Selecting Messages ..................................................................... 104
2.6.5.3 Extension Selecting Message ...................................................... 105
2.6.5.4 Message Text Details ................................................................... 106
2.6.5.5 North Signal Data Message ....................................................... 107
2.6.5.6 Primary Track Data Message ....................................................... 108
2.6.5.7 Track Cancel Data Message ........................................................ 109
2.6.6 Operational Front Panel PDA 128 ...................................................... 110

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RADAR OVERVIEW & MAINTENANCE CONTENTS Pages 5
2.6.7 TPR Checks ........................................................................................ 111
2.6.7.1 Preliminary Checks ...................................................................... 111
2.6.7.2 Initialisation Without Reloading .................................................... 111
2.6.7.3 Initialisation With Reloading ......................................................... 111
2.6.7.4 Execution of Off-Line Tests .......................................................... 111
2.6.7.5 Return to Operational Status ........................................................ 112
2.7 ING1010-R Display ................................................................................... 113
2.7.1 Graphic Generator Board TTE 172 .................................................... 113
2.7.2 Digital Image Transformer TTE 173 ................................................... 113
2.8 THD 286 Antenna Scanner ....................................................................... 117
2.8.1 Antenna support ................................................................................. 117
2.8.2 Reflector ............................................................................................. 118
2.8.3 Pedestal Assembly ............................................................................. 119
2.8.4 Pedestal .............................................................................................. 119
2.8.5 Bearings and Clutches........................................................................ 121
2.8.6 Motor- Gearbox................................................................................... 122
2.8.7 Lubricating System ............................................................................. 124
2.8.8 Interconnection box ............................................................................ 124
2.8.9 Rotating Joints .................................................................................... 125
2.8.10 Polarisation ....................................................................................... 128
2.9 CA831 Antenna Control Unit ..................................................................... 131
2.9.1 TAC 411 Reception Interface ............................................................. 131
2.9.2 TAC 412 Control Logic Board ............................................................. 132
2.9.3 TAC 408 Test Card ............................................................................. 133
2.9.3.1 Storage control ............................................................................. 133
2.9.4 TAC 410 Transmission Interface ........................................................ 135
2.9.5 TAC 409 Remote Interface ................................................................. 136
2.9.6 BITE Board TAC 401 ......................................................................... 137
2.9.6.1 The information exchange with the RCMS: .................................. 137
2.9.6.2 The information exchange with card TAC 409 ............................. 137
2.9.6.3 The exchange management enables: .......................................... 137
2.9.7 Power Cabinet AP821 ........................................................................ 139
2.9.7.1 Two-motor power supply .............................................................. 139
2.9.7.2 Two-clutch mechanism power supply .......................................... 139
2.9.7.3 Overload detection ....................................................................... 139
2.9.7.4 Power Supply For Two Motors ..................................................... 139
2.9.7.5 Interface ....................................................................................... 140
2.9.7.6 Connection of line - Star/Delta Supply ......................................... 140
2.9.7.7 Elapsed time meter ...................................................................... 140
2.9.7.8 Power Supply for Two Clutch Mechanisms .................................. 140
2.9.8 Overload Detection ............................................................................. 140
2.9.8.1 Current measurement .................................................................. 144
2.9.8.2 "Georgian" comparator card ......................................................... 144
2.9.9 Power Supply 24 V for Antenna Control Unit ..................................... 144
2.9.10 Interface ............................................................................................ 144
2.9.10.1 Time Delay For Switching Star Power Supply & Delta Power Supply 144
2.10 CD840 Azimuth Encoding Unit .............................................................. 145

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 6 RADAR OVERVIEW & MAINTENANCE CONTENTS
2.10.1 Antenna Azimuth Position Processing Function ............................... 145
2.10.2 Distribution Function ........................................................................ 147
2.10.3 BITE TAC401.................................................................................... 149
2.11 TE810-I Test Beacon .............................................................................. 150
2.12 TE 802 Test Unit ..................................................................................... 152
2.13 Black Box Video Selectors ...................................................................... 156
2.14 Mains Distribution AE2000 ...................................................................... 158

SECTION 3: OVERVIEW OF SSR ........................................................................ 1


3.1 Introduction to Secondary Radar ............................................................... 1
3.1.1 Advantages of SSR over Primary Radar ................................. 2
3.1.2 Disadvantages of SSR over Primary Radar ........................... 2
3.1.3 The Monopulse SSR System .................................................. 3
3.1.4 Antenna ................................................................................... 4
3.1.5 Channels ................................................................................. 4
3.1.5.1 Sum Radiation Pattern .....................................................4
3.1.5.2 Difference Radiation Pattern ............................................5
3.1.5.3 Control Radiation Pattern.................................................5
3.1.5.4 Combined Transmit Radiation Pattern .............................5
3.1.5.5 Combined Receive Polar Pattern.....................................6
3.1.5.6 Elevation Pattern..............................................................7
3.1.6 Transmit Specifications ........................................................... 8
3.1.6.1 Frequency ........................................................................8
3.1.6.2 Pulse Stream ...................................................................8
3.1.6.3 Pulse Height.....................................................................8
3.1.6.4 Pulse Spacing ..................................................................8
3.1.6.5 Pulse Shape.....................................................................8
3.1.6.6 PRF ..................................................................................9
3.1.6.7 Power ...............................................................................9
3.1.6.8 Other Modes ....................................................................9
3.1.7 Receive Specifications .......................................................... 10
3.1.7.1 Frequency ......................................................................10
3.1.7.2 Intermediate Frequency .................................................10
3.1.7.3 Replies ...........................................................................10
3.1.7.4 Pulse Shape...................................................................10
3.1.7.5 Pulse Height...................................................................10
3.1.7.6 Decoding ........................................................................11
3.1.7.7 Aircraft Reply Delay .......................................................11
3.1.8 Principles of Side lobe Suppression ...................................... 12
3.1.8.1 Receiver Sidelobe Suppression (RSLS) ........................12
3.1.8.2 Interrogation Side Lobe Suppression ...........................13
3.1.9 Off-Boresight Angle (OBA) .................................................... 14
3.1.9.1 Conventional SSRs ........................................................14
3.1.9.2 Monopulse SSR .............................................................14
3.1.9.3 Amplitude Comparison ..................................................15
3.1.9.4 Double Estimation Phase Comparison ..........................15
3.1.9.5 ERM use of OBA............................................................16

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RADAR OVERVIEW & MAINTENANCE CONTENTS Pages 7
3.1.9.6 TPR use of OBA ........................................................................ 16
3.1.10 Common SSR Problems ............................................................... 18
3.1.10.1 False Replies Unsynchronised in Time (Fruit) ........................... 18
3.1.10.2 Defruiting.................................................................................. 19
3.1.10.3 Garbling ................................................................................... 20
3.1.10.4 Reflections ............................................................................... 21
3.1.10.5 Torpedo Effect ......................................................................... 22
3.1.10.6 Second Time Around Replies .................................................. 23
3.1.10.7 Group Capture ......................................................................... 23
3.2 RSM 970 Monopulse Secondary Radar .................................................. 25
3.2.1 Purpose ........................................................................................... 25
3.2.2 Sub Functions: ................................................................................ 25
3.2.3 RSM 970 .......................................................................................... 29
3.2.4 Transmitter ...................................................................................... 30
3.2.5 Receiver .......................................................................................... 31
3.2.6 Test Coupler .................................................................................... 32
3.2.7 Video PC Test Control..................................................................... 33
3.2.8 Preamplifier, Mixer and Filters......................................................... 35
3.2.9 Log Amplifier/Angle Error Measurement ......................................... 35
3.2.10 Video Processing .......................................................................... 36
3.2.11 Time Varied Base Clipping ............................................................ 37
3.2.13 Local Oscillator .............................................................................. 39
3.2.14 RSM Outputs ................................................................................. 40
3.2.15 Control Rack .................................................................................. 41
3.2.16 Transfer System ............................................................................ 42
3.3 ERM 870 Monopulse Reply Extractor ..................................................... 43
3.4 Output Messages..................................................................................... 45
3.4.1 Presence Message .......................................................................... 45
3.4.2 Start of recurrence ........................................................................... 46
3.5 Tracking Processor .................................................................................. 47
3.5.1 Application Software Description..................................................... 47
3.5.2 Post Processing .............................................................................. 47
3.5.2.1 Start of Recurrence .................................................................... 48
3.5.2.2 Presence message ................................................................... 48
3.5.2.3 OBA Sampling .......................................................................... 48
3.5.2.4 Elimination of Phantom Presences. C2 - SPI ............................. 48
3.5.2.5 Reply to Plot Correlation: .......................................................... 48
3.5.2.6 Log Sigma bits are stored ......................................................... 48
3.5.2.7 Output Message ....................................................................... 49
3.5.2.8 Test ........................................................................................... 49
3.5.3 Track Processing ............................................................................. 49
3.5.3.1 Correlation ................................................................................. 49
3.5.4 SSR Track Data Message ............................................................... 53
3.6 Antenna System....................................................................................... 55
3.6.1 Antenna AS909 ............................................................................... 56
3.6.2 Details ............................................................................................. 56

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 8 RADAR OVERVIEW & MAINTENANCE CONTENTS
3.6.3 Antenna Structure ............................................................................ 57
3.6.3.1 Tilt Adjudtment ............................................................................... 58
3.6.3.2 Distributor ....................................................................................... 58
3.6.3.3 Columns ......................................................................................... 58
3.6.3.4 Reflector ......................................................................................... 59
3.6.3.5 Antenna Specifications: .................................................................. 60
3.6.4 Distribution Networks ............................................................................ 62
3.6.4.1 Azimuth Distribution Network ......................................................... 62
3.6.4.2 Elevation Distribution Network ....................................................... 63
3.6.5 Antenna Drive ....................................................................................... 64
3.6.5.1 Hydraulic Motor .............................................................................. 64
3.6.5.2 Hydraulic Motor Drive ..................................................................... 66
3.6.5.3 Hydraulic Pump .............................................................................. 67
3.6.6 Rotary Joint Assembly .......................................................................... 70
3.6.6.1 RF Rotating Joint............................................................................ 71
3.6.6.2 Rotary Disc ..................................................................................... 71
3.6.7 Encoder ................................................................................................ 72

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES INTRODUCTION Pages 1 – 1
SECTION 1 : RADAR OVERVIEW

1.1 Principles of Radar


The word RADAR was originally derived from the descriptive phrase 'Radio
Detection And Ranging'. Although this phrase has for a long time been an
incomplete description of what RADAR can be used for, the word RADAR
is still used, and is assumed to include the original functions together
with subsequent developments in them.

1.1.1 Electromagnetic Energy


The fundamental principle of all radar systems is to calculate the distance of
an object from the radar site by measuring the time a pulse of radio energy takes
to travel to the object and back again. There are two basic types of radar system:

1. Primary Radar - a system which uses reflected radio signals.


2. Secondary surveillance radar - a system of radar using ground interrogators
and airborne transponders to determine the position of aircraft in range and
azimuth, and when agreed modes and codes are used, height and identity as
well.
To avoid confusion at the start it might be useful to clarify some of the terms
which are often used when discussing radar:
Electromagnetic energy covers the whole spectrum of energy which travels at
approximately 3 X 108 metres per second.
Radio energy (or radio signal) is that part of the electromagnetic energy spectrum
between about 1 mm and 100 kilometres wavelength.
Radar energy is that part of the radio energy spectrum between about 1 mm and
100 cm which is transmitted in a series of pulses of fairly short duration (in the
region of 5 microseconds). All three terms, therefore, refer to the same
phenomenon; the propagation of electromagnetic waves

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 2 RADAR OVERVIEW & MAINTENANCE CONTENTS
1.1.2 Basic Radar Systems

1.1.2.1 Primary Radar


A basic primary radar system is illustrated above. Pulses of radar energy are
transmitted in certain desired directions. Some of the pulses of energy may
encounter an object (e.g. aircraft, hills, storm clouds). A proportion of this energy
is reflected by the object and some of this energy, by now very weak, is detected
at the receiver. Information about the object is extracted and displayed in a
suitable form.

1.1.2.2 Secondary Radar


The basic principle of secondary radar is much the same but there is one
important difference; primary radar employs reflected pulses and secondary
radar requires the object to transmit its own energy.

1.1.3 Radar In Air Traffic Control


The importance of radar in air traffic control is that it can provide information
about the precise position and velocity of aircraft. In addition, the more complex
equipment can supply other useful data (e.g. identification, height). Radar can
contribute to the safety and expedition of air traffic because it is an aid to the
controller. For example, near an aerodrome (where air traffic density can be
high), radar may be used to sequence aircraft onto final approach, as'a final
approach aid or to help in separation shortly after take off.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES - PRIMARY RADAR Pages 1 - 3
1.2 Primary Radar

The purpose of a primary radar system in Air Traffic Control is to present a


continuous supply of useful information relating to the range and bearing, within
the operational range of the radar system.
Primary radar systems must be capable of:
1. transmitting energy in a suitable form,
2. receiving energy which has been reflected by objects within the operational
range of the system,
3. displaying useful information to the controller.

A primary radar system comprises three basic blocks. They are:


1. Transmission
2. Reception
3. Display

1.2.1.1 Transmission Block

The signal transmission block prepares energy in a suitable form for transmission
and radiates it in a desired direction. Shown below is the component parts of the
signal transmission block.

1.2.1.2 Trigger Unit (Master Timing)


As its name might suggest the trigger unit is a device whose output is used to
initiate action. In the transmission block of a primary radar system the output of
the trigger is in the form of a series of very brief pulses at regular intervals. Each
Pulse triggers the modulator.

1.2.1.3 The Modulator Unit


Every time the modulator unit is fired by the trigger unit, it sends a high power,
high voltage pulse to the transmitter. The duration of the pulse is

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 1 – 4 RADAR PRINCIPLES - TRANSMISSION & RECEPTION
determined by certain design characteristics in the modulator. The beginning
of each pulse switches on the transmitter and the end of each pulse switches
it off. Thus the modulator is a kind of on/off switch for the transmitter.

1.2.1.4 Transmitter Unit (Magnetron or Klystron)

For the brief duration of the modulator pulse - usually in the region of a
millionth of a second - the transmitter is radiating. Whilst in this stage the
transmitter produces a pulse of extremely high frequency energy. The actual
frequency of the energy within the pulse is pre-determined by design
characteristics of the transmitter.
The output from the transmitter is a series of pulses of radar energy. Each
pulse thus produced is delivered to the aerial.

1.2.1.5 Reception Block

The signal reception block detects energy which has been reflected from
objects within the operational range of the radar system. The Figure below
shows the component parts of the receiver block.

The returned electromagnetic energy will usually be very weak by the time it
reaches the receiving aerial and, therefore, causes only a weak electrical
signal in the aerial itself. Before it can be displayed the weak signal must
be amplified and suitably treated by the high gain low noise receiver.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES - PRIMARY RADAR Pages 1 - 5
1.2.1.6 Antenna Unit

Electromagnetic energy from the transmitter is radiated from the antenna at


regular intervals. For a number of reasons the radiated energy may be confined
within a fairly narrow beam. The receiving aerial should be sensitive to
electromagnetic energy within the same fairly narrow angle so that echoes from
objects illuminated by the transmitted energy can be detected. It is possible
therefore, to employ one aerial to do both jobs. However, because the receiver
has to be very sensitive it must be protected each time a pulse of high power
energy is transmitted. This is achieved by isolating the receiver during
transmission with a transmit-receive TR switch. During the interval between
transmissions the switch connects the receiver and isolates the transmitter.
If the radar system has to search an appreciable sector with a narrow beam, then
the beam must be moved about in that sector. One way of achieving this
movement, which is referred to as scanning, is to rotate the whole aerial unit.
There are other methods, for example mechanical (moving the aerial and
reflector relative to each other), electronic or a combination of methods.

1.2.1.7 Display Block

The received signal (echo) is displayed on the screen of the display unit. As
range is calculated by measuring the time between transmission and reception, it
is necessary to synchronise the start of the time base with the beginning of the
transmitted pulse. This is achieved in the time base unit synchronising from the
trigger unit. Finally, the isolated echo on the screen will have little meaning to a
controller unless reference data is added (for example; an indication of range and
bearing).

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Page 1 – 6 RADAR PRINCIPLES - PRIMARY RADAR
1.2.1.8 Basic System

To summarise; while the system is transmitting, the reception block is inoperative


and during reception the transmission block is isolated. The antenna is connected
alternately from transmitter to receiver by the TR switch. Information from the
trigger unit starts the whole cycle of operation in the transmission block and is
also used to synchronise the display block.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES - TRANSMISSION & RECEPTION Pages 1 - 7
1.3 Transmission & Reception of Radar energy
Radar energy, is transmitted in the form of electromagnetic waves.
The output from the antenna is an electromagnetic field whose electric and
magnetic components are perpendicular to each other. If these field components
were to be measured at the output at equal intervals of time the results would
take the form shown below. The electric field is shown in the vertical plane, and
the magnetic field is shown in the horizontal plane.

1.3.1 Electric Field Reference


To avoid confusion it is generally accepted that the electric field should be used
as a reference when discussing electromagnetic waves, but it must not be
forgotten that combined electric and magnetic fields are necessary for
electromagnetic propagation.
Vectorially the fields and the direction of propagation may be represented as
below. It should be noted that the direction of propagation is perpendicular to
both fields.

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Page 1 – 8 RADAR PRINCIPLES - TRANSMISSION & RECEPTION
1.3.2 Polarisation

The direction of the plane of the electric field of an electromagnetic wave is taken
to be a description of its polarisation. Electromagnetic waves are said to be
vertically polarised when the electric field is in the vertical plane. By the same
reasoning, if the electric field were to alternate solely in the horizontal plane the
wave would then be horizontally polarised.
Both horizontal and vertical polarisation are forms of plane polarisation. However,
if by some means the electric field were rotating about the direction of
propagation then this would be described as circular polarisation.

1.3.3 Velocity of Propagation


The velocity of propagation of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum is 299784
kilometres per second which is approximated for most purposes to 3 X 108
metres per second (about 161800 nautical miles per second).

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RADAR PRINCIPLES - TRANSMISSION & RECEPTION Pages 1 - 9
1.3.4 Wavelength

Consider an observer to be situated at a distance from an output aerial and to be


equipped with a suitable means of detecting an electromagnetic wave. In fact the
detector would consist of an aerial (similar to the output aerial) in which the
alternating fields would cause electrical currents to flow. After suitable electronic
treatment the received energy may be represented and measured as electric field
strength in volts per metre.
If a large number of observers in line with the direction of propagation were to
take a note of their measurements at the same instant their results could Qe
illustrated by the sine wave shown below.

The distance between any two successive but similar points on the wave is
known as the wavelength. For most radar purposes the wavelength is measured
in metres, centimetres or millimetres. The symbol used for wavelength is the
Greek letter λ (pronounced lambda).

1.3.5 Frequency

Consider one observer at a fixed position with respect to the aerial. This observer
would notice that the wave would repeat itself at equal intervals of time. The rate
of this occurrence is known as the frequency. The unit of frequency, by
international agreement, is the Hertz. Frequency is given in either Hertz (Hz), or
kiloHertz (kHz or 103 Hz) or megaHertz (MHz or 106 Hz) or gigaHertz (GHz or 109
Hz). If the time period between successively similar points on the wave is given
as t seconds then the

1
Frequency f = Hertz.
t

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Page 1 – 10 RADAR PRINCIPLES - TRANSMISSION & RECEPTION
1.3.6 Relationship between Wavelength and Frequency
The distance travelled in a vacuum by an electromagnetic wave in one second is
3 x 10metres. If the frequency is f Hertz then in one second a wave train of f
cycles is propagated. If each wavelength is metres then fis the distance covered
by the waves in one second and this is equal to 3 X 10 8 metres; that is
f λ= 3 x 10 metres per second

3x108
λ= metres
f
If F is the frequency in megaHertz, then

300
λ= metres
F

1.3.7 Phase
When two transmissions occur of waves of the same frequency it is likely that
similar points on each wave will occur at different instants of time; the waves are
then said to be out of phase with each other as in (A) below. Sine waves,
representing the field strengths of electromagnetic waves, may be drawn such
that the horizontal scale is in degrees of angle. (B) and (C) illustrates two pairs of
waves; the first pair are 'in phase' and the second pair are in 'antiphase' (a
special name to describe two waves differing in phase by 180°).

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES - TRANSMISSION & RECEPTION Pages 1 - 11
1.3.8 Radiation Patterns
A radiation pattern may be defined as a diagram relating the power in any
particular direction to the power in one specific direction (usually the direction of
maximum power), all the measurements being made at a constant and usually
large) distance from the aerial. When the radiation pattern shows equal power in
all directions the aerial is said to be omnidirectional. For other radiation patterns
the ratio of the maximum power achieved to the power if it were spread omni-
directionally is called the gain. .
The horizontal radiation pattern shows aerial directivity in azimuth. The vertical
radiation pattern shows aerial directivity in elevation.
The radiation pattern may be plotted in polar co-ordinates (hence the term polar
diagram) or in rectangular co-ordinates. Both of these are illustrated, for a plain
dipole antenna, below where DX represents the power at an angle 6 to the
reference direction.

Instead of referring to power, a radiation pattern may be drawn also on a field


strength (volts per metre) basis. As power is proportional to the square of the field
strength the radiation patterns on a field strength basis will not have the same
shape as for power. The diagram below illustrates the field-strength patterns
equivalent to the power patterns in the diagram above.

Another method of representing a radiation pattern is to use a constant field


strength and plot the ranges and directions at which this field strength occurs.
Using appropriate scales this third type of pattern becomes identical with the field
strength pattern. However it must be stressed that neither of these patterns is
identical to the corresponding power pattern.

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Page 1 – 12 RADAR PRINCIPLES - TRANSMISSION & RECEPTION
1.3.9 Beamwidth
In air traffic control radar the horizontal radiation pattern is designed to produce a
directivity such that most of the energy is confined to a small angle in azimuth. It
is then convenient to refer to this concentration of energy as a beam, and to
define a beamwidth.
Beamwidth is defined as the angle between the two directions which pass
through the power radiation pattern at the half-maximum points. These points are
known as the half-power points.
Since power is proportional to the square of field strength the beamwidth may be
determined on a field strength pattern by noting the points which are
1
0.707 (= ) of the maximum field strength
2

All aerials produce unwanted radiations outside the main beam. These radiations
are known as sidelobes and are illustrated below.

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RADAR PRINCIPLES - TRANSMISSION & RECEPTION Pages 1 - 13
1.3.9.1 Vertical Radiation Patterns

Vertical radiation patterns are rarely simple because of the effect of the ground.
The figure below shows how a pattern produced in free space can be distorted in
the vertical plane if it is brought close to the ground.
The downward waves of energy are reflected by the ground.

They combine with the upward waves of the pattern in different directions and in
different phases causing the lobes and gaps.

1.3.9.2 The Cosecant-Squared Radiation Pattern

In civil aviation, aircraft are unlikely to exceed a given altitude. For the tracking of
an approaching aircraft less energy will be required from the ground radar as the
range decreases. Use is made of this knowledge to determine a special vertical
radiation pattern for the radar antenna. The figure below indicates that as the
aircraft flies towards the radar at constant altitude h, the range is equal to h cosec
θ.

6
To maintain this relationship the radiation pattern should be such that the signal
strength is caused to vary as cosec 6 and power as cosec squared θ. The
resulting shape of the radiation from the aerial is illustrated below.

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Page 1 – 14 RADAR PRINCIPLES - TRANSMISSION & RECEPTION
1.3.9.3 Vertical Coverage Diagrams

A coverage diagram is a general indication of the performance of a specific


radar system and is one of the ways manufacturers summa rise the anticipated
performance of their radar systems (i.e. limit of reliable use for a stated
equivalent echoing area).
The vertical coverage diagram of a radar system takes into account the inherent
design factors and general environmental factors (effect of ground, curvature of
the earth, atmospheric refraction, etc.). The angle of tilt of the aerial and its height
above the ground will have a considerable influence on performance. Therefore,
a vertical coverage diagram may also be accompanied by information about
these factors.
The Figure below illustrates a typical vertical coverage diagram based on a 90%
probability of a strength 2 signal of a hypothetical aircraft with an equivalent
echoing area of 10 sq. metres. Note that in this example the eight scale is curve
and the elevation angle is expanded.

1.3.9.4 Unit Coverage Diagrams

The actual performance of a radar system which has been installed will not be
quite the same as the vertical coverage diagram because of the difference in
local terrain. For example: hills, valleys, etc.
It is necessary, therefore, to assess the useable coverage of the radar equipment
at each unit. This is done by flying an aircraft on a series of pre-determined tracks
at various heights and plotting the strength of the radar return at each sweep of
the aerial. From the initial flight check a unit coverage diagram is prepared and
this information determines the extent to which radar procedures can be used. It
should be noted that the term "polar diagram" is sometimes used to describe the
two-way performance of a radar system. This is really a misnomer for coverage
diagram.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES - ANTENNA Pages 1 - 15
1.4 Antennas
1.4.1 Practical Arrangements
An aerial is that part of a radar system which is designed to radiate and/or
receive electromagnetic energy. A narrow beam in azimuth combined with a wide
beam in elevation is the usual requirement in air traffic control. Such a
combination may be obtained by use of one or both of the following:
1. Linear arrays
2. Shaped reflectors.

Note that if a narrow beam is required the aerial dimensions must be large in
relation to the wavelength.

1.4.2 Linear Arrays


A linear array consists of a number of sources of electromagnetic radiation
equally spaced along a straight line. At any point in space the electromagnetic
radiations from these sources have phase differences which result in many
additions and subtractions of field strengths. This phase interference, as it is
termed, can be arranged by design to determine the shape of the radiation
pattern.

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Page 1 – 16 RADAR PRINCIPLES - TRANSMISSION & RECEPTION
1.4.3 Shaped Reflectors

The basic shape of one or more of the cross sections of reflectors used in radar
systems is parabolic, because of its useful geometric properties. One of these
properties is illustrated below where a cross section of a parabolic reflector is
shown with a point source at the focus, F. All rays issuing from the focus and
striking the reflector then emerge from the reflector as parallel rays.

Another property of the parabola is that all rays which strike the reflector have
equal path lengths to a straight line R1 Rn, where R1 Rn. is perpendicular to the
axis of the parabola. Thus all positions R1 R2 . . . . . Rn are in phase. Many radar
reflectors are based on the parabolic section and some of these are illustrated
below.

The cosecant - squared radiation pattern is widely used for ATC radar systems
and there are several methods of achieving this pattern. They include the use of
special reflectors with ordinary illumination sources, and also sources with special
distributions used in conjunction with parabolic section reflectors.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES - RADAR EQUATION & RADAR RANGE Pages 1 - 17
1.5 The Radar Equation & Radar Range

1.5.1 Free Space Radar Equation


The surveillance radar systems used in civil aviation have been designed for
specific purposes; some for very short range and some for great distances.

One of the important factors to establish is the maximum range.

Maximum range is dependent on the characteristics of the antenna, the


transmitter and the receiver, but range is also dependent upon the size of the
target. Ignoring for the time being the effect of the ground on the radiation pattern
from an aerial, we will now examine the relationship between maximum range
and the following quantities:

1. Range of aircraft (R metres)


2. Transmitted power (Pt watts)
3. Power gain of antenna (G) transmission or reception
4. Equivalent echoing area of aircraft (sq metres)
5. Effective absorbing area of aerial (Ar sq metres) when receiving
6. Receiver power (Pr watts)

The transmitted power Pt is the power that is transmitted for the duration of
the pulse.
If we first of all assume that the transmitted power is radiated equally in all
directions, it will be spread out over a progressively greater area as it travels
further away from the transmitter, ie the power density will be reduced (or
attenuated) according to the inverse square law.
Therefore power density intercepted at
Pt
R= Watts per metre squared (W/m2)
2
4R
If, now, the aerial is designed to concentrate the power in one direction only, the
power density will be increased by an amount G, the aerial gain. Therefore power
density intercepted at R (directional aerial)

PtG
= W/m2
4R2

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 1 – 18 RADAR PRINCIPLES - RADAR EQUATION & RADAR RANGE

Some energy is reflected back to the radar on the ground. The amount will
depend on the particular echoing characteristics of the aircraft and a factor,
equivalent echoing area, σ, is introduced into the equation.
The power radiated from the aircraft, Pd watts, is given by:
Pt G 
Pd = = watts
2
4R
As this power travels towards the radar site it is also attenuated, again
according to the inverse square law. Therefore, the power density intercepted
by the radar anrenna Pa, is given by:
PtG 
Pa = 2 2
W/m2
4R x 4R
PG 2
= t 2 4 W/m
16 R

However, the power actually fed into the receiver, Pr, will depend upon the
effective absorbing area, Ar, of the antenna.
P G A
Therefore Pr = t 2 4 r watts
16 R

Transposing, we can obtain an equation for range:


Pt G  A r
R= 4 meters
162P r

Therefore, for a particular radar system the smallest signal Pr (min) that can be
identified will determine the maximum range (Rmax). That is:
P G  Ar
Rmax = 4 t 2 meters
16 P rmin 
An examination of the equation shows that if it is required to double the
maximum range by an increase in transmitted power, the increase has to be 16
fold. Conversely, the effect of doubling the transmitter power would be to
increase the maximum range to 4 2 x Rmax (ie 1.19 Rmax, which is an increase
of only 19%).

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES - RADAR EQUATION & RADAR RANGE Pages 1 - 19
1.5.2 Aircraft Reflection Characteristics

An aircraft provides a complete reflecting surface which intercepts a small part of


the radar beam cross section. Differences in echoes from the same aircraft may
be caused by:
1. The overall change in aspect which produces a larger echo beam on, than
either head on or tail on,

2. the small change in aspect, which for changes of a fraction of a degree, can
produce power echo changes of 30:1 or even larger ratios.

An aircraft. in flight produces fluctuating echoes of a random nature. The average


of these is called the equivalent echoing area.

1.5.3 Equivalent Echoing Area (A)

The parameter σ (sigma) is the area of the cross-section of the target as seen by
the radar and is a measure of its size. The ICAO "standard" target is 15 square
metres but in practice this varies enormously according to the type and size of
the aircraft, its aspect and the wavelength of the radar.

Typical but not conclusive equivalent echoing areas are:


Small jet fighter 2-5 m2
Medium airliner 20-50 m2
Large airliner 100 m2

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Page 1 – 20 RADAR PRINCIPLES - RADAR EQUATION & RADAR RANGE
1.5.4 Pulse Length & Pulse Recurrence Frequency

The modulator unit, produces the pulses of radio energy illustrated in (A) below.
However, for many purposes it is more convenient to consider the upper half of
the envelope of these pulses as illustrated in (B) below.

The time interval between pulses is known as the pulse recurrence interval (PRI).
The rate at which the pulses occur is known as the pulse recurrence frequency
(PRF). Thus:
1
PRI =
PRF
For example, a PRF of 500 pulses per second would result in a PRI of 2000
micro seconds.
The duration of the pulse is usually known as the pulse length, although the term
pulse width is sometimes used. The actual duration depends upon the
specification and design of the radar system and for air traffic control radars it is
fixed somewhere between 0.05 and 10 micro seconds. Generally an increase in
pulse length improves the chances of detecting aircraft, but the are reason for
limiting the pulse length because it affects the Minimum Range.

1.5.5 Radar Range

1.5.5.1 Radar Path Length


As shown below that radar energy received by the radar aerial has had to
travel a distance equal to twice the range (i.e. 2R).

Since Distance = velocity x time, and velocity is 161,800 miles per second .
161800
i.e Rt max =
2 x PRF

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RADAR PRINCIPLES - RADAR EQUATION & RADAR RANGE Pages 1 - 21
1.5.6 Maximum Range

For a particular radar-system design, Pt, G, and Ar will remain constant. Radar
maximum ranges are always given with reference to a specific aircraft either for a
particular aspect or as an average for all aspects. The echoing area (a) may
therefore be regarded as constant for the purposes of this discussion. The
remaining factor which should be considered is Pr (min).
Pr (min) is the smallest power that can be identified as a signal after passing
through the receiver to the display. Identification of a signal may be hampered by
the presence of noise. At low frequencies some noise comes from external
sources and arrives at the aerial with the wanted signal. However, in the system
we are considering, it is only the internal noise of the receiver that is significant.
The receiver noise determines the value of Pr (min) and thus the maximum range
for a given transmitter power and aerial system.
It is important to note that the ratio of signal power to noise power determines the
probability of identifying the signal. If the signal-to-noise ratio is too small no
amount of amplification will improve matters, since the ratio will be unaltered.
The degree to which a receiver generates noise is expressed in the 'noise figure'
or 'noise factor'. The higher the noise factor the worse will be the receiver
performance. The term noise factor indicates how much more noise power the
receiver is producing than would be expected from theoretical considerations.
Noise factor is sometimes expressed as a numerical ratio, but more often in
decibels.
To combat the problem of receiver noise low noise RF amplifiers are commonly
used in radar receivers..

1.5.7 Minimum Range


The minimum range of a radar installation is determined by the period
between the beginning of the transmission of the pulse and the earliest time that
its return can be registered. Two factors affect this time:
1. The time the receiver takes to recover to normal after transmission has taken
place (receiver restoration time) which, in turn, depends on the design of the
particular equipment.

2. Pulse length - it is not possible to start measuring the time (range) until the
whole pulse has been transmitted.
Distan ce
Since Time =
Velocity
2R
=
V
If range is 1 nm then time is 12.35 micro secs

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Page 1 – 22 RADAR PRINCIPLES - RADAR EQUATION & RADAR RANGE
2027
Then 1 micro sec = = 164 yards
12.35
i.e. Minimum theoretical range = 164 yards per micro sec.
But minimum practical range = 164 yards per micro second plus receiver
restoration time.

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RADAR PRINCIPLES – CHOICE of WAVELENGTH Pages 1 - 23
1.6 Choice of Wavelength

For a variety of reasons much of the electromagnetic spectrum is ot no use in air


traffic control radar. On a cloudy day the use of any part of the visible Spectrum
would be very restricted, whilst the use of any part of the X-ray would be
dangerous to life and limb. The long-wavelength "wireless" region could be used
but would require enormous antenna systems if any kind of directional
information were needed.

Here, attention is confined to those factors which affect the choice of wavelength
for air traffic control radar in the part of the spectrum from λ = 1 mm to λ = 100
cm. A convention has grown up in which have been assigned to certain
wavelengths. This convention is not recognised by the International
Telecommunications Union, examples are:

Radar Frequency
Frequency GHz Wavelength cm
Band
P 0.2 - 0.4 150 - 75
L 0.4 - 1.5 75 - 20
S 1.5 - 4.0 20 - 7.5
C 4.0 - 8.0 7.5 - 3.75
X 8.0 - 12 3.75 - 2.5
K 12 - 40 2.5 - 0.75

When a radar system has to be designed for a specific role the relative
importance of factors which affect the choice of the wavelength must be
carefully evaluated. A factor which may be important in one type of Radar
system may be relatively less important in another. Compromises have to
be made.

1.6.1 Range
There is no simple dependence of maximum range upon wavelength. Neither is it
usually the prime consideration in determining wavelength. Some general rules
may be applied by expansion of the basic radar equation.

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Page 1 – 24 RADAR PRINCIPLES - CHOICE of WAVELENGTH
1.6.2 Vertical Coverage

The 'free-space' vertical radiation pattern of an antenna system is considerably


modified when the antenna system is used near the ground. The shape of the
vertical radiation pattern is partly dependent upon the wavelength of the
transmitted energy in that:
 the pattern has more lobes with the shorter wavelengths
 the ground coverage is better with the shorter wavelengths.
The relationship between wavelength and cover is given in the equation:

θ= 
H
where θ = angle (in radians) between horizontal and line joining transmitting
aerial to peak of lowest lobe
λ = A transmitted wavelength
H = height of aerial above ground. (λ and H must be in the same units).
It is apparent from the equation that the shorter the wavelength, the smaller the
angle θ and the better the low cover.

1.6.3 Atmospheric Effects

When electromagnetic energy is propagated through the atmosphere some 'loss'


of energy may occur. Some of the lost energy may have been absorbed by
molecules of the gases and vapours present in the atmosphere; some may also
have been absorbed and/or scattered by 'particles' (e.g. rain drops, snow, etc.).
This means that not only is a radar signal attenuated but that unwanted 'masking'
effects might also appear on the display because of the scattered energy. All
these effects are dependent upon the wavelength.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES – CHOICE of WAVELENGTH Pages 1 - 25
1.6.3.1 Attenuation by Gases and Vapour

The process of absorption is very much concerned with the molecular structure or
the offending gas or vapour. For a given gas or vapour the absorption has peaks
at certain values of .

Oxygen is known to be responsible for pronounced attenuation of


electromagnetic energy at wavelengths of 0.25 cm and 0.5 cm. At wavelengths
longer than 0.5 cm the attenuation due to oxygen in the atmosphere is very small.
For water vapour there is considerable absorption of electromagnetic energy at
wavelengths shorter than about 0.5 cm. There is also a pronounced absorption
band for λ = 1.35 cm. At wavelengths longer than about 2 cm the attenuation due
to water vapour in the atmosphere is very small.

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Page 1 – 26 RADAR PRINCIPLES - CHOICE of WAVELENGTH
1.6.3.2 Attenuation by Rain Drops

When electromagnetic energy encounters a rain drop, part of the energy may be
absorbed and part may be scattered. The incident energy thus suffers attenuation
which is dependent upon the wavelength of the radiation and the drop size. Since
the drop-size distribution varies in a known manner with the intensity of
precipitation (i.e. with 'how hard it is raining') it is possible to calculate attenuation
conveniently in terms of the precipitation rate. The figure below indicates the
variation of attenuation with wavelengths for three precipitation rates. Attenuation
is measured in decibels per kilometre (db/km). Decibels are logarithmic units
commonly used to express gain or loss.

For wavelengths less than 10 cm the attenuation due to rain drops is negligible.
For wavelengths from 10 cm to 4 cm attenuation is significant in only the heaviest
of tropical downpours. For wavelengths shorter than 4 cm attenuation becomes
significant in conditions which are not uncommon in temperate climates. For
wavelengths shorter than 1 cm attenuation by rain drops is a serious problem
even in quite light rain. One conclusion which could be drawn from the above is
that wavelengths shorter than 3 cm should not be used for long-range radar
systems.

1.6.3.3 Attenuation by Cloud and Fog

In both cloud and fog the 'drop' sizes are very much smaller than those which
occur in rain. Calculations show that the attenuation by cloud or fog is
proportional to the mass of water per unit volume so that the more dense the fog:
(or cloud) the more the attenuation. However, the attenuation due to cloud and
fog becomes a serious problem only when wavelengths shorter than 1 cm are
used.

1.6.3.4 Attenuation by Hail

For radar wavelengths shorter than 1 cm attenuation by dry hailstones is small


compared with that caused by rain of equivalent water content. For wavelengths
longer than 1 cm the attenuation by hail is comparable with that caused by rain of
equivalent water content.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES – CHOICE of WAVELENGTH Pages 1 - 27
1.6.3.5 Echoes from Rain

It has already been mentioned that some electromagnetic energy may be


scattered by rain drops. Part of the scattered energy may be received in the radar
receiver and may show up on the display.
If the radar system has been designed to provide information on storms, etc., this
is desirable, but if the radar system has been designed to give information on
aircraft movements, the masking effect of the rain echoes could be very serious.
As a general rule the shorter the wavelength the greater will be the reflection from
rain drops.
The masking effect of echoes from rain may be greatly reduced by the use of
circular polarised radar energy.

1.6.3.6 Super-Refraction

The earth is surrounded by an atmosphere which, even ignoring phenomena


such as cloud and fog, is not uniform in all its properties. One of these non-
uniform properties is the refractive index. The decrease in refractive index with
increasing altitude causes the path of a beam of radar energy to bend.
Usually the change in refractive index is small and the bending of the radar beam
is slight, enabling the radar system to see a little beyond the horizon. this is
illustrated in below.

Under certain circumstances the refractive index of the atmosphere decreases


with height more rapidly than is usual and a more marked downward bending of
the radar beam occurs. For the shorter wavelength radars this can lead to
strikingly improved low coverage at long range.
In exceptional circumstances the radar energy may be so concentrated in paths
following the earth's curvature, that echoes may be received from objects at
ranges far in excess of those allowed for in the radar design. Under these
atmospheric circumstances the radar energy is trapped in "atmospheric ducts"
and its behaviour is similar to what it would be in a waveguide.

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Page 1 – 28 RADAR PRINCIPLES - CHOICE of WAVELENGTH
For a particular height of atmospheric duct, super refraction can occur at a
particular wavelengths ot transmission. I he most common duct heightS seldom
exceed 10 metres and the centimetric wavelengths are the ones most affected.
Super-refraction is rarely experienced when using wavelengths greater than 10
metres.
The two most important atmospheric conditions which cause super-refraction are:
1. increasing temperature with increasing altitude
2. decreasing humidity with increasing altitude.

Such a combination of conditions is most likely to occur in fairly calm weather


over the sea near to a large, dry, hot, land mass (e.g. a desert), conditions which
can readily exist in certain tropical and sub-tropical areas. Suitable conditions for
super-refraction may also exist over the British Isles, the Atlantic Coast of
Europe, and the coasts of the U.S. and Canada during prolonged fine spells.

The operational effects of super-refraction include:

1. production of echoes from low-lying ground or low-flying aircraft which would


not usually be detected by the radar
2. receipt of echoes from ranges in excess of those allowed for in the radar
design.

Second-trace returns may result from the above

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES – CHOICE of WAVELENGTH Pages 1 - 29
1.6.4 Transmitter Power

In general the shorter the wavelength the less the amount of power that can be
generated by a transmitter. However, future developments may alter this
situation.

1.6.5 Antenna Dimensions


The operational requirements of a radar system may require a narrow beam for
accurate tracking of aircraft, or they may require a broad beam for search
purposes.
For a given beam width the longer the wavelength the larger must be the aerial
system. The problem of mechanical design and the question of cost tend to
favour smaller aerial systems and, hence, shorter operational wavelengths.

1.6.6 Equivalent Echoing Area of Aircraft


The term 'Equivalent Echoing Area' is a measure of the aircraft size. Most aircraft
are of a complex shape presenting reflecting surfaces which can reflect differently
with different aircraft attitudes. It has been shown, as a result of experiments, that
for different wavelengths the same aircraft can give widely varying echoes.

1.6.7 Minimum Identifiable Signal Power


The minimum identifiable signal power Pr(min) is dependent upon the receiver
noise factor. There is a tendency for the noise factor to level off to a constant
value in the centimetric region, which results in Pr(min) being comparatively
insensitive to changes in wavelengths in that region.

1.6.8 Pulse Length


It is preferable that the number of cycles of high-frequency energy transmitted
during the time of the pulse length should be as high as possible. A one-
microsecond pulse at a wavelength of 10 cm contains 3000 cycles, whereas at a
wavelength of 100 cm it would contain only 300 cycles.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 1 – 30 RADAR PRINCIPLES - DISPLAY
1.7 Display

Introduction
The information made available by the radar system must be displayed in a way
which makes interpretation as easy as possible. It would be convenient if the
information could be presented as a picture, particularly if the picture is similar to
the situation as it actually exists. This can be achieved to some degree in plan
view by displaying the echoes from targets on a cathode ray tube. This method is
fairly common and is the one normally used in air traffic control radar systems.

1.7.1 Plan Position Indicator


A plan position indicator (PPI) system uses a cathode ray tube to provide a plan
view of the echoes from targets. This is obtained from a knowledge of the range
and bearing information sent from the antenna site.
In this system the timebase is rotated (normally by changing the X &Y timebase
with a sine / cosine relationship). The reflected pulses can only be received when
the aerial is pointing towards a target. Thus information about both range (time
taken for the pulse to travel to the target and back) and bearing (the direction in
which the aerial is pointing) is known and can be displayed on a cathode ray tube
as a position in plan view.
Starting from the centre of the tube the spot is caused to move out towards the
edge of the screen. When it reaches the edge it is made to return to the centre
extremely quickly. The return action is known as the flyback. The spot is made to
move out radially again but this time it traces out a radius in a slightly different
direction (see the figure below) to that of the first trace.

The shift is equal to the angular movement of the aerial. One complete rotation of
the aerial produces the picture illustrated in the figure below.

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RADAR PRINCIPLES – DISPLAY Pages 1 - 31

The radial traces are scaled to represent a particular distance equivalent to the
range required of a radar system. The rotational or scanning movement,
indicated by the different positions of the radial lines, is synchronised with the
rotation of the aerial system in the horizontal plain.

The rotation of the time base is produced by either:


1. Physically rotating the deflection coils around the neck of the tube. A signal
derived from the radar aerial unit actuates a servo motor which mechanically
rotates the coils in phase with the aerial. (PPI moving coil).
2. Feeding the signal from the aerial unit into two pairs of fixed coils (one pair N/S
and the other E/W) by suitably proportioning the deflection forces in cos/sine
wave form. In this way the trace on the tube is synchronised with the aerial
without any physical movement of the coils. (PPI fixed coil).

The radial traces (or rotating time base) can be synchronised to start when the
transmitter fires. Any returns resulting from the transmitted pulse can be made to
brighten the spot. If the system is correctly adjusted the echoes will then occur in
their correct relative positions both to one another and to the radar site.

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Page 1 – 32 RADAR PRINCIPLES - DISPLAY
1.7.2 Range

It is convenient at this stage to consider the time base in a little more detail. The
figure below illustrates the wave-forms which combine to display the echo at the
correct range.

(A) shows the recurrence of the transmitter pulse. The whole cycle of operations
must occur within this time (the PRI).
(B) shows the voltage (wave form) which causes the spot to move towards the
edge of the tube and then fly back to the centre before the next pulse is
transmitted. This is often referred to as the saw tooth voltage.
(C) shows that the spot does not brighten the screen from the time that it reaches
the edge of the tube to the beginning of the next transmitter pulse. This prevents
signals registering on the screen during fly back, reduces the possibility of
second trace returns and prevents unnecessary brightening of the centre of the
screen while the spot is stationary. It is sometimes referred to as the dead, or
restoration, time.
(D) shows the mixture of signals and noise fed from the receiver.

1.7.3 Range Resolution

It is possible to distinguish two echoes on one time base trace only if the display
can show each blip separately (A in the figure below). The limiting condition of
range resolution is shown in position B and this occurs when the two aircraft are
one pulse length apart (164 yds/micro sec.). If the aircraft are any closer in plan
position the returns merge and appear as a single echo. It was established that
each microsecond represents 164 yards of radar range. Therefore the range-
resolution limit is given by 164 yards per microsecond of pulse length. However, if
the spot diameter of the tube is larger than the pulse length as scaled for the PPI,
then the spot diameter becomes the limiting factor for range resolution

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RADAR PRINCIPLES – DISPLAY Pages 1 - 33

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 1 – 34 RADAR PRINCIPLES - DISPLAY
1.7.4 Second Trace Return

The theoretical maximum range that can be displayed on a PPI is dictated by the
duration of the time base. This is the displayed range but it is possible for the
transmitted pulse to be returned from objects at a greater range.

In the figure above, pulse 1 is transmitted and produces an echo S1 within the time base
range. Similarly, pulse 2 produces S2 and so on. These are displayed as first trace
returns as illustrated in below. For a number of reasons (e.g. large aircraft, freak
conditions) pulse 1 might produce an echo which returns after pulse 2 has been
transmitted. Such an echo is shown as ST1 and is known as second trace return.
Unfortunately, second trace returns would be displayed on the PPI and would give a
false indication of range also illustrated below.

It is difficult to suppress the display of second trace returns. One method is to "stagger"
or "jitter" the PRF. In effect this means that successive pulse recurrence intervals are
different, which in turn causes successive second trace returns to appear at different
ranges on the PPI. The resultant effect is to break up the second trace arc on the PPI by
dispersing the individual echoes of the arc. The first trace returns are unaffected by this
process. Those echoes which occur between the time base fly back and the time of
transmission of the next pulse are kept off the screen by the bright-up/blackout wave
form.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES – DISPLAY Pages 1 - 35
1.7.5 Bearing

Accurate bearings of a target are obtained by synchronlslng the rotating time


oase with aerial direction.

It was shown that the horizontal radiation pattern from a directional aerial can be
considered as a beam. Although the beam is very narrow, its width is often much
greater than the aircraft at the point of interception. Therefore a number of
echoes will be painted on the tube and the return will appear as an arc. The
middle of the arc is taken to be the position of the target and the bearing is the
line from the centre of the tube to it.

It should be noted that angles subtended by the arcs are not necessarily the
same as the beam width nor are they necessarily equal to one and other. This is
illustrated in below in which an antenna beam width of 3° is assumed.

The angular size of the arc depends not only on the shape of the radiation pattern
but on all the factors involved in the radar equation. In particular, the echoing
area can vary considerably depending upon the aircraft aspect facing the radar
beam.

In addition, the choice of PRF and scanning rate must be such that the angle
between adjacent time bases is not so great as to cause a break-up of the arc.

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Page 1 – 36 RADAR PRINCIPLES - DISPLAY
1.7.6 Bearing Resolution

Bearing Resolution is determined by the ability of the radar system to show two
aircraft at the same range but on different bearings. Consider two aircraft A and B
in figure the figure below. If the echo of aircraft A as shown on the PPI finishes
just before the start of the echo of aircraft B, then this is the limit of bearing
resolution. If A and B are closer than this in bearing then the echo on the PPI will
be a continuous arc.

It is possible that the diameter of the spot on the cathode ray tube may affect
bearing resolution. The effect of a large spot size would be to close the angular
gap between two otherwise separate echoes.

At short range, sidelobes may also affect bearing resolution because of their
tendency to join up with the main beam to form one long arc.

1.7.7 Scanning Rate


The antenna is simultaneously turning whilst transmitting pulses within a narrow
beam. If the antenna turns more than one beamwidth between two consecutive
pulses, then, as illustrated below there is a real risk of missing the aircraft
completely. The antenna has turned through just over two beamwidths during the
pulse recurrence interval.

Radar systems are designed to produce a particular number of echoes from the
aircraft during the time the beam takes to sweep across the target. PRF and
scanning rate must be chosen so that, for a given beamwidth, an adequate
number of pulses strike the target and are returned as echoes to produce a
positive indication on the tube. The number of strikes depends upon the PRF and
the time the aircraft is in the beam.

The time for which a point lies within a scanning beam is the time for the antenna
to turn through one beamwidth.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES – DISPLAY Pages 1 - 37
1.7.8 Accuracy

The accuracy of a radar system is gauged by its ability to indicate on the display
the true position (range and bearing on a PPI) of the target.

The design of the equipment sets the limits of accuracy but poor synchronisation
and calibration will affect the overall performance. It should be appreciated,
however, that accuracy is not directly related to resolution. A display with good
resolution may be inaccurate; it is also possible for an accurate display to have
poor resolution.

1.7.9 Examples of Displays

1.7.9.1 Analogue Displays


The Figure below shows a PPI display of primary raw radar in an analogue mode.

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Page 1 – 38 RADAR PRINCIPLES - DISPLAY
1.7.9.2 Raster Display

Newer PPI displays are high resolution TV Monitors with the radar signals polar
coordinate form fed to a memory matrix used to align the radar signal to the TV
raster scan.
The Thomson ING1010 display is this type and has the advantage of being
useable in high ambient light conditions.

1.7.9.3 Cursive Display

For better definition a graphic or cursive type of display is used for the Thomson
Plan View Displays (PVD), here rather than a TV raster, the CRT electron beam
writes graphics and symbols directly on the phosphor material of the screen.

1.7.9.4 Synthetic Displays (used with Plot Extracted Radars)

In these systems, radar information received by radar sensors is fed into a plot
extractor on the same site. This equipment converts range and bearing
information about targets into a digital coded form which can be transmitted over
considerable distances by a narrow band link. At the display end the coded data
is changed into simple form for display on the controller's console.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES – ANTI-CLUTTER DEVICES Pages 1 - 39
1.8 Anti-Clutter Devices

The prime tunction ot air trattic control radar displays is to show the echoes ot
aircraft. On a PPI echoes are djsplayed as small arcs each comprising a number
of bright spots. Ideally, echoes should have a uniform brightness. In practice,
there is considerable variation and, if the increase in brightness is too great, the
cathode ray tube spot can increase in size and become defocused.
Some of the most troublesome echoes are those from the ground or buildings.
These are known as permanent echoes (PE) or ground clutter. The strength of
these signals can be very high because buildings present large echoing areas to
the radar. In densely built-up areas, signals can completely mask aircraft echoes
and saturate the receiver.
Figure (a) below illustrates an isolated pulse of amplitude greater than saturation
level of the receiver. The output, in this case, is a signal at exactly saturation level
(b) and the pulse is easily identifiable on the display. However, if the pulse is in
the presence of clutter, as in figure (c), the receiver saturation level would cut off
the required signal leaving only a large area of undistinguishable echoes as
shown below.

It would be preferable if the gain of the receiver (its ability to amplify signals)
could be altered so that saturation does not occur. There would then be a chance
that the aircraft echoes could be detected amongst the clutter. Unfortunately, no
single gain setting would be satisfactory for all ranges and conditions. Many
different circuits have been produced in attempts to overcome the problems of
gain control and discrimination against clutter.

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Page 1 – 40 RADAR PRINCIPLES - ANTI-CLUTTER DEVICES
1.8.1 Fast Time Constant (F.T.C) Circuit

When extensive clutter occurs a considerable portion of it is at a low frequency


relative to the high frequency part of the wanted echo. If a filter could be
introduced to pass the high frequencies and reject the low frequencies it would
provide a certain amount of discrimination against clutter. Such a filter is called a
high-pass filter.

A simple high-pass filter that can be used for this purpose is the fast (or short)
time constant circuit. The time constant of the circuit is about the same as that of
the pulse length.

Figure (A) below illustrates the signals at video frequencies. The F.T.C. circuit
removes the mass of clutter and produces a slight distortion in the wanted echo
(B). Only the positive parts of the echoes are required and a negative limiting
diode is introduced to remove the negative pips. The resulting signals in (C) are
amplified and are then displayed on the PPI. Allowance is usually made for the
F.T.C. circuit to be switched in only when required; this avoids unnecessary
distortion of signals in the clear.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES – ANTI-CLUTTER DEVICES Pages 1 - 41
1.8.2 Swept Gain
Swept gain is the term used to describe the alteration ot the receiver gain In
synchronisation with the display time base. In an ATC surveillance radar the
strongest clutter returns are from the nearest objects and on the PPI display
these returns produce a bright and confused picture at the centre of the screen.
The stronger the returns the more likely the receiver is to saturate.

To prevent saturation and thus improve the chances of following an aircraft echo
through clutter, the gain of the receiver is designed to be low for short ranges and
to increase gradually as the range increases.

The figure below shows the synchronisation of the receiver-gain waveform (C)
with the time base (B) and the transmitter pulse (A). The rate at which the gain
changes from low to high may be adjusted in the receiver.

Because of the nature of the control the swept gain is sometimes referred to as the
sensitivity time control (STC).

Some skill is required in selecting the most favourable setting for the waveform in (C) to
avoid suppression of weak signals, particularly when the amount of clutter is not the
same at all radar bearings. The setting for swept gain must be a compromise and to
overcome this problem use is made of the logarithmic receiver.

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Page 1 – 42 RADAR PRINCIPLES - ANTI-CLUTTER DEVICES
1.8.3 The Logarithmic Receiver

The requirement is to use full amplification on small signals and yet to prevent
saturation by large signals. The logarithmic receiver achieves this as its response
is such that the output is the logarithm of the input between specified limits.
A logarithmic characteristic cannot be maintained down to very small inputs and
in practice the amplification of small signals is made linear. The receiver is then
said to have a linear/logarithmic characteristic.

1.8.4 Instantaneous Automatic Gain Control (IAGC)


In the instantaneous automatic gain control system the duration of the echo is
used to reduce the gain of the radar receiver. An echo of long duration, from a
large permanent echo, will cause a greater reduction in gain than the sharp
variation in echo strength from an aircraft. Therefore, the echo from an aircraft in
the midst of an area giving a large ground return will still be displayed
superimposed on, and brighter than, the permanent echoes.

1.8.5 Tapered Brilliance


As its name implies tapered brilliance is a method which causes the brilliance
level of the C.R.T. to be changed. The change takes place over each time base
trace, the brilliance being kept low at the PPI centre and gradually increased as
the trace moves outward. This method is not strictly an anticlutter device but
helps to eliminate the concentration of brightness at the centre of the PPI.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES – ANTI-CLUTTER DEVICES Pages 1 - 43
1.8.6 Rejection of Rain Clutter

It has been pointed out that raindrops may cause scattering of electromagnetic
energy. This is particularly true at the higher frequencies used in radar such as X-
band. The result of these reflections is to cause a masking of wanted aircraft
echoes on the PPI. A common way of reducing the effect of rain clutter is to use
circular polarisation of the radar energy.
Circular polarisation may be described and ( indeed may be produced) by two
equal -strength plane fields whose planes of polarisation differ by 90° and whose
phase angles differ by 90°. The resultant effect is to produce a field rotation at the
radar frequency. Similarly elliptical polarisation may be derived from two unequal
fields.

A circularly-polarised wave which meets a spherical object is reflected with


circular polarisation but to the receiving antenna the wave appears in the
opposite sense and is rejected. For the moment assume that a rain drop is
spherical. In contrast, the reflection from an irregular surface, such as an aircraft,
will be of some elliptical form of polarisation. Complete rejection by the antenna is
not achieved and the overall result is an improvement in signal-to-rain-clutter
ratio. Circular polarisation produces an improvement, but the system sensitivity is
somewhat reduced. When clear conditions prevail it is usual to switch from
circular to plane polarisation.

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Page 1 – 44 RADAR PRINCIPLES - ANTI-CLUTTER DEVICES
In fact rain drops are not exactly spherical and an improved result may
sometimes be achieved by adjusting the polarisation or the transmission to a
particular value of ellipticity.
Circular polarisation can be produced by one of the following methods:
1. a 'dielectric vane' mounted inside the waveguide
2. a 'quarter-wave plate' mounted between the illumination source and the
reflector of the aerial.

The dielectric-vane polariser may be adjustable by means of a control near the


display to give either plane, circular or elliptical polarisation. The quarter-wave
plate is usually under mechanical control and may be moved in or out of position
to give a choice between circular and plane polarisation.

1.8.7 Moving Target Indicator (M.T.I.)

A Moving Target Indicator system is required to display echoes from moving


targets (ie. aircraft) and to reject those from fixed targets (ie permanent echoes).
To do this the M.TI. system must be able to distinguish between aircraft and
permanent echoes. One characteristic of an aircraft which is used in most M.T.I.
systems is that the aircraft moves relative to the radar; in particular that the
aircraft has a radial component of velocity with respect to the radar, either
towards it or away from it.
For objects which are fixed relative to the radar, the frequency of the radar wave
will be the same before and after reflection. For objects which have a radial
component relative to the radar the frequency after reflection will be different from
the frequency before reflection. This phenomenon is known as the Doppler effect,
first appreciated in sound propagation.
The frequency difference is used to produce an output from a cancellation circuit.
With a fixed object no difference occurs and cancellation causes rejection of the
permanent echoes.
Unfortunately if an aircraft is moving tangentially to the radar beam the aircraft
movement will not have a radial component.

This problem can be overcome, to some extent, by using a process which gates
the M.TI. In other words the M.TI. can be made to operate only when permanent
echoes are present, so that aircraft in the clear, including those moving
tangentially to the radar, will not be involved in M.TI. operation.
Successful M.T.I. operation depends upon radial movement of the aircraft
between

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
RADAR PRINCIPLES – ANTI-CLUTTER DEVICES Pages 1 - 45
succesive radar pulses. However, if the aircraft changes its radial diatance by half
a wavelength during one pulse recurrence interval (i.e. the radar path length
changes by one wavelength) there will be no Doppler effect and cancellation will
occur.

Cancellation will also occur when the distance is a multiple of half a wavelength (ie. the

radial component of the aircraft's speed relative to the radar site is a multiple of per
2
PRI). The speeds at which fading occurs are known as blind velocities.

First blind velocity = 

2 x PRI

= x PRF
2
If wavelength, λ, is given in centimetres and pulse recurrence frequency in pulses per
second then a general formula for any integral multiple, n, is given by:
n x  xPRF
Blind velocity = _knots
102.5
= 102.5
For example let
λ = 50 cms
PRF = 400

50 x 400
Then, the first blind velocity = = 195 Kt
102.5
2 x 50 x 400
and, the second blind velocity = = 390 Kt
102.5
Subsequent blind velocities will be 585, 780, 975 Kt, etc.

In practice, fading may occur within about 10 knots of any blind velocity. Fading may be
prevented by a systematic staggering of the PRF although this inevitably leads to a
greater complexity of the M. T. I. system.

It should be noted that essentially fixed objects, e.g. woods, forests, areas of water,
may produce considerable surface movement sufficient to prevent complete
cancellation. Normal displays without M.T.I. have superior detection capabilities
compared to the display with M.T.I. switched in. It is preferable therefore not to use the
M.T.I. facility unless there is a specific need for detection of moving targets in
permanent echoes.

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Page 1 – 46 RADAR PRINCIPLES - ANTI-CLUTTER DEVICES

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – OVERVIEW Page 2 - 1
SECTION 2: OVERVIEW of PRIMARY RADAR

2.1 Thomson TRAC 2000 I 2300 Features

1. Completely solid-state.

2. Operate at relatively low transmitter powers and with long pulses, 10kw
and 60uS for the TRAC 2000 and 20kw and 100uS for the TRAC 2300.

3. The transmitter comprises a parallel arrangement of 20 power amplifier


modules. Each of these modules has a very high reliability and a failure
of some modules will not significantly affect the performance and range
of the radar. It is this "soft degradation" feature inherent in a solid state
system that is the main advantage over a conventional tube radar

2.1.1 Moving Target Detection (MTD)


Detection ability of aircraft targets is very much dependent on the capability
of the radars signal processing system. Modern radars use adaptive and
Moving Target Detection (MTD) processors rather than conventional Moving
Target Indication (MTI) processors. Adaptive and MTD type of processing
has the advantages:
1. in changing clutter conditions such as weather, sea waves, birds,
vegetation blowing in the wind, and terrain, the dynamic adaptability of
the radar enables the aircraft target to be more effectively extracted from
the clutter.
2. targets with zero velocity are detected, there are no Tangential Fade
Problems.
3. provides better target detection capability over it's operational range than
conventional MTI systems

2.1.2 Frequency Diversity


Provides improved:
1. detection ability.
2. Reliability.

Frequency diversity system uses:


1. two Radar Signal Generators
2. two Radar Receivers
3. two Doppler Video Processors
4. two Tracking Processors.

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Page 2 - 2 PRIMARY RADAR - OVERVIEW
2.1.3 Primary Radar Sub System

TRAC 2000 TRAC 2300


One Primary Antenna THD 286, One Primary Antenna AT 432, together
together with turntable EA432, Antenna with turntable EA432, Antenna Power Unit
Power Unit AP821 , Antenna Control AP820, Antenna Control Unit CA830 and
Unit CA831 and two Optical Encoders. two Optical Encoders.
One Transmitter ER 2000L with Two Transmitters ER 2000L with over
standard Heat Exchanger. dimension Heat Exchanger and junction
unit, one Regrouping Unit TRD900,

one Magic Tee Combining Unit.

Two Receiver / Transmitter Generators Two Receiver / Transmitter Generators


TGR 2000L with RF line and RF Pre TGR 2000L with RF line and RF Pre
Amplifier. Amplifier.
Two Doppler Video Processors TVD900 Two Doppler Video Processors TVD900
One Encoding Distribution Unit CD840 One Encoding Distribution Unit CD840
Two Radar Tracking Processors Two Radar Tracking Processors TPR1 000
TPR1000
The following components are associated with the Primary Radar Sub
system and are used for testing and maintenance.
. One Test Equipment Assembly TE 802
. One Maintenance Display ING 1010 with CRT monitor and keyboard
. One Range Beacon TE 81OL
All of the equipment forming the primary radar sub system is located in the
radar room, except for the antenna, antenna turning gear, antenna power
cabinet two optical encoders. The antenna and turning gear are mounted at
the top of a tower, and the power cabinet inside the tower.

2.1.3.1 Remote Control & Monitoring Sub System


This sub system contains:
. a local computer IBM type PS2,
. one display terminal,
. one keyboard,
. one Modem,
. one Data regrouping unit.

2.1.3.2 Auxiliary Equipment


. Power distribution cabinet AE 2000 associated with a 80 KV generator set
and a 40 KVA U.P.S,
. Data Transfer (Modems),
. Wave Guide Air Dryer GC 265 c.

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PRIMARY RADAR – OVERVIEW Page 2 - 3

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Page 2 - 4 PRIMARY RADAR - OVERVIEW

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PRIMARY RADAR – OVERVIEW Page 2 - 5
2.1.4 Specifications

2.1.4.1 Specifications of the Antennas

Frequency Band:.....L-Band : (ER 2000L transmitters 1215 to 1370 MHz)

Polarisation: ........... Switchable : horizontal or circular

Low Coverage Pattern THD 286 AT 432


Gain in direction of maximum 33db  1 db 35db (1215 to 1350 MHz)
energy radiated by antenna 35.5db (1350 to 1370MHz)
Beam width at -3 dB 1.53° to 1.87° 1.2°
Side lobe level -25 db -25 db
Spill-over lobes -35 db
average level
Back scattering -35 db
SWR 1.5 1.5

High Coverage Pattern THD 286 AT 432


Gain in direction of maxi! 31.5db  1db 34db
energy radiated by anten
Beam width at -3 dB 1.53° to 1.87° 1.2°
Side lobe level -25 db -25 db
Spill-over lobes -35 db
average level
Back scattering -35 db
SWR 1.5 1.5

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Page 2 - 6 PRIMARY RADAR - OVERVIEW

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PRIMARY RADAR – OVERVIEW Page 2 - 7
2.1.4.2 Specification of the RR 2000L Generation I Reception Cabinet

Operating frequency ................. 1215 to 1370 MHz

L01 frequency ........................... 1545 to 1700 MHz

L02 frequency ........................... 300 MHz

L03 frequency ............................ 30 MHz

High IF ...................................... 330 MHz

Clock frequency..........................15 MHz

Transmission frequ. step............ 5 MHz

Long-pulse duration .................. 60 & 100  s (OHAKEA)

Short-pulse duration.................. 1  s

2.1.4.3 Specifications of the ER 2000L Transmitter

Operating frequency ........ 1215 to 1370 MHz


Peak Power out: TRAC 2000L TRAC 2300L
Normal operation ............... 8.81 kW 16.3 kW

Degraded operation:
2 modules inoperative... 6.38 kW
3 modules inoperative... 5.70 kW

2.1.4.4 Specifications of the TVD 900 Doppler Video Processor

Basic Clock ..... ……………15 MHz


Range Precision:
120 m for a 800 ns range quantum
Radar range ......................... 240 NM
Video Processing .......... Video encoded on 11 bits

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2.1.4.5 Specification of the TPR 1000 Tracking Processor
Input/output signals comply with the following standards:
Input:
RS 422: parallel link enabling two-way transmission on 16 bits or on 2 x 8 bits.
Output:
RS 232 C: synchronous-asynchronous serial link, comprising the following signals:

TXD : Transmit data


RXD : Receive data
TXCLK : Transmit clock
RXCLK : Receive clock
RTS : Request to send
CTS : Clear to send
DTR : Data terminal ready
DCD : Data carrier detect

RCMS:
IEEE 488

2.1.4.6 Mechanical characteristics antennas

Reflector dimensions:
THD 286 AT 432
Width: 9.070 m 13.000 m
Height: 4.980 m 7.000 m
Depth: 1.800 m

Antenna rotation speeds: 6 or 12 rpm  10% (6 rpm for AT432)

THD 286 Antenna Tilt:

Rated value : 2.5 o


Minimum value : 0o
Maximum value : + 5.6°  0.5 o

Elevation angle of high cover beam fixed at 4 o 30' above low cover beam

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2.1.5 List of Logos
AE 2000 : Power Distribution Cabinet
AP 831 : Antenna Power Unit (OH)
AT 342 : Primary Antenna
CA 831 : Control Antenna Unit
CD 840 : Azimuth Encoder
DRU : Data Regrouping Unit
EA 432 : Turntable
ER 2000 : Primary Transmitter
GC 265: Pressurising Set
ING 1010 R : Maintenance Display
GSR : Radar Signal Generator
JTL 001 : Rotary Joint
LH 2000 : Diode Limiter
RSR : Radar Signal Receiver
RF 820 : Low Noise Amplifier
RR 2000 : Primary Receiver
TE 802-1 : Test Equipment
TGR 2000: Radar Signals Generator
THD 286 : Primary Antenna
TPR 1000 : Radar Processor (Tracking Radar)
TNR : Weather Channel (not us)
TRD 900 : Combination Unit
TVD-900 : Doppler Video Processor

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2.1.6 List of Abbreviations

BITE : Built-In Test Equipment


CFAR : Constant False Alarm Rate
CPU : Control Processor Unit
DRU : Data Regrouping Unit
HC : High coverage
IF : Intermediate Frequency
LC : Low coverage
LTM : Local Technical Maintenance
MTD : Moving Target Detection
MTI : Moving Target Indicator
NM : Nautical Miles
PIO : Parallel Input/Output
PRF : Pulse Repetition Frequency
PSR : Primary Surveillance Radar
RCMS : Remote Control and Monitoring System
SIO : Serial Input/Output
STC : Sensitivity Time Control
STM : Specialised Technical Maintenance
UPS : Uninterrupted Power Supply
VDU : Video Display Unit

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2.1.7 Pulse Compression Operation

The TRAC 2000 and TRAC 2300 transmitters RF Power transistors are
limited in peak power but use very long, 60  S and 100  S, transmit pulses.

Long pulses Provide


1. the energy required to cover the operational range of the radar. For
example a pulse duration of 100  S and a peak power of 20kW has the
same energy as the 4  S pulse peaking at 500 kW viz. 2 joules.
2. a narrow receiver bandwidth for reception with the advantage of a
better noise figure compared to a wide band receiver.

The use of long pulses requires that Pulse Compression is used to reduce
the effective length of a received pulse to:
1. keep the same resolution as a short pulse radar.
2. retain the pulse energy.

The ability of radar to distinguish between closely spaced targets is termed


resolution.

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2.1.7.1 Surface Acoustic Wave delay line (SAW).
On reception the expanded pulse is fed to a Compression Circuit. This
circuit is a Surface Acoustic Wave delay line (SAW).
The SAW delay line is an ultrasonic device. The input electrical signal is
transformed into an acoustic wave, propagates through a medium at sonic
speeds, and is then converted back to an electrical signal at the output.
Since the wave propagates at sonic speeds, longer delays are achieved than with
an electrical device of comparable size.
The SAW delay line uses an input and an output array of electrodes on the same
surface of a non dispersive medium to create a linear delays frequency
characteristic.
In this device, a piezoelectric plate is used both as the propagating medium and
as the input-output transducers. An array of electrodes placed on the surface will
either cause a surface wave to be generated if an electrical signal is applied or
have a voltage induced in it by a surface wave. The input array, the output array,
or both arrays will have element spacings that vary quadratically with distance.
The delay- vs-frequency characteristic of this device is determined by the spacing
of the array electrodes. The spacing between the input array elements that are
resonant at a given frequency and the output array elements resonant at this
same frequency

The TRAC 2000 and 2300 Radars use a non linear swept frequency technique.
The transmitted expanded pulse waveform consists of a rectangular pulse of
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constant amplitude and duration 60 or 100  S. The frequency of the transmitted
pulse decreases from f1 to f2 over the duration of the pulse as shown below. This
decreasing frequency is termed 'downchirp’.

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2.1.7.2 Time Side lobes

The compressed output waveform contains additional peaks other than the main
peak corresponding to target position. These are called time sidelobes by
analogy with the spatial sidelobes of antenna patterns.
The time sidelobes are usually small enough with respect to the main lobe to
avoid any questions of ambiguous measurements; that is, there is seldom any
question as to which is the correct peak to associate with the target.
The sidelobes, however, create a resolution problem in that the sidelobes of a
strong target might mask the main lobe of a weak target that would otherwise be
detected if the strong target were not present.
For example a light aircraft with equivalent radar area of 1 m2 may be masked by
a heavy aircraft of equivalent radar area of 1000m 2
ratio large ale: small a/c = 1000 : 1 = 30 db
therefore time sidelobe level should be greater than 36 db down on the main
lobe.

2.1.8 Purpose of Short Pulses


A conflict arises with the use of wide transmitter pulses in that a Radar Receiver
is blocked from receiving for a period which must be longer than the duration of
the Transmit Pulse.
This is to protect the sensitive receiver from the powerful transmitter pulses. This
period is about 2.5  S, plus the pulse length.
For example with the TRAC 2000 and TRAC 2300 pulse durations of 60 and
100  S the minimum radar range would be 5 and 8 nautical miles approximately.
To reduce the Minimum Radar Range, a 1  S Short Pulse is transmitted
200  S prior to the 60 or 100  S Pulse.
This short 1  S pulse reduces the Minimum Radar Range to (2.5+1 )-12.5 =
0.3NM.
The Short Pulse is used for detecting targets close to the Radar.
The Short Pulse covers the Blind Range due to the Long Pulse.

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2.1.9 Transmission Sequence
1. Transmission of 2 x 1  S short pulses separated from each other by at least
40 MHz for frequency diversity.
2. Reception of short pulses on two separate receiver channels.
3. Transmission of 2 x 60 or 100  S long pulses separated from each other by
at least 40 MHz for frequency diversity.
4. Reception of long pulses.

The 5 MHz separation between short and long pulses of the same channel, allow
the short pulses to be filtered out in the receiver, so that the short pulses are
diverted from the compressor used for the long pulses.
The signals are generated in two radar signal generators GSR1 and GSR2.
These signal generators are located in the receiver rack.
GSR 1 Supplies F1 and F'1
GSR 2 Supplies F2 and F'2
The outputs from the two radar signal generators are combined in the transmitter.
From the transmitter the combined signal is fed to a Low Cover feed of the
antenna from where the signal is radiated in a Low Cover beam.

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2.1.9.1 Reception
Two separate antenna feeds provide different antenna beams for reception,
these are:
1. Low Cover (LC) used to transmit and receive.
2. High Cover (HC) used to receive radar returns only and beamed 4.5 degrees
above the LC pattern.
The two beams are switched successively during the receive cycle of each radar
recurrence, the high coverage beam can be used for shorter ranges and the low
coverage beam for longer ranges.
Beam switching takes place at the input of the radar receiver and is site
programmable in the TVD 900.
This technique provides:
1. less ground clutter
2. maximum gain for reception of aircraft echo's at the outer limits of the
radar range.

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2.1.10 Automatic Configuration

The BF (correct operation) GO I NOGO signals display the operating condition on


the front panels of the ER2000 transmitter, the TGR 2000 Radar Signals
Generators, the TVD 900 Doppler Video Processors, the CD840 Azimuth
Encoder Distribution Unit and the CD831 Antenna Control Unit.

The GO I NOGO signals from the TGR 2000 feeds into the TVD 900 and each
TVD feeds GO I NOGO signals into the other diversity TVD.

The BITE in the TVD's can reconfigure the status of the TVD system to optimum
according to its fault status and the inbound GO I NOGO signals.

In this way, if TVD 900 A sees a TGR 2000 A NOGO, it will reconfigure from
diversity A+B to diversity B.

The TVD 900 also feed GO I NOGO signals into the TPR 1000, here they control
the switching of the output lines for track signals, selecting either not commuted
or commuted from the other TPR 1000.

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2.2 Transmitter

The ER 2000-L is a solid-state "L" band radar transmitter designed to operate as


part of the TRAC 2000 radar.
2.2.1 Purpose
1 . combines the pulses supplied by two radar signal generators,
2. amplifies the RF pulses supplied by the radar signal generators (GSR) in the
receiver cabinet,
3. provides final control of the transmitted pulse shape.

The RF pulses are generated on two channels by the radar signal generator
(GSR) in the receiver cabinet. The GSR also supplies a digital word indicating the
transmit frequencies. This word is used to control the transmitter's gain.
Synchronisation of the ER 2000-L transmitter and the RR 2000L receiver is
provided by the Doppler Video Processor TVD 900.

The RF power pulses are sent to the antenna via the RF line and the rotating
joint.

The ER 2000-L transmitter is remote-controlled and monitored by the RCMS.


Two air/water heat exchangers for cooling the RF power equipment are required.

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2.2.2 TRAC 2300

At two transmitters ER 2000-L are used to increase the performance of the radar.
This TRAC 2300 configuration requires additional associated components.

 A dual combination unit (TRD 900).


 A combination RF line.
 An over dimensioned heat exchanger system.

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2.2.3 Overview of ER 2000L

The 10-mW peak L Band pulses from the Radar Signal Generator (GSR) are
amplified to an output power level of 10 kW peak. This is achieved in a chain of
wide band transistor amplifiers.

The duplicated pre-amplifier chains each comprise a MEL 8PA amplifier and a
driver module MEL 250D.

These channels are duplicated and only one-channel functions at a time.

The main power amplifier, made up of 20 modules of 600 Watts nominally,


amplifies the UHF pulse energy produced in the MEL 250D. The 20 modules are
grouped together, each with independent input, output and power supply.

The RF pulses coming from the radar signal generators are combined in one
channel then fed to two pre-amplifiers via attenuators.

The two pre-amplifiers, type MEL 8PA, amplify the signal to approximately 8-
Watts the level necessary to drive the MEL 250D amplifier. The preamplifier
comprises 4 amplifier stages in series. The output power is regulated by means
of regulated power supplies and temperature sensors.

The second amplifier stage is the MEL 250D which is the final amplifier prior to
feeding the UNK 310 power divider.

This amplifier is similar to the 600-Watts amplifier module and comprises three
amplifier stages in series but the last stage comprises only two transistors in
parallel instead of four transistors for the 600-Watts version. This module in
common with the main power module is liquid-cooled. A pulse-forming modulator
circuit is also incorporated in this unit. This enables the transmitted wave
spectrum to be optimised and the pulse width to be adjusted.

The divider unit UNK 310 feeds the amplified RF power from the MEL 250D to
each of the twenty 600W amplifier modules. This unit is proceeded by a BITE
controlled coaxial switch for appropriate drive amplifier section.

Each of the 600-Watt modules amplifies the 7 Watts input power to the nominal
output 600 Watts peak to feed the combiner UNK 200.

The MEL 600 comprises three stages of transistors in series. The combiner
output peak power is 10 kW nominally.

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The circular configuration of the UNK 200 combiner enables an optimum low loss
matching to the output waveguide.

The combiner consists of radially disposed radiating dipoles; each connected to a


module output. The combination is effected by a "door-knob device" feeding a
common circular wave-guide.
The combiner UNK200 feeds the total power from the 20 modules to a three port
circulator. Potential reflected power from the antenna feed waveguide is diverted
to a high power load.
Each of the modules contains its own power supply regulator and temperature
sensor to maintain continuous output power.
Comprehensive built-in test features ensure that all principal functions are tested
and the BITE interfaces are limited to an IEEE bus for use in the RCMS system.

The design is such that the overall transmitter continues to operate satisfactorily
with up to three failed modules.

The modules can be changed ON-LINE without disturbing the operation of the
functioning modules nor having to shut down the transmitter.

When a module replacement is necessary, proceed as follows:

1. Switch off the module's front panel switch.


2. Disconnect the module's signal plugs and power supply connector.
3. Disconnect the module's cooling fluid connectors.
4. Carefully identify and unscrew the two RF N-type connectors that hold the
module in place (the outer most). Unscrew each connector a little at a time to
avoid tilting the module.
5. Extract the module carefully avoiding contact with the circuitry on the adjacent
module.

For replacement of the module, it is necessary to reverse the order.

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2.2.4 RF Pulse Amplification
Purpose: amplifies the power of the RF pulses supplied by receivers GSR1 and
GSR2 from approximately 10 mW to 10 kW.
This function includes the:
 attenuation and combination circuits,
 MEL 8PA preamplifiers,
 MEL 250D driver modules,
 MEL 250D-MEL 600 link,
 600 W, MEL 600 power modules,
 MEL 600-transmitter output link to the antenna.

2.2.5 Low-Voltage Power Supply


This function includes the low-voltage D.C. power supplies of the following
circuits:
1. MEL 8PA preamplifiers,
2. MEL 250D master modules,
3. 600 W, MEL600 modules,
4. four boards:
 sync/safety (TCR 825) (two boards),
 Distribution interface (TCR 826),
 CPU 6809 (TCR 824).
These power supplies are installed in power supply rack AL201 0; there are four
different types:
1. five 12 V, 5 A power supplies (SDER 60/12):
two (SDER 60/12 4 and 5) supplying all equipment listed above except
the 600 W modules,
three (SDER 60/12 1, 2 and 3) supplying the 600 W modules,
2. two 12 V, 2.5 A power supplies (SDER 30/12) supplying all equipment listed
above,
3. two 32 V, 2.5 A power supplies (SDER 60/24) supplying MEL 80A
preamplifiers,
4. a 5 V, 6 A power supply (SDER 30/5) supplying CPU 6809 (TCR 824) and
distribution interlace (TCR 826) boards.

Except for the 5 V power supply, redundancy is ensured by combining in parallel


(with diodes) the power supplies. If one power supply breaks down, the power
supply or supplies remaining in operation are sufficient to provide the power
required by the users circuits.
For the 5 V power supply, redundancy is not necessary, since the transmitter can
function without BITE.
The BITE monitors the output voltage of each power supply, attenuated through a
resistive voltage divider.

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2.2.6 Cooling System
To avoid overheating of the RF transistors, the MEL 250D master modules and
the 600 W, MEL 600 modules are cooled by fluid circulation.
The cooling system consists of a:
1. hydraulic circuit,
2. control relay.

2.2.7 Hydraulic Circuit


The hydraulic circuit circulates the coolant in the modules and operates in a
closed loop. The coolant is a water-glycol mixture with anti-corrosives.
The hydraulic circuit includes equipment ensuring:
1. fluid circulation,
2. fluid cooling,
3. operational reliability,
4. provision for maintenance (for most equipment without stopping operation of
the circuit).
Operational reliability is ensured by means of sensors, which monitor the
pressure, flow rate and temperature of the coolant.
The expansion tank assembly compensates for fluid expansion and serves as an
overpressure protection.
The circuit is protected from under-pressure by means of a 1 -bar pressure
switch, which transmits a "water pressure fault" information to the sync/safety
board (TCR 825).
The fluid flow rate is monitored by means of the hydraulic board flow-meter,
which delivers two items of Information to the sync/safety boards (TCR 825):
1. the water flow prealarm (at 0.5 bar),
2. the water flow alarm (at 0.3 bar).
The water temperalure is monitored by means of the hydraulic board thermostat,
which transmits two items of information to the sync/safety boards (TCR 825):
1. the water temperature prealarm,
2. the water temperature alarm.
The automatic bleed valve continuously bleeds the circuit.
Redundancy makes it possible to carry out maintenance on pumps and heat
exchangers without shutting down the transmitter.
Three valve are provided to drain the hydraulic circuit of the transmitter cabinet
and one to drain the hydraulic circuit of the heat exchangers.

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2.2.8 Local Control Selection
The operator can select the following by means of the other five switches on the
board:
1. one of the two pumps (switch 84),
2. one of the two heat exchangers (switch 85),
3. one of the two PA-driver chains (switch 86),
4. disconnection of the module power supplies (switch 82),
5. disconnection of transmission (switch 83).

2.2.9 The Synchronization & Protection Function:


1. adapts synchronisation signals supplied by the TVDA and TVDB processing
units,
2. selects one of two sets of redundant equipment. This redundant equipment
includes:
3. PA-driver chains of RF pulse amplification functions,
4. cooling circuit heat exchangers and pumps,
5. provides for the transmitter's operational protection, with capability of
forbidding amplification of RF pulses (RF cut-off) or 140 V power (power-cut) in
case of fault.

2.2.10 BITE

A BITE CPU carries out the transmitter-operating test. This processor receives
status information from the circuits of other functions (circuit breaker and relay
recopy contacts, alarms provided by sensors presence of the power delivered by
each of the power transistors).

The processor runs a processing routine on all this data and warns the operator
of the presence of faults by means of a failure code on the control panel. In case
of a failure that reduces the power transmitted (more than 12 faulty transistors),
the processor stops the transmission ("transmitter stoppage control").

The processor initiates transmission of the status information described above as


well as of the failure codes via an IEEE link with the RCM8 computer. The remote
controls (hardware switching, transmitter stoppage) are also transmitted via the
IEEE link.

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2.3 RF Line
1. connects the RF energy from the transmitter to the antenna,
2. connects the RF energy from the antenna to the receivers,
3. uses a Diplexer to separates the diverse frequencies for the two receivers,
4. limiter to protect the Receivers from large signals,
5. provides low noise RF amplification of the received signal,
6. employs a Fixed Law Swept Gain to reduce the Amplitude Limitation of close
in targets.

2.3.1 Equipment
1. One diplexer MH 2000
2. Two low-coverage reception channel.
Each consisting of the following:
 One diode limiter LH 2000.
 One low-noise amplifier RF 820L 1.
3. One high-coverage aircraft reception channel consisting of:
 A low-noise amplifier RF 820L(output Split),
 3 dB divider.

2.3.2 Characteristics

2.3.2.1 Waveguide
. Internal dimensions: 165.1 x 82.55 cm
. Maximum attenuation: 0.01 dB/m
Sections of flexible waveguide are used to compensate for vibrations and
mechanical clearances. These waveguide sections have the same
characteristics.

2.3.2.2 Coaxial Cable With Spiral Dielectric

 Outside diameter: 8.28 cm


 Maximum attenuation: 0.07 dB/m

2.3.2.3 Diplexer (MH 2000)

 Frequency range: 1215 to 1370 MHz


 Inhibited band: 40 MHz
 Filter passband  50 MHz
 SWR  1.25
 Overall insertion loss  0.4 dB
 Decoupling between channels  20 dB

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2.3.2.4 Duplexer
 Maximum attenuation:  0.4 dB
 Maximum decoupling:  23 dB
 Transmission input max SWR:  1.2

2.3.2.5 Limiter LH 2000


 Passive protection attenuation: 40 dB
 Attenuation on transmission: 50 dB
 Insertion loss:  0.4 dB

2.3.2.6 Low Noise Amplifier RF 820 L/L 1

 Gain with null STC: > 30 < 39 dB


 STC attenuation range: 0 to 60 dB by 1 dB steps
 Intrinsic noise factor: 3.3 dB
 Electrical Mains Voltage: 220 V  10%

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ITEM CONNECTOR MARKINGS LINK


1 J496 Test RF input Receiver
2 J494 RF Input RF line
3 Power supply presence
(green indicator light)
4 Clock presence
(green indicator light)
5 J493 To BITE 2 Receiver
6 J492 To BITE 1 Receiver
7 J491 To Radar Control Radar processor
TVD
8 Fuse (with built-in mains Mains input Mains input
presence indicator light)
9 J490 220 V 50/60 Hz Mains input
10 Ground Chassis ground
11 J495 RF output Receiver Input

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2.3.3 RF Line Overview

 During transmission, the RF line carries the energy from the transmitter to the
antenna through the duplexer to the antenna waveguide.
 During reception, the RF line carries the energy picked by the antenna to the
receivers.
During Low Cover Reception, the energy is carried by the waveguide via the
duplexer which routes the high frequency signals via the Dlplexer to the diode
limiters (LH 2000), then to the low coverage amplifiers (RF 820) forming part of
the two Low Cover receivers.
During High Cover Reception, the energy received is carried by a coaxial cable
to the high coverage amplifier. The amplifier output is connected to a 3 dB
divider which distributes the signal to the two receivers.
 Test Signals are fed into the receivers via the (30 dB) Coupler mounted on the
Low Cover receive channel and into the RF Amplifier for the High Cover receive
channel. These Test Signals are the Receiver Test Pulses and Test Plot.
 Noise Test Signal is Injected, from a calibrated noise Diode Source powered
from a the TE 802, via the (30 dB) Coupler mounted on the low coverage
receive channel
 Transmit Power is monitored by the test unit (TE 802) using a thermistor via a
56 dB coupler on the transmit waveguide.
 SWR is monitored by the TCR825 using a Diode Detector via a 56 dB coupler
on the transmit waveguide.

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2.4 Receiver RR2000-L
2.4.1 Cabinet Overview
The cabinet RR 2000-L consists of two identical, transmitter generator receivers
(TGR 2000), together with power supply units/ a video selector and at some sites
a data selector.
On top of the rack are the two 820 L1 low noise RF amplifiers used for low cover
reception and one 820 L Low noise RF amplifier used for high cover reception.
Above these is the diplexer used to separate the frequency diverse returns for the
two low cover receive channels.

2.4.2 Purpose
The TGR 2000 generator/receiver provides:
1. the generation of short pulses (1  s) and long pulses (60  s or 100  s) at the
final RF for the solid state transmitter amplifier ER2000 or ER2300.

2. the generation of RF test echoes in order to check the performance of


the receiver and the processing system.

3. reception and filtering of the signals captured by the antenna in order to send
them to the processing equipment in video form.

4. interaction with the RCMS via the DRU.

The RR2000-L generator / receiver cabinet contains two identical TGR 2000
racks.

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2.4.3 TGR 2000 Rack

Each shelf Contains:


1. Radar RF pulse generator
2. Receiver
3. Low / High Cover Switch
4. Signal Interface for the control and sync signals and supply the video signals
for the TVD, and the failure codes for the RCMS.
5. power supply
6. power dividers for test purposes.

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2.4.4 Generator/receiver TGR 2000 Overview
The TGR 2000 Rack sends two types of pulse to the transmitter:
1. short 1 IJs RF pulse.
2. long pulse of 60 or 100  s RF pulse.

The radar pulse is digitally generated in low IF (30 MHz).


The transposition into L band is carried out in two steps:
1. Transposition from low IF to high IF (330 MHz)
2. Transposition from high IF to L band.

The local oscillator signal used for the transposition into L band is supplied by a
VCO. This VCO control signal is synthesised, there are 32 transmission
frequencies available, one every 5 MHz, in L band.

The synchronisation and control signals for the selection of pulse width and
frequency) are supplied to the generator by the TVD 900 processing equipment
via the INTERFACE function of the rack.

The reception chain includes a switch that selects between low coverage and
high coverage.

After transposition into low IF, the echo received is either filtered for short pulse
mode (1  s) or the pulse compressed for long pulse mode(60/100  s).

After STC processing and amplitude / phase demodulation the receiver sends to
the TVD processing equipment:
1. two Linear Video signals (I and Q),
2. a Log Video Signal to the ING1010 via the black box selection switch.

Two TGR 2000 operate in frequency diversity, synchronised by the TVD 900
together they provide the ER 2000 with two 1  s and two 60 or 100  s pulses
separated in time.

The receive I and Q outputs connect to the two TVD 900 where there is a
combination of diversity presences.

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2.5 TVD 900 Doppler Video Processor
2.5.1 Purpose
1. Performs Digital Processing on radar video to improve target detection in a
fixed or moving clutter environment.
2.Generates Plot Messages consisting of four 16-bit words providing the
range/azimuth coordinates of the targets.
3. Provides Sync Timing for the Radar Transmitter & Receiver.
4. Provides Fixed Law STC to the High Cover & Low Cover RF Amplifiers in the
Receiver.
5. Provides adaptive STC to the IF Receiver IF Amplifier.
6. Provides HC/LC Selection of the Antenna Beam at the Receiver Input.
7. Provides Integrated Radar Video to the ING1010 Display.

2.5.2 Acronyms
which may be helpful:
TVD : (in French) Traitement Video Doppler
(in English: Doppler Video Processor)
MTD : Moving Target Detector

MTI : Moving Target Indication

STC : Sensitivity Time Control

CFAR : Constant False Alarm Rate

FTC : Fast Time Constant

PAC : (in French) Processeur Anti Clutter


(in English): Anti Clutter Processor

PFA : Probability of False Alarms

LRU : Lowest Replaceable Unit

VDMA: Voltage Distance Maximum Azimuth (PAC Threshold)

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2.5.3 Associated Equipment
The TVD 900 signal inputs are:
1. bipolar raw radar video in two components, I and Q from the receiver.
2. ACP & NS from the azimuth encoder and distribution unit.

The TVD 900 outputs are:


1. plots, the extracted target messages sent to the Tracker Processor TPR 1000.
2. Integrated radar video to the ING1010R Maintenance display.
3. integrated radar at Ohakea, via a radar link for GCI System.

In addition, the TVD outputs:


1. diversity signals to the second TVD.
2. fixed STC law to the LC & HC UHF amplifiers, to avoid saturation of the
reception system,
3. adaptive STC to the IF amplifiers, to avoid saturation of the reception system
over areas of clutter,
4. sends synchronisation signals to the radar signal generator (TGR) and
transmitter (ER 2000 L),
5. the antenna feed selection signal to select High / Low Cover to the receiver,
6. via an IEEE bus to the remote control monitoring system

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2.5.4 Overview of Modules

2.5.4.1 Board TTE 147

Sampling/encoding
Digitizes the bipolar (I and Q) analog videos from the radar receiver. These
videos are sampled at 800 ns and encoded with 2's complement on ten bits plus
sign.

Filtering
Comprising an array of four filters (0 channel, MTI channel and  FR/4
channels).

2.5.4.2 Board TTE 148

Recombination of I and Q video


For each of the four channels, computation of the modulus plus log.

CFAR
Generates, in parallel, two distinct thresholds (PAC and FTC). The PAC threshold
is a slow periodic threshold updated on each antenna revolution. The FTC
threshold is a fast range threshold updated on each azimuth/range quantum. The
greatest of these two thresholds is subtracted from the recombined video to
provide the thresholded video (CFAR video).

2.5.4.3 Board TTE 151

Timing
Generating the TVD 900 clocks.

Detection
Compares the load limiter threshold with the CFAR video of each of the four
channels. A "presence" is detected when at least one of the CFAR videos is
greater than the load limiter threshold. The diversity operation (exchange of chain
A and chain B presences) is then performed and a presence is declared when a
detection has occurred on channel A or channel B.

Correlation/Extraction
Correlates presences followed by, depending on the results, formation of "plots
messages" by an extraction logic which are then applied to the Tracker Processor
Computer.

Video Generation
Integrates the radar video delivered after detection for the ING1010

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2.5.4.4 Board TTE 150

STC Fixed Law


used to independently apply, to the RF HC and RF LC ~mplifiers, a fixed STC
law.
Adaptive STC
component is obtained using the clutter level estimated in each filtered channel
and is updated on each antenna revolution in the PAC azimuth/range.
High Coverage/Low Coverage Selection
generates the coverage selection control to the receiver.
Sync Generation
for the various equipment units at the station.

2.5.4.5 BITE TTE 152


Tests the equipment, dialogues with an operator through a remote control
component or a microterminal on the front panel, controls the GO/NOGOs
(signals used to automatically reconfigure the station) and generates the controls
(status programming) to the various functional units of the equipment.

2.5.4.6 Solid-State Board TTE 167


Delays the presences in the IC zone and rephase these with the presences in
the IL zone. This board generates the STC-Fixed Law in analog form to the RF
Amplifiers of the Receiver.

2.5.4.7 Display Function (BSQ05)


Displays the information concerning the equipment through a microterminal
providing the man/machine interface. .

2.5.4.8 Power Supply

+ 5 V, - 15 V and + 15 V supplies required for operation of the equipment.

2.5.4.9 FILTER BANK

Digitalised data are processed by a four doppler-filter bank, operation in


staggered mode, which includes the following channels:
1. One zero velocity filter, which provides maximum gain at 0 doppler frequency
to allow tangential targets to pass.
2. One MTI or ground clutter filter, which provides maximum gain for moving
targets and maximum attenuation at zero doppler frequency, to reject ground
clutter.
3. Two weather clutter filters, the combination of these two filters allows the
rejection of both ground and weather (or moving) clutters.

At the output of each filter, the amplitude of the radar signal is computed, for each
radar cell (800 ns in range, 1 PRF in azimuth).

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2.5.5 CFAR Thresholding & Detection
Following each filter, two types of CFAR thresholds are computed:

2.5.5.1 Fast Threshold (FTC)


The FTC system estimates target environment in two sliding range windows,
preceding and following each radar cell. The size of these range windows is
adjusted according to transmitted pulse bandwidth. Choice is given between a
size of 8 or 16 radar quanta before and after the quantum of interest (800ns). The
mean value of the signal amplitude is computed for each of the two windows, and
the largest of the two mean values is taken into account to compute the fast
threshold value. Provision is made to avoid perturbations on the estimation
involved by the presence of a target in the cell of interest.
The fast threshold system will be active against moving and fast fluctuating
clutter, for example weather or sea clutter.

2.5.5.2 Slow Threshold (PAC)


The PAC system estimates clutter amplitude in each cell of a clutter map. Cell
size is programmed according to radar parameters (transmitted pulse bandwidth,
and radar range). We choose 1.6  s in range and 0.7 o in azimuth. For each
clutter map cell, the largest of the amplitude samples belonging to the cell is used
to update, from one antenna scan to the next:
 the mean value of the cell clutter amplitude  .
 the standard deviation of the cell clutter amplitude  .
The number of the independent samples taken into account in the estimation of
these two parameters is factory programmable again according to radar
parameters, Our equipment uses 1/8 of present value plus 7/8 of the value
calculated on the previous antenna sweep. Like in the fast threshold device,
provision is made to avoid perturbations on the estimation involved by the
presence of a target in one given cell of the clutter map. The mean value and the
standard deviation are then taken into account to compute the PAC threshold
value that will be applied on the amplitude samples belonging to the clutter map
cell. PAC threshold computation is programmed according to the required
Probability of False Alarm (PFA) at the extractor output.
The PAC threshold system will be active against fixed, slow moving and long-
term fluctuating clutter, and will help to suppress spurious returns "angels".
For each radar cell, the Fast and the Slow Threshold values are compared, and
the largest of the two is applied on the filter output sample. Detection of a target
(primitive target presence) will then be declared when the filter output amplitude
is larger than the largest of the two threshold values.

2.5.5.3 The ORing of Target Presences


As CFAR thresholded primitive target presences are output independently by the
four channels, they are then ORed in the Plot Extractor TTE 151. A target
presence is declared when one or more among the four channels has detected a
primitive target presence. When operating in dual-diversity mode, target
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presences are exchanged. The resulting advantage of the diversity mode are an
improvement of system availability and an increase in radar coverage.

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2.5.6 Load Limitation
Target presences delivered before diversity exchange are regulated by a load
limitation system. Tentative target extraction is performed and the corresponding
number of detected plots are used to update a specific load limiter threshold map.
For each cell of this map ( cell size is 16 Nm in range and 22.5° in azimuth) the
following operation is performed:
1. if the number of plots is above a programmable predetermined number (N1),
the threshold amplitude stored in the considered cell is increased.

2. if the number of plots is below a programmable predetermined number (N2),


the threshold amplitude stored in the considered cell is decreased.
3. If the number of plots is between N1 and N2, the threshold amplitude stored in
the considered cell remains unchanged.
The N1 and N2 parameters are pre-programmable in PROM, independently for
each load limiter threshold cell.
Thus, when the load is small, load limiter threshold value is zero and load
limitation has no influence on detection. In case of heavy load, the lowest
amplitude samples are suppressed in order to maintain the required plot number
per load limiter cell. Notwithstanding the above the maximum number of plots in
our system is 15 / load limiter cell.
This load limitation system is mainly designed to reject residual angel returns and
to allow, when needed, an adaptation of the transmitted plots load to a radar data
processing computer, according to the computer capacity.

Map Cell Size Notes


Fixed 1/8Nm Site programmable
STC Range Only Operational Selection Fixed STC Law NO.1 &
Fixed STC Law NO.2.
Adaptive 1/8Nm Cell size is preprogrammed according to Radar
STC 1.4° Parameters
1/16 to 1 Nm 7° to 2.8°
CFAR 1/8Nm Cell size is preprogrammed according to Radar
Clutter 0.7 o Parameters
Maps Range Programmable 1/16 to 1 Nm from P90 of
 -Term
Beam 1Nm Site programmable
Selection 2.8° Minimum cell size
Load 16Nm Site programmable
limiter 22.5° Az Programmable 8 or 16 Az divisions from P93
of  - Term

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2.5.7 Plot Extraction
The equipment is designed to transmit extracted target reports to a radar data
processing computer, on a 16-bit parallel interface.
First, presences are correlated using a "K/N" type of azimuth sliding window.
Criteria is satisfied when, for a given radar range, K target presences have been
declared among the N last radar recurrences. The K and N parameters are pre-
programmed according to the radar type (mainly according to the number of hits
per target). We have a choice of a 7/13 or 8/13. for K/N extraction correlation This
technique helps to suppress false alarms, asynchronous pulsed interferences
and second-time around targets.
Plots are extracted using a programmable 2-D vicinity conditions on range and
azimuth of correlated presences. The azimuth extent of each plot is compared to
the minimum and maximum extent expected for a valid plot. When these
conditions are not satisfied, the corresponding plots are discarded.
For each declared plot, a four word 16-bit message is written in the output buffer,
containing mainly:
1. Target range
2. Target azimuth
3. Target Azimuth Extent
4. Status Information (radar mode, Load limiter cell)
Extraction law can be standard (STD) or hardened (HARD). This corresponds to
the following equations respectively.
STD:TAO= a 1.a 2.m1.m0.m1.m2.LMTM0.LMTM1
HARD:TAO= a 1.a 2.a 3.m1.m0.m1.m2.m3.LMTM0.LMTM1
a 3 and m3 are the terms used for hardened extraction; these are
representative of a more severe range criterion in the plot generation function.
TAO represents the start of the plot.
LMTO and LMTM-1 represent the TAO which could have been generated on the
preceding recurrence, respectively for the same quantum and the neighbouring
quantum.

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1. END OF BLOCK MESSAGE

MSB LSB
D0 D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 D6 D7 D8 D9 D10 D11 D12 D13 D14 D15 WORD
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 0  11  10  9  8  7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2

0 PSR MER VRA Q1/Q2 R1 R2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3


DTI7 DIT DTI DTI DTI DTI DTI DTI
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
0 6 5 4 4 2 1 0

PSR : Azimuth-range gate

MER : Not used

VRA : Antenna rotation speed

Q1/Q2 : Selection of 400/800 ns range quantum

R1 R2 : Selection of diversity mode

DTI : Information from BIT, DTI7 to DTI0 with DTI7


always at 0
 11-  10-  9-  8-  7 : Block azimuth

Example of North end of block (message in hexadecimal code)

8000 Word 1
0000 Word 2
3C00 Word 3
0100 Word 4

Figure 44 - End of Block Message

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PSR : Azimuth-range gate


DCR : Corrected range DCR11 to DCR0
PFM : Dummy plot
TCP : Plot center Teta TCP11 to TCP0
MER : Not used
VRA : Antenna rotation speed
Q1/Q2 : Selection of 400/800 ns range quantum
R1 R2 : Selection of diversity mode
LIM : Load limiter ON or OFF
DT : Delta Teta (1/2 azimuth extension) DT5 to DT0
DTI : Information from BIT, DTI7 to DTI0 with DTI7
always at 0
TCP11-TCP0 : Azimuth of PLOT CENTER
NCEL7-NCEL0 : Load limiter cell number

Example of dummy plot at North (message in hexadecimal code)

D6XX Word 1
10XX Word 2
3CXX Word 3
01XX Word 4

Figure 45 - Plot Message

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2.5.8 Video Integration
An integrated CFAR analog video is output by the equipment, in addition to the
extracted digital plot messages. This video may be displayed for maintenance or
operational purposes on a suitable display.
The integrated video has been correlated using a 6/13 or 8/13 law selected on
the  -Terminal.
2.5.9 Radar Synchroniser
The radar synchroniser function provides all signals required to synchronise the
PSR.
For diversity these signals are exchanged between both TVD to assure
continuous operation in case of power cut on one of the two equipment's.
2.5.10 High I Low Beam Selection
The High cover / Low Cover antenna beam selection signal is provided for the
receiver.
2.5.11 Adaptive STC
STC is applied in order to avoid saturation's in both Low and High beam receiver
channels and optimise signal processor dynamic range. RF STC dynamic range
is 60 dB. Two pre-programmed, operationally selectable STC-Iaws are available.
In addition, 20 dB adaptive STC is applied to the IF amplifier in the Receiver. The
adaptive STC levels are estimated from the four PAC clutter maps associated
with the four filters.
The clutter levels computed by the four clutter maps are used to update a specific
adaptive STC map. For each cell of this map (cell size is 1/8 Nm in range and
1.4° in azimuth) the following operation is performed:
If the clutter level estimated by one or more clutter maps is larger than a
programmable predetermined number (N1), the adaptive STC attenuation value
stored in the considered cell is increased.
If the clutter level estimated by all clutter maps is lower than a programmable
predetermined number (N2), the adaptive STC attenuation value stored in the
considered cell is decreased.
Otherwise, the adaptive STC attenuation stored in the considered cell remains
unchanged.
The typical adaptive threshold step value is 1 dB.
Usually the adaptive STC attenuation is applied before the UHF low-noise
amplifier. When used in a pulse-compression radar however, it is applied after
pulse compression has occurred, to the IF stage of the receiver in order to avoid
phase distortions before pulse compression.
The adaptive STC dynamic range is programmable as a function of range.

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2.5.12 BITE
Special efforts have been made to provide an exhaustive, comprehensive, easy
to use BITE function. The BITE performs the following functions:
Communication interface between the operator and the equipment.

2.5.13 Local control mode:


Man-machine communication takes place via a menu-driven control
microterminal equipped with an eight 40-character lines display and a 20-key
keyboard. This microterminal is located on the front panel of the equipment.
Communication interface between a remote control and monitoring system
(RCMS) and the equipment. Remote control and monitoring information are
exchanged through a IEEE-488 bus, alternatively through a RS232C serial link.

2.5.14 Off Line Tests


In both local and remote operating modes, exhaustive maintenance off-line tests
can be performed, in order to isolate faulty LRUs. If any failure has been
detected, the relevant failure message (including the faulty LRU number and a
failure identification number) are displayed on the front panel microterminal and
transmitted to the RCMS.
Exhaustive overview of all parameters and configurations of the equipment may
be displayed on the front panel microterminal and transmitted to the RCMS, with
for instance:
Cell size of clutter maps
Type of the STC law currently used
Extraction criteria currently selected
CFAR video integration law currently selected
FTC sliding window size
Operating mode local/remote, operational/maintenance.

2.5.15 On line tests:


To check continuously correct equipment operation, on- line monitoring is
performed. if any failure has been detected, the relevant failure message
(including the faulty LRU number and a fail identification number) are displayed
on the front panel microterminal and transmitted to the RCMS. To assure fault
tolerant system operation, corrective measures are taken (inhibition of the faulty
function, for instance one filter, use of redundant radar synchroniser in dual
diversity operating mode,...) to still provide valid data at the equipment output. At
any time, a GO, NO/GO and a CORRECT OPERATION status is available on the
front panel and for the RCMS. This information, is exchanged between the
different radar equipment's are analysed in real time by each equipment in order
to re-configure redundant sub-systems or functions when failures are detected,
thus optimising system availability. Continuous monitoring is done by the RCMS.

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2.5.16 TVD Microterminal
Using the keyboard, an operator can perform the following operations:
1. Program the TVD 900 operating mode.
2. Display the status of the Installation Configurations and Parameters (i.e.
operating status_of TVD 900). (dynamic parameters).
3. Program operating parameters (dynamic parameters).
4. Execute test sequences.
5. Display fault codes for all the FUs in the system.
6. Select internal processing signals for display on an external device.
7. Program system installation parameters.
8. Print parameters and configurations.

2.5.17 Menus And Sub-Menus


2.5.17.1 Dialogue principle
The system uses a tree-structure menu dialogue principle. By entering one, two
or three characters on the keyboard, the operator goes from one menu page to
the next, or preceding page, or any desired page in the menu (except the
installation pages). He can perform the desired operation (program of parameter,
reset, etc.) very simply by entering, in most cases, a single character on the
keyboard (five for the most complicated operation).
At any time, the operator knows the menu page in which he is located since the
page number and the type of parameters (type of page) are displayed on the first
line of the microterminal screen.

Depending on the menu page, the following actions are possible:

. passage to next line: press  key,


. passage to preceding line: press  key,
. enter proposed code: press key corresponding to desired action.

When the operator enters a character other than those proposed on the screen,
an ERROR CODE is displayed on the first line. When the character entered is
correct, a "*" is positioned in front of the action performed.

Once the character is entered, the first page of the menu branch selected is
displayed.

The  and  keys are used to advance or return to the desired page in the
branch. Return to the main menu is achieved by pressing the  key when in the

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last page of the branch or by pressing the  key when in the first page of the
branch.

It is also possible to access a menu page by entering “P” followed by the page
number “N”. Depending on the operating mode of the TVD 900 (Local
operational, Local maintenance, Remote operational or Remote maintenance),
the various functions will (or will not) be accessible.

1. Operating mode programming: MODE/PROG


2. Configuration display: MODE/DISP
3. Parameter display: PARA/DISP
4. Parameter programming: PARA/PROG
5. Fault display: FAIL/DISP
6. Execution of tests: TEST/PROG
7. Display of signals: SIGN/DISP
8. Print parameters and configurations: PARA/PRINT

9. Program installation parameters: PROG/PARA

In Local-Maintenance mode, the operator can access all the functions.

In Local-Operational mode, the operator can only access functions: 1, 2, 3, 4 and


5.

In Remote-Maintenance and Remote-Operational mode, the operator can only


access functions: 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.

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2.5.18 Menu Content

Page 0 in Local-Maintenance mode


LOC/MAINT 0
MODE/PROG :1 FAIL/DISP :5
MODE/DISP :2 TEST/PROG :6
PARA/DISP :3 SIGN/DISP :7
PARA/PROG :4 PARA/PRINT :8

ENTER CODE :

Connection to any function is possible. Selection of installation pages 90 to 95 is


only possible from this page.

Access to pages 90 to 95 is authorized by entering code 9FE.


Note: The installation page menus are in French language as these are normally
not accessible by the customer.

Page 0 in Local-Operational mode:


LOC/OPER 0
MODE/PROG :1 FAIL/DISP :5
MODE/DISP :2
PARA/DISP :3
PARA/PROG :4

ENTER CODE :

Note: function 4 (PARA/PROG), not all the parameters are accessible as they
were in Local -Maintenance mode; the accessible pages are pages 40, 41, 42
and 43.

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Page 0 in Remote-Maintenance mode:


REM/MAINT 0
MODE/PROG :1 FAIL/DISP :5
MODE/DISP :2
PARA/DISP :3

ENTER CODE :

Only the report pages are accessible in this mode.


Note: Transfer from Local mode to Remote mode is achieved locally (ie. by an
operator action on the microterminal).

Page 0 in Remote-Operational mode:


REM/OPER 0
MODE/PROG :1 FAIL/DISP :5
MODE/DISP :2
PARA/DISP :3

ENTER CODE :

As with Remote-Maintenance mode, the Remote-operational mode only provides


access to the report pages (20, 21, 30, 31, 50, 51, 52).

Page 10:
MODE/PROG 10
LOC/OPER :1 :5
LOC/MAINT :2*
REMOTE :3

ENTER CODE :

This page is used to select the TVD 900 operating mode.

The operator can select (in Local mode) from the following modes:

 Local operational (by entering 1 on the keyboard)


 Local maintenance (by entering 2 on keyboard)
 Remote operational (by entering 1 then 3 on keyboard)
 Remote maintenance (by entering 2 then 3 on keyboard)

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR Page 2 - 79

Page 20
MODE/DISP 20
CLUTTER OPTION :YES MASTER TVD :YES
15MHz CLOCK :INT QUANTUM(ns) 400
FTC CELL :8Q DELAY DIV :8Q
PAC CELL(ns) 800
TRACKING UNIT : EXT
IEEE ADDRESS :DEC
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:<
This page is used to display the parameters defined by motherboard
programming on plug J35 circuit and in an installation page (90 to 95).

Clutter Option: Yes/No


Moving clutter option enabled or disabled.
If the status is NO (disabled), the  FR/4 channels are inhibited.

Note: The  FR/4 channels are no longer considered as an option in the TVD
900; these now form part of the standard configuration. This control is simply a
manner of simultaneously inhibiting the  FR/4 channels.

15 MHz CLOCK: INT/EXT


Generation of 15 MHz clock internally or externally. The TVD 900 has, on the
TTE 150 board, a 15 MHz crystal oscillator that can be used to generate all the
clocks required for operation. In the TRAC 2000 an external 15 MHz signal
distributed by the receiver is used this provides improved stability. This selection
is possible through the plug circuit J35.

FTC CELL: 8Q or 16Q


Size of (range) cell of FTC. The future and past averages are computed on 8 or
16 quanta.

PAC CELL (ns): 800, 1600, 2400 and 3200


Size of PAC range cell.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 2 – 80 PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR
TRACKING UNIT: INT/EXT
Tracking processor internal or external to the equipment. A prioriy, the tracking
processor will always be external to the TVD. The TVD 900 uses the external
tracking processor by default (a processor can also be used in “internal” mode
through selection using a plug circuit J35).

IEEE ADDRESS: XX DEC


Value of address IEEE of RCMS equipment (decimal code).

MASTER TVD: YES/NO


Master/Slave configuration of TVD 900. The Master TVD is called TVD A and the
slave TVD is called TVD B. This Master/Slave principle has nothing to do, in this
case, with the sync generator. The Master/Slave programming is performed on
the motherboard through “hard” wiring.

QUANTUM (ns): 400/800


Value of processing quantum selection by plug circuit J35.

DELAY DIV: 8Q/16Q


Value of diversity delay (required by sync plan).

Page 21:
MODE/DISP 21

SYNCHRO GENE :A AUTO DIV MODE :A+B


MTI CHANNEL :ON ZERO CHANNEL :ON
+FR/4 CHANNEL :ON -FR/4 CHANNEL :ON
RR STATUS :GO ER STATUS :NONE
1>2-DIV-STAT :GO 2>1-DIV-STAT :GO
OUTPUT STAT :GO
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:<

This page is used to display the automatic operating reconfigurations and the
system's incoming and outgoing GO/NOGO statuses.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR Page 2 - 81
SYNCHRO GENE: A/B/NO
Indicates TVD generating synchros. In the event of a sync generator fault
appearing on TVD A and TVD B, TVD B will indicate SYNCHRO GENE: NO. This
configuration is solely managed by the BITE, except for the case where the
operator requests forcing on the sync generator of TVD B (page 40).

AUTO DIV MODE: A/B/A+B


Indicates operating mode. This configuration is automatically managed by the
TVD depending on the incoming GO/NOGO statuses (transmitter GO/NOGO,
receiver GO/NOGO and diversity function GO/NOGO) and the internal status of
the TVD (internal GO/NOGO). However, it is possible to force the TVD status to
div A, div B, div A+B or div A.B (page 42).

This forcing function will be applied so long as a new automatic reconfiguration or


TVD 900 reset has not taken place.

MTI CHANNEL: ON/OFF


ZERO CHANNEL: ON/OFF
+FR/4 CHANNEL: ON/OFF
-FR/4 CHANNEL: ON/OFF
Status of filtering channels automatically managed by the BIT as a function of the
faults detected on each of the channels. Forcing is also possible to ON or OFF
(page 44). This can be cancelled on a TVD 900 reset.

RR STATUS: GO/NOGO/NONE
GO/NOGO status from the receiver. The NONE information is displayed when
the receiver GO/NOGO status is ignored, i.e. when the acknowledgement circle
for this signal (PNOG02) is not connected to ground in plug circuit J35.

ER STATUS: GO/NOGO/NONE
GO/NOGO status from transmitter. This information is only acknowledged when
the PNOG01 signal is connected to the ground in the plug circuit J35.

1 >2-DIV-STAT: GO/NOGO
GO/NOGO status sent to chain 2 (chain 1 being the chain on which the operator
is displaying the information).

2>1-DIV-STAT: GO/NOGO/NONE
GO/NOGO status from chain 2. This information is only accepted when the
PNOG03 signal is connected to the ground in plug circuit J35.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 2 – 82 PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR
OUTPUT STATUS: GO/NOGO
Outbound GO/NOGO status (equivalent to TVD front panel GO/NOGO and
GO/NOGO sent to tracking function). This is generated using the inbound
GO/NOGOs and the internal GO/NOGO (the latter characterizing the status of
the TVD 900 fault).

Page 30:
MODE/DISP 30
LC STC :1
ZERO CHAN :5P MTI CHAN :5P DIV A+B
LOAD LlM :ON STAG :ON
EXTRLAW STD
WEATH-VID EDGE CFAR-VIDEO :1 J08DISP :FE
SOFTWARE REVISION NUMBER: 00-00
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:<
This page summarizes the status of the parameters programmed on pages 41 to
43.

LC STC: 1/2/ NO
Indicates type of STC law selected on low coverage. NO indicates that the STC is
forced to 0 over the entire range (see contents of PROM MN2Y-TTE 150).

HC STC: 1/2/ NO
Indicates type of STC law selected on high coverage. NO has the same meaning
as for low coverage (see contents of PROM MN2Y-TTE 150).

ZERO CHAN: 4P/5P


MTI CHAN : 4P/SP
Zero channel and MTI channel respectively with triple or quadruple cancellation.

Note: The triple cancellation selection (4P) should only be used when the "mobile
clutter" option is OFF.

DIV: A/B/A+B/A.B
Indicates diversity function selected on page 42. If no operator action has been
performed to modify the selection, the report is equivalent to that given in page
21.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR Page 2 - 83
LOAD LlM: ON/OFF
Load limiter threshold active or not.

COR LAW: 1/2


Type of Extraction Correlation Law selected. For example, a TVD 900 grouped
command basically contains two correlation laws which are respectively: 7/13
and 9/13 (case of a radar with 16 target detections)
This parameter is programmed in PROM MN2K- TTE 151.

STAG: ON/OFF
The syncs are respectively generated staggered or non-staggered.

EXTR LAW: STD/HARD


Extraction law can be standard (STD) or hardened (HARD). This corresponds to
the following equations respectively.
STD:TAO= a 1.a 2.m1.m0.m1.m2.LMTM0.LMTM1
HARD:TAO= a 1.a 2.a 3.m1.m0.m1.m2.m3.LMTM0.LMTM1
a 3 and m3 are the terms used for hardened extraction; these are
representative of a more severe range criterion in the plot generation function.
TAO represents the start of the plot.
LMTO and LMTM-1 represent the TAO which could have been generated on the
preceding recurrence, respectively for the same quantum and the neighbouring
quantum.

WEATH-VID: EDGE/FULL
Indicates whether the "cloud video" is displayed in contour or full zone mode (this
is an analog video).

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 2 – 84 PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR
CFAR-VIDEO: 1/2
Indicates whether the CFAR video (at J09 or J10) follows integration law 1 or 2
(programmed in PROM MN2K-TTE 151).

J08DISP: FE/PRS
Displays ends of echo or echo presences, recombined or correlated, on socket
J08.

SOFTWARE REVISION NUMBER: XY _ZT


BIT software version number.
XV: Number indicating functional upgrade.
Z: Figure indicating non-functional upgrade.
T: Figure indicating correction of a bug.
Note: This report is only available when the corresponding display control (page
94) is active.

Page 31
PARA/DISP 31
ZERO CHAN :ON MTI CHAN :ON
+FR/4 CHAN :ON -FR/4 :ON
ALL FTC :ON ALL PAC :ON
SIGN-SYN :AA HANDSHAKE :EXT
ROTATION :EXT MOV-ECHO :1
FIX-ECHO :ON MOV-FIX ATT :
NEXT:> PREV:<
This page summarizes the status of the parameters programmed on pages 44 to
46.

ZERO CHAN : ON/OFF


MTI CHAN : ON/OFF
+FR/4 CHAN: ON/OFF
-FR/4 CHAN: ON/OFF
Indicates status of various filtering channels. If no operator action has been
performed to modify the selection, the report is equivalent to that on page 21.

ALL FTC: ON/OFF


Indicates whether the FTC for each filtering channel is active or not.

ALL PAC: ON/OFF


Indicates whether the PAC for each filtering channel is active or not.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR Page 2 - 85
SIGN-SYN: $
Value of sync plan signature programmed on page 46. This signature is read in
the E2PROM (MN3KL- TTE 152) and not in the "hardware" in board TTE 150,
differing from that given in page 73 (where the signal used is that generated by
the hardware). The signature is given in hexadecimal code.
Note: This is the signature value which is used as reference for the sync
generator test.

HANDSHAKE: INT/EXT
Indicates whether the plot messages are acknowledged internally or externally
(internally by wrap-around of ready status on acknowledgement and externally by
a TPR 1000.

ROTATION: INT/EXT
Indicates whether the rotation is simulated internally (1 increment = 1 recurrence)
or if it is performed externally by a CD 830/840 (or an external antenna rotation
simulator).

MOV-ECHO: 1/16/CONT/OFF
Indicates the number of moving echoes generated per antenna revolution (CONT
means continuous).

FIX-ECHO: ON/OFF
Indicates whether a fixed echo is generated or not.

MOV/FIX ATT:
Indicates the attenuation value on the moving echo with respect to the fixed echo
in decimal code (value between 0 and 63 dB).
Note: The attenuator is external and located in the receiver RR 2000.

Page 40 in Local-Maintenance mode:


PARA/PROG 40
RESET TVD 900 :0 RESET SYNC 1
RESET ZERO PAC :2 RESET MTI PAC 3
RESET +FR/4 PAC :4 RESET -FR/4 PAC 5
RESET ALL PAC :6 RESET AUTO STC 7
RESET LOAD LlM :8 RESET FAILURES 9
FORCED SYNCHRO TVD B ON:A OFF:B
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:<
This page is used to perform various RESET operations, more or less selective,
on the various TVD 900 functions. To activate the RESET function, simply enter
the control code on the keyboard.
RESET TVD 900
Performs a general RESET on the TVD 900 (fault reset, PAC reset, self-adapting
STC reset, load limiter reset, forcing of all filtering channels to ON,

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 2 – 86 PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR
reconfiguration of diversity function according to inbound GO/NOGOs,
repositioning of outbound GO/NOGOs and internal GO/NOGO to GO).

RESET SYNC
Resets the sync generator. If the TVDs are in diversity mode, a RESET SYNC
following a sync generator switchover gives control back to TVD A as sync
generator.
However, several cases can arise.
By considering the following initial situation:

1. TVD A is the sync generator (report in page 21, SYNCHRO GENE: A).
2. TVD B receives the syncs distributed by TVD A (report in page 21, SYNCHRO
GENE: A).
3. No fault detected on the two TVDs.

If a sync plan fault or watchdog fault is detected on TVD A (UF02-2 or UF02-1),


or if TVD B detects a fault on the syncs distributed by TVD A (UF02 2 detected by
TVD B but indicated on TVD A), a sync generator switchover takes place. TVD B
becomes the sync generator (report in page 21 of TVD A and TVD B: SYNCHRO
GENE: B).
A RESET SYNC on one of the two TVDs is used to return to the initial status
(TVD A = sync generator). It is, nonetheless, necessary to perform a fault RESET
operation on the TVD A to clear the fault detected.
However, if a fault is again detected on TVD B (sync fault plan or watchdog fault),
before performing the RESET SYNC, the sync generator of TVD B will be
stopped. This generator will therefore no longer generate the syncs (report in
page 21 of TVD A will remain SYNCHRO GENE: B; however, the report in page
21 of TVD B will become SYNCHRO GENE: NO).
To return to the initial status, it will then be necessary to perform a RESET SYNC
on one of the two_TVDs (associated to a fault RESET to clear faults detected).
Note: The RESET SYNC also resets the memory parity fault.

RESET ZERO PAC


RESET MTI PAC
RESET +FR/4 PAC
RESET -FR/4 PAC
Resets PAC of concerned filtering channel only.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR Page 2 - 87
RESET ALL PAC
Resets all PACs.

Note: When a RESET PAC is applied, the threshold is initialized on the incident
video of the concerned filter.

RESET IF STC
Resets the adaptive IF STC to zero.

RESET LOAD LlM


Resets the load limiter threshold.

RESET FAILURES
Resets all the TVD 900 faults

FORCED SYNCHRO TVD BON/OFF


This control is only available on TVD A. It is used to force distribution of the syncs
generated by TVD B (in this case, the report in page 20 of TVD A and TVD B
becomes SYNCHRO GENE: B).

Page 40 in Local-Operational mode:


PARA/PROG 40
RESET TVD 900 :0 RESET SYNC 1

RESET FAILURE 9
ON :A OFF :B
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE
Only three controls are available. These have the same means as previous.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 2 – 88 PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR
Page 41 in Local-Maintenance mode:
PARA/PROG 41
LC STC 1 :0 LC STC 2 :1
AUTO LC STC :2 NO LC STC :3
HC STC 1 :4 NO HC STC :5
AUTO HC STC :6 NO HC STC :7
STAG ON :8 STAG OFF :9

NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE


LC STC 1 HC STC 1
LC STC 2 HC STC 2
AUTO LC STC AUTO HC STC
NO LC STC NO HC STC
The low coverage (LC) STC and the high coverage (HC) STC can be
programmed for Law 1, Law 2, self-adapting STC or forced to 0 (NO STC).

STAG ON/OFF
Activates/deactivates staggering.

Page 41 in Local-Operational mode:


PARA/PROG 41
LC STC 1 :0 LC STC 2 1
AUTO LC STC 2
HC STC 1 :4* HC STC 5
AUTO HC STC 6
STAG ON :8* STAG OFF 9
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE
The controls available on this page have the same meaning as above, except for
the STC inhibit control which is not possible.
Page 42:
PARA/PROG 42
4P ZERO-CHAN :0 5P ZERO-CHAN :1 *
4P MTI-CHAN :2* 5P MTI-CHAN :3*
CLUTTER OPT ON :4* CLUTTER OPT OFF 5
DIVERSITY A :6 DIVERSITY B 7
DIVERSITY A+B :8* DIVERSITY A.B 9
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE
The meaning of all the controls provided on this page is given in the paragraph
concerning menu page 30, except for the CLUTTER OPT ON/OFF control which
is given in the paragraph concerning menu page 20.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR Page 2 - 89
In this respect, the "moving clutter" option is considered as a configuration;
however, control must be accessible by the customer. The control is given in this
page for this reason.

Page 43:
PARA/PROG 43
J08 DISP FE :0* J08 DISP PRS 1
WEATH-VID EDGE :2 * WEATH-VID FULL 3
COR LAW 1 :4* COR LAW 2 5
STD EXTRAC LAW :6 HARD EXTRAC LAW 7
CFAR VIDEO 1 :8 * CFAR VIDEO 2 9
LOAD LIM ON :A * LOAD LIM OFF :B
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:
The meaning of all the controls available in this page is given in the paragraph
describing the reports displayed in page 30.

Pages 44, 45 and 46 in Local-Maintenance mode:


PARA/PROG 44
ZERO CHAN ON :0 * ZERO CHAN OFF :1
MTI CHAN ON :2 * MTI CHAN OFF :3
+FR/4 CHAN ON :4 * +FR/4 CHAN OFF :5
-FR/4 CHAN ON :6 * -FR/4 CHAN OFF :7
ALL FTC ON :8 * ALL FTC OFF :9
:A *
ALL PAC ON ALL PAC OFF :B
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

PARA/PROG 45
ROTATION EXT :0* :1
MOV-ECH 1 :2* :3
MOV-ECH CONT :4 :5
FIX-ECH ON:6* :7
MOV/FIXATT :CXY (00<=XY<=63)(XY= )
HANDSHAKE EXT :8* HANDSHAKE INT 9
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

PARA/PROG 46
SIGN-SYN :CXY (XY=HEX) (XY=
IF STC ON :1* IF STC OFF 2
I VIDEO ON :3* I VIDEO OFF 4
Q VIDEO ON:5* Q VIDEO OFF 6

NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:


The meaning of all the controls available in these pages is given in the paragraph
describing the reports displayed in page 31, except for the two VIDEO ON/OFF

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 2 – 90 PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR
controls which are used to force (or not) one of the two I and Q videos to zero at
the filter input.

For a TRAC 2000 radar, the IF STC ON/OFF control is accessible. The self-
adapting component of the STC is used as an AGC and operates in intermediate
frequency following pulse compression.

Note: The TVD 900 is configured in "solid state" mode in plug circuit J35.

Page 46 can only be accessed in operational mode from the "solid state" mode
where only the IF STC ON/OFF control is available:

PARA/PROG 46
PARA/PROG 46
IF STC ON:1 * IF STC OFF :2

NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR Page 2 - 91
Pages 50, 51 and 52:
FAIL/DISP 50
FU01:
FU02:
FU03:
FU04:
FU05:
FU06:
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

FAIL/DISP 51
FU07:
FU08:
FU09:
FU10:
FU21:
FU22:
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

FAIL/DISP 52

FU24:
FU25:

NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

These three pages show the faults which appear in each functional unit (FU)

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 2 – 92 PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR
Page 60:
This page is used to initiate the OFF LINE tests on the TVD 900. This is achieved
by simply entering the number of the corresponding functional unit on the
keyboard. The contents of the page thus go through the following stages:
NO TEST IN PROGRESS:
TEST/PROG 60
FULL TEST:FF
FU TESTED:XX
STOP:00

TEST PROGRAM OPERATING* FU TESTED: NO

NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

TEST IN PROGRESS:
TEST/PROG 60
FULL TEST:FF
FU TESTED:XX
STOP:00

TEST PROGRAM OPERATING* FU TESTED: XX

NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

TEST TERMINATED (NO FAULT DETECTED)


TEST/PROG 60
FULL TEST:FF
FU TESTED:XX
STOP:00

TEST PROGRAM OPERATING* NO FAIL

NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR Page 2 - 93
TEST TERMINATED (WITH FAULT(S) DETECTED):
TEST/PROG 60
FULL TEST:FF
FU TESTED:XX
STOP:00

TEST PROGRAM OPERATING* SEE FAILS PREVIOUS

NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

In the later case, simple press the “FF” key for access to fault page 50.
To perform a complete test on the TVD 900, simply type “FF”. To stop a test
which is in progesss, simply type “00”.

Page 70:
SIGN/DISP 70
ZERO PAC MU :2 ZERO PAC SD 3
ZERO PAC THRES :4 ZERO FTC THRES 5

MTI PAC MU :8 MTI PAC SD 9


MTI PAC THRES :A MTI FTC THRES :B

NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:


Pages 70 to 72 are used to display (in maintenance mode), on the reception bus
(J19), the various signals received from the various functions in the TVD 900.

Pages 71:
SIGN/DISP 71
+FR/4 PAC MU :2 +FR/4 PAC SD 3
+FR/4 PAC THRES :4 +FR/4 FTC THRES 5

-FR/4 PAC MU :8 -FR/4 PAC SD 9


-FR/4 PAC THRES :A -FR/4 FTC THRES :B

NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE

Same display possible on page 71 as on page 70, but for + and –FR/4 channels.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 2 – 94 PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR
Page 72:
SIGN/DISP 72
CFAR ZERO VIDEO :0 CFAR MTI VIDEO :1
CFAR +FR/4 VIDEO :2 CFAR –FR/4 VIDEO :3
LOAF LIM THRES :4 LOAD LIM CELLS :5
LC STC :8 HC STC :9
STC CELLS :A LC/HC :B

NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

CFAR ZERO VIDEO


CFAR MTI VIDEO
CFAR +FR/4 VIDEO
CF AR -FR/4 VIDEO
Displays CFAR video (log video - threshold) for considered channel on reception
bus.

LOAD LlM THRES


Displays load limiter threshold on reception bus.

LOAD LlM CELLS


Displays division of load limiter into cells on reception bus.

LC STC
HC STC
Displays STC threshold for high and low coverages respectively on reception
bus. The STC actually sent to the low-noise amplifiers is selected in page 41.

STC CELLS
Displays division of self-adapting STC threshold to cells on reception bus BR
socket.

LC/HC
Displays low coverage/high coverage division on
Reception bus BR socket.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR Page 2 - 95
Page 73:
SIGN/DISP 73
SIGN-SYN DISP :$

NO DISPLAY :B
NEXT:> PREVIOUS:< ENTER CODE:

This page indicates the signature of the synchro plan generated by board TTE
150 (value given in hexadecimal code). If instead of reading the value of the
signature a "XX" is displayed, this means that the reception bus is being used to
display another signal (corresponding to one of the signals presented in the
pages of the preceding menu. To re-display the signature, simply type "B"
(corresponding to NO DISPLAY control) and the signature re-appears (BIT can
again access the report register to which it corresponds).

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 2 – 96 PRIMARY RADAR – TVD 900 DOPPLER VIDEO PROCESSOR

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – TPR1000 TRACKER PROCESSOR Page 2 - 97
2.6 Tracking Processor
Tracks are generated from plots, one for each aircraft and updated every scan.
Essentially this is "plot to tracks" correlation, "scan to scan" correlation, and track
prediction.
If correlation fails a new "track" is initialised.

2.6.1 Tracking Functions


The extracted plots are received from the TVD900 , the tracking functions are
broken down into the following functions:

2.6.2 Correlation:
The processor searches for a possible match between a plot and the track which
corresponds to the same target.
The processor initialises a new tracks for the plots that can not be associated
with any existing tracks.
In order to make the "plot to tracks research" easier, the radar coverage is
divided into cells:

2.6.2.1 In azimuth
The coverage is divided into 32 sectors, according to the End of Block messages
(1 sector = 11.25°)

2.6.2.2 In range

The coverage is divided into 8 circular areas (32 NM for a range of 256NM.

One elementary cell is called a correlation cell. These cells are numbered 0 -
255, plus an additional cell in the centre labeled 256.
Plots located in cell 256 are correlated with the tracks in this cell and the 32
adjacent cells.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
Page 2 – 98 PRIMARY RADAR – TPR1000 TRACKER PROCESSOR
The plot to track correlation test includes 3 steps:

1. Research of the correlation sectors which are involved in this test.


One research window is created around the plot.
The figure below shows the rectangular window, which is oriented according to
the speed vector, and created around the predicted position of the track. It is
characterised by 3 dimensions A, D and E which take into account the
acceleration, deceleration and the evolution of the target and the noise of the
radar.

2 A preliminary test analyses the sectors involved in this correlation. Only the
tracks found in the research window are made available for correlation.

3. The correlation test, verifies if the plot is inside one correlation window of the
track.
The window is recalculated after each track updating.
Should conflicts arise the plots and tracks involved are gathered together into one
set, called an Independent Conflict Case (ICC).
Several cases are possible and several criterion's are applied to determine the
best possible plot to track association.

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
PRIMARY RADAR – TPR1000 TRACKER PROCESSOR Page 2 - 99
2.6.3 Tracks Processing
Track processing is divided into the following sub-functions.
2.6.3.1 Track Updating:
The goal of this process is to compute for each track:
1. One smoothed position in order to reduce the noise level of the received
information.
2. One predicted position, that is, the expected position of the track at the time of
the next scan.
The process is based upon a Kalman filter.

2.6.3.2 Speed Updating:

After the track position is updated, a smoothed ground speed is calculated. It is


based on the nominal antenna rotation period (approx 4.8 seconds) and the
difference in distance between the present smoothed position and the last
smoothed position.
The targets speed is given in Knots.

2.6.3.3 Tracks Initialisation and Termination

Three characteristics are monitored:


1. Age of the track, from the first received plot of this track.
2. Number of detection misses. Set to zero every time a plot is received,
otherwise incremented.
3. Number of false plots (reflections). Set to zero every time a plot is declared
false, otherwise incremented.
The cycle of a track follows the rules which follow.
1. Any plot which can not be associated with an existing track initialises a new
track.
. The new track receives one number which will not change during its life.
. This track is considered as an internal track.
. The monitored characteristics are reset to zero.
2. Prior to updating a track the monitored characteristics are updated taking into
account the correlation situation and the result of the reflection test.
3. If a track is flagged after the reflection test and the age is zero the track is
cancelled.
4. A validated track will be transmitted to the centre only after 2 antenna scans.
5. A track is cancelled when the number of detections misses exceeds 3
consecutive scans.

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2.6.3.4 System capacity

is 460 plots/scan.

2.6.4 TPR 1000 Output Message


2.6.4.1 Track reports:
. XY co-ordinates or polar co-ordinates
. ground speed
. track number
. quality information

2.6.4.2 Sectorisation and Status Information

. 32 End of Block and North Signal data


. Radar status; availability, failure, maintenance.

2.6.4.3 Monitor Outputs (IEEE)

. BITE information; nature of fault, failed board.


. Operational information; load, number of tracks, various parameters.

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2.6.5 TPR 1000 Messages

2.6.5.1 TPR 1000 - Gateway Message Format

The transmission of messages is executed by sectors; there are 32 sectors in an


antenna revolution. Messages have a definite format which contains the following
command characters (the standard EBCDIC character code is used) :
SYN (32H) : 3 SYN characters are sent for synchronisation
SOH (01 H) : Start of header
Selecting code: message selecting code (1)
Address
OLE (10H) : Data Link Escape
STX (02H) : Start of text
ETX (03H) : End of text
BCC1 : Block check character (MSB)
BCC2: Block check character (LSB)
PAD (FFH) : Deactivation character
The useful "Message Text" is contained after the DLE-STX pair and before the
DLE-ETX pair.

3 x SYN
SOH
Selecting Code Procedure
Address Bytes
OLE
STX

Message Text

DLE
ETX
BCC1
BCC2
PAD

(1): Four selecting codes are used:


19 H NORTH_SIGNAL_SELECTING_MSG
1C H STATUS_SELECTING_MSG
OC H RADAR_SELECTING_MSG
00 H EXTENSION_SELECTING_MSG
(The North Message has the highest priority)

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2.6.5.2 Selecting Messages
North Signal Selecting Message
Purpose: Send the North Signal.
Description: Its selecting code is 19H.
This message contains only one NORTH SIGNAL DATA.
Status Selecting Message
Purpose: Inform data equipment about TPR1 000 status.
Description: Its selecting code is ICH.
This message contains only one TPR1000 STATUS DATA.

Radar Selecting Message Message


Purpose: Sending of radar data such as secondary and primary tracks in a
message to general address.
Description: Its selecting code is OCH.
It always begins by an END OF BLOCK DATA.
It can also contains:

PRIMARY TRACK DATA


SSR TRACK DATA
TRACK CANCEL DATA

If the number of messages required to be sent exceeds 10 then a radar extension


message must be sent.
The EOB message indicates to the AIRCA T computer, which sector the messages
refer to.

END OF BLOCK DATA

1 PRIMARY TRACK DATA

X SSR TRACK DATA

n TRACK CANCEL DATA

10

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2.6.5.3 Extension Selecting Message

Purpose: To send the remaining messages, in a block, which were not sent in the
RADAR SELECTING MESSAGE because the > 10 criteria was exceeded.

Description: Its selecting code is ODH. This message may contain:

PRIMARY TRACK DATA


SSR TRACK DATA
TRACK CANCEL DATA

1 PRIMARY TRACK DATA

X SSR TRACK DATA

n TRACK CANCEL DATA

10

This message is also limited to 10 messages.

All RADAR EXTENSION SELECTING MESSAGE's corresponding to the same block


must be sent before the RADAR SELECTING MESSAGE corresponding to the next
block. .

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2.6.5.4 Message Text Details

TPR 1000 Status Data Message

Description:

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1314 15
Byte 04 04
00-01

Byte B B B B
6 5 4 1
02-03

Byte 0: 04H – message code


Byte 1: 04H – message byte count
Byte 2: not used
Byte 3: B0 - not used
B1 - primary extractor breakdown (TVD900)
B2 - not used
B3 - not used
B4 -TPR1000 initialisation (sent only once after each restart)
B5 - secondary extractor breakdown (ERM870)
B6 - antenna speed indicator
B7 - not used

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2.6.5.5 North Signal Data Message
Description:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1314 15
FD 06
Byte
00-01
Delay
Byte
02-03
Station Code

Byte
04-05

Byte 0: FDH : message code


Byte 1: 06H : message byte count
Byte 2-3: Delay between the first received bit and the first transmitted in mS.
Byte 4: unused
Byte 5 : Station code used to identify the radar site

End of Block Data Message


Description:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1314 15
Byte FD 04
00-01
Block number
Byte
02-03

Byte 0: FDH : message code


Byte 1: 04H : message byte count
Byte 2: unused
Byte 3: Block number = 0 to 31 (0 if north block)

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2.6.5.6 Primary Track Data Message

Description:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1314 15
FE 0E
Byte
00-01
Quality
Byte
02-03
0 0 Q0 Q1 0 0 0 Track number
Byte
04-05
X co-ordinates
Byte
06-07
Y co-ordinates
Byte
08-09
Speed Vector
Byte
10-11
Speed Modulus
Byte
12-13

Byte 0: FEH : message code


Byte 1: OEH : message byte count
Byte 2: Service byte
N: TPR1000 number
T: Set to 1, if test plot
Byte 3: TPR1000 track quality (from 0 to 112).
Byte 4: Q0, Q1 - number of detection misses
Byte 5 (and 4): Track number on 9 bits
Byte 6-7: X coordinate in 1/32 NM in the radar centred reference
Byte 8-9: Y coordinate in 1/32 NM in the radar centred reference
Byte 10-11: DX and DY: speed vector coordinates in 10 seconds, unit is
1/32 NM.
Byte 12-13: smoothed speed modulus in knots

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2.6.5.7 Track Cancel Data Message

Description:
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
FA 04
Byte
00-01
Track number
Byte
02-03

Byte 0: FAH : message code

Byte 1 : 04H : message byte count

Byte 2-3: Number of the track to cancel (from 0 to 511)

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2.6.6 Operational Front Panel PDA 128
Purpose
The operational front panel is the item enabling dialog between the computer and
an operator.

Functions
The front panel comprises the following functions:
power supply monitoring,
computer fault signalling,
computer manual re-initialisation,
hexadecimal read-outs,
selection of operating parameters.
All the dialog between the front panel and the computer is carried out via the
service card TTE 118.

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2.6.7 TPR Checks

2.6.7.1 Preliminary Checks


Check on the unit's front face that the + 5 V and + 12 V -12 V are lit and the
FAILURE LED is off.
Open the front face door.
Check on the control panel that the read-outs are at O.

2.6.7.2 Initialisation Without Reloading


Check that thumb-wheels S11-1 and S11-2 are both at position 0-0.
Set switches S 1 to S8 to O.
Press the INIT push button.
Check that:
 the FAILURE LED comes on,
 after a few seconds the FAILURE LED goes out and the read-outs indicate 0.

2.6.7.3 Initialisation With Reloading


Set switches S1 to S8 to 00000 111
Press A and INIT simultaneously.
Release INIT, then A.
Check that:
 the FAILURE LED comes on,
 after 15 seconds, the FAILURE LED goes out and the read-outs indicate 0.

2.6.7.4 Execution of Off-Line Tests


Set thumb-wheels S11-1 and S11-2 to A and 0 respectively.
Press push buttons A and INIT simultaneously.
Release I N IT then A.
Check that:
the FAILURE LED comes on,
after approximately 1 minute, the FAILURE LED goes out and the read-outs
indicate 0.

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2.6.7.5 Return to Operational Status
Set both thumb-wheels S11-1 and S11-2 to 0.
Close the front face door.

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2.7 ING1010-R Display

2.7.1 Graphic Generator Board TTE 172


TTE 172 board generates vectors, circle arcs, circles, alphanumeric characters,
symbols and polygons which create together synthetic maps representative of a
location or an air space. It also ensures the superimposition of the synthetic and
raw radar pictures, and sends the video signals to the TV monitor in the three
fundamental colours: Red, Green, Blue.

2.7.2 Digital Image Transformer TTE 173


TTE 173 board converts traditional Raw Video radar pictures into TV pictures. It
is coupled with TTE 172 board which controls and overlays the radar picture with
its synthetic information.

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ING1010-R DISPLAY PRIMARY RADAR Page 2 - 115

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2.8 THD 286 Antenna Scanner
The antenna scanner is primarily comprised of the reflector assembly, the frame, the
feed support beam and the feed assembly. Elevation adjustment of the assembly can be
carried out by means of two bearings (1) and one screw jack (2) integral with the
turntable.
2.8.1 Antenna support
The antenna support In the form of a three-armed star Is attached to the outer Rotating
Pedestal and bushing of the main bearing. The arms of the antenna support are fitted
with three pole joints. A strut secured to the antenna support holds the tilt actuator in
place. The rotating joint is attached to the support.
A reference surface is used for adjusting the verticality of the rotating axis.

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2.8.2 Reflector
The reflector (3) is a double-curvature reflector. The shape of the reflector
provides a thin beam in the azimuth plane and a square cosecant pattern at high
elevation angles. For this purpose, the upper section is parabolic and the lower
section is curved in order to ensure high-elevation coverage. The reflector
comprises an expanded metal surface secured to vertical supports mounted on a
welded tubular structure.
Feed support beam
The feed support beam (5) is a steel tube which is welded and bolted at three
points to the antenna frame. It supports the feed assembly (6) as well as the
wave guides (7), one section of which is flexible (8), to allow for movement of the
reflector assembly during on-site adjustment.
Air Tightness between the Pedestal Bearings / Ring Gear and the outside air Is
ensured by an oil bath in a baffle forming a dirt trap.

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2.8.3 Pedestal Assembly
The "pedestal assembly" fixed section drives the mobile section in continuous rotation
through a single thrust bearing. An internally-toothed turntable plate or ring gear is
attached to the outer bushing of the bearing.
Replacement of the bearing and ring gear requires removal of the rotating joint and its
support.

2.8.4 Pedestal
The pedestal, attached and set at the top of the tower, comprises a casing (2) to which
the inner bush of the main bearing (21) is secured.
At the centre of the casing there is a Flexible Mount (13) for rendering the fixed part of
the rotating joint solid, without any angular play.
The lower part of the casing is fitted with the pump control mechanism (8) to which the
lubricating pump (7) is secured. It also holds the oil tank (15), the lubricating system, the
Interconnecting box (14) and the bearing assemblies (11) to which the motor-gearboxes
(3) are fitted, with the interposition of the clutches.
Four tapped holes either side of the bearing assemblies (11) are used for attaching the
motor-gearbox assembly system.
A cock (22) near the pump (7) is used for draining the sealing baffle between the Fixed
and the Moving Sections of the Pedestal.

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2.8.5 Bearings and Clutches
The Pedestal accommodates pinions and shafts (3) designed to drive toothed
turntable plate (2). These pinions are supported by means of two ball bearings
(4), drip-lubricated, in a casing (6). A baffle (7) prevents the ingress of oil in the
clutch. Flexible tubes ensure the oil return to the tank.
At the bottom of the pinion shaft there is an electrically-controlled clutch.
The clutch consists of three main parts:
 the fixed part comprising an electromagnet case (8), mounted free to rotate
between two ball bearings (9). The bearings are packed with grease via grease
nipple (10),
 the drive part comprising moving armature (13) held firm against case (15) by
flexible arms (14) and coupling (16). This assembly is centred on two sealed
bearings (12), lubricated for life,
 the receiving part comprising the fixed armature (11 ).
A locking stud (19) integral with the spacer prevents the electromagnet case (8)
from rotating.
By reversing an access plate comprising the locking stud (17), it is possible to
lock the turntable, via the fixed armature (11) for maintenance purposes. An
electrical safety device (20) prevents motor starting.

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2.8.6 Motor- Gearbox
The motor-gearbox is attached vertically with the motor at the bottom. It is
connected to the drive bearing via a clutch and a coupling.
The motor-gearbox basically comprises:
a reduction gearbox consisting of a drive pinion (5),
a reduction gear train (4)
and an output shaft (1 )

The reduction gearbox is splash-lubricated and has an electrical oil leakage


detector (13). In the event of a leak, a system of baffles (18) protects the motor. A
drain cock (7) at the base of the casing (3) is used for draining off the oil. A plug
(12) is used for filling with oil and also serves as a level, a coupling (9) protected
by an adaptor (8), whose bearings are lifetime lubricated.
a two-speed motor (10) whose bearings are lifetime lubricated.
A hand-wheel (11) at the base of the motor is used for controlling the antenna
manually WITH THE CLUTCH IN OPERATION.
The leakage detector (13) operates by sensing an increase In resistance which is
converted into an Information signal sent to the control unit via a connection unit
secured to the hand-wheel protection cover (11).

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2.8.7 Lubricating System
The lubricating system consists of:
mechanical-drive pump (1),
magnetic-type filter (2),
pressure switch (3),
two nozzles (4) for the main bearing,
two nozzles (5) for the main turntable plate and the drive pinions for the motor
gearbox bearings,
one nozzle (6) for the pump control bearing pinion,
one nozzle (7) for the pinion and bearings of the pump drive shaft,
four channels (8) returning oil to the tank (9).

2.8.8 Interconnection box


This box (item 10), secured to the oil tank (9), located beneath the turntable,
gathers the motor and turntable safety data sent to the control unit via the power
cabinet.

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2.8.9 Rotating Joints
The main rotating joint, placed In the rotation axis of the turntable is attached to
the Pedestal Cover integral with the antenna support.
It is designed to ensure the continuity of microwave and electrical links between
the fixed part and the scanner of the equipment.
The main rotating joint essentially comprises a high level waveguide rotating joint,
secondary low level coaxial rotating joints used for the high Coverage feed, and a
slip-ring assembly.

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2.8.10 Polarisation
Polarisation switching is obtained by rotating the polyrod support waveguide.
This rotation is controlled by an actuator motor mounted In a case on the upper
feed, rotating a connecting rod and simultaneously moving the four polyrod
supports. The movement, 0 to 45° from a neutral position, offers horizontal
polarisation radiation (actuator at limit in one direction) or circular polarisation
(actuator at limit in the other direction).

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2.9 CA831 Antenna Control Unit

The control unit controls the antenna drive platform ie. motors and the clutches
via the AP821 antenna power cabinet.
The control unit can be broken down into four main functions:
1. control logic,
2. input-output interface,
3. remote control interface,
4. remote control or BITE.
All the controls sent to the antenna drive platform are generated by a control
system which has two sub functions:
1. motor control sequence generation,
2. sequence validation.
Control logic multiplexes controls from:
1. the front control panel,
2. the AP821 power cabinet,
3. the remote control and monitoring system.
The selected multiplexed signal controls the generation of a start, stop or
changeover sequence.
At the end of the sequence, the system remains in a state which corresponds to
the configuration selected by the operator.
Information from the power cabinet and the antenna drive platform enable the
control unit to detect an antenna drive platform failure.
The system re configuration initiates a sequence which results in a new stable
state taking into account the operator commands (example: motor command) and
the failures detected (example: change from motor 1 to motor 2, if motor 1 is
defective).

2.9.1 TAC 411 Reception Interface


This board provides interfacing between the 27 x 24V input current loop signals
from the AP831 and the output TTL signals to the other modules of the CA831.
Opto couplers are used for this purpose.
Status of the received signals are displayed on 25 Leds on the front edge of the
board.
The status signals are multiplexed onto an 8-bit word for the T AC 409 Remote
Interface.
The only programming on card TAC 411 concerns strap E1 for the lamp test
signal.
E1 removed: all lights OS1 to OS25 are lit,
E1 installed: operational position.

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2.9.2 TAC 412 Control Logic Board
Purpose
This board generates the motor control sequences to control the antenna drive
platform.
Operation
Logic enables generation of a change sequence according to the antenna status
signals.
The automatic system generates the sequences which, enable the antenna drive
platform to change from one status to another.
Control logic determines the start of the sequence as well as the sequence
selection.
The sequences depend upon the signals generated by the validation logic and
the operator controls from one of the three control inputs either:
1. the power cabinet (operator controls, alarms and status),
2. the RCMS (or BITE) ,
3. the front panel of the control unit.
The sequencing logic is activated by the beginning of sequence pulse. The
sequence number depends upon the sequence selection signals.
The sequence data generated by the automatic system are used to control the
following functions of the antenna drive platform:
1. Motor 1 (low speed or high speed).
2. Motor 2 (low speed or high speed).
3. Motor 1 clutch mechanism.
4. Motor 2 clutch mechanism.
These motor controls depend upon the following: validation signals from the TAC
408 test card, status signals from the TAC 411 reception card, sequence data.
If the operator selects one motor, which has failed, the corresponding motor
control signal is no longer activated.
This circuit is transparent when there is no motor failure.
A parity check is performed on the data generated by the memory, as well as a
compatibility check between the status of the sequence data and the real status
of the equipment.
If an error is detected, the sequencing logic is inhibited.
The sequence will then continue only after a manual reset.
The selection controls are processed by a logic interface (control validation). The
selection controls are validated only when the "antenna access", "manual
rotation" and "antenna immobilization" signals are absent.
Two motor selection circuit selects one or both motors, depending on the state of
signals from the TAC 408 Test Card.
Also when switch 87 is held depressed, both motors are selected.

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The motor control signals sent to the AP821 Antenna Power Unit via the
Transmission Interface TAC 410.

2.9.3 TAC 408 Test Card

Purpose
The purpose of the TAC 408 card is to process status and alarm signals.
According to these signals, the card controls:
1. switching from one motor to another in the case of motor failure,
2. simultaneous operation of both motors in the case of an overload of one motor
due to wind loading on the antenna,
3. stopping of the motors.

Operation
The various failures or defects originating from the power cabinet or antenna
drive platform are stored.
This storage function supplies the validation and failure signals to the automatic
system control logic and to the sequence data/motor control interface.
The failures or defects stored are as follows:
1. motors 1 and 2 failures,
2. oil pressure defect,
3. oil pressure failure,
4. overload of one motor (81),
5. overload of both motors (82).

The card makes a synopsis of these status signals.


This synopsis provides the following signals for the control logic on TAC 412:
1. switching from one motor to the other FMOT1/FMOT2,
2. simultaneous operation of both motors: 2MOT,
3. stopping of the motors.
All these operations are associated with time-outs designed to reset the failure
and fault flip-flops if the failures and faults have disappeared.

2.9.3.1 Storage control


A control logic activates the failure storage as a function of certain status and
delay time signals.
A) Motor Failure Storage Control
A motor failure is stored when one of the following status signals appears at the
input of the control circuit:

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1. motor overheating,
2. cut-out of motor,
3. cut-out of clutch mechanism,
4. access, immobilisation or manual rotation of antenna.

The activation of one of these signals causes a short delay time. If at the end of
this delay time the signals are no longer active, the motor failure information
disappears.

b) Oil pressure failure and defect storage control


If an oil pressure defect is detected the oil defect storage control is activated and
there is a short delay time.
If the defect persists at the end of the delay time, this oil pressure defect is
considered as a failure.
The long delay time is activated.
The storage control de-activation will take place only if a manual reset is
performed, at the end of the delay time.

c) Overload storage control


There are two types of overload:
1. overload of one motor (S1),
2. overload of two motors (S2).

The overload is measured by the power cabinet (detection made by motor power
supply current measurement).
An overload S1 causes the following:
1. the overload S1 storage control activation,
2. the short delay time activation,
3. the second motor control activation.

If in spite of the second motor activation overload, S2 is reached, the following


actions are performed:
1. storage control of overload S2,
2. activation of the long delay time,
3. de-activation of both motors.

The de-activation of the storage control takes place at the end of the delay time if
the defect has disappeared.

Time delay device


The time delay device is used to supply short and long delay times.

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These delay times are provided for the storage controls of the 1 st group (short
delay time) and of the 2nd group (long delay time).

The duration of each of these delay times can be programmed.

As a function of the delay time selected, a multiplexer supplies a binary word


which is used to control the delay time duration.

A control logic of the time delay device activates the time delay device as a
function of the failure status and defects stored.
The select-delay time information comes from the failure storage control. The
time delay device output is switched to one of the two storage control groups.
The following table shows the type of delay time for each storage control.

Storage control. Type of delay time

Motor failures Short


Oil pressure defect Short
Overload S1 Short
Oil pressure failure Long
Overload S2 Long

Storage reset and time delay device control logic de-activates the storage
controls in the following conditions:

end of delay time, the failures have disappeared,


manual reset, the time delay device is re-initialised if a manual reset is carried
out.

2.9.4 TAC 410 Transmission Interface

This amplifier, display and lightning protection circuit receives:


1. the motor commands,
2. the polarisation commands.

The output interface amplifies the motor control signals. It makes the logic levels
of the unit (+ 5 V), compatible with the logic levels of the power cabinet (+ 24 V).
All the motor control signals have a lightning protection device ensured by a
diode TRANSIL.

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The polarisation control signal is generated directly at the output interface
level.
The polarisation control can be made from the front panel of the control
unit or from the remote control system. The operator can select a linear or
circular polarisation.

A multiplexer selects the local or remote controlled polarisation control.

The output interface includes an anti-interference function.


This function generates a unit inhibition signal in the following condition:
1. pulse detection on the + 5 V and + 24 V power supplies,
2. activation by unit inhibition external signal.

2.9.5 TAC 409 Remote Interface


The TAC409 provides the TAC 401 with the status data from antenna and
from the other modules in the CA831.
The remote control interface multiplexes and decodes the signals from the
control unit cards for the TAC401 BITE board.
The addressing signals from the remote control card or the BITE card are
transcoded to control the various functions of the card (input interface,
multiplexer, unit remote control interface, display interface).

The failure, status and alarm signals are multiplexed and form the data
bus. This bus is a bi directional bus. The direction of the signals (write-
read) depends upon the transcoded addressing signals.

In the read direction, the multiplexer is validated and one of the channels
is selected as a function of the address presented on the bus.

In the write direction, information concerning the unit remote control


system, the failure code display (versions with BITE) or the front panel
indicator lights is transmitted via the input interface.

The TAC409 also decodes the data for front panel failure Leds.

The indicator light test control enables the operator to check the operation
of all the indicator lights and display systems of the control unit by
activating the "indicator light test" signal.

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RADAR ANTENNA PRIMARY RADAR Page 2 - 137
2.9.6 BITE Board TAC 401

This function enables exchanges between the RCMS and the remote interface
card (TAC 409).

This function can be divided in three main parts:


1. information exchange with the RCMS,
2. information exchange with card TAC 409,
3. exchange management.

2.9.6.1 The information exchange with the RCMS:


is via an IEEE-488 bus.

2.9.6.2 The information exchange with card TAC 409


is in the form of two buses:
1. an 8-bit address bus (5 bits only are used),
2. a bi directional data bus.

2.9.6.3 The exchange management enables:


1. the address generation,
2. the generation of the address and data interface control signals.

Its function of the BITE card consists of:


1. dialogue with the functional units internal to the equipment,
2. processing of raw states from the functional units of the equipment,
3. generation of 'GO" and NO-GO" signals, 4. dialogue with the BITE system
computer.

The "BITE" card is then in the "talking" or "listening" modes, depending on the
RCMS's request.

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2.9.7 Power Cabinet AP821

Purpose
The power cabinet AP 831 is used for transmission of controls to the antenna
drive platform according to signals received from the antenna control unit and the
antenna drive platform.
The power cabinet also outputs status signals to the antenna control unit. The
power cabinet is divided into four functions:
1. power supply for two motors,
2. power supply for two clutch mechanisms,
3. overload detection,
4. interface between controls from the antenna control unit and the antenna drive
platform.

2.9.7.1 Two-motor power supply


This function ensures the motor delta/ star line power supply. The power supply
may be inhibited by
1 . S8 "manual rotation",
2. the locks on the motors flywheels "antenna immobilisation" information.
3. Antenna access safety switch

In addition, a safety system blocks the simultaneous control of low and high
rotation speed of a same motor.

2.9.7.2 Two-clutch mechanism power supply

This function ensures the drive platform clutch mechanism power supply and the
antenna-motor mechanical link.
NOTE: This function also supplies a 24 V voltage used to supply the control unit.

2.9.7.3 Overload detection

This function is used to drive the antenna by means of two motors when the
loading on the antenna due to wind >60 Km/h. In the case of strong wind, >120
Km/h, this function cuts off the motor power supply and stops the antenna.

2.9.7.4 Power Supply For Two Motors

For reliability purposes, each motor is supplied by a separate power supply


circuit.

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2.9.7.5 Interface
These optoelectronic circuits receive the motor controls from the CA831 antenna
control unit.
They supply a (neutral) to supply three power relays through which the power
supply is switched (line - star - delta).
An indicator light comes on to indicate reception of a control from the antenna
control unit.
2.9.7.6 Connection of line - Star/Delta Supply
By switching the star/delta power supplies, the start-up current is limited. The
three relays simultaneously receive the signal from the input interface. The
supply to the motors takes place in two phases:
Step 1:
First, the star power supply is established, allowing application of the line supply.
The line supply holds and time-controls the star supply.
Step 2
At the end of the time delay applied to the star supply, the antenna is at its
operational rotating speed.
A power supply switching occurs, the STAR power supply is switched for the
delta power supply.

2.9.7.7 Elapsed time meter


The elapsed time meter is used to count the operating time of the motor to which
it is associated.
The counting is initiated by the star-delta switchover.

2.9.7.8 Power Supply for Two Clutch Mechanisms


The two-speed power cabinet AP 821 provides 24 V voltage (110V at Ohakea
from the AP820) used to supply the clutch mechanisms.

The power supply for the clutch mechanism is generated by two transformers and
two diode bridges from the three-phase mains system.

Each transformer is protected by a circuit-breaker in the three-phase system.


Transmission of the power supply is enabled by control signals from the antenna
control unit through the input interface. The enable function is provided by relays
K1 and K2.

2.9.8 Overload Detection


The power supply to the "Georgian" cards is enabled to measure the motor power
supply current.

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2.9.8.1 Current measurement
The current measurement is achieved by two transformers on phases Q1 (motor
#1) and Q2 (motor #2) of the three-phase supply to the motors.
The primary-secondary transformer ratio is equal to "3"
The result of the measurement is sent to the -Georgian card.
A current divider is used to obtain, at the input of the "Georgian" card, a current
which is identical during high and low speed rotation of the antenna drive platform
motors.

2.9.8.2 "Georgian" comparator card


The current measured is compared to a adjustable reference in the card. In the
event of an over-current (overload for duration exceeding adjustable time delay),
a switching control 51 is sent to the antenna control unit through the input
interface. This signal enables simultaneous operation of the two motors.
When the current consumption for each motor exceeds the pre-adjusted
threshold of each of the two Georgian cards for a time period greater than the
time delays, a control 52 is applied to the antenna control unit causing shutdown
of the motors.
Adjustment
1. a potentiometer to determine the reference current value (trigger value). The
adjustment is carried out on the two cards
2. potentiometer to determine the time delay in the "Georgin" card.
2.9.9 Power Supply 24 V for Antenna Control Unit
This power supply is generated from the 24 V voltage generated for supply of the
clutch mechanism.
The 24 V voltage is generated using both supplies the outputs of which are "OR-
wired" .

2.9.10 Interface
This interface provides the input and output interfacing function.
It comprises all the relays in the power cabinet (both versions).
The relays are supplied by controls from the antenna control unit and from the
antenna drive platform. The relay switches are used to establish links with
external equipment and enable controls inside the power cabinet.
It also includes switches set in operating position when the power cabinet is
powered-up.

2.9.10.1 Time Delay For Switching Star Power Supply & Delta Power Supply
This adjustment consists of adjusting the time for the relays to obtain a time delay
of 3 to 4 seconds.

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CD840 ENCODING & DISTRIBUTION UNIT - PRIMARY RADAR Page 2 - 145
2.10 CD840 Azimuth Encoding Unit
Purpose
1. the processing function copying the azimuth position of the antenna,
2. the distribution function.
2.10.1 Antenna Azimuth Position Processing Function
This function generates the azimuth clock pulses and the North signal, distributed
to the TVD900 and ING1010.
An optical encoder transmits to the copy processing function its information in the
form of series words supplied at a rate of 1 clock on each interrogation signal
from the copy processing function

The information from the optical encoder is available at the output of the serial-
parallel converter for acknowledgment by the correlation function.
The variation of the word from the optical encoder is less than the interrogation
frequency. It depends on the speed of rotation of the encoder (and therefore on
the antenna).The same word can be presented 10 to 30 times in succession to
the processing function, depending on the speed of rotation of the antenna.
The principle of correlation used consists in comparing the Instantaneous
information obtained from the optical encoder with the expected information
(corresponding to the previous moment), stored in a register during the previous
correlation.
The generation of the "increment" signal Is carried out after correlation of three
successive words from the optical encoder.
This table is supplied as an example. The number of consecutive identical data
items from the optical encoder depends upon the antenna's speed of rotation. To
do away with interference that could perturb correlation, an artificial increment
(EA) is generated to replace a missing increment.

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Page 2 - 146 PRIMARY RADAR CD840 ENCODING & DISTRIBUTION UNIT

Figure 67 - Data Correlation


This generation of artificial increments can be carried out three times in
successions, without affecting the operation of the unit. Beyond this, the
microprocessor transmits failure Information to the remote control (or to the
remote monitoring), via the appropriate interface.

Figure 68 - Data Correlation with Spurious Info

Legend: n signifies spurious and is translated by an incoherent value.

The generation and setting of the "North Signal" are obtained by comparison
between the data received from the optical encoder with a 14-bit word
programmable on site by microswitches. The "increment" signal from correlation,
or generated artificially, together with the "North signal", are distributed toward the
station's associated equipment.
The function always works on 14 bits and generates E and SN signals on 14 bits.
For the Primary Radar equipment requiring signals "E" and "SN" on "12" bits, they
are obtained by dividing the previous bits by 4.
This "antenna azimuth position copy processing" function also ensures:
an alignment check of the "North signal", generated with respect to reference
"North signal" information, external and set by microswitches,
a check of the antenna speed of revolution.
The results of these checks are transmitted to a microprocessor which works out
the status and malfunction data.
This processing function is duplicated. The choice of signals from functions A or B
is made through a programmed logic working on the tristate distribution circuits.
Switching to the function not selected by the operator is carried out automatically
in the event of a failure being declared by the selected function.

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2.10.2 Distribution Function

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2.10.3 BITE TAC401
The tasks accomplished by the BITE card:
1. data exchanges with the equipment,
2. status processing,
3. data safeguarding,
4. data exchanges with the Processor,
5. input/output exchanges with the RCMS.

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PRIMARY RADAR - TE802 TEST UNIT Page 2 – 150

2.11 TE810-I Test Beacon

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TE810-L TEST BEACON - PRIMARY RADAR Page 2 - 151

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2.12 TE 802 Test Unit

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Page 2 – 156 PRIMARY RADAR - BLACK BOX SELECTOR
2.13 Black Box Video Selectors

TRIGGER SELECTION
The trigger to be used for each type of video are indicated on the table below

SV1 SYRS1 SYTE802


VID.1/2 X
VFEPR 1/2 X
VBR 1/2 X
LOG 1/2 X
SSR 1/2 X

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2.14 Mains Distribution AE2000

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 1
SECTION 3: OVERVIEW OF SSR

3.1 Introduction to Secondary Radar


A radar system where a radio signal transmitted from the radar station initiates
the transmission of a radio signal from another station.

For ATC Radar the secondary radar system uses ground transmitters/receivers
(interrogators) and airborne transponders conforming to specifications developed
by ICAO

The interrogator transmissions are made on a frequency of 1030 MHz (approx.


29 cm) with coded pulses called Modes.
On receiving an interrogator signal on the mode to which it is set, the transponder
responds with a transmission on a frequency of 1090 MHz. These responses are
in the form of codes.
Note: All current civil SSR systems use the same frequencies. i.e.
 1030 MHz for the ground to air transmissions, and
 1090 MHz for the air to ground transmissions.

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Page 3 - 2 MSSR OVERVIEW
3.1.1 Advantages of SSR over Primary Radar
1. Less transmitter power is required resulting in more efficient and less
complex transmitter and receiver.
The interrogator signal only has to travel one way (ie. half the distance of
a primary pulse for a target at the same range).
A reply transmission is then triggered from the transponder using power
supplied by the aircraft.
For SSR Range is proportional to 2 Tx Power
For PSR Range is proportional to 4 Tx Power
2. The response strength is independent of target size, attitude or material.
3. Positive ATC identification may be made without aircraft manoeuvres.
4. Special reply codes can be used to indicate the aircraft's level.
5. These last two items help in considerably reducing air-to-ground R/T.
6. special reply codes are used to indicate emergency, RCF or unlawful
interference.
7. There is no unwanted ground or weather clutter. Since the interrogator
transmits on 1030 MHz any reflected signals will also be on that frequency and
thus will be ignored by the receiver which is tuned to 1090 MHz.

3.1.2 Disadvantages of SSR over Primary Radar


In addition to the foregoing advantages there are also some disadvantages of
SSR:
1. Aircraft must have a serviceable transponder; aircraft not so equipped will
not be displayed at all.
2. False targets or clutter may be produced under certain circumstances.
These occasions are minimised by electronic processing.
3. Information on adverse weather is not available when required.
4. Weak or corrupted signals from the transponder are rejected by the ground
based decoding system.

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 3
3.1.3 The Monopulse SSR System

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Page 3 - 4 MSSR OVERVIEW
3.1.4 Antenna
The antenna component of an SSR interrogator is constructed so that the
transmitted signal is beamed, as with primary radar, to provide a narrow
beamwidth in azimuth combined with a wide coverage in elevation. In monopulse
SSR this requirement is obtained by feeding the 35 antenna elements in phase.
The Large Vertical Aperture (LVA) array consists of 35 columns of 11 vertical
dipoles at the front and one vertical column of 11 dipoles mounted on the
antenna centre at the rear.
This results in a beamwidth of approximately 2.4 degrees which is somewhat
wider than for comparable primary radars.

Additionally the antenna houses a phase and amplitude distribution network. The
azimuth distribution determines the azimuth coverage and the vertical distribution
determines the elevation coverage.

3.1.5 Channels

The antenna has 3 channels, Sum (Σ), Difference (Δ) and Control (Ω).
The SSR receives on all channels but only transmits on the Sum and Control
channels.

3.1.5.1 Sum Radiation Pattern

The Sum pattern is used for transmit and receive.

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 5
3.1.5.2 Difference Radiation Pattern

The Difference pattren is only use for receive.

3.1.5.3 Control Radiation Pattern

The Control pattern is used for transmit and receive.

3.1.5.4 Combined Transmit Radiation Pattern

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Page 3 - 6 MSSR OVERVIEW
3.1.5.5 Combined Receive Polar Pattern

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 7
3.1.5.6 Elevation Pattern

All antenna columns have the above pattern shape in the elevation plane. The
squint angle decreases low angle gain. In receive mode this feature will remove
or considerably decrease the amplitude of any ground reflections.

The tilt of the Thomson antenna can also be adjusted and most point down a
little. All ACNZ antenna’s were adjusted to an operational optimum.

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Page 3 - 8 MSSR OVERVIEW
3.1.6 Transmit Specifications

3.1.6.1 Frequency

Sum channel: 1030MHz ± 200KHz (ICAO)


1030MHz ± 10KHz (Thomson)

Control channel: 1030MHz ± 200KHz (ICAO)


1030MHz ± 10KHz (Thomson)

3.1.6.2 Pulse Stream

P1 P3

Sum

P2

Control

Figure 10 - Pulse Stream

3.1.6.3 Pulse Height

P3 should not differ more than 1dB wrt P1


P2 should be less than -9dB within the main sum lobe.
P2 should be equal to or greater than the radiated amplitude of P1 from
the greatest side-lobe transmissiom of the antenna radiating P1.

3.1.6.4 Pulse Spacing

P1 to P2 2uS ± 0.15uS
P1 to P3 Mode A 8uS ± 0.1uS (Ident)
Mode C 21uS ± 0.1uS (Altitude)

During transmission the pulse spacing is alternated between Mode A and


Mode C. This process is called “Interlacing”.

3.1.6.5 Pulse Shape

The following specifications apply to P1, P2 and P3.


Rise Time 0.075uS to 0.025uS
Duration 0.8uS ± 0.1uS
Fall Time 0.125uS to 0.075uS

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 9
3.1.6.6 PRF

Less than or equal to 450 interrogations/sec. Interrogations are staggered (jitter).


The time interval between interrogations varies from one repetition period to
another as follows: 0uS, +10uS, +20uS, -20uS, -10uS.

The PRF of each MSSR owned by Airways is different and is approximately 285
interrogations/sec. At each site the PRF of both transmitters differs by
approximately 1Hz. This is necessary to prevent the torpedo effect occurring.

3.1.6.7 Power

Sum Channel ≥ 1.5kw peak


Control Channel ≥ 1.2kw peak

3.1.6.8 Other Modes

The P1-P2 spacing is always constant at 2uS however the following additional
modes exist where the P1 - P3 spacing is as follows:

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Page 3 - 10 MSSR OVERVIEW
3.1.7 Receive Specifications

3.1.7.1 Frequency
On all 3 channels (sum, diff, control) the receive frequency is
1090MHz ± 3MHz (ICAO).

The Thomson Receiver 3dB bandwidth is 11 MHz.

3.1.7.2 Intermediate Frequency

IF 60MHz
dynamic Range -20dBm to -80dBm.

3.1.7.3 Replies

The reply pulse stream includes:

F1 C1 A1 C2 A2 C4 A4 x B1 D1 B2 D2 B4 D4 F2 SPI

Figure 11 - Reply Code

5. The two Framing Pulses (F1, F2) are spaced 20.3uS apart.
6. Information pulses spaced in increments of 1.45uS from the first framing
pulse.
7. Special Position Identification (SPI) pulse may be transmitted. It is spaced
4.35uS after the second framing pulse.
8. The X pulse is not transmitted.

3.1.7.4 Pulse Shape


Rise Time 0.05uS to 0.1 uS
Duration 0.45uS ± 0.1uS
Fall Time 0.05uS to 0.2uS

3.1.7.5 Pulse Height

The pulse amplitude variation of one pulse wrt any other pulse in a reply train
shall not exceed 1dB.

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 11
3.1.7.6 Decoding

F1 C1 A1 C2 A2 C4 A4 X B1 D1 B2 D2 B4 D4 F2

Figure 12 – Mode A Reply

A1 = 1 A2 = 0 A4 = 0 therefore A = 1
B1 = 1 B2 = 0 B4 = 1 therefore B = 5
C1 = 0 C2 = 1 C4 = 1 therefore C = 6
D1 = 0 D2 = 0 D4 = 1 therefore D = 4

Hence the identification code is 1564

3.1.7.7 Aircraft Reply Delay

The standard delay time from reception to transmission at the aircraft is 3uS ±
0.5uS.

P1 P2 P3

Tx

3uS
F1 C1

Rx

Figure 13 – Aircraft Reply Delay

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Page 3 - 12 MSSR OVERVIEW
3.1.8 Principles of Side lobe Suppression

3.1.8.1 Receiver Sidelobe Suppression (RSLS)


The receiver compares the amplitude of the signals received in the "Sum" and
"Control" channels.
If Vsum > Vcontrol + K1dB the signals from the major lobe and is processed.
If Vsum < Vcontrol + K1dB the signal from a side lobe and is not processed.

K1 is an adjustable gain co-efficient (0 dB 1 OdB) which can be applied to the


Channel.
The control channel has approximately the same gain in all directions. It should
be at least equal to the gain of the sum main-pattern-sidelines.

For an Aircraft in major lobe axis.


The level of the signal received in the Sum Channel is greater than the level of
the signal received in the Control Channel therefore the aircraft reply is decoded.

For an Aircraft in a side lobe axis.


The level of the signal received in the Control Channel predominates therefore
the aircraft reply is not decoded.

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 13
3.1.8.2 Interrogation Side Lobe Suppression

The aircraft receiver compares the amplitude of pulses and only replies if the levels
verify the equation:
P1 (=P3) > ( P2 + KdB), with K between 0-9.

The equation will only be true if the interrogated aircraft is close to the axis of the main
Sum lobe.

For an Aircraft in the axis of the major lobe.


The transponder receives pulses P1 and P3 at a level in excess of P2 therefore a reply
is sent.

For the Aircraft in the axis of the side lobe.


The transponder receives pulse P2 at a higher level than P1 and P3 and does not reply.

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Page 3 - 14 MSSR OVERVIEW
3.1.9 Off-Boresight Angle (OBA)
3.1.9.1 Conventional SSRs
Conventional SSR Interrogators do not utilise the Delta channel and therefore
can only use the Sigma lobe to determine target azimuth. The Sigma lobe
beamwidth is not sufficiently narrow to accurately determine the aircraft's
position. That is, the Sigma lobe opens on an unpredictable angle on either side
of the Antenna axis. Several interrogations are necessary to calculate a mean
position and the resultant plots tend to wander.






Figure 16 - Conventional SSRs

3.1.9.2 Monopulse SSR

Uses the Delta channel and 1 of 2 methods to calculate the target azimuth wrt
antenna boresite ( OBA ).
The final target azimuth will be the antenna boresite angle ( wrt Nth) ± the OBA.

The two methods available for measuring the OBA are:


1. Amplitude Comparison
2. Double Estimate Phase Comparison

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 15
3.1.9.3 Amplitude Comparison
Within the 3dB point of the major lobe the sum varies little in amplitude but the
difference varies considerably. The ratio of Sum and Difference is used to
determine the ±OBA.

The sum and difference patterns near the maximum radiation axis of the antenna
have the signal strength curves 1 and 2 respectively.
The aircraft replies received on the Sum and Difference patterns are sent to two
identical receivers.
The outputs are used to form curve 3 which is the ratio of Difference/Sum. Over
the dynamic range of received signals, amplitude tracking errors occur between
the two channels. This results in inaccuracies.

3.1.9.4 Double Estimation Phase Comparison


For every pulse received from a target the RSM receiver feeds the Sigma and
Delta signals through quadrature couplers to form "Sigma - jDelta" and "Delta-
jSigma" signals. These signals are separately compared in phase wrt Sigma (
double estimation) and the results added in a summing amplifier.
The Summing Amplifier output provides a pulse whose amplitude is in the range
:to.78V depending on the aircraft's position wrt boresite.
This method is almost immune from phase and amplitude tracking errors
between the two Sigma and Delta channels and reliably measures the OBA.
A true and smooth plot is achievable as shown below.
. ♦



Figure 18 - MSSR Smooth Plot


The Double Estimation Phase Comparison method is used in our equipment.
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Page 3 - 16 MSSR OVERVIEW
3.1.9.5 ERM use of OBA
In the ERM the analog OBA voltage is digitised into 6 bits plus a sign and
corrected to remove antenna inaccuracies. The digital resolution is in steps of
0.022° ( ie the same resolution supplied by the optical encoders for the antenna
position ).

Note that ±26 = ± 64 steps


± 64 x 0.022° = ± 1.42°

ie the measurement range either side of the boresite is ± 1.42° in steps of 0.022°

For each data bit received in a reply from an aircraft the ERM provides an OBA
value.

3.1.9.6 TPR use of OBA

The TPR uses the OBA values for 2 purposes.


1. Target azimuth accuracy
For each reply the average OBA value of the first and last pulses is added or
subtracted to the Antenna boresite value reported by the optical encoder. The
result is a target azimuth with a ± 0.044° resolution.

2. Degarbling
For each reply the OBA value of each pulse is validated against a reference.
Invalid reply pulses are rejected on the basis they are from signals received from
a target on a different azimuth.

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 17
Example

Aircraft at 110acp’s
Range 115NM
Ant azimuth 100acp’s

Time 0uS Interrogator transmits Ant Az = 100


Time 713uS Aircraft receis interrogation Ant Az = 102
Time 716uS Aircraft transmits reply Ant Az = 102
Time 1429uS Interrogator’s receives reply Ant Az = 104

Example
Azimuth at the time of interrogation 100 ACP
Azimuth at the time of interrogation + 4 ACP
104 ACP

Plus or minus OBA in ACPs + 6 ACP


Plus or minus OBA in ACPs 110 ACP

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Page 3 - 18 MSSR OVERVIEW
3.1.10 Common SSR Problems
3.1.10.1 False Replies Unsynchronised in Time (Fruit)
Consider an instant in time where the main lobes of two SSR stations are
directed at the same aircraft.
Station A interrogates the aircraft and both stations receive the resultant reply as
shown below.
At Station B the unsolicited reply is called "fruit".

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 19
3.1.10.2 Defruiting
De-fruiting is achieved in the ERM 870 during processing by correlating replies
to the staggered interrogations. That is a 2 out of 3 comparison is carried out by
sampling the last two periods in the same mode. Incoming replies that are not
synchronised to outgoing interrogations are rejected.

Raw Video Replies Defruited replies


after video
correlation

Distance

F1 F2

At least 2/3 Correlation

Figure 20 – Defruiting

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Page 3 - 20 MSSR OVERVIEW
3.1.10.3 Garbling

Two aircraft may met the following criteria at the same time:
Consider
1. same or nearly the same distance from the station.
3. same or nearly the same azimuth.
4. different heights

The two received codes overlap, this is called "interleaved"

De-interleaving is achieved by sorting in the Tracker Prcessor according to the


OBA value assigned to each individual pulse.

Since the F1 pulse of the closest aircraft is not garble all pulses whose OBA
value matches that of F1 are grouped together to form one reply.

Since the F2 pulse of the furthermost aircraft is not garbled all pulses whose
OBA value matches that of F'2 are grouped together to form the second reply.

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 21
3.1.10.4 Reflections
When a signal transmitted from a source travels directly to a receiving antenna
the path taken is called a 'direct path'. When the same signal travels via a
reflecting plane to the receiving antenna the path taken is called a 'indirect path'
and the delayed signal is a reflection. As shown in following drawing, reflections
can occur in the elevation and azimuth planes.

Reflections are eliminated during processing by a combination of or anyone of


the following techniques:
1. RSLS in the RSM Video processing, if the reflection is in the azimuth plane.
2. TVBC in the RSM Video processing, if the reflection is in the azimuth or
elevation plane. Eight choices of TVBC curves are available for up to 360
sectors. The option TVBC law is selected to ensure direct path signal while
inhibiting indirect path signals as shown in the diagram below. In practice this
method is over 90% effective in eliminating these types of reflections. The
disadvantage of applying TVBC is that higher laws desensitise the receiver
reducing low level coverage.

3. Code correlation in the TPR 1000, ie two plots should not have the same
identification codes.
4. MRT filtering.
5. Antenna design.

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Page 3 - 22 MSSR OVERVIEW
3.1.10.5 Torpedo Effect

Torpedo effect manifests itself on the PVD by displaying an echo flying almost
laterally (at very high speed) across the track of the original target This can
only occur when the standby RSM 970 transmitter is operating into the dummy
load and both RSMs are set to the same PRF. Torpedo Effect is caused by either
RF radiating from the dummy load and/or coupling across the antenna
changeover relay and radiating from the antenna.. Aircraft at close range <60nm )
receive the standby interrogations and reply. Most of the time the replies to the
standby interrogations will be unsynchronised wrt the operational interrogations
and therefore will be rejected by 2 out of 3 correlation in the operational ERM870.

Theoretically, PRF staggering in both RSMs should prevent synchronisation,


however the simple pseudo nature of the staggering program means the two
PRFs will pass through synchronisation for a brief period assuming the standby
transmitter is on. Before and after this occurrence, the standby replies are
accepted by the operational ERM, ie the replies are within the 2 out of 3 window.
The result is the torpedo effect.

This effect is disturbing for ATC. STI 395 requires compliance to the following
solution.

Solution
The solution is to offset one transmitter PRF by 1 Hz wrt the other.
The interrogation PRF is set by bit switches in terms of time.
A difference of 10uS is approximately equal to 1 Hz.

The solution came from the Australians who have their standby's on continuously
so they can be monitored.

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MSSR OVERVIEW Page 3 – 23
3.1.10.6 Second Time Around Replies
One limiting factor of the operational range of the SSR is the PRF.

Both aircraft receive interrogations and both transmit replies however the
distance of Aircraft B could be such that its replies arrive soon after the SSR
interrogates for the second time (and subsequent times).
In this situation the aircraft would appear to be at very short range.
The solution is to stagger the PRF of the Interrogations which means that the
replies from Aircraft B will not correlate.

3.1.10.7 Group Capture


ICAO state that "After reception of a proper interrogation, the transponder shall
not reply to any other interrogation, at least for the duration of the reply pulse
train. This dead time shall end no later than 125uS after the transmission of the
last reply pulse of the group."
Therefore the aircraft transponder will not reply to an interrogation if it is in the
process of replying to an interrogation from another SSR.
Again this problem is solved by the use of staggered PRF.

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Page 3 - 24 MSSR OVERVIEW

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MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER Page 3 – 25
3.2 RSM 970 Monopulse Secondary Radar
3.2.1 Purpose
1. Transmitter, Receiver.
2. Interrogate all aircraft in the coverage zone.
3. Receive data from the interrogated aircraft.
4. Develop a unique voltage directly proportional to aircraft position wrt the
boresite, for all aircraft positioned within the main lobe,
5. Ensure maximum availability due duplication.
6. Built In Test Equipment.

3.2.2 Sub Functions:


1. Interrogation (transmission).
2. Reception.
3. Control:
4. Front Panel (Microterminal),
5. Card Rack Remote.
6. Switching:
7. RF: ch 1 or 2 using coaxial relays, diplexing using circulators.
8. Video's: operational RSM to both Extractors.
9. Power Supply.

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MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER Page 3 – 27

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Page 3 - 28 MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER

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MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER Page 3 – 29
3.2.3 RSM 970

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Page 3 - 30 MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER
3.2.4 Transmitter
Purpose
1. Modulates the 1030MHz LO Signal with the P1 P2 & P3 pulses & amplifies
these RF pulses to 1500Watts.
2. Switches the P2 RF pulse to the Control Feed via the diplexer.
3. Feeds the Sigma feed with the P1 & P3 RF pulses.

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MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER Page 3 – 31
3.2.5 Receiver
Purpose
The receiver amplifies replies to interrogations and can be divided into three sub-
functions:
1. Local Oscillator; generates the frequency used in the receiver mixing stages,
Receiver testing and as an RF source for the transmitter.
2. Generation of IF which includes a Test Coupler and Angle Error measurement
circuits.
3. Video processing; generates all outgoing signals and the built in test signals
for the receiver.

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Page 3 - 32 MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER
3.2.6 Test Coupler

Purpose
1. Tests the receiver using a 1090MHz test signal generated from the Master
Oscillator coupled into the receiver inputs.
2. Checks the receiver alarm and pre-alarm points.

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MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER Page 3 – 33
3.2.7 Video PC Test Control

Purpose
1. Provides the control timing & sequence for the Test Signals at the Receiver
input.

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Page 3 - 34 MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER

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MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER Page 3 – 35
3.2.8 Preamplifier, Mixer and Filters
Purpose
1. The Σ and Δ channels are combined in a hybrid to produce Σ -jΔ and Δ - jΣ
signals in preparation for the angle error measurement.
2. Σ, Δ, Ω RF Inputs mixed with 1030MHz LO to obtain IF's of 60MHz.

3.2.9 Log Amplifier/Angle Error Measurement


Purpose
1. Produces Log Σ, Log Δ and Log Ω video signals.
2. Produces positive or negative pulses directly proportional to the OBA.

 Preamplifier Mixer & Filter   Log Ampl / Angle Error Measurement 

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Page 3 - 36 MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER
3.2.10 Video Processing
Purpose
1. Processes the Log Σ video with TVBC, Half height detection & FAR to produce
the Q Σ video.
2. Compares the Log Σ signal with the Log Ω to produce Q RSLS Signal.
3. Buffers the P1/P2 synch.

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MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER Page 3 – 37
3.2.11 Time Varied Base Clipping

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Page 3 - 38 MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER
3.2.12 Receiver Test
Purpose
1. Provides a sensitivity and noise check of the output of the Logarithmic
Amplifier output.

2. Processes the test signals from the LO.

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MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER Page 3 – 39
3.2.13 Local Oscillator

Purpose
1. 1030 MHz output supplied to the receiver mixer on the Video Generation
Board.
2. 1030 MHz VCO output is supplied to the transmitter.
3. 1090 MHz VCO output is supplied to the transmitter.
4. This signal is divided by 64 and is then compared to a 16.09375 MHz signal
from the crystal oscillator. The result of this comparison corrects the frequency
of the VCO.
5. The 16 MHz reference is detected, Anded with the error volts and sent to the
BITE to verify normal operation.

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Page 3 - 40 MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER
3.2.14 RSM Outputs
Outputs
Four video signals are available at the RSM output for the ERM extraction input.

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MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER Page 3 – 41
3.2.15 Control Rack

Purpose
1 . Provides timing and encoding of the Interrogation signals.
2. Controls reception with TVBC.
3. Tests the Transmitter and Receiver
4. Interfaces with the front Panel and RCMS

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Page 3 - 42 MSSR - RSM 970 RECEIVER / TRANSMITTER
3.2.16 Transfer System
Purpose
1. Provides automatic changeover of a failed RSM.
2. Switches the Antenna to one of the two RSM.
3. Switches signals from one of the two RSM Receiver units to both the ERM
Extractor Units.

To perform Video switching, a double switching circuit is used, based on control


signals from the Control Panel, this circuit (using a PROM) delivers the control
and status signals for the video and coaxial relays.
Note: Always select RSM #1 as Main when returning the equipment to operation.

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MSSR ERM 870 – VIDEO PROCESSOR Page 3 – 43
3.3 ERM 870 Monopulse Reply Extractor
Purpose
1. Video processing to process replies to interrogations.
2. Suppress non-synchronous replies (defruiting).
3. Correct OBA measurement.
4. Message generation and transfer of "presence" and "recurrence" messages
containing status of the equipment, mode of interrogation, antenna azimuth,
range of target, reply data and quality bits.

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MSSR ERM 870 – VIDEO PROCESSOR Page 3 – 45
3.4 Output Messages

3.4.1 Presence Message


Each of the 11 words of the message has the following meaning
1. 14-bit range code (p-1 to p12),
2. correction between the antenna position at the time of presence detection
and the antenna position at zero range (Ø0 to Ø4),
3. 14-bit code content (SPI to C1 and X),
4. various doubt bits (Bdn),
5. measurements of the angle-error video (OBA) on each of the 3 code pulses
(SPI to C1),
6. the selected angle-error reference.

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Page 3 - 46 MSSR ERM 870 – VIDEO PROCESSOR MSSR
3.4.2 Start of recurrence
These messages are stored on the reception of a sync signal and indicate
1. the interrogation mode (1,2, 3/A, B, C, D) depending on the states of Mode bits
2. the antenna angular position in a 14-bit code (Ø0 to Ø13)
3. the ERM 870 status, i.e.:
 serviceable status (S = 0 ERM available),
 failed status F (F = 1 failure),
 maintenance status (M = 0 ERM in maintenance).

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MSSR – TPR1000 TRACKER PROCESSOR Page 3 – 47
3.5 Tracking Processor
3.5.1 Application Software Description
Processing has two functions
1 . Post Processing
Processing generates plots from the presence and recurrence messages
received from the ERM 870.
Essentially this is "reply to plot" correlation (in terms of range, azimuth and code).
If correlation fails, a new plot is created.
One plot is generated per scan. The plot contains all the information associated
with one aircraft. At least two replies are required since two interrogation modes
are transmitted. More will be required in the case of garbling.

2. Tracking
Tracks are generated from plots, one for each aircraft and updated every antenna
scan.
Essentially this is "plot to tracks" correlation, "scan to scan" correlation,
"reflections" processing and track prediction.
If correlation fails a new "track" is initialised.

Processing carries out the following tasks:


1. Acquisition of messages from the ERM870.
2. Processing of "recurrence" and "presence" messages to produce plots and
hence tracks.
3. Scan to scan correlation.

4. Initialisation of new tracks.


5. Tracks updating.
6. Tracks transmission to the Centre.
7. Control and Monitoring.
3.5.2 Post Processing
The "presence" and "start of recurrence messages" from the ERM 870 are loaded
into the processor by direct memory access (DMA) using a "ready -
acknowledge" procedure. The DMA's are in blocks of fixed size messages (11
x16 bits).
Message processing is in order of arrival in the FIFO organised memory, that is,
by recurrence and increasing distance.

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Page 3 - 48 MSSR – TPR1000 TRACKER PROCESSOR
3.5.2.1 Start of Recurrence
The "Start of Recurrence" message is used for
1. Mode recognition.
2. Antenna azimuth acquisition
3. Division of the antenna scan into 32 blocks (360° / 32 = 11.25°).
4. Control the process timing.

3.5.2.2 Presence message


The "Presence" message is used for Identification of special replies, ie:
 Military Ident (1M).
 Military Emergency (OM).
 Fictitious Plot (PF).

3.5.2.3 OBA Sampling


 Code bits are verified by comparing them with the Ref OBA (ie degarbling, if
necessary).
 A quality bit, indicating clear code (ie not garbled) or not, is determined and
associated with each code bit.
 if Bit 6 is set, calculate average of all clear code OBA's.
 calculate final target azimuth.

3.5.2.4 Elimination of Phantom Presences. C2 - SPI


If the C2 and the SPI pulses are present in a single reply (C2 - SPI spacing is
20.3uS), a second phantom presence occurs. The second presence is searched
for and eliminated.

3.5.2.5 Reply to Plot Correlation:


Reply to Plot Correlation is in the following order, a failure at any point results in a
the creation of a new plot:
 Range.
 Azimuth.
 codes (max of 4, we have 2, ident and height).

3.5.2.6 Log Sigma bits are stored

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MSSR – TPR1000 TRACKER PROCESSOR Page 3 – 49
3.5.2.7 Output Message
A plot message is assembled and contains the following:
1. Plot range (14 bits, LSB 240nS).
2. Azimuth (14 bits, LSB 0.022°).
3. Log Σ, sum channel bits (8 bits)
4. Code (13 bits), with a garbling validation indication associated with the code
(maximum of 4 modes, ours is 2).
5. Quality bits (13) associated with each code bit.
6. Indicators, DM, IM, SPI, and PF.
End of Block messages are generated to sequence the tracking and multi-radar
processors.
There are 32 of these per antenna revolution, ie one per 11.25°.
They indicate the radar north origin, the present position of the antenna.
Status message indicating the ERM 870 status. - S available - F out of order - M
being serviced.

3.5.2.8 Test
During operation two types of tests are carried out. I
1. The characteristics of the fictitious plots, generated by the ERM 870, are
checked.
2. Limited processor specific checks, ie parity, execution, etc.
During maintenance, extensive processor specific checks are run, ie instruction
field check, memory check, etc.

3.5.3 Track Processing


3.5.3.1 Correlation
The processor searches for a possible match between a plot and the track which
corresponds to the same target.
The processor initialises a new tracks for the plots that can not be associated
with any existing tracks.
In order to make the "plot to tracks research" easier, the radar coverage is
divided into cells
In azimuth
The coverage is divided into 32 sectors, according to the End of Block messages
(1 sector = 11.25°)
In range
The coverage is divided into 8 circular areas (32 NM for a range of 256M). Tracks
are generated from plots, one for each aircraft and updated every scan.
Essentially this is "plot to tracks" correlation, "scan to scan" correlation, and track
prediction.
If correlation fails a new "track" is initialised.
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Page 3 - 50 MSSR – TPR1000 TRACKER PROCESSOR
The plot to track correlation test includes 3 steps:
1. Research of the correlation sectors which are involved in this test.
One research window is created around the plot.
The figure below shows the rectangular window, which is oriented according to
the speed vector, and created around the predicted position of the track. It is
characterised by 3 dimensions A, D and E which take into account the
acceleration, deceleration and the evolution of the target and the noise of the
radar.

2 A preliminary test analyses the sectors involved in this correlation. Only the
tracks found in the research window are made available for correlation.

3. The correlation test, verifies if the plot is inside one correlation window of the
track.
The window is recalculated after each track updating.
Should conflicts arise the plots and tracks involved are gathered together into one
set, called an Independent Conflict Case (ICC).
Several cases are possible and several criterion's are applied to determine the
best possible plot to track association.

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Page 3 - 52 MSSR – TPR1000 TRACKER PROCESSOR

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MSSR – TPR1000 TRACKER PROCESSOR Page 3 – 53
3.5.4 SSR Track Data Message

Description:

Byte 0 : 'EF : message code

Byte 1 : '20 : message byte count

Byte 2 : Service byte


In case of emergency (Military or Civilian) P=0 and F=1
In other cases P=1 and F=O
C1 : Code 1 Coasted
C2 : Code 2 Coasted.
C3 : Code 3 Coasted.
IP = 1 if SPI detected in SSR reply
N: TPR1000 number
T=1 if test plot

Byte 3 : TPR1000 track quality (from 0 to 112 )

Byte 4 : Q0,Q1 number of detection misses


SA set if secondary associated with primary
RF set if expected reflection

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Page 3 - 54 MSSR – TPR 1000 TRACKER PROCESSOR

Byte 5 (and 4):Track number on 9 bits

Byte 6-7 : X coordinate in 1/32 NM in the radar centred reference

Byte 8-9 : Y coordinate in 1/32 NM in the radar centred reference

Byte 10-11 : DX and DY : speed vector coordinates in 10 seconds, unit is 1/32 NM.

Byte 12-13: smoothed speed module in knots

Byte 14-19: SSR response in 3 possible modes


C: doubtful bit (garbling)
M2,MI,M0: SSR mode

M2 M1 M0 SSR MODE
0 0 0 no answer
0 0 1 mode A
0 1 0 mode B
0 1 1 mode C
1 0 0 mode D
1 0 1 mode 1
1 1 0 mode 2
1 1 1 not used

SSR codes are expressed in 4 octal digits (= 12 bits)

Mode C information is coded in binary on 12 bits,


negative values are coded as 2's complement.

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MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM Page 3 – 55
3.6 Antenna System

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Page 3 - 56 MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM
3.6.1 Antenna AS909
The antenna is used to radiate into space the pulses produced by the interrogator
and to pick up the responses, if any, from the interrogated aircraft.
It consists of :
1. Support structure including four distributor circuits,
2. Tilt adjustment mechanism,
3. 35 radiating columns and 1 rear column, each column consisting of 11 dipoles,
4. Reflecting plane.

3.6.2 Details

Dimensions
Length 8.5 m
Depth 0.85 m
Height 1.9 m
Weight 410 kg approx

Radiating Elements (Column)


Height 1705 mm
Depth 228 mm
Width 22 mm
Weight 4 kg approx

Rotating Speed
Rotating speed in operation: 12RPM approx set to rotate in 4.8 Seconds

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MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM Page 3 – 57
3.6.3 Antenna Structure
The structure consists of a U-shaped monoblock beam.
The beam, made of aluminium sheeting (3 mm thick) is closed on its front by the
distribution circuit.
The rigidity of the assembly is ensured by stiffeners fixed between two points of
the beam and a central pillar.

Distributor Passive
Dipole

Beam

RH end distributor Intermediate Intermediate and LH end


distributor central distributor distributor

FRONT VIEW

Stiffener Rear
Column

Base

Figure 2 - AS 909 Antenna

The beam is supported by a stand consisting of three welded aluminium tubes,


hinged on the U-shaped beam at one end.

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Page 3 - 58 MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM
3.6.3.1 Tilt Adjudtment
Tilt Adjusment
Tie Rod

Figure 3 - Antenna Tilt Adjustment


The tilt of the antenna is adjusted with the help of a turnbuckle and checked by a
vernier mounted on the hinge.

The tilt is secured by two tie rods.


Screws at the end of the shaft, housed in oblong holes, ensure limitation of the
tilting between +10° and -10°.

3.6.3.2 Distributor

Consists of the following four distribution circuits:


1. distribution circuit at the RH end,
2. intermediate distribution circuit,
3. central and intermediate distribution circuit,
4. distribution circuit at the LH end.

The electrical connections between these four circuits are ensured by coaxial
cables.

3.6.3.3 Columns

The antenna includes 36 columns


 35 columns in front
 1 column behind
These thirty-six columns are identical and are built using the triple-plate
technology:
 the two ground surfaces are made of aluminium sheeting (0.8 mm thick),
 the vertical distribution circuit receives the signal through a central connector
and includes eleven radiating elements.
This circuit is made of solid copper with a thickness of 0.5 mm and is held
between the ground surfaces by riveted insulating material.
Each column is protected from outdoor conditions by a polycarbonate radome

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MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM Page 3 – 59
The thirty-five columns are secured on the central beam by means of four lugs
with oblong holes on the beam side for adjustment on site.

Two stiffening rails at the top and bottom of the columns give additional strength
to the set of columns.

3.6.3.4 Reflector
Seventy passive dipoles, 2 per column, are located between the radiating
columns and form the reflector. The dipoles consists of an epoxy tube, dia 10
mm, separated by metal sections.

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Page 3 - 60 MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM

The rear column is secured by means of a U shaped lug with two oblong holes
for adjustment of the column on site.

3.6.3.5 Antenna Specifications:

SWR < 1.5 on each of the channels


Polarization (all channels):vertical
cross-polarization < -25 dB

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MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM Page 3 – 61

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Page 3 - 62 MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM
3.6.4 Distribution Networks
3.6.4.1 Azimuth Distribution Network

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.
MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM Page 3 – 63
Gives the view from behind the antenna and shows the coaxial interconnections
between distributors.
All connectors are standard N-Type, excluding those between the Distributors
and the columns, these are TNC connectors.
The 3 Channels, sum, difference and control are terminated at J01, J02 and J03
respectively on the Central Distributor.
The four distributors determine the shape of the azimuth radiation patterns of the
array.
The 3 inputs are combined and distributed to the columns at their required phase
and amplitudes.
The distributor is constructed of 3 plate stripeline.
Describe the distribution of energy through the four distributors and indicate the
relative amplitudes at each output.

3.6.4.2 Elevation Distribution Network

Each of the columns are identical and interchangeable.


Embedded down the length of each column is an amplitude and phase stripeline
network which connects to the 11 dipoles.
It is this network that determines the elevation coverage pattern of the array.

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3.6.5 Antenna Drive

3.6.5.1 Hydraulic Motor

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MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM Page 3 – 65

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Page 3 - 66 MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM
3.6.5.2 Hydraulic Motor Drive
The oil is pressurised by the pump at the bottom of the page and rotation is
achieved as follows:
1 . Piston position 1
The oil comes in under pressure into the distribution unit, passes through the unit
then pushes the piston. Due to the pressure the roller descends onto the lobe of
the cam causing the cylinder block to rotate clockwise.
2. Piston position 2
The supply passes through a maximum port then decreases as and when the
piston goes out.
3. Piston position 3
When the piston reaches the top of the lobe, the supply is cut off. There is no
further drive power. This is the neutral position. Another position must move
piston to cause it to rise over the following lobe.
4. Piston position 4
When the piston begins to retract again it aligns with a hole in the valving. The oil
can escape towards the tank. This is the beginning of discharge.
5. Piston position 5
Discharge passes through a maximum phase. Then, the discharge hole is closed
gradually. When it reaches the top of the lobe (neutral position), the piston may
begin the next cycle.

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MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM Page 3 – 67
3.6.5.3 Hydraulic Pump

The pump unit supplies the pressurised hydraulic oil for antenna rotation of 6rpm
or 12rpm. A flow regulator ensures constant rotation.
An Air Cooling Fan operates when the oil temperature reaches 50*C
A magnetic oil filter is connected in series with the oil return line. It is a cleanable
filter. When oil flow is terminated the antenna turns freely.
It is fitted with a calibrated electrical clogging indicator (pressure contact) which
initiates an alarm if clogged.
A shutdown occurs if:
1. oil level is too low
2. oil temperature exceeds 90°C,

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Page 3 - 68 MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM
Hydraulic System
Item 2 The pump is driven directly by the shaft of electric motor Item 1 by a semi-
flexible coupling (Item 3). The pump is connected to the 2-positions inlet
block.
Item 4 direct acting discharge valve adjustable with square handle with
locknut and fitted with a protecting cap. This valve protects the circuit of
pump Item 2 against high pressures. Set to 40bar.
Item 6 two-positions direct acting electrovalve used to direct the pump flow
(Item 2) to either the hydraulic motor (Item 27) or the reservoir return.
Item 8 two-positions direct acting electrovalve with preset stackable valves
Item 7 This valve provides low pressure protection for the pump circuit and
can be operated from an optional anemometer (not used).
De-energized position: no wind.
Energized position: strong wind
Item 11 two-positions direct acting electrovalve with flow regulator.
Energized position: hydraulic motor does not spin (power supplies
connected to return line). When the hydraulic power station is shut down,
the hydraulic motor is automatically declutched.
De-energized position: the hydraulic motor receives the pump flow
(low speed) and spins.
Item 10 two-positions direct acting electrovalve with flow regulator.
 De-energized position: hydraulic motor only receives one supply from
pump (left distribution - low speed).
 Energized position: hydraulic motor receives both supplies from pump
(high speed). In both the low and high speed positions, the flow is
regulated by the flow regulator (Item 9).
Item 24 return filter with calibrated safety valve (bypass). This filter is used to
maintain the general return clean. The filter is fitted with a calibrated
electrical clogging indicator.
Item 12 pressure gauge indicating pressure in hydraulic circuit.
Item 14 electrical switch minimum oil level indicator.
Item 16 valve used to isolate hydraulic motor supplies.
Item 17-18 valve and quick coupling for filling tank through filter Item 24.
- Valve and quick coupler for tank draining.
Note: Use a filling unit with a filter to fill the tank.
Item 15 breather for venting the tank through a filter.
Item 19 thermostat, operating on rising temperatures, opening to turn on the aero-
cooling appliance.
Item 20 thermostat, operating on rising temperatures, opening to shut down the
hydraulic installation.
Item 21 oil tap, used to sample oil for pollution analysis
Item 28 magnetic filter, used for removes metal in return of hydraulic motor leaks
Item 25 pre alarm at 85°C ± 3°C should the Air Cooler fail.

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MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM Page 3 – 69

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3.6.6 Rotary Joint Assembly
Purpose
1. Interface the fixed coaxial feeders from the equipment, to the rotating antenna.

There are three Rotary Joints, one for each of the antenna channels (sum,
difference, and control). They are mounted below the antenna turntable.

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MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM Page 3 – 71
3.6.6.1 RF Rotating Joint

3.6.6.2 Rotary Disc

This multi-channel rotary joint has a number of annular channels stacked one on
top of another.
Each channel has a fixed ring and a movable ring (identical rings). Each ring
consists of a set of two transmission lines which are regularly cut and arranged
with respect to one another so that the electrical continuity in phase and
amplitude is uniform at each point in the ring. Under these conditions and
regardless of the angular position of a ring in relation to the other, the signal's
phase and amplitude is transmitted unchanged.
Radio energy is transmitted by coupling which may be compared to mutual
inductance (capacitive effect and inductive effect).

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Page 3 - 72 MSSR ANTENNA SYSTEM
3.6.7 Encoder

Purpose
1. Supplies a serial 14 bit binary word which indicates the position of the
antenna.

Operation
There are two Encoders (fail safe) mounted below the antenna turntable
They are rotated by a centrally mounted shaft (3) which is driven by the hydraulic
motor.
Embedded inside the Encoder is an Optical Disc.
A LED and Light sensor are mounted on opposite sides of the disc so that when
the disc is turned by the shaft the light source is interrupted. That is 16384 times
per revolution.
A 14 stage up-counter is incremented by the Optical sensor.
Therefore each slot represents an azimuth change of 0.022°.
360 ÷ 16384 = 0.022°.
Since the interrogation rate of the CHA800 is 25uS there will be approximately 12
interrogations per ACP at an antenna rotation of 12rpm.
12 rpm = 5 seconds
5/16384 = 305uS (time to move between slots)
305uS/25uS = 12.2 (int's per ACP)

For Training Purpose Only 24/08/03 © Technical Training & Documentation Unit, Airways Corporation of NZ Ltd.