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MODERATED CAUCUS-URUGUAY

Moderated Caucus - “The delegate of URUGUAY would like to raise a motion to


suspend formal debate and move into a moderated caucus on the topic (BELOW) for
total time being 20 minutes and individual speaker's time being 60 seconds.”
Topic 1: Militarization of Space

Topic 2: Commercialization of Space

Topic 3: The Outer Space Treaty of 1967

Topic 4: Military Action leading to Space Debris

SPEECH FOR TOPIC 1

Militarisation of space refers to the placement, development, weaponry, military technology in


outer space. In recent years many treaties have been proposed to further explore regulation of
space militarization and its current and potential impacts on space activities. In 2018 President
Donald Trump announced his intention to develop a new arm of military called the Space Force.

This announcement came on the heels of many years of space militarization advancements from
Russia and China, the United State’s two main rivals in the field of space exploration. China has
developed and tested anti-satellite and anti-ballistic missile weaponry and it is believed this Chinese
technology could destroy all US communication satellites. Its not just about ONLY USA,CHINA AND
RUSSIA BUT ABOUT THE WHOLE WORLD TO MAINTAIN PEACE UPON LAND BUT AS WELL AS THE
OUTER SPACE.

SPEECH FOR TOPIC 2

Throughout human history, the stars have always been a source of awe and curiosity, with many
early cultures looking to the stars for navigation and understanding of the world around them. In
1957 the Soviet Union successfully launched Sputnik 1 into the Earth's orbit, making it the first
artificial satellite. Few years later Yuri Gagarin was sent to space. There were new records day by
day.

Since then, commercial use of space has accelerated rapidly, where we now rely heavily upon
spaced based technologies for navigation, communication, and scientific research .Few examples of
such space based technology include GPS, WEATHER FORECAST, SATELLITE IMAGERY, TELEVISION
NETWORKS, RADIO AND THE LIST GOES ON LONG. GPS is a technology originally deployed in the
1980s by the US military to accurately locate its assets around the world. . In 2000 the system was
fully opened for public. Consumer-facing uses of the GPS system was seen as an enormous
commercial opportunity.

SPEECH FOR TOPIC 3

The Outer Space Treaty of 1967 governs nations on the activities and behaviours they may execute
in outer space. The treaty lays out a basic framework of law including the following main principles: -
The exploration and use of outer space shall be carried out for the benefit and in the interests of all
countries and shall be the province of all mankind;
- Outer space shall be free for exploration and use by all States;

- States shall not place nuclear weapons or other weapons of mass destruction in orbit or on celestial
bodies or station them in outer space in any other manner;

- Astronauts should be regarded as the envoys of mankind;

- States shall be liable for damage caused by their space objects;

- States shall avoid harmful contamination of space and celestial bodies

SPEECH FOR TOPIC 4

One of the hazards associated with military action in space is the man made debris that can cause
damage to spacecraft. Anti-satellite missile tests conducted between the late 70s to mid-2000s have
resulted in space debris. Some attempts have been made to make targeted strikes that reduce the
impact and longevity of debris. More testing and research would be necessary to advance this
technology, potentially opening up the opportunity for more destructive debris entering earth’s
orbit

Questions to Consider:

● What should be the role of the private sector?

○ They are already capable of handling launches and building satellites, what other functions should
they take on, if any?

○ To what extent should governments support them in developing the capacity to take on those
functions?

● What constraints should be placed on the private sector?

○ What regulations should be placed on the private sector?

○ Are there any functions that the private sector should not be allowed to take on?

○ Are there any functions that governments should retain exclusively under their control?

● Technological advancement

○ How will intellectual property developed by the private space sector be handled? Will they be
required to use it for the public good like some governmental agencies are?

○ How can the technologies developed for applications in space be used equitably on Earth?

○ In the past governments were at the trailblazers creating a path that the private sector later
followed, as with technologies like rockets and GPS. What is the role of governments in pushing
space technologies forward and providing space infrastructure the private sector can use? Or should
the private sector alone take the lead from here?

● How should activities in space be coordinated?

○ Who can claim resources in outer space? Can states or companies own anything in space?

○ Should non-governmental entities in space still require the authorization and supervision of a
state that is party to the outer space treaties?
○ How can shared spaces like useful orbits be managed to prevent collisions and ensure they can be
accessed in an equitable manner?

○ How should shared challenges like orbital debris be solved? What is the role of governments and
the private sector in solving them?

● How can all countries enjoy the benefits of space technologies in an equitable manner?

○ What are the roles of governments and the private sector in ensuring this?