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Affiliated to Bangalore University

Recognized by NCTE & Government of Karnataka

College Name:

Second Semester B.Ed.

Subject: - Education
Paper code: EPC-05

Paper: - Pre-Internship

Soft core-01:- Content and Pedagogy of …………………………………………….

Submitted By:-
Register Number:

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Index
SL.
NO CONTENTS PAGE
NO.
1 Micro-Teaching introduction CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É
2 The Skill of Introducing a Lesson (¥ÁoÀ ¥ÀjZÀ¬Ä¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)
3 Episode – Teach ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

4 Episode-Re-Teach ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

5 Micro-Teaching Observation Schedule


(CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)
6 The Skill of Illustrating with Example (GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÉÆA¢UÉ
«±À¢ÃPÀj¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)
7 Episode – Teach ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

8 Episode-Re-Teach ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

9 Micro-Teaching Observation Schedule


(CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)
10 The Skill of Stimulus Variation (G¢ÝÃ¥À£À §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉAiÀÄ P˱À®å)
11 Episode – Teach ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

12 Episode-Re-Teach ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

13 Micro-Teaching Observation Schedule


(CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)
14 Simulated lessons with integration of skills including
instructional materials ( one in each pedagogy subject)

15 Lesson design(four lessons in each pedagogy subject)

16 Simulated lesson with ICT mediation (one in each


pedagogy subject) Power point print out one topic

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MICROTEACHING
Microteaching is a training technique whereby the teacher reviews a videotape of
the lesson after each session, in order to conduct a "post-mortem". Teachers find
out what has worked, which aspects have fallen short, and what needs to be done
to enhance their teaching technique. Invented in the mid-1960s at Stanford
University by Dr. Dwight Allen, micro-teaching has been used with success for
several decades now, as a way to help teachers acquire new skills.

Teaching is the transfer of knowledge from teacher to pupils. It is the facilitation


of the pupils by the teacher in the art of learning. It is a social act of influencing
pupils by the teacher. Teaching as doing anything that might lead to learning. The
minimum requirement of any training programme is that it should enable the
trainee to acquire the basic skills and competencies of a good teacher. Teachers’
performance is most critical in-put in the field of education. The teacher training
too is not planned and organized to develop the spirit of inquiry, initiative,
scientific temper, manual-dexterity, conceptual clarity and linguistic skills for
effective speaking and writing which teachers are expected to impart to their
students. Adequate attention is also not given to develop communication skills
which are critical to the function of the teachers. It may not be wrong to say that in
such defective practical and theoretically overloaded teacher education
programme, the trainee remains almost at the same level in his teaching
competence even after training.

DEFINITION OF TEACHING:-

Teaching means many different things, that teaching act varies from person to
Person and from situation to situation. - Bar, 1961.

The behaviour or activities of persons as they go about doing whatever is required


of teachers, particularly those activities which are concerned with the guidance or
direction of learning of others. - Ryan, 1965.

Teaching is the arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement under which


students learn. They learn without teaching in their natural environment, but
teachers arrange special contingencies which expedite learning and hastening the
appearance of behaviour which would otherwise be acquired slowly or making
scene of the appearance of behaviour which might otherwise never occur.- B.F.
Skinner, 1968.

Teaching as an act of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the ways in


which other persons can or will behave. - N.L. Gage, 1963.

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FROM THE DEFINITIONS:-

 Teaching is a very complex activity.


 Teaching is imparting knowledge or skill.
 Teaching it involves doing all things that may lead to learning.
 Teaching is a social act of influence.
 Teaching as the transfer of knowledge from teacher to pupils.
 Teaching as the facilitation of the pupils by the teacher in the art of learning.
 Teaching as a social act of influencing pupils by the teacher.
 Teaching as doing anything that might lead to learning.

From all these components of teaching we can say that there is no specific and
universally accepted definition of teaching and teacher effectiveness.

MICROTEACHING:-

Microteaching is organized practice teaching. The goal is to give instructors


confidence, support, and feedback by letting them try out among friends and
colleagues a short slice of what they plan to do with their students. Ideally,
microteaching sessions take place before the first day of class, and are videotaped
for review individually with an experienced teaching consultant. Microteaching is a
quick, efficient, proven, and fun way to help teachers get off to a strong start.

You know that the economic prosperity and good quality of any nation depends
upon the development of human resources of that nation. The significant fact in
the development of manpower resource refers to the competencies and the level on
which these competencies are imparted. You also know that it largely depends on
those who develop these competencies. Therefore, for this purpose we need highly
competent teachers for imparting these competencies. It is essential that teachers
imparting these competencies should have the capability to perform their task
efficiently. For this, they need to acquire requisite competencies themselves.

Microteaching is an excellent way to build up skills and confidence, to experience a


range of lecturing/tutoring styles and to learn and practice giving constructive
feedback. Microteaching gives instructors an opportunity to safely put themselves
“under the microscope” of a small group audience, but also to observe and
comment on other people's performances. As a tool for teacher preparation,
microteaching trains teaching behaviors and skills in small group settings aided by
video-recordings. In a protected environment of friends and colleagues, teachers
can try out a short piece of what they usually do with their students, and receive a
well-intended collegial feedback. A microteaching session is a chance to adopt new
teaching and learning strategies and, through assuming the student role, to get an
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insight into students' needs and expectations. It is a good time to learn from others
and enrich one's own repertoire of teaching methods.

A microteaching session is much more comfortable than real classroom situations,


because it eliminates pressure resulting from the length of the lecture, the scope
and content of the matter to be conveyed, and the need to face large numbers of
students, some of whom may be inattentive or even hostile. Another advantage of
microteaching is that it provides skilled supervisors who can give support, lead the
session in a proper direction and share some insights from the pedagogic sciences.

Microteaching is a teacher training technique which helps the teacher trainee to


master the teaching skills. It requires the teacher trainee the following 4S.

 To teach a single concept of content


 Using a specified teaching skill
 For a short time
 To a very small member of pupils

ORIGIN AND DEVELOPMENT OF MICRO-TEACHING:-

The history of microteaching goes back to the early and mid 1960's, when Dwight
Allen and his colleagues from the Stanford University developed a training
program aimed to improve verbal and nonverbal aspects of teacher's speech and
general performance. The Stanford model consisted of a three-step (teach, review
and reflect, re-teach) approach using actual students as an authentic audience. The
model was first applied to teaching science, but later it was introduced to language
teaching. A very similar model called Instructional Skills Workshop (ISW) was
developed in Canada during the early 1970's as a training support program for
college and institute faculty. Both models were designed to enhance teaching and
promote open collegial discussion about teaching performance.

The idea of micro-teaching originated for the first time at Stanford University in
USA, when an Experimental Project on the identification of teaching skills was in
progress under the guidance and supervision of the faculty members (Bush, Allen,
McDonald Acheson and many others). This project was aided by Ford Foundation
and Kettering Foundation. The team of experts was assigned the development of
testing and evaluation tools to measure the attainment of teaching skills. At this
juncture Keath Acheson, a research worker was investigating the utility of video
tape recorder in the development of technical teaching skills. This instrument
could be used for recording the class interaction and the behaviours of the trainee
vividly and accurately.

This lead to the development of a systematic and accurate method of giving


feedback to the teacher trainee.
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All the steps of micro-teaching technique:
Teach → Feedback → Replan → Reteach → Refeedback were formulated.
Thus the name of micro-teaching was coined for this method of developing
teaching skills in 1963. Since then this technique of teacher training has been
widely used in almost all Colleges and Universities of Europe and Asia. In India, it
is being used with great emphasis in all the teacher training programmes of
developing teaching skills and competencies among teacher trainees.
OBJECTIVES

After going through this Unit you will be able to:

 Understand the teaching skill.


 Understand the concept of Micro-teaching.
 Understand the principles underlying Micro-teaching
 Analyse the complex process of teaching into essential Micro-teaching skills.
 Understand the procedure of Micro-teaching for developing teaching skills.

CONCEPT OF MICRO-TEACHING:-

Micro-teaching is a teacher training technique which helps the teacher trainee


to master the teaching skills. It requires the teacher trainee
 To teach a single concept of content
 Using a specified teaching skill
 For a short time
 To a very small member of pupils.

In this way the teacher trainee practices the teaching skill in terms of definable,
observable, measurable and controllable form with repeated cycles till he attains
mastery in the use of skill.

DEFINITION OF MICRO-TEACHING:-

“Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in class size and time”…… D


W Allen (1966)

“Microteaching is a training technique which requires student teachers to teach a


single concept using specified teaching skill to a small number of pupils in a short
duration of time”……… B K Passi (1976)

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“Microteaching is a scaled down teaching encounter in which a teacher teaches a
small unit to a group of 10 pupils for a small period of 36 minutes such a situation
offers a helpful setting for experienced or inexperienced teacher to acquire new
teaching skills and to refine old ones”…… L C Singh (1977)

“Microteaching is a training technique setting for student teacher where


complexities of normal classroom teaching are reduced or It is a highly
individualized training device permitting the imposition of a high degree of control
in practicing a particular skill”……… Rachaiah S (2011)

STATUS OF TEACHER TRAINING BEFORE MICRO-TEACHING:-

General observations about teaching and teacher training based on the findings of
researches conducted in India and abroad before the introduction of Micro-
teaching practice were:
 No consensus on the procedures followed in various aspects of teaching in
training colleges.
 No specific training objectives to guide student teaching
 Haphazard and Undiscriminating supervision of practice teaching – ill
planned, ill supervised and ill assessed.
 Subjective feed back with respect to teacher training performance.
 No research support to prove its effectiveness.
In the light of these research findings and the reflections contained in ‘Challenge of
Education – A Policy Perspective’ Micro-teaching is a new approach in teacher
education. Now it has become the part and parcel of teacher education
programmes relating to teacher training.

ASSUMPTIONS OF MICRO-TEACHING:-

The concept of micro-teaching you might have thought of the assumption on


which it is based.
 Teaching is a complex process but can be analysed into simple skills.
 Teaching skills can be practiced one by one upto mastery level under specific
and simplified situation.
 Appropriate feed back if systematically given proves very significant for
obtaining mastery level in each skill.
 When all skills have been mastered taken one by one, they can be integrated
for real classroom teaching.
 The skill training can be conveniently transferred from simulated teaching
situation to actual classroom teaching situation.

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PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING MICRO-TEACHING TECHNIQUE:-

The micro-teaching is based on the premise that teaching can be analysed into
various teaching skills which can be practiced and evaluated. Micro-teaching
seems to be based on Skinner’s theory of operant condition. This theory is the very
basis of feedback session. Skinner’s theory of shaping a successive approximations
can be applied to explain the acquisition of new patterns of behaviour in teach
→feedback → re-teach pattern in micro-teaching.

STEPS OF MICRO-TEACHING:-

The Micro-teaching programme involves the following steps:

Step I Particular skill to be practiced is explained to the teacher trainees in


terms of the purpose and components of the skill with suitable
examples.

Step II The teacher trainer gives the demonstration of the skill in Micro-
teaching in simulated conditions to the teacher trainees.

Step III The teacher trainee plans a short lesson plan on the basis of the
demonstrated skill for his/her practice.

Step IV The teacher trainee teaches the lesson to a small group of pupils. His
lesson is supervised by the supervisor and peers.

Step V On the basis of the observation of a lesson, the supervisor gives


feedback to the teacher trainee. The supervisor reinforces the
instances of effective use of the skill and draws attention of the
teacher trainee to the points where he could not do well.

Step VI In the light of the feed-back given by the supervisor, the teacher
trainee re-plans the lesson plan in order to use the skill in more
effective manner in the second trial.

Step VII The revised lesson is taught to another comparable group of pupils.

Step VIII The supervisor observes the re-teach lesson and gives re-feed back to
the teacher trainee with convincing arguments and reasons.

Step IX The ‘teach – re-teach’ cycle may be repeated several times till
adequate mastery level is achieved.

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MICRO-TEACHING CYCLE:-
The six steps generally involved in micro-teaching cycle are

 Plan
 Teach (6 minutes)
 Feedback (6 minutes)
 Re-plan (12 minutes)
 Re-teach (6 minutes)
 Re-feedback (6 minutes)

Total duration of Microteaching Cycle is 36 minutes

There can be variations as per requirement of the objective of practice session.


These steps are diagrammatically represented in the following figure:

Plan:

This involves the selection of the topic and related content of such a nature in
which the use of components of the skill under practice may be made easily and
conveniently. The topic is analysed into different activities of the teacher and the
pupils. The activities are planned in such a logical sequence where maximum
applications of the components of a skill are possible.

Teach:

This involves the attempts of the teacher trainee to use the components of the skill
in suitable situations coming up in the process of teaching-learning as per his/her
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planning of activities. If the situation is different and not as visualised in the
planning of the activities, the teacher should modify his/her behaviour as per the
demand of the situation in the class. He should have the courage and confidence to
handle the situation arising in the class effectively.

Feedback:

This term refers to giving information to the teacher trainee about his
performance. The information includes the points of strength as well as weakness
relating to his/her performance. This helps the teacher trainee to improve upon
his/her performance in the desired direction.

Re-plan:

The teacher trainee re-plans his lesson incorporating the points of strength and
removing the points not skillfully handled during teaching in the previous attempt
either on the same topic or on another topic suiting to the teacher trainee for
improvement.

Re-teach:

'This involves teaching to the same group of pupils if the topic is changed or to a
different group of pupils if the topic is the same. This is done to remove boredom
or monotony of the pupil. The teacher trainee teaches the class with renewed
courage and confidence to perform better than the previous attempt.

Re-feedback:

This is the most important component of Micro-teaching for behaviour


modification of teacher trainee in the desired direction in each and every skill
practice.

RATIONALE OF MICRO-TEACHING PROCEDURE:-


The steps of the Micro-teaching procedure are based on the sequence
involved in behaviour modification formulated by McDonald. The steps are:
Step I: This involves stating the behaviour in operational terms.

Step II: This refers to fixing of the criteria for measuring behaviours.

Step III: In this step the entry behaviour of the individual is measured to know
the point of initial start.

Step IV: This involves the actual treatment of behaviour modification.

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Step V: The post-treatment measures of changed behaviour are obtained. The
difference between the measures of pre and post treatments indicates
the extent of behaviour modification. The cycle is repeated till desired
level of behaviour is obtained.

In the Micro-teaching cycle, the same steps are involved. Firstly the teacher
trainee knows the behaviours (components of skill) to be practiced. Secondly he
practices such a behaviour during teach session. Thirdly he gets the feedback on
the basis of the observation of his performance made by the supervisor. Finally the
teacher trainee improves upon his/her behaviour (performance) as desired.

PHASES OF MICRO-TEACHING:-

There are three phases of the Micro-teaching procedure. They are:

 Knowledge Acquisition Phase.


 Skill Acquisition Phase.
 Transfer Phase of Micro-teaching.

Knowledge Acquisition Phase: In this phase the teacher trainee learns about
the skill and its components through discussion, illustrations and demonstration
of the skill given by the expert. He learns about the purpose of the skill and the
condition under which it proves useful in the teaching-learning process. His/Her
analysis of the skill into components leading to various types of behaviours which
is to be practiced. The teacher trainee tries to gain a lot about the skill from the
demonstration given by the expert. He discusses and clarifies each and every
aspect of the skill.

Skill Acquisition Phase: On the basis of the demonstration presented by the


expert, the teacher trainee plans a micro-lesson, lesson for practicing the
demonstrated skill. He practices the teaching skill through the Micro-teaching
cycle and continues his efforts till he attains mastery level. The feed-back
component of micro-teaching contributes significantly towards the mastery level
acquisition of the skill. On the basis of the performance of teacher trainee in
teaching, the feedback is provided for the purpose of change in behaviour of the
teacher trainee in the desired direction.

Transfer Phase of Micro-teaching: After attaining mastery level and


command over each of the skills, the teacher trainee integrates all these skills and
transfer to actual classroom teaching is done during this transfer phase.
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ANALYSIS OF TEACHING

The teaching is a complex process. To reduce the complexity of teaching it is


analysed into simple teaching activities performed by the teacher during the
teaching-learning process. The main objective of all these activities is to promote
learning among pupils. These activities may be explaining, illustrating with
examples, questioning, writing on the black board, drawing figures etc. These
verbal and non-verbal activities are called teaching activities. Therefore, these
specific teaching activities/arts/ behaviours which are observable, definable,
measurable, demonstrable and can be developed through training are known as
teaching skills. The teacher uses these skills in pre-instructional, instructional and
post-instructional stages in order to achieve pre-determined and specified
objectives. Therefore teaching consists of a number of interrelated teaching skills,
which occur at different stages of teaching.

TEACHING SKILL:-

The teaching skill might be one of the following:

 A teaching skill is that behaviour of the teacher which facilitates pupils’


learning directly or indirectly.
 A teaching skill includes all arts and behaviour of the teacher which
maximizes pupils’ learning.
 A teaching skill is that art of the teacher which makes communication
between the teacher and pupils sufficiently.

Identification of Teaching Skills:-


There are many approaches for identifying teaching skills. The prominent
among them are the following:
 Observation of Class Room Interaction
 Analysis of Teacher Tasks Through Interview and Discussion
 Analysis of School Curriculum and Objectives
 Conceptualization of a Good Teaching Model

Attempts have been made to list teaching skills. Allen and Ryan listed the
following teaching skills at Stanford University in the U.S.A.

1. Stimulus Variation.
2. Set induction.
3. Closure.
4. Teacher silence and non-verbal cues.

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5. Reinforcing pupil participation.
6. Fluency in questioning.
7. Probing questioning.
8. Use of higher questions.
9. Divergent questions.
10. Recognizing and attending behavior.
11. Illustrating and use of examples.
12. Lecturing.
13. Planned repetition.
14. Completeness of communication.

B.K. Passi has given the following list of Teaching Skills in his book
“Becoming Better Teacher; Micro-teaching Approach”:-

B.K. Passi

1. Writing instructional objectives.


2. Introducing a lesson.
3. Fluency in questioning.
4. Probing questioning.
5. Explaining.
6. Illustrating with examples.
7. Stimulus variation.
8. Silence and non-verbal cues.
9. Reinforcement.
10. Increasing pupil participation.
11. Using black board.
12. Achieving Closure.
13. Recognizing attending behavior.

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Micro-teaching is a technique used for developing:-

(i) Moral values.


(ii) Teaching skills.
(iii) Concepts of content.
(iv) Skills for preparing teaching aids.

The attainment of mastery level in a teaching skill:-

(i) Helps the teacher in teaching.


(ii) Helps the learner to learn.
(iii) Help the school to improve its results.
(iv) Includes all the above points.

Planning a Microteaching Session:-

The duration of a Microteaching session depends on the number of participants.


Microteaching should take place in two separate classrooms where the second
room is required for videotape viewing. It is helpful to organize professional
videotaping, although this can also be done (taken over) by the participants upon
instruction.

Equipment for Microteaching session:-

 TV/Computer set
 Video recorder/camcorder
 Camera
 Tapes for camera
 Black- or whiteboard, flipchart, pin board, markers with different colors.

CORE TEACHING SKILLS:-

The concept of Micro-teaching technique and its application for developing


teaching skills among the trainees in a systematic manner. The identification of
teaching skills and different lists of teaching skills identified by different people.
On the basis of your understanding and personal experience of class teaching,
point out which of the teaching skills are extensively used in daily routine teaching.
These skills are called Core Skills because of their extensive use in classroom
teaching. The specifications of these skills are given

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Teaching Skills and their Specifications

Sl.N Skill Components


o.

1 Introducing lesson Using previous knowledge, using appropriate devices,


lacking in continuity and irrelevant statements.

2 Probing Questions Prompting, seeking further information, redirection,


focusing, increasing critical awareness.

3 Explaining Clarity, continuity, relevance to content using


beginning and concluding statements, covering
essential points.

4 Illustrating with Simple, relevant and interesting examples appropriate


examples media, use of inducts deductive approach.

5 Stimulus variation Body movements, gestures, change in speech pattern,


change in interaction style, pausing, focusing, oral-
visual switching.

6 Reinforcement Use of praise words and statements, accepting and


using pupils’ idea, repeating and rephrasing, extra
vertical cues, use of pleasant and approving gestures
and expressions, writing pupils’ answer on the black
board.

7 Classroom Call pupils bynames, Make norms of classroom


Management behaviour, attending behaviour reinforced, and clarity
of direction, check non-attending behaviour, keep
pupils in Eye Span, and check inappropriate behaviour
immediately.

8 Use of blackboard Legible, neat and adequate with reference to content


covered.

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ORGANISATION OF MICRO-TEACHING CYCLE:-

Microteaching and Rotating Peer Supervision


I. Preparation

Each participant of the session prepares a teaching segment. The presenter


gives a brief statement of the general objectives of his/her presentation to be
addressed. The group may be asked to focus their attention to particular elements
of the lesson or of the teaching style. This may include pace, clarity of explanation,
use of media, voice and body language, level of group interaction.

II. Presentation and Observation

Each participant presents his/her 10-minute teaching segment. He/she is


allowed to use the media available. During the presentation, other participants
serve as members of a supervisory team and take notes for the group feedback.
Special assessment forms (Tables 1 and 2) may be helpful in standardizing the
observation and feedback process. Each lesson is videotaped. Although the lesson
is short, objective and procedures should be clear to generate useful discussions.

III. Videotape Viewing

The presenter watches the tape of his/her presentation and decides whether
or not the objectives were accomplished. He/she also makes a list of strengths and
suggestions for personal improvement. Then he/she again joins the supervisory
team. In the meantime the supervisory team discussed and made conclusions
about the teacher’s lecturing.

IV. Discussion and Analysis

While the presenter goes to another room to view the videotape, the
supervisory team discusses and analyses the presentation. Patterns of teaching
with evidence to support them are presented. The discussion should focus on the
identification of recurrent behaviors of the presenter in the act of teaching. A few
patterns are chosen for further discussions with the presenter. Only those patterns
are selected which seem possible to alter and those which through emphasis or
omission would greatly improve the teacher’s presentation. Objectives of the
lesson plan are also examined to determine if they were met. It is understood that
flexible teaching sometimes includes the modification and omission of objectives.
Suggestions for improvement and alternative methods for presenting the lesson
are formulated. Finally, a member of the supervisory team volunteers to be the
speaker in giving the collected group feedback.

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V. Giving and receiving feedback

Under the guidance of the professional supervisor, the presenter is first


asked to present a self feed back of his mini lesson. With this new information
taken into account, the supervisory team member who volunteered to be the
speaker summarizes the comments generated during the analysis session. This
part of the session is intended to provide positive reinforcement and constructive
criticism. The presenter is encouraged to interact freely with the team so that all
comments are clarified to his/her satisfaction.

The way in which feedback is given and received contributes to the learning
process. Feedback should be honest and direct, constructive, focusing on the ways
the presenter can improve, and containing personal observations.

The following is a series of suggestions on how to give and receive feedback


in a microteaching workshop.

Giving feedback

When you are giving feedback, try to:

 Be specific rather than general. For example: rather than saying “You
weren’t clear in your explanations”, tell the presenter where he/she was
vague, and describe why you had trouble understanding him/her. Similarly,
instead of saying: “I thought you did an excellent job!”, list the specific
things that he/she did well.
 Be descriptive and specific, rather than evaluative. For example:
you would avoid starting the sentences with “you”, it is better to start with
“I”, so you can say: “I understood the model, after you showed us the
diagram”.
 Describe something the person can act upon. Making a comment on
the vocal quality of someone whose voice is naturally high-pitched is only
likely to discourage him/her. However, if the person’s voice had a squeaky
quality because he/she was nervous, you might say: “You might want to
breath more deeply, to relax yourself, and that will help to lower the pitch of
your voice as well”.
 Choose one or two things the person can concentrate on. If the
people are overwhelmed with too many suggestions, they are likely to
become frustrated. When giving feedback, call attention to those areas that
need the most improvement.
 Avoid conclusions about motives or feelings. For example: rather
than saying: “You don’t seem very enthusiastic about the lesson”, you can
say “Varying your rate and volume of speaking would give you a more
animated style”.
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 Begin and end with strengths of the presentation. If you start off
with negative criticism, the person receiving the feedback might not even
hear the positive part, which will come later.

Receiving feedback

When you are receiving feedback, try:

 Not to respond to each point, rather listen quietly, hearing what


other’s experiences were during their review, asking only for clarification.
The only time to interfere with what is being said is if you need to state that
you are overloaded with too much feedback.
 Be open to what you are hearing. Being told that you need to improve
yourself is not always easy, but as we have pointed out, it is an important
part of the learning process. Although, you might feel hurt in response to
criticism, try not to let those feelings dissuade you from using the feedback
to your best advantage.
 Take notes, if possible. If you can, take notes as you are hearing the
other people’s comment. Then you will have a record to refer to, and you
might discover that the comments that seemed to be the harshest were
actually the most useful.
 Ask for specific examples if you need to. If the critique you are
receiving is vague or unfocused, ask the person to give you several specific
examples of the point he/she is trying to make
 Judge the feedback by the person, who is giving it. You do not have
to agree with every comment. Ask other people if they agree with the
person’s critique.

In total, be practical, tactful, constructive critical, open toward other’s ideas and
opinions in the microteaching workshop and in your classes as well.

As it is not easy and workable to get the actual pupils for the practice of the skill,
because of administrative reasons, so simulated class of peers has been found
suitable and useful for this purpose. The organize the Micro-teaching cycle for 10
teacher trainees who have come prepared with planned micro-lessons for the
practice of a particular skill.

 Teaching is a complicated process but it can be analysed into simple


teaching tasks called teaching skills.
 Teaching skill is the set of behaviours/acts of the teacher which facilitates
pupils’ learning.
 Teaching is observable, definable, measurable, and demonstrable and can be
developed through training.

18
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
 Micro-teaching is a teacher training technique which plays a significant role
in developing teaching skills among the pupil teachers.
 The procedure of micro-teaching involves the following steps: Plan →Teach
→Feed-back →Re-plan →Re-teach →Re-feedback. These steps are repeated
till the pupil-teacher attains mastery in the use of the skill.
 The micro-teaching cycle consists of all the steps of micro-teaching.
 For practicing teaching skill the setting of micro-teaching involves:

(i) a single skill for practice


(ii) one concept of content for teaching
(iii) a class of 5 to 10 pupils
(iv) time of practice 5 to 10 minutes

 Systematic use of feedback plays a significant role in the acquisition of the


skill up to mastery level.
 After the acquisition of all the core skills it is possible to integrate them for
effective teaching in actual classroom-situations.
ADVANTAGES OF MICRO-TEACHING:-

 It focuses on sharpening and developing specific teaching skills and


eliminating errors.
 It enables understanding of behaviours important in class-room teaching.
 It increases the confidence of the learner teacher.
 It is a vehicle of continuous training for both beginners and for senior
teachers.
 It enables projection of model instructional skills.
 It provides experts supervision and constructive feedback.
 It provides for repeated practice without adverse consequences to the
teacher or his students.

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MICRO & MINI TEACHING:-

Micro teaching Mini teaching


It has re teach session No re teach session
It is for 5 to 10 minutes only It extends from 5 to 40 minutes
It involves 3 to 4 students, a supervisor It may involve either a small group or
& a peer if necessary whole class
Each time only a few teaching skills are It aims at gradual integration of teaching
concentrated upon skills & to fit mini lessons into a real
teaching programme

19
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
The Skill of Introduce the Lesson:-

When a teacher introduces a lesson or a unit, he gives a brief introduction about


the lesson or unit in order to predispose the pupils’ minds to it. It is an
introduction to a lesson includes what the teacher does with or without the help of
the pupil’s up to the stage of stating the aim of the lesson. Introducing the lesson
provides students with an advance organizer of what is to come and why it is
important for them to learn the knowledge and skills in the lesson.

Introducing the lesson consists of three parts:-

 Gain student attention—information or experience designed to activate


student interest and motivate them to engage in learning.
 Explain the objective—information that communicates the expectations
for the outcome of the lesson to the students.
 Relate to prior knowledge—information that identifies prerequisite
knowledge and skills students will use to learn the lesson content and draws
a clear connection between prior knowledge and the new lesson.

Accommodations are changes to the way a student accesses instruction and


demonstrates performance. When accommodations are incorporate into the lesson
introduction, the entire class benefits. Some accommodations may need to be
provided on an individual basis.

Activity – Introducing enterprise skills

Aims:
 To introduce the language of enterprise into the classroom
 To begin to define what the concepts mean
 To encourage students to reflect on when they use the skills
 To have a visual resource for the classroom – a poster – that pupils have
created to enhance their enterprise learning

Resources:

 Flash cards with the enterprise skills on them


 Definitions of enterprise skills
 A3 paper
 Coloured pens, pencils
 Dictionary

20
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Activity:

Introduce the lesson as a way to help children get even more out of their enterprise
projects.
 Ask children if they know what skills are?
 When/where have they heard of them?
 Do they think they have any skills?
 Flipchart any skills they come up
 Say that learning about ‘enterprise skills’ will help them in their enterprise
projects.

Explain that, working in groups, children will be in charge of finding out


definitions for the enterprise skills and will report back their findings to the rest of
the class. Children should work in groups of about four. Distribute the enterprise
skills you want to look at during this session (all thirteen could be done over two
45 minute sessions). Each group has a dictionary and must produce a poster to
illustrate what the enterprise skill/concept means.

All posters should include:

 A definition
 Some associated words
 Examples from real life about where they see the skill being used
 Examples of where they use the skill.

Children work in groups to produce their poster and then present the
finished work to the rest of class, explaining the elements they have included and
sharing the definition they created. Start an ‘Enterprise Skills’ display in the
classroom with the children’s posters.

It is very important skill in microteaching. How we start the lesson is very


important? What are the aims and objectives of a lesson? The introduction of a
lesson influences the student’s attention. When do we start lesson using previous
knowledge through appropriate devices. The following devices are

 Examples
 Questioning
 Narrating story
 Story telling
 Role playing
 Dramatization
 Audio-visual aids
 Experimentation
 Demonstration

21
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
The Skill of Introducing a Lesson

Episode
NAME: - Havish Shanbhog CLASS: - VIII

TOPIC: - Our National Flag SUBJECT: - English

Teacher: what is this? (Teacher shows the national flag. The pupils look
attentively at the flag)
Pupil: It is national flag.
Teacher: How many colours are there in it?
Pupil: There are three colours.
Teacher: Which are they?
Pupil: Saffron, White and dark green.
Teacher: What is the significance of the various colours used in it?
Pupil: The saffron colour at the top for courage, sacrifice and renunciation. White
stands for truth and purity. The green colour refers symbol of life, abundance and
prosperity.
Teacher: What do you seen in the centre of the white band?
Pupil: There is a wheel of navy blue colour in the centre.
Teacher: Alright what is significance of the wheel?
Pupil: It is symbol or progress.
Teacher: The National flag symbolizes our ideals and aspirations. It commands
our respect. Therefore, it must be preserved with greatest care. What is should be
taken into account while using the national flag?
Pupil: No response.
Teacher: Ok today we will study about how to Use Our National Flag.

22
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Episode
Teach Session ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

Soft Core: Content and pedagogy of……………………..

Topic: Class:

23
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
24
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Episode
Re-Teach ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

Soft Core: Content and pedagogy of……………………..

Topic: Class:

25
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
26
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

1. The Skill of Introducing a Lesson (¥ÁoÀ ¥ÀjZÀ¬Ä¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach Re-Teach


WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
Desirable Components C¥ÉÃQëvÀ ªÀvÀð£ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ
01 Teacher uses the previous Knowledge
(Statement or Questions indicating) 0 1 2 3 45 0 1 2 3 4 5
«zÁåyð ²PÀëPÀgÀÄ ¥ÀÅÁªÀð eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß ¥ÀjÃQë¹zÁÝgÁ («µÀAiÀÄ
DzsÁgÀªÁV)
02 Questions followed by correct responses
«.UÀ¼ÀÄ ¥Àæ±ÉßUÀ½UÉ ¸ÀjAiÀiÁzÀ ¥ÀæwQæAiÉÄ PÉÆÃnÖzÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
03 Devises used
zÀÈPï ±ÀæªÀuÉÆÃ¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß G¥ÀAiÀiÁÃV¹zÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
04 Appropriateness ¸ÀÆPÀÛªÁzÀ ¸ÁzsÀ£ÀUÀ¼À §¼ÀPÉ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Undesirable Components C£À¥ÉÃQëvÀ ªÀvÀð£ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ
05 Irrelevant statements and Questions to Aim
of the lesson 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
C¸ÀA§zÀÞ ºÉýPÉAiÀÄ ªÁPÀåUÀ¼À §¼ÀPÉ( UÀÄj¤gÀÄ¥ÀuÉAiÀÄ «gÀÄzÀÝ)
06 Instances of lack in continuity
¸ÀgÁUÀzÀ PÉÆgÀvÉ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¤gÀUÀð¼ÀvÉAiÀÄ PÉÆgÀvÉ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Feedback: Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Re-teach session: ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

27
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

2. The Skill of Introducing a Lesson (¥ÁoÀ ¥ÀjZÀ¬Ä¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach Re-Teach


WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
Desirable Components C¥ÉÃQëvÀ ªÀvÀð£ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ
01 Teacher uses the previous Knowledge
(Statement or Questions indicating) 0 1 2 3 45 0 1 2 3 4 5
«zÁåyð ²PÀëPÀgÀÄ ¥ÀÅÁªÀð eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß ¥ÀjÃQë¹zÁÝgÁ («µÀAiÀÄ
DzsÁgÀªÁV)
02 Questions followed by correct responses
«.UÀ¼ÀÄ ¥Àæ±ÉßUÀ½UÉ ¸ÀjAiÀiÁzÀ ¥ÀæwQæAiÉÄ PÉÆÃnÖzÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
03 Devises used
zÀÈPï ±ÀæªÀuÉÆÃ¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß G¥ÀAiÀiÁÃV¹zÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
04 Appropriateness ¸ÀÆPÀÛªÁzÀ ¸ÁzsÀ£ÀUÀ¼À §¼ÀPÉ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Undesirable Components C£À¥ÉÃQëvÀ ªÀvÀð£ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ
05 Irrelevant statements and Questions to Aim
of the lesson 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
C¸ÀA§zÀÞ ºÉýPÉAiÀÄ ªÁPÀåUÀ¼À §¼ÀPÉ( UÀÄj¤gÀÄ¥ÀuÉAiÀÄ «gÀÄzÀÝ)
06 Instances of lack in continuity
¸ÀgÁUÀzÀ PÉÆgÀvÉ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¤gÀUÀð¼ÀvÉAiÀÄ PÉÆgÀvÉ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Feedback: Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Re-teach session: ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

28
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

3. The Skill of Introducing a Lesson (¥ÁoÀ ¥ÀjZÀ¬Ä¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach Re-Teach


WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
Desirable Components C¥ÉÃQëvÀ ªÀvÀð£ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ
01 Teacher uses the previous Knowledge
(Statement or Questions indicating) 0 1 2 3 45 0 1 2 3 4 5
«zÁåyð ²PÀëPÀgÀÄ ¥ÀÅÁªÀð eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß ¥ÀjÃQë¹zÁÝgÁ («µÀAiÀÄ
DzsÁgÀªÁV)
02 Questions followed by correct responses
«.UÀ¼ÀÄ ¥Àæ±ÉßUÀ½UÉ ¸ÀjAiÀiÁzÀ ¥ÀæwQæAiÉÄ PÉÆÃnÖzÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
03 Devises used
zÀÈPï ±ÀæªÀuÉÆÃ¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß G¥ÀAiÀiÁÃV¹zÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
04 Appropriateness ¸ÀÆPÀÛªÁzÀ ¸ÁzsÀ£ÀUÀ¼À §¼ÀPÉ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Undesirable Components C£À¥ÉÃQëvÀ ªÀvÀð£ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ
05 Irrelevant statements and Questions to Aim
of the lesson 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
C¸ÀA§zÀÞ ºÉýPÉAiÀÄ ªÁPÀåUÀ¼À §¼ÀPÉ( UÀÄj¤gÀÄ¥ÀuÉAiÀÄ «gÀÄzÀÝ)
06 Instances of lack in continuity
¸ÀgÁUÀzÀ PÉÆgÀvÉ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¤gÀUÀð¼ÀvÉAiÀÄ PÉÆgÀvÉ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Feedback: Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Re-teach session: ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

29
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

4. The Skill of Introducing a Lesson (¥ÁoÀ ¥ÀjZÀ¬Ä¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach Re-Teach


WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
Desirable Components C¥ÉÃQëvÀ ªÀvÀð£ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ
01 Teacher uses the previous Knowledge
(Statement or Questions indicating) 0 1 2 3 45 0 1 2 3 4 5
«zÁåyð ²PÀëPÀgÀÄ ¥ÀÅÁªÀð eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß ¥ÀjÃQë¹zÁÝgÁ («µÀAiÀÄ
DzsÁgÀªÁV)
02 Questions followed by correct responses
«.UÀ¼ÀÄ ¥Àæ±ÉßUÀ½UÉ ¸ÀjAiÀiÁzÀ ¥ÀæwQæAiÉÄ PÉÆÃnÖzÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
03 Devises used
zÀÈPï ±ÀæªÀuÉÆÃ¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß G¥ÀAiÀiÁÃV¹zÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
04 Appropriateness ¸ÀÆPÀÛªÁzÀ ¸ÁzsÀ£ÀUÀ¼À §¼ÀPÉ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Undesirable Components C£À¥ÉÃQëvÀ ªÀvÀð£ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ
05 Irrelevant statements and Questions to Aim
of the lesson 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
C¸ÀA§zÀÞ ºÉýPÉAiÀÄ ªÁPÀåUÀ¼À §¼ÀPÉ( UÀÄj¤gÀÄ¥ÀuÉAiÀÄ «gÀÄzÀÝ)
06 Instances of lack in continuity
¸ÀgÁUÀzÀ PÉÆgÀvÉ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¤gÀUÀð¼ÀvÉAiÀÄ PÉÆgÀvÉ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Feedback: Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Re-teach session: ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

30
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

5. The Skill of Introducing a Lesson (¥ÁoÀ ¥ÀjZÀ¬Ä¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach Re-Teach


WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
Desirable Components C¥ÉÃQëvÀ ªÀvÀð£ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ
01 Teacher uses the previous Knowledge
(Statement or Questions indicating) 0 1 2 3 45 0 1 2 3 4 5
«zÁåyð ²PÀëPÀgÀÄ ¥ÀÅÁªÀð eÁÕ£ÀªÀ£ÀÄß ¥ÀjÃQë¹zÁÝgÁ («µÀAiÀÄ
DzsÁgÀªÁV)
02 Questions followed by correct responses
«.UÀ¼ÀÄ ¥Àæ±ÉßUÀ½UÉ ¸ÀjAiÀiÁzÀ ¥ÀæwQæAiÉÄ PÉÆÃnÖzÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
03 Devises used
zÀÈPï ±ÀæªÀuÉÆÃ¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß G¥ÀAiÀiÁÃV¹zÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
04 Appropriateness ¸ÀÆPÀÛªÁzÀ ¸ÁzsÀ£ÀUÀ¼À §¼ÀPÉ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Undesirable Components C£À¥ÉÃQëvÀ ªÀvÀð£ÉUÀ¼ÀÄ
05 Irrelevant statements and Questions to Aim
of the lesson 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
C¸ÀA§zÀÞ ºÉýPÉAiÀÄ ªÁPÀåUÀ¼À §¼ÀPÉ( UÀÄj¤gÀÄ¥ÀuÉAiÀÄ «gÀÄzÀÝ)
06 Instances of lack in continuity
¸ÀgÁUÀzÀ PÉÆgÀvÉ ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¤gÀUÀð¼ÀvÉAiÀÄ PÉÆgÀvÉ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
Feedback: Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Re-teach session: ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Lecturer Signature

31
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
The Skill of Illustrating with Example:-
Many a time, it happens that a teacher explains in the classroom a scientific
principle, or a mathematical rule or an abstract idea and observes that his pupils
do not comprehend it. In such situation, the teacher attempts to explain the
concept or generalization more than more but he fails in this attempt. The concept
or generalization requires more than mere explanation for the pupils to
understand. This presents a challenge to the teacher. An unskilled teacher may
deal with this challenging situation by rebuking the pupils for being inattentive in
the classroom and asking them just to memorize the concept or rule. But a skillful
teacher handles this situation in a different way. He illustrates the scientific
principle, generalization, the abstract idea concept, or mathematical rule with the
help of examples. This makes them easier to understand for the pupils.
Obviously, examples are one of the most effective tools in the hands of the teacher
to make the concept or generalization simple and easier for pupils to understand.
Thus, examples can be defined as “the observation or situations of occurrence of a
concept or generalization” and the skill of illustrating with examples can be
defined as the selection and presentation of the example, relevant to the concept or
generalization to be taught to the pupils so as to make it easier for them to
understand it”. The examples, of course, may be drawn from the pupils’
experiences.

Components

The next logical question is as to whether all examples make the concept or
generalization easier to understand? If not, what types of examples are helpful and
appropriate in realizing this objective? Experience with the use of examples for
illustrating concepts and generalizations have shown that effective examples have
definite characteristics. A teacher should know these characteristics and keep
them in mind while formulating examples for illustrating a particular concept or
generalization. The component behaviors based on these characteristics are
presented in this section.

Formulating simple examples

Simple examples provide help to students in understanding the concept or the


generalization. The word simple is a relative term and it does not have absolute
meaning. An example which is simple for IX grade pupils may not be simple for VI
grade pupils. Similarly, an example which is simple for pupils of city schools may
not be simple for pupils of rural schools. Further an example which is simple for a
particular grade of pupils in one country may not be simple for the same grade of

32
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
pupils in a country because of the cultural differences. Obviously, the simplicity of
the example is linked with variation in experiences of the pupils. Simple examples,
therefore, are the ones while are based on the previous experiences of the pupils.
They gain experiences through a variety of sources like studying books, meeting
people, interacting with peers, teachers and media, visiting places, handling
things, visiting industries, and so on.
Past experiences and level of maturity of pupils of different age and grade levels, of
different geographical regions or of different countries are always different.
Knowledge of pupils’ past experiences by a teacher is essential to formulate simple
examples. A teacher should, therefore, be aware of the past experiences of his
pupils.
How can we ensure whether an example is simple or not? What is the overt
behaviour of the pupils which indicates that the examples used by the teacher are
simple? Pupil’s responses act as the indicators to this effect. If pupil responses to
teacher questions put to develop the example are correct, it is likely that his
examples are based upon pupils past experiences. For example, a teacher uses
examples to convey to the pupils meaning of the concept ‘physical change’.

Teacher: – What happens to ice when it is put in a plate?


Pupil: – It turns into water.
Teacher: – What change in the state of ice takes place when it changes into
water?
Pupil: – It changes from solid to liquid.
Teacher: – Does the shape of ice remain the same when it changes into water?
Pupil: – Yes, there is a change in the shape.
Teacher: – Is there any change in the composition of ice when it changes into
water?
Pupil: – There is no change.
Teacher: – What happens to the solid wax when it is heated?
Pupil: – It melts.
Teacher: – What change in the state of solid wax takes place when it melts?
Pupil: – It changes from solid to liquid.
Teacher: – Is there any change in the composition of the solid wax when it melts?
Pupil: – No change takes place.
Teacher: – What happens to iron rod when it is heated from one end?
Pupil: – It gets hot and red.
Teacher: – What happens to the hot iron rod when it is allowed to cool?
Pupil: – It changes into its original position.
Teacher: – Is there any difference in the composition of hot any cooled iron rod?
Pupil: – There is no difference.
Teacher: – In all these examples, we see that there is a change in some of the
Physical properties such as colour, shape and the state of matter, but there is no
change in the basic composition of the matter. Such a Change is known as physical
change.

33
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Formulating examples relevant to rule or concept:-

Relevancy of an example to the rule or concept refers to its applicability to the rule
or concept which the teacher has to illustrate irrelevant examples not only leads to
confusion, but also hinders the understanding of the rule or concept which they
illustrate. In the example below the teacher is illustrating a concept.

Example: - 1 Concept –‘Substance’

Teacher: – Children, look at the things around you and try to think of what each
of them is made of. Your desk is made of wood, the window panes ore made of
glass, the walls of your classroom are made of stone or cement or bricks. Your
books are made of paper. That out of which a thing is made is called a substance.
Wood, glass, Stone, Cement, Bricks are all substances? Can you name some more
substance?
Pupil: – Air, Water, Glass, Stone, Kerosene, Coal, Bras, Gold, Salt, sugar, Sand
and Plastics are all substances.
In the above situation, the teacher has given a number of examples for the
concept. The understanding is brought out and this is revealed as the pupils are
giving relevant examples to the same concept. Study the following examples.

Example: - 2

Teacher: – How do you know that certain gases dissolve in water?


Pupil: – No response.
Teacher: – All right, let us take a simple example. You must have seen a bottle of
soda water or any aerated water. What happens to the soda water when you close
the mouth of the bottle with your thumb and shake?
Pupil: – bubbles can be seen to rise from water.
Teacher: – Do you feel something pushing against your thumb?
Pupil: – Yes.
Teacher: – What happens when you lift your thumb from the top of the bottle?
Pupil: – Some hissing sound comes.
Teacher: – You are right. The gas which is inside the bottle escapes with a
hissing sound. Where did the gas come from?
Pupil: – The gas comes from soda water.
Teacher: – This gas was dissolved in the soda water. So we can understand that
gases dissolve in water.

In the above example, the example given by the teacher is, relevant to the
rule certain gases dissolve in water.’

34
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Example: - 3

Teacher: – (Tells us story of the Harichandra and explains why he was called a’
truthful man ‘) Children, you have read many stories. Tell me the name of any
great person who was truthful throughout his life.
Pupil: – Mahathma Gandhi.
Teacher: – Good, this indicates that you have understood the concept. Give
some more examples of persons who were truthful.

3. Formulating interesting examples

An interesting example is the one which arouses pupils’ curiosity and interest.
An interesting example secures and sustains pupils’ attention which plays an
important role in pupils’ learning. The term ‘interesting ‘is a relative one. An
example which is interesting to VI grade pupils may not be interesting to X grade
pupils. A teacher, while formulating interesting examples, should always take into
consideration the age level, grade level and the level of maturity of pupils. Now the
question arises as to whether there are any indicators of pupil classroom behaviour
for inferring that the examples uses to illustrate a concept or a generalization are
interesting. Pupil attractive behaviour, his enthusiasm, alertness, eagerness to
participate in the classroom transactions may be the possible indicators.

A teaching episode illustrating the formulation of an interesting example to


convey the meaning of ‘Chemical Change’ to grade X pupils is given below:

Teacher: – Here is a match box. Rita comes here. Take out a match stick and
burn it.
Pupil: – (She comes and burns the match stick)
Teacher: – What do you see?
Pupil: – Sir, the match stick is burning.
Teacher: – What happen to the match stick after burning?
Pupil: – It changed into ash.
Teacher: – Can we change this ash into match stick again?
Pupil: – No.
Teacher: – Do you find any difference in the composition of match stick and ash?
Pupil: – Yes, there is a difference in the composition match stick and ash.
Teacher: – What happens to wood when it burns?
Pupil: – It changes into ash.
Teacher: – Can we change this ash into wood again?
Pupil: – No, we can’t.
Teacher: – Is the weight of the ash equal to that of wood?
Pupil: – It looks much less.

35
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Teacher: – The change in which not only shape / size of a thing, but also its
composition changes, is called a chemical change.

You will find that examples given above are interesting for teaching the chemical
change. A teacher gives a number of similar examples for illustrating the concept.

4. Using Appropriate Media for Examples

You have learnt that the skill of illustrating with examples involves using
appropriate media for developing examples as one of the components. In the
earlier part of this handbook you have learnt in detail about the various media
through which examples are given. They include objects, models, pictures
diagrams, maps, sketches, experimental demonstration, which are nonverbal
media and the verbal medium. Such medial should be appropriate.
The term ‘ appropriateness’ refers to nits suitability to the age level, grade
level, maturity level of the pupils and to the pupils and the unit taught. It
involves subjective judgement. But judgement is possible. For example, lower
age group pupils generally, require concrete objects to understand a concept or a
rule. In that case, any of the nonverbal media could be used. But again ideas
become more concrete when media used are of three dimension.. To illustrate
the concept of stability of objects, teacher can use a model or use a number of
objects in stable and unstable positions. The same concept can be taught to
higher age groups pupils orally, as they can imagines objects and have wider
experience. Sometimes, even higher age group children need model ore a chart
to understand a concept, say ‘structure of an atom ‘. To explain the principle of
Archemides. If an experiment is conducted illustrating the principle then the
understanding by the pupil will be better. Appropriateness of medium can be
thought of with respect to the unit. For example, in order to teach that acids turn
litmus to red, the oral medium may not be as effective as doing experiments with
a number of acids.

5. Using Examples by Inducto – Deductive Approach:

By this time, you have learnt about inductive approach and deductive
approach for using examples. Inductive approach involves developing a concept
or deriving a rule after giving or eliciting a number of examples. By this approach
a teacher can easily clarify a concept or rule to pupils. But this approach does not
help the teacher to verify whether or not the pupils. But this approach does not
help the teacher to verify whether or not the pupils have understood the concept
or rule. For this purpose, deductive approach helps. It involves giving or eliciting
a number of examples after the concept or rule has been stated. Thus in
developing the skill of illustrating with examples, you will be following a
combined approach known as inducto-deductive approach. It involves following
inductive approach in the beginning while clarifying or arriving at a concept or
rule. The examples at this stage are mostly given by the teacher by eliciting them
36
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
from pupil’s previous experience. This is followed by the stating of the concept or
rule with the help of pupils. In fact, the concept or rule is derived by pupils from
the examples. The third step is verifying the understanding of pupils (deductive)
by asking them to give examples related to the concept or rule. Diagrammatically,
it can represent as follows:

Deductive approach
Inductive approach Stating of the (Teacher elicits
(Teacher initiates and concept or rule examples from pupils to
elicits related examples (pupils do this verify their
from pupils’ experience to by studying understanding of the
clarify the concept or rule). the examples) concept or rule. Pupils
give their own
examples. )

Example Rule Example

The following example illustrates how inducto-deductive approach is followed in


using examples

Teacher: – in our country, the elections to the parliament and the State
Assemblies are held periodically,. When were the last elections for the LokSabha
held?
Pupil: – It was held in 1980
Teacher: – did you see only men or women or both going to the polling booths
to cast their votes?
Pupil: – I saw both men and women going to the polling booths to cast their
votes.
Teacher: – What do you infer from this?
Pupil: – In our country, both men and women are entitled to vote.
Teacher: – Did you see any foreigner going to any polling booth for casting vote?
Pupil: – No, Sir,
Teacher: – What do you infer from this?
Pupil: – This means that foreigners have no right to cast vote in our elections.
Teacher: – Did any of you cast vote?
Pupil: – No,
Teacher: – Why?
Pupil: – Children are not entitled to cast vote.
Teacher: – What age an individual should have to be entitled to cast vote?
Pupil: – No response.
Teacher: – In our country an individual who has attained the age of 21 years and
above are entitled to vote.
Teacher: – Tell me now who has the right to vote in our country?
Pupil: – Every citizen our country whether man or women who has attained the
age of 21years are above is entitled to vote.
37
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Teacher: – Can you give one word for this concept?
Pupil: – No response.
Teacher: – This can be termed as universal adult franchise. Thus, the term
universal adult franchise means that every citizen whether male or female who has
attained the age of majority (adulthood) which is 21 in our country is entitled to
vote.

An example using the deductive approach for teaching of the concept


‘universal adult franchise is given here.

Teacher: – Define the term ‘Universal adult franchise’. It means that every
Indian citizen, whether male or female who has attained the age food majority
(adulthood) which is 21 in our country, is entitled to vote. Will all of you be
entitled to cast your vote in the next general election? If not, why?
Pupil: – I will not be entitled to cast my vote as I would not attain adulthood i.
e., the age of 21 years by that time.
Teacher: – During the last election, a friend of mine who is a British visited
India. He was not permitted to vote. What could be the reason?
Pupil: – He is not the citizen of India. Only Indian citizen are entitled to cast vote
in the elections of our country.
Teacher: – Has a woman beggar a right to vote in the election in our country? If
yes, why?
Pupil: – No response.
Teacher: – since there is a ‘universal adult franchise In our country, every
individual irrespective of sex and his / her financial status is entitled to vote. As
such, the woman beggar also has a right to vote.

38
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Episode
(Note: - Concept should teach Inducto-Deductive approach i.e Example-Rule-
Example)

NAME: - Havish Shanbhog CLASS: - VIII

TOPIC: - Noun SUBJECT: -English

Teacher: Tell me few names of animals?

Pupil: Deer, Lion, Dog, Cat and Elephant etc.

Teacher: which is capital city of Karnataka?

Pupil: Bangalore

Teacher: what is your name?

Pupil: Havish Shanbhog

Teacher: which is king of fruits?

Pupil: Mango

Teacher: What we call words?

Pupil: Noun

Teacher: What is Noun?

Pupil: Noun is a name of person, place, animals or thing.

It is also called naming word. (Rule)

Teacher: Give me some example of Noun?

Pupil: Thrirupathi, Rose, Girish, Book and Horse etc.

39
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Episode
Teach Session ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

Soft Core: Content and pedagogy of……………………..

Topic: Class:

40
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
41
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Episode
Re-Teach ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

Soft Core: Content and pedagogy of……………………..

Topic: Class:

42
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
43
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

1. The Skill of Illustrating with Example (GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÉÆA¢UÉ «±À¢ÃPÀj¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. Components Teach Re-Teach


No. WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
01 Examples used were Simple
¸ÀgÀ¼À GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
02 Examples used relevant to Concept
GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÀÄ ¥ÀjPÀ®à£ÉUÉ ¥ÀÆgÀPÀªÁVzÉAiÀiÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
03 Examples are Interesting
GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÀÄ D¸ÀQÛzÁAiÀÄPÀªÁVzÁݪÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
04 Pupils gave own Examples
«zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ ¸ÀéAvÀ GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß PÉýzÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
05 Inductive and deductive approach was
followed in using Examples GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
§¼À¸ÀĪÁUÀ C£ÀÄUÀªÀÄ£À ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¤UÀªÀÄ ¥ÀzÀÝwAiÀÄ£ÀÄß §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ

Feedback:

Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Re-teach session: ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

44
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

2. The Skill of Illustrating with Example (GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÉÆA¢UÉ «±À¢ÃPÀj¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. Components Teach Re-Teach


No. WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
01 Examples used were Simple
¸ÀgÀ¼À GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
02 Examples used relevant to Concept
GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÀÄ ¥ÀjPÀ®à£ÉUÉ ¥ÀÆgÀPÀªÁVzÉAiÀiÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
03 Examples are Interesting
GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÀÄ D¸ÀQÛzÁAiÀÄPÀªÁVzÁݪÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
04 Pupils gave own Examples
«zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ ¸ÀéAvÀ GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß PÉýzÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
05 Inductive and deductive approach was
followed in using Examples GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
§¼À¸ÀĪÁUÀ C£ÀÄUÀªÀÄ£À ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¤UÀªÀÄ ¥ÀzÀÝwAiÀÄ£ÀÄß §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ

Feedback:

Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Re-teach session: ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

45
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

3. The Skill of Illustrating with Example (GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÉÆA¢UÉ «±À¢ÃPÀj¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. Components Teach Re-Teach


No. WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
01 Examples used were Simple
¸ÀgÀ¼À GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
02 Examples used relevant to Concept
GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÀÄ ¥ÀjPÀ®à£ÉUÉ ¥ÀÆgÀPÀªÁVzÉAiÀiÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
03 Examples are Interesting
GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÀÄ D¸ÀQÛzÁAiÀÄPÀªÁVzÁݪÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
04 Pupils gave own Examples
«zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ ¸ÀéAvÀ GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß PÉýzÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
05 Inductive and deductive approach was
followed in using Examples GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
§¼À¸ÀĪÁUÀ C£ÀÄUÀªÀÄ£À ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¤UÀªÀÄ ¥ÀzÀÝwAiÀÄ£ÀÄß §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ

Feedback:

Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Re-teach session: ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

46
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

4. The Skill of Illustrating with Example (GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÉÆA¢UÉ «±À¢ÃPÀj¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. Components Teach Re-Teach


No. WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
01 Examples used were Simple
¸ÀgÀ¼À GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
02 Examples used relevant to Concept
GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÀÄ ¥ÀjPÀ®à£ÉUÉ ¥ÀÆgÀPÀªÁVzÉAiÀiÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
03 Examples are Interesting
GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÀÄ D¸ÀQÛzÁAiÀÄPÀªÁVzÁݪÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
04 Pupils gave own Examples
«zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ ¸ÀéAvÀ GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß PÉýzÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
05 Inductive and deductive approach was
followed in using Examples GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
§¼À¸ÀĪÁUÀ C£ÀÄUÀªÀÄ£À ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¤UÀªÀÄ ¥ÀzÀÝwAiÀÄ£ÀÄß §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ

Feedback:

Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Re-teach session: ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

47
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

5. The Skill of Illustrating with Example (GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÉÆA¢UÉ «±À¢ÃPÀj¸ÀĪÀ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. Components Teach Re-Teach


No. WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
01 Examples used were Simple
¸ÀgÀ¼À GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
02 Examples used relevant to Concept
GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÀÄ ¥ÀjPÀ®à£ÉUÉ ¥ÀÆgÀPÀªÁVzÉAiÀiÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
03 Examples are Interesting
GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼ÀÄ D¸ÀQÛzÁAiÀÄPÀªÁVzÁݪÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
04 Pupils gave own Examples
«zÁåyðUÀ¼ÀÄ ¸ÀéAvÀ GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß PÉýzÁÝgÁ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
05 Inductive and deductive approach was
followed in using Examples GzÁºÀgÀuÉUÀ¼À£ÀÄß 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
§¼À¸ÀĪÁUÀ C£ÀÄUÀªÀÄ£À ªÀÄvÀÄÛ ¤UÀªÀÄ ¥ÀzÀÝwAiÀÄ£ÀÄß §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ

Feedback:

Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Re-teach session: ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Lecturer Signature

48
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
The Skill of Stimulus Variation (G¢ÝÃ¥À£À §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉAiÀÄ P˱À®å)

The skill of stimulus variation involves deliberate change in attention drawing


behavior of the teacher in order to secure and sustain students' attention to what is
being taught. The skill of stimulus variation implies attracting and focusing
students' attention by changing stimuli in the environment

The skill of stimulus variation involves deliberate change in attention drawing


behavior of the teacher in order to secure and sustain students’ attention to what is
being taught. The skill of stimulus variation implies attracting and focusing
students’ attention by changing stimuli in the environment. The variation in the
stimuli generates interest among students in their learning and hence helps in
their academic achievement.

It is relatively unusual for students to attend to same thing continuously. It is


very difficult for one to attend to the same stimulus for more than a few minutes;
in some cases a few seconds and even less. Therefore, for securing and sustaining
the attention of the pupils to the lesson it is imperative to make variations in the
stimulus. This is because attention is the necessary pre-requisite for learning.

A resourceful teacher, have to develop the skill in him /her to attract and hold the
attention of his / her students throughout the teaching. He/she should deliberately
change his/ her attention-drawing behavior in class.

Training in the skills of stimulus variation is aimed at helping student teachers to


avoid teaching styles likely to induce boredom in their pupils. A stimulus situation
that changes in different ways is one of the most powerful influences in
maintaining orienting activity by the pupils. Carefully structured teaching material
and approaches to the subject can have an important effect here, but so can the
way a teacher conducts his lesson.

For the success of any lesson, it is essential to secure and sustain the attention of
the pupils learning is optimum when the pupils are fully attentive to the teaching-
learning process. How to secure and sustain the attention is main theme of this
skill. It is known that attention of the individual tends to shift from one stimulus
toothier very quickly. It is very difficult for an individual to attend to the same
49
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
stimulus for more than a few seconds there are a number of factors which
influence what the students are likely to attend to.

Intensity: A louder sound, a brighter light can capture any one’s attention.
However, continuity of loudness and brightness tend to have a quick decreasing
effect in attracting attention,
Contrast: Anything which is bigger than other things in the surrounding
environment attracts attention. One’s perceptual field makes a difference in
attracting
Movement: A moving thing attracts our attention more in comparison to
ached thing. Self activity: Attention is sustained if the students are asked or
motivated to engage themselves in instructional activities,
Audio-visual aids: It has been proved that audio-visual aids have great
potential to help students in their learning. For example, AV aids are a powerful
medium to attract and hold students’ attention. You should use a variety of audio-
visual media to make your teaching more effective and meaningful.
Teacher’s personal behavior: If the teacher is enthusiastic, stimulating,
energetic, and expressive, he/ she gets more attention than when he/she is dull
and monotonous.
Component Skills of Stimulus variation
The behaviors associated with the skill of stimulus variation are;

Teacher movement:
Varying movements by continuously changing location within the classroom,
means making movements from one place to another with some purpose. As for
writing on the black board, to conduct experiment, to explain the chart or model,
to pay attention to the pupil who is responding to some question etc. This captures
pupils’ attention and every position they are sitting they do not feel the distance.
Pupils feel that the teacher is with them .The movements are in a way of reducing
the distance from students..

The physical movements of the teacher in the class carry much importance. While
excess of physical activities is undesirable the teacher is like a stone idol without
these activities.. It is observed that the teachers’ movement in the classroom draws
the attention of the students. This behavior of the teacher makes the student feel
that his participation in instructional activities is being supervised by the teacher.

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
The movements in the classroom should always be meaningful and related to the
teaching that means the movements should have a pedagogic perspective . There
should not be any aimless wandering in the classroom.

The body movements perform numerous pedagogical functions: Like emphasizing


the importance of shape, size, and movements of the object being taught.
Explaining emotions and feelings. Combining verbal exposition with gestures. For
example, if discussing the shape of an object, one can use the hands to show the
shape of the object.

Teacher Gestures
Gestures are the movements of the parts of the body the teacher’s body
movements – which communicate certain meaningful ideas to the students, These
include movements of head, hand and body parts to arrest attention, to express
emotions or to indicate shapes, sizes and movements. All these acts are performed
to become more expressive.

Gestures also prove helpful is making the lesson effective in the class room. These
include facial gestures (laughing, raising eyebrows, emotions etc.), signals of eyes,
nodding, hand signals (signal to stop, signal to continue the task and signal to keep
quiet) etc. Gestures can be displayed by purposeful movements of the parts of the
body. As a teacher

One should consciously attempt to extend the range and frequency of your
gestures, for it

 Move hands and fingers to describe things, measurements, etc;


 While talking with the students, show agreements by nodding heads so as to
encourage the students to go on explaining;
 Show adoration or wonder by raising eyebrows high so as to show interest
in what the students are talking about;
 Use mimics to show agreements, disagreements, wonder and disbelief,
anger, or incomprehension, etc;
 Clasp hands to attract the students’ attention or to show happiness,wonder
etc.

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Changes in Speech Pattern Silence / Pause

The use of pitch in voice projection as a stimulus, should indicate, relative


important of information. That’s it should indicate happiness or sorrow. In other
words slowing speech pattern is a way of stimulating pupils’ interests. Variation
can be in volume or accent of voice When the teacher wants to show emotions or to
put emphasis on a particular point, sudden or radical changes in tone, volume or
speed of the verbal presentation are brought out. The change in the speech pattern
makes the pupils attentive and creates interest in the lesson.

The pupils feel boredom with the speech at the same pitch, and they get deviated
from the lesson. The teacher should bring fluctuations in his voice. Change in tone,
volume or speed of verbal communication is known as change in speech pattern.
Take modulation of voice for example. Sudden variation in voice will attract the
attention of the students. It should be noted that while teaching one should not
speak in a monotonous tone. One should be able to change the speech pattern at
proper points and situations, according to the need of. Students to draw their
attention and the subject to emphasize a point. Speak using different speech
patterns to avoid boredom;

Do not be monotonous; speak attractively and energetically; speak loudly enough


for the students at the back to hear what the teacher is saying, but not too loud so
that the students at the front get shocked.

Pausing
As and where the need arises the teacher should use pauses in his teaching
process. Make use of short pauses properly to attract the students’ attention and to
increase the students’ desire to listen further to what the teacher is talking about;
do not talk in a hurry so as to lose breath;

Pausing means “stop talking” by the teacher for a moment. When the teacher
becomes silent during teaching, it at once draws the attention of the students with
curiosity towards the teacher. The message given at this point is easily received by
the pupils.

Silence can indicate that what has just said is important or it can indicate that
what happened is unacceptable. Silence can also indicate the opportunity
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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
allowance for pupils to think and respond to the asked question. Remain silent
until pupils are also observe silence

Change in Audio-Visual Sequence


. A continuous change in the sequence of using audio visual aids concentrates the
attention of the pupil upon the teacher. He should use sometime visual and
sometimes audio-aids.

Vary Methodology:
For example use of demonstrations, group work, songs. Group work projects or
individual projects, like in Art and craft, music social studies etc. Introducing
variation is because each and every pupil would have something which is
interested in. Dramatization, storytelling and jokes are part of stimulating learners
at every angle. Give children current reading publications, oral reports, outdoor
activities, guest speakers, tests in small groups and individual tests. Different
pupils prefer to learn in different modes so a teacher has to vary methodology

Variation in Questioning:
Questions is also a stimulus as it provide pupils with the opportunity to
express..Questions themselves should be varied, from low order and high order
questions. .When asked, do not directly answer the question; let the student finish
his question first so as to give time to you to prepare for a suitable and right
answer; do not cut off the student’s question or explanation

Focusing:
It is used to concentrate the attentions of the pupils on some specific point or
event. It includes verbal focusing, gesture focusing and verbal or oral gesture
focusing the teacher draws the attention of the pupils to the particular point in the
lesson either by using verbal or gesture focusing. In verbal focusing the teacher
makes statements like, “look here” listen to me” “note it carefully”. In gestural
focusing pointing towards some object with fingers or underlining the important
words on the black board.

Focusing can be used when the teacher want to direct the students’ attention to a
particular point which they are required to observe. Focusing can be obtained
through verbal communication or gesture or both.

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Varying of Non -verbal Gestures:
In the lesson delivery the teacher should be able to use hands, eyes, body or even
clap, stamp feet as a way of maintaining pupil’s interest in the lesson.
The teacher can even make strategic movements around the classroom or pointing
to something written on the wall. These gestures should have a specific purpose, so
that pupils should be able to decode what those gestures mean. Over use of
gestures might end up becoming a habit and then defeat the purpose of being a
stimulus.
When the teacher want to emphasize some particular aspect during the teaching
and direct students’ attention to it, he/she should use statements like – ‘Listen
carefully’, ‘Look at this chart’, Watch this experiment’, Now, ‘This Is really
very important’. These statements help the teacher draw student’s attention to key
learning point

Gestural focusing:
With the use of gestures only i.e. the movements of head and hand the teacher can
attract the attention of the students to a particular point. Even if he/she underline
the point on the blackboard, the students will be attracted more towards it
when appropriate gestures are used for this purpose.

Verbal and gestural focusing:


In the verbal focusing, the word is repeated again and again to concentrate the
attention such as “Look here, attend to me, and don’t see outside because I am
going to announce something important.” In the gesture focusing, the attention of
the pupils is concentrated with the help of gestures towards some desirable
direction or an object When both verbal and gestures focusing devices are used to
focus the attention of students, it has more impact on them. For example, when
the teacher ask the students: “Look at the diagram” and at the same time draw the
diagram on the blackboard or overhead projector transparency, he/she will be able
to help your students properly understand the concept. Thus a changes the
sensory channel-from listening (verbal speech) to looking (visual display), from
speaking to doing, from writing to demonstrating, etc, will helps in maintaining
the level of attention and motivation of the students. Such changes can be
brought about through judicious combination of various means of communication.

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Oral to visual: Oral-Visual Switching
The teacher gives information to the class verbally about something. This is called
oral medium. When the teacher is showing maps, charts and object without saying
something, this is called visual medium. If the teacher is giving information to the
pupils through any one medium (oral, visual, oral visual) for a long time, it is
possible that the students may lose attention to what the teacher is conveying to
them. Therefore it is essential for the teacher to change medium rapidly in order to
secure and sustain pupils’ attention to what he says

To make teaching effective and also to break monotony one can change the focus
of attention from verbal (oral) stimulus to visual stimulus. While explaining a
point if one show a chart or a model (switching from oral to visual) and after
showing the chart the teacher again start speaking (switching from visual to oral
mode) it is known as oral to visual sensory focusing.

Oral- oral visual


When the teacher while speaking shows objects, charts and models and explains
their various parts. It is switching from oral to oral-visual. The teacher can shift
focus from the verbal (oral) stimulus to the audio -and the visual stimulus and
vice-versa. For example, if a teacher has just introduced the topic and is explaining
the meaning of the concept and then shows a chart or a model and using it
explains the parts of the concept and asks the students to observe the chart/model
(visual), he/she is using audio to audio-visual switching., This switching involves
the use of more than one sense.

Visual oral – visual


When the teacher demonstrates the experiment silently and then explains the
phenomenon with the help of charts, maps, diagram etc. This is visual-oral
switching. This involves the shifting of focus from visual stimulus to audio-visual
stimulus and vice-versa. For example, the teacher can demonstrate experiments
and then explains the phenomenon with the help of a diagram.

Oral visual
When the teacher while speaking, shows objects, maps, charts, globe etc. It is
switching form oral to visual.

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Student movement
The teacher can change the focus of attention of the students by involving them
in physically doing something. He/she can involve them in experiments, handling
apparatus, or dramatization. By doing so, he/she can sustain their interest in the
teaching-learning process.

Variation in Interaction Style:


Interaction between the teacher and the pupils is very essential in the class room
teaching otherwise it become monotonous. Therefore the style of interaction in the
class room should go on changing. Interaction style can be used as stimulus ,for
example teacher/student or student/student or student /teacher .Variation in
interaction so as to stimulate students interests .Some variation interaction styles
are used in group work or individual work

Sensory Change or Variation in Sensory Channels:


Varying the senses that students are using. Student might require to touch ,see
,smell or ,feel. If these senses are not varied it means those pupils who interested
in hearing are going to benefit and those pupils who are interested in touching are
not benefiting. The introduction of addition sensory modes in a lesson will make
the lesson interesting..

PATTERN OF EVALUATION SHEET FOR SKILL OF STIMULUS VARIATION

 Body movements were made.


 Teacher used gestures.
 Verbal focusing was made.
 Gesture focusing was made.
 Verbal gesture focusing was made.
 Fluctuations in the voice were made.
 Teacher and pupil interaction took place.
 Pupil-pupil interaction took place
 Teacher class interaction took place.
 Pause was used.
 Changes in Audio visual sequence were made.
 Stimulus variation motivated the pupils.
Every lesson is a unique thing influenced by the emotions of the
teacher and learners. The teacher can make lesson more interesting
through the effective use of stimulus variations to make learners
motivated on grasping concepts.
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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Episode
Name: Havish Shanbhog G Subject : Physics
Concept: Sound wave propagation standard: IX

Teacher: Good morning students. Today we are going to discuss the concept
sound and it is relevant aspects. Do you all hear me?
Pupils : Yes sir.
Teacher: When I talk something starts from my mouth and reaches you ears.
This we call as sound waves (writes the term on black board) . So sound waves
make you hear what I say. Is it not?
Pupils : Yes sir.
Teacher: How do sound waves reach you from me?
Pupils : Through air sir
Teacher: So you mean that a medium is required for sound waves to travel
Is it not?
Pupils : Yes sir.
Teacher: Come and write on the black board.
Pupils : (writing on the black board for the passage of sound waves the
presence of a medium is essential’)
Teacher: All of you note down this. (Teacher walks along to supervise the
student writing)
Pupils : No sir.
Teacher: Come here. Drop this pebble into this dish of water.
Pupil : (Does as said by the teacher)
Teacher: Listen what happens. From the point where the pebble was dropped
water appears to move away in concertic circle. Come on Rajal Tell me what I said
now.
Pupil : (Teacher comes near and pats him) From one point when
something moves in an alternatively up and down curvy form, it is wave
propagation sir.

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Teacher: Radha! Can you say?
Radha : Yes sir. (says)
Teacher: Come on! Write it on the black board.
Pupil : (Writes on the black board)
Teacher: How many types of waves are there in sound?
Pupil : two sirs.
Teacher: They are Transverse waves and longitudinal waves. What are they ?
Pupil : Transverse and longitudinal.
Teacher: All of you write down. (Supervises the work) What is the type of wave
formed when a pebble dropped into water?
(Teacher goes near and pats)
Pupil : It is either this or that.
Teacher: Give me the name of the wave.
Pupil : It is transverse wave.
Teacher: Good. Waves are propagated only through a medium. They are of
two types. One transverse where waves proceed in a direction perpendicular to the
direction of movement of the wave producer. The other longitudinal where the
direction wave propagation and the direction of movement of the wave producer
are the same.
This is what we have studied today.
Pupils : Thank you sir

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Episode
Teach Session ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

Soft Core: Content and pedagogy of……………………..

Topic: Class:

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Episode
Re-Teach ªÀÄgÀÄ-¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É

Soft Core: Content and pedagogy of……………………..

Topic: Class:

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

1. The Skill of Stimulus Variation (G¢ÝÃ¥À£À §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉAiÀÄ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach Re-Teach


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3 Change in speech Pattern


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7 Oral-visual switching
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1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

63
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

2. The Skill of Stimulus Variation (G¢ÝÃ¥À£À §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉAiÀÄ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach Re-Teach


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7 Oral-visual switching
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Feedback: Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

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1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

64
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

3. The Skill of Stimulus Variation (G¢ÝÃ¥À£À §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉAiÀÄ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach Re-Teach


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6 Focusing UÀªÀÄ£À PÉÃA¢æPÀj¸ÀĪÀÅzÀÄ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

7 Oral-visual switching
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Feedback: Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

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1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

65
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

4. The Skill of Stimulus Variation (G¢ÝÃ¥À£À §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉAiÀÄ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach Re-Teach


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6 Focusing UÀªÀÄ£À PÉÃA¢æPÀj¸ÀĪÀÅzÀÄ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

7 Oral-visual switching
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Feedback: Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

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1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

66
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
MICRO-TEACHING OBSERVATION SCHEDULE (CtĨsÉÆÃzsÀ£É «ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)

5. The Skill of Stimulus Variation (G¢ÝÃ¥À£À §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉAiÀÄ P˱À®å)

Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-

Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach Re-Teach


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6 Focusing UÀªÀÄ£À PÉÃA¢æPÀj¸ÀĪÀÅzÀÄ 0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5

7 Oral-visual switching
0 1 2 3 4 5 0 1 2 3 4 5
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Feedback: Teach session: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Re-teach session: ªÀÄgÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Lecturer Signature
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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Simulated lessons with integration of skills including instructional
materials (one in each pedagogy subject)
Simulated lesson
Soft Core: Class:

Topic:

I-Introduction

Previous Knowledge Teacher activity Pupil Activity

II-Statement of Aim: To-day let us study about

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher Pupil Activity Evaluation
activity

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher activity Pupil Activity Evaluation

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher activity Pupil Activity Evaluation

Concluding Statement :

IV- Recapitulation: V- Black Board Summary:

 .

 .

 .

 .

 .

VI- Home Assignment:

 .

 .

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EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
1. Simulated Lesson Observation Schedule
(«ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)
Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-
Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach


WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
01 Introduction is interesting, Relevant, Yes or No
Appropriateness
02 Used beginning statement Yes or No
DgÀA¨sÀzÀ ºÉýPÉ PÉÆnÖzÁÝgÁ?
03 Increasing Critical awareness did/not Yes or No
«ªÀıÁðvÀäPÀ CjªÀÅ ºÉaѹzÁÝgÁ?
04 Focusing UÀªÀÄ£À PÉÃA¢æPÀj¹zÁÝgÁ? Yes or No
05 Yes or No
Change in speech Pattern
zsÀé¤AiÀÄ UÀw §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉ
06 CCE Method used /not Yes or No
07 Teaching aids uses/ not Yes or No
08 Audio-Video Devises used Yes or No
zÀÈPï ±ÀæªÀuÉÆÃ¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß G¥ÀAiÀiÁÃV¹zÁÝgÁ
09 Lack in Continuity in Explaining Yes or No
«ªÀgÀuÉAiÀÄ°è ¤gÀAvÀgÀvÉAiÀ PÉÆgÀvÉ
10 Used Concluding statement Yes or No
CAwªÀÄ ºÉýPÉ PÉÆnÖzÁÝgÁ
11 Recapitulation done? Yes or No
12 Black Board Summary written? Yes or No
13 Home Assignment given? Yes or No
14 Colour chalk piece are used /not Yes or No
§tÚ §tÚzÀ §¼À¥À §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ
15 Check after use weather the black board is clean Yes or No
§gÉzÀ ªÉÄÃ¯É PÀ¥ÀÅöàºÀ®UÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¸ÀéZÀÑ ªÀiÁrzÁÝgÀ

Teaching Feedback: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

72
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
2. Simulated Lesson Observation Schedule
(«ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)
Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-
Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach


WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
01 Introduction is interesting, Relevant, Yes or No
Appropriateness
02 Used beginning statement Yes or No
DgÀA¨sÀzÀ ºÉýPÉ PÉÆnÖzÁÝgÁ?
03 Increasing Critical awareness did/not Yes or No
«ªÀıÁðvÀäPÀ CjªÀÅ ºÉaѹzÁÝgÁ?
04 Focusing UÀªÀÄ£À PÉÃA¢æPÀj¹zÁÝgÁ? Yes or No
05 Yes or No
Change in speech Pattern
zsÀé¤AiÀÄ UÀw §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉ
06 CCE Method used /not Yes or No
07 Teaching aids uses/ not Yes or No
08 Audio-Video Devises used Yes or No
zÀÈPï ±ÀæªÀuÉÆÃ¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß G¥ÀAiÀiÁÃV¹zÁÝgÁ
09 Lack in Continuity in Explaining Yes or No
«ªÀgÀuÉAiÀÄ°è ¤gÀAvÀgÀvÉAiÀ PÉÆgÀvÉ
10 Used Concluding statement Yes or No
CAwªÀÄ ºÉýPÉ PÉÆnÖzÁÝgÁ
11 Recapitulation done? Yes or No
12 Black Board Summary written? Yes or No
13 Home Assignment given? Yes or No
14 Colour chalk piece are used /not Yes or No
§tÚ §tÚzÀ §¼À¥À §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ
15 Check after use weather the black board is clean Yes or No
§gÉzÀ ªÉÄÃ¯É PÀ¥ÀÅöàºÀ®UÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¸ÀéZÀÑ ªÀiÁrzÁÝgÀ

Teaching Feedback: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Your Signature

73
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
3. Simulated Lesson Observation Schedule
(«ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)
Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-
Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach


WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
01 Introduction is interesting, Relevant, Yes or No
Appropriateness
02 Used beginning statement Yes or No
DgÀA¨sÀzÀ ºÉýPÉ PÉÆnÖzÁÝgÁ?
03 Increasing Critical awareness did/not Yes or No
«ªÀıÁðvÀäPÀ CjªÀÅ ºÉaѹzÁÝgÁ?
04 Focusing UÀªÀÄ£À PÉÃA¢æPÀj¹zÁÝgÁ? Yes or No
05 Yes or No
Change in speech Pattern
zsÀé¤AiÀÄ UÀw §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉ
06 CCE Method used /not Yes or No
07 Teaching aids uses/ not Yes or No
08 Audio-Video Devises used Yes or No
zÀÈPï ±ÀæªÀuÉÆÃ¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß G¥ÀAiÀiÁÃV¹zÁÝgÁ
09 Lack in Continuity in Explaining Yes or No
«ªÀgÀuÉAiÀÄ°è ¤gÀAvÀgÀvÉAiÀ PÉÆgÀvÉ
10 Used Concluding statement Yes or No
CAwªÀÄ ºÉýPÉ PÉÆnÖzÁÝgÁ
11 Recapitulation done? Yes or No
12 Black Board Summary written? Yes or No
13 Home Assignment given? Yes or No
14 Colour chalk piece are used /not Yes or No
§tÚ §tÚzÀ §¼À¥À §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ
15 Check after use weather the black board is clean Yes or No
§gÉzÀ ªÉÄÃ¯É PÀ¥ÀÅöàºÀ®UÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¸ÀéZÀÑ ªÀiÁrzÁÝgÀ

Teaching Feedback: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

74
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
4. Simulated Lesson Observation Schedule
(«ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)
Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-
Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach


WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
01 Introduction is interesting, Relevant, Yes or No
Appropriateness
02 Used beginning statement Yes or No
DgÀA¨sÀzÀ ºÉýPÉ PÉÆnÖzÁÝgÁ?
03 Increasing Critical awareness did/not Yes or No
«ªÀıÁðvÀäPÀ CjªÀÅ ºÉaѹzÁÝgÁ?
04 Focusing UÀªÀÄ£À PÉÃA¢æPÀj¹zÁÝgÁ? Yes or No
05 Yes or No
Change in speech Pattern
zsÀé¤AiÀÄ UÀw §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉ
06 CCE Method used /not Yes or No
07 Teaching aids uses/ not Yes or No
08 Audio-Video Devises used Yes or No
zÀÈPï ±ÀæªÀuÉÆÃ¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß G¥ÀAiÀiÁÃV¹zÁÝgÁ
09 Lack in Continuity in Explaining Yes or No
«ªÀgÀuÉAiÀÄ°è ¤gÀAvÀgÀvÉAiÀ PÉÆgÀvÉ
10 Used Concluding statement Yes or No
CAwªÀÄ ºÉýPÉ PÉÆnÖzÁÝgÁ
11 Recapitulation done? Yes or No
12 Black Board Summary written? Yes or No
13 Home Assignment given? Yes or No
14 Colour chalk piece are used /not Yes or No
§tÚ §tÚzÀ §¼À¥À §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ
15 Check after use weather the black board is clean Yes or No
§gÉzÀ ªÉÄÃ¯É PÀ¥ÀÅöàºÀ®UÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¸ÀéZÀÑ ªÀiÁrzÁÝgÀ

Teaching Feedback: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Observer Signature

75
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
5. Simulated Lesson Observation Schedule
(«ÃPÀëuÁ ¥ÀnÖ)
Student Teacher Name: - Soft Core:-
Topic: - Standard:

Sl. No. Components Teach


WÀlPÁA±ÀUÀ¼ÀÄ ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£É
01 Introduction is interesting, Relevant, Yes or No
Appropriateness
02 Used beginning statement Yes or No
DgÀA¨sÀzÀ ºÉýPÉ PÉÆnÖzÁÝgÁ?
03 Increasing Critical awareness did/not Yes or No
«ªÀıÁðvÀäPÀ CjªÀÅ ºÉaѹzÁÝgÁ?
04 Focusing UÀªÀÄ£À PÉÃA¢æPÀj¹zÁÝgÁ? Yes or No
05 Yes or No
Change in speech Pattern
zsÀé¤AiÀÄ UÀw §zÀ¯ÁªÀuÉ
06 CCE Method used /not Yes or No
07 Teaching aids uses/ not Yes or No
08 Audio-Video Devises used Yes or No
zÀÈPï ±ÀæªÀuÉÆÃ¥ÀPÀgÀtUÀ¼À£ÀÄß G¥ÀAiÀiÁÃV¹zÁÝgÁ
09 Lack in Continuity in Explaining Yes or No
«ªÀgÀuÉAiÀÄ°è ¤gÀAvÀgÀvÉAiÀ PÉÆgÀvÉ
10 Used Concluding statement Yes or No
CAwªÀÄ ºÉýPÉ PÉÆnÖzÁÝgÁ
11 Recapitulation done? Yes or No
12 Black Board Summary written? Yes or No
13 Home Assignment given? Yes or No
14 Colour chalk piece are used /not Yes or No
§tÚ §tÚzÀ §¼À¥À §¼À¹zÁÝgÁ
15 Check after use weather the black board is clean Yes or No
§gÉzÀ ªÉÄÃ¯É PÀ¥ÀÅöàºÀ®UÉAiÀÄ£ÀÄß ¸ÀéZÀÑ ªÀiÁrzÁÝgÀ

Teaching Feedback: ¨sÉÆÃzsÀ£ÉAiÀÄ gÀZÀ£ÁvÀäPÀ ¸À®ºÉUÀ¼ÀÄ:

1. Very poor 2. Poor 3. Good 4. Very Good 5. Excellent

Lecturer Signature

76
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Lesson design (four lessons in each pedagogy subject)
1. Simulated lesson
Soft Core: Class:

Topic:

I-Introduction

Previous Knowledge Teacher activity Pupil Activity

II-Statement of Aim: To-day let us study about

77
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher Pupil Activity Evaluation
activity

78
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher activity Pupil Activity Evaluation

79
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher activity Pupil Activity Evaluation

Concluding Statement :

IV- Recapitulation: V- Black Board Summary:

 .

 .

 .

 .

 .

VI- Home Assignment:

 .

 .

80
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
2. Simulated lesson
Soft Core: Class:

Topic:

I-Introduction

Previous Knowledge Teacher activity Pupil Activity

II-Statement of Aim: To-day let us study about

81
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher Pupil Activity Evaluation
activity

82
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher activity Pupil Activity Evaluation

83
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher activity Pupil Activity Evaluation

Concluding Statement :

IV- Recapitulation: V- Black Board Summary:

 .

 .

 .

 .

 .

VI- Home Assignment:

 .

 .

84
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
3. Simulated lesson
Soft Core: Class:

Topic:

I-Introduction

Previous Knowledge Teacher activity Pupil Activity

II-Statement of Aim: To-day let us study about

85
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher Pupil Activity Evaluation
activity

86
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher activity Pupil Activity Evaluation

87
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher activity Pupil Activity Evaluation

Concluding Statement :

IV- Recapitulation: V- Black Board Summary:

 .

 .

 .

 .

 .

VI- Home Assignment:

 .

 .

88
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
4. Simulated lesson
Soft Core: Class:

Topic:

I-Introduction

Previous Knowledge Teacher activity Pupil Activity

II-Statement of Aim: To-day let us study about

89
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher Pupil Activity Evaluation
activity

90
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher activity Pupil Activity Evaluation

91
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
III- Development of lesson

Expected Learning Experience


learning
Content Analysis outcome Teacher activity Pupil Activity Evaluation

Concluding Statement :

IV- Recapitulation: V- Black Board Summary:

 .

 .

 .

 .

 .

VI- Home Assignment:

 .

 .

92
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01
Simulated
lesson with ICT
mediation (one
in each
pedagogy
subject) Power
point print out
one topic

93
EPC-05 Pre-Internship Soft Core -01