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02/08/2015

02/08/2015 Principles of Arabic Grammar in Arabic Morphology فرصلا ملع في ةيبرعلا

Principles of Arabic Grammar in

Arabic Morphology

فرصلا ملع في ةيبرعلا ةــــــــــغللا دعاوق

Maulana Dr Rafaqat Rashid Saturday 7 th March 2015

Maulana Dr Rafaqat Rashid Saturday 7 t h March 2015 Saturday 7 t h March 2015

Saturday 7 th March 2015

 

9.45

10.15

Registration

10.15

11.20

Lesson 1 Part 1

Introduction to Arabic Morphology

11.20

11.30

Break

11.30

12.30

Lesson 1 Part 2

The Fundamentals

12.30

13.30

Dhur Salat and Lunch

13.30

14.30

Lesson 2 Part 1

Observing Additional Letters

14.30

14.40

Break

14.40

15.35

Lesson 2 Part 2

Observing the Vowels

15.35

15.45

Break

15.45

16.45

Lesson 3 Part 1

Observing Preceding Words

16.45

17.00

Asr Salat and Break

17.00

18.00

Lesson 3 Part 2

Derived Nouns

18.00

Maghrib and Close

02/08/2015

Lesson 1 Part 1 Introduction

How are we normally taught Arabic Morphology?

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 A specific topic is taught Topics are then combined together to make sense How should
02/08/2015 A specific topic is taught Topics are then combined together to make sense How should

A specific topic is taught

Topics are then

combined together to make sense

How should Arabic Morphology be taught?

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 Always demonstrate how it fits in the bigger picture! Why do students struggle with Arabic

Always demonstrate how it fits in the bigger picture!

Why do students struggle with

Arabic Morphology?

Reason 1

02/08/2015

How does it all translate?

02/08/2015 How does it all translate? What we do! 50% 25% 5

What we do!

50%
50%
02/08/2015 How does it all translate? What we do! 50% 25% 5
25%
25%

02/08/2015

What we could be doing!

20%
20%

That’s what we shall be doing

80%
80%

الله ءاش نِا

Why do students struggle with

Arabic Morphology?

Reason 2

02/08/2015

Too much rote learning

Overwhelming!!
Overwhelming!!

Rather, use as many sensory modes as possible to retain!

Vocal physical
Vocal
physical

02/08/2015

Why do students struggle with Arabic Morphology?

Reason 3

Too Book Focussed?

Overwhelming!!
Overwhelming!!

02/08/2015

Outcome

Focussed?

02/08/2015 Outcome Focussed? Drives motivation!! See immediate results! Purpose of Teaching فرصلا ملع 1.

Drives

motivation!!

02/08/2015 Outcome Focussed? Drives motivation!! See immediate results! Purpose of Teaching فرصلا ملع 1.

See immediate results!

Purpose of Teaching فرصلا ملع

1. Recognise scales of verbs and derived nouns,

= to aid the translation of Arabic

Recognise similarities and differences between conjugation scales

2. Vocalise scales of verbs or derived nouns, = to aid the fluent reading of Arabic (without harakat)

Repetition and retention of conjugation scales

3. Know how to conjugate one scale of verbs or derived nouns to another, to aid the writing of Arabic

Know and understand the rules of conjugation

02/08/2015

Our Focus!

02/08/2015 Our Focus ! • Recognise similarities and differences between conjugation scales • Repetition and

Recognise similarities and differences between conjugation scales

Repetition and retention of conjugation scales

Know and understand the rules of conjugation

ظَف ل َ Articulation or Speech ب َّ ر َ م ُ ك د ر
ظَف ل
َ
Articulation
or Speech
ب َّ ر َ م ُ
ك
د
ر م
ْ
َ ف
ُ
Compound
(Sentence)
Single Word
ديْفُِ م ريْغَ
ديْفُِ م
فرْ ح
َ
لعْ ِف
مسْ ِا
Non-Beneficial
Beneficial
(Incomplete Sentence)
(Complete Sentence)
Particle
Verb
Noun
LESSON 1&2
ي ضا م
ِ
َ
رَدصْ
ملا َ
Perfect Tense
Root Noun
Mapping
Arabic Morphology
ع را ض م
ِ
َ
ُ
قَتشْ ملا
ُ
Imperfect
Derivative Noun
Tense
رمْ َ أ
دمِا جلا
َ
Command
Primary Noun
LESSON 3(i)
يهْ َن
LESSON 3(ii)
Prohibition

02/08/2015

What we will be doing today الله ءاش نِا

10%
10%
30%
30%

The Arabic equivalent to the ‘verb’ in the English Language is the f’il i .e. a word used to describe the performance of an action

ر َ ض َ

(‘he did’ fa’ala

‘ , عَفhe helped’ nasara ‘ , َ صَنhe َ hit’ dharaba

لَ

َ

ر

.

َ

ب

لعْ ِف

1

A word referring to an action

i.e. “he hit”, “they were named”, “hit him” etc.

2

A word which is understood independent of other

i.e. he sat, they were named

words i.e. not like the ,فورحwhich are dependent on other words

3

A

word that has tense; past, present or future. It also

 

has an agent (subject )لعافthat carries out the action. i.e. “he sat”, “he is sitting ”, “he will sit” are verbs because “he” is doing the action. “to sit” is not a

verb, but is a noun

,

رَدصْ

مbecause no one is doing the

َ

action, rather it is a term we use to describe what a

person does when he seats himself.

02/08/2015

There is a massive difference between a

verb in English and a لعْ ِف in Arabic

English:

He sought help

Three words are used to form the meaning of this sentence

Arabic:

ر َ صنْ َ َتسْ ِا

Only one word is used to form the same meaning of a sentence in Arabic

How does one Arabic verb give such depth in meaning to a whole sentence?

1. The action (i.e. to hit, to sit)

2. The tense, past, present or future (i.e. he sat, he is sitting, he will sit)

3. Whether the action is in the affirmative or in the negative (i.e. he hit,

he did not hit)

4. The number of agents doing the action (i.e. they hit, he hit, them two

hit)

5. The gender of the agents doing the action (i.e. he hit, she hit, they

[women] hit)

6. Whether the action is active or passive in its voice (i.e. he hit [active],

he was hit [passive])

7. Which person is the action in. Is it about me/us [1st person], you

[second person], or him/ she/ them [third person].

02/08/2015

How does the لعف change to give such meaning?

1. Change of the order of the 3 base

letters

2. Change of the vowels تاكرح on the

letters

3. Interjecting / placing letters in

different parts of the word

1. Change of the order of the 3 base letters يلصأ فورح = change the meaning

pan

of the order of the 3 base letters يلصأ فورح = change the meaning p a

nap

لقو

Climb

لوق

of the order of the 3 base letters يلصأ فورح = change the meaning p a

Speech

02/08/2015

2. Change of the vowels تاكرح on the letters = changes the meaning

بسح

بسح

بسِ ح

noble

calculate

assume

3. Interjecting letters in different parts of the

word change the meaning

End-Suffix

assume 3. Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن

رص ن

assume 3. Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن
assume 3. Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن

Pre-fix

assume 3. Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن

02/08/2015

Add letters to the end of the word. We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

ن

رof the word. We term this, placing an ‘end - suffix’ ن ص 1. number of

ص

1. number of agents doing the action

Add letters to the end of the word.

We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

end of the word. We term this, placing an ‘end - suffix’ 1 person ر ص

1 person

ر ص ن

1. number of agents doing the action

02/08/2015

Add letters to the end of the word. We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

2 people

ا
ا

ص ن

ر

1. number of

agents doing the action

Add letters to the end of the word.

We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

3 or more people

اوْword. We term this, placing an ‘end - suffix’ 3 or more people ص ن ر

ص ن

ر

1. number of

agents doing the

action

02/08/2015

Add letters to the end of the word. We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

ن

رof the word. We term this, placing an ‘end - suffix’ ن ص 2. the gender

ص

2. the gender

of agents doing the action

Add letters to the end of the word.

We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

of the word. We term this, placing an ‘end - suffix’ 1 male ر ص ن

1 male

ر ص ن

2. the gender

of agents doing the action

02/08/2015

Add letters to the end of the word. We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

1 female

تْword. We term this, placing an ‘end - suffix’ 1 female ص ن ر 2. the

ص ن

ر

2. the gender

of agents doing the action

Add letters to the end of the word.

We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

3 or more females

نرْword. We term this, placing an ‘end - suffix’ 3 or more females ص ن 2.

ص ن

2. the gender

of agents doing the action

02/08/2015

Add letters to the end of the word. We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

ن

رof the word. We term this, placing an ‘end - suffix’ ن ص 3. The grammatical

ص

3. The

grammatical

person

Add letters to the end of the word.

We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

1 male third person

end of the word. We term this, placing an ‘end - suffix’ 1 male third person

ر ص ن

3. The

grammatical

person

02/08/2015

Add letters to the end of the word. We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

1 male second person

ترْthis, placing an ‘end - suffix’ 1 male second person ص ن 3. The grammatical person

ص ن

3. The

grammatical

person

Add letters to the end of the word.

We term this, placing an ‘end-suffix’

1 male first person

ترْthe end of the word. We term this, placing an ‘end - suffix’ 1 male first

ص ن

3. The

grammatical

person

02/08/2015

Placing/ Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning

End-Suffix

in different parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن P r e -

رص ن

parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن P r e - f i
parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن P r e - f i

Pre-fix

change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن P r e - f i x Add letters to

Add letters to the beginning of the word.

We term this, placing a ‘Pre-fix’

He is helping/ will help

ْ

ن

ر ص ي

a ‘Pre - fix’ He is help ing / will help ْ ن ر ص ي

1. To make it in the imperfect tense of the verb

02/08/2015

Add letters to the beginning of the word. We term this, placing a ‘Pre-fix’

She is helping/ will help

ْ

ن

ر ص ت

- fix’ She is help ing / will help ْ ن ر ص ت 2. The

2. The gender of

agents doing

the action (Imperfect Tense)

Add letters to the beginning of the word.

We term this, placing an ‘Pre-fix’

I am helping/ will help

ْ

ر ص ا

ن

an ‘Pre - fix’ I am help ing / will help ْ ر ص ا ن

3. The grammatical

person (Imperfect Tense)

02/08/2015

Add letters to the beginning of the word. We term this, placing an ‘Pre-fix’

You are helping/ will help

ْ

ن

ر ص ت

- fix’ You are help ing / will help ْ ن ر ص ت 3. The

3. The grammatical person (Imperfect Tense)

Add letters to the beginning of the word.

We term this, placing an ‘Pre-fix’

Soon you will help

ْ

ر ص ت

ن س

this, placing an ‘Pre - fix’ Soon you will help ْ ر ص ت ن س

3. Change of meaning (Imperfect Tense)

02/08/2015

Add letters to the beginning of the word. We term this, placing an ‘Pre-fix’

He sought help

ْ

ر ص تسْ ِا

ن

‘Pre - fix’ He sought help ْ ر ص تسْ ِا ن 3. Change of meaning

3. Change of meaning (Perfect Tense)

Placing/ Interjecting letters in different parts

of the word change the meaning

End-Suffix

Placing/ Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن P

رص ن

Placing/ Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن P
Placing/ Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن P

Pre-fix

Placing/ Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن P

02/08/2015

Placing/ Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning

He prevailed

ْ

صتن ِا

the word change the meaning He prevail ed ْ ص ت ن ِا ر 3. Change

ر

3. Change of meaning (Perfect Tense)

Placing/ Interjecting letters in different parts

of the word change the meaning

ص صْ

letters in different parts of the word change the meaning ص صْ ن ر 3. Change

ن

ر

3. Change of meaning (Perfect Tense)

02/08/2015

Placing/ Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning

He baptized

صن

ر

parts of the word change the meaning He baptiz ed ص ن ر 3. Change of

3. Change of meaning (Perfect Tense)

ة ملِكَ لا ملا

َ

ُ

لعف

( Perfect Tense ) ة ملِكَ لا ملا َ ُ ل ع ف ملِكَ لا نُ

ملِكَ لا نُ يَْ

ة

َ

ع

ةيلِصْ لاا فوْ رحلا

ة ملِكَ لا ءاَف

َ

ُ

ةملِكلا ملا

ةملِكلا نيْع

ةملِكلا ءا ف

 

لعْ ِف

 

لعف

e.g. رصن

Scale

       

َ

 

لَ عَف

َ

 

ر

ص ن

ص َ َن

ر

         

ْ

ص ن

ر َ صنَْتسْ َ ِا

لَ

فَتسْ ِا

ع

َ

ر

         

ْ

ر

ص ن

نا ر صنْ مُ

َ

َ

نلََ فمُ

َ

ع

ِ

ِ

02/08/2015

دِئا وزَّلا فُ ورُ حُ

َ

ْ

02/08/2015 دِئا وزَّلا فُ ورُ حُ َ ْ ْ لَ ع َت ف ِا َ ة

ْ

لَ ع َتف ِا

َ

فُ ورُ حُ َ ْ ْ لَ ع َت ف ِا َ ة ملِكَ لا نُ

ة ملِكَ لا نُ يَْ ع

َ

ة ملِكَ لا ملا َ ُ
ة ملِكَ لا ملا
َ
ُ
ة ملِكَ لا ءاَف َ ُ
ة ملِكَ لا ءاَف
َ
ُ

ةيلِصْ لاا فوْ رحلا

Term

Meaning

Example

درجم ى ث لاث

Just triliteral (i.e. no

auxiliary radicals)

تكَ

َ

َ

ب

 

Triliteral with auxiliary radicals

ن تَج ا

َ

َ

ب

هيف ديزم ى ث لاث

درجم عىابر

Just quadriliteral (i.e no

auxiliary radicals)

رَث ع ب

َ

َ

هيف ديزم عىابر

Quadriliteral with auxiliary radicals

لَ ب ر س تَ

َ

َ

02/08/2015

1.

م

ع َ

س ا

ي

2. حَ تف َ

3. ب ر ضتَ

4. ل ئَ س ي

5.

نا م رك َ

ي

َ

Exercise 1a

Lesson 1 Part 2

The Fundamentals

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 Step 1 6 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Six Steps

Step 102/08/2015 6 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Six Steps Approach STEP

6

02/08/2015 Step 1 6 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Six Steps

Step 202/08/2015 Step 1 6 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Six Steps Approach STEP

02/08/2015 Step 1 6 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Six Steps

Step 302/08/2015 Step 1 6 Step 2 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Six Steps Approach STEP

02/08/2015 Step 1 6 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Six Steps

Step 402/08/2015 Step 1 6 Step 2 Step 3 Step 5 Step 6 Six Steps Approach STEP

02/08/2015 Step 1 6 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Six Steps

Step 502/08/2015 Step 1 6 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 6 Six Steps Approach STEP

Step 6
Step 6

Six Steps

Approach

STEP 1

RECOGNISE

ةَ يل صَلاا ف و رحلا

ة ملِكَ لا ملا

َ

ُ

لعف

ف و رحلا ة ملِكَ لا ملا َ ُ ل ع ف ة ملِكَ لا نُ

ة ملِكَ لا نُ يَْ ع

َ

ة ملِكَ لا ءاَف

َ

ُ

02/08/2015

STEP 2

Recognise similarities and differences between conjugation scales

يضا م

َ

and differences between conjugation scales يضا م َ ع را ض م َ Perfect Tense ending

ع را ض م

َ

Perfect Tense ending in the end-suffix

Imperfect Tense ending in the end-suffix

+

Signs of imperfect tense as pre-fix

ع راضملا ةملاع

يضا م

َ

PERFECT TENSE IMPERFECT TENSE Past Present Future يضا م َ لا ح ل بقَ ت
PERFECT TENSE
IMPERFECT TENSE
Past
Present
Future
يضا م
َ
لا ح
ل بقَ ت س م
َ

02/08/2015

PERFECT TENSE

را ض م

َ

ع

IMPERFECT TENSE

Past Present Future يضا م َ لا ح ل بقَ ت س م َ
Past
Present
Future
يضا م
َ
لا ح
ل بقَ ت س م
َ

Recognising the differences between the endings of Perfect and Imperfect Tense

the differences between the endings of Perfect and Imperfect Tense Understanding of Pronouns رئا م ض

Understanding of Pronouns

رئا م ض

َ

َ

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 دحاولا He و ه ركّ ذملا Third Person بِئاغَ Them (2) ةينثتلا ا مه ركّ

دحاولا

He

و ه

ركّ ذملا Third Person بِئاغَ Them (2)
ركّ ذملا
Third Person
بِئاغَ
Them
(2)

ةينثتلا

ا مه

ركّ ذملا
ركّ ذملا

Third Person

بِئاغَ

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 عمجلا Them (>2) مه ْ ركّ ذملا Third Person بِئاغَ She يهِ دحاولا ث ّ

عمجلا

Them

(>2)

مه ْ

ركّ ذملا
ركّ ذملا

Third Person

بِئاغَ

She

يهِ

دحاولا

مه ْ ركّ ذملا Third Person بِئاغَ She يهِ دحاولا ث ّ نؤملا Third Person بِئاغَ

ث

ّ

نؤملا

مه ْ ركّ ذملا Third Person بِئاغَ She يهِ دحاولا ث ّ نؤملا Third Person بِئاغَ

Third Person

بِئاغَ

02/08/2015

Them

(2)

ا مه

ةينثتلا

02/08/2015 Them (2) ا مه ةينثتلا ث ّ نؤملا Third Person بِئاغَ Them (>2) نه ث

ث

ّ

نؤملا

02/08/2015 Them (2) ا مه ةينثتلا ث ّ نؤملا Third Person بِئاغَ Them (>2) نه ث

Third Person

بِئاغَ

Them

(>2)

نه

ث

ّ

نؤملا

عمجلا

ث ّ نؤملا Third Person بِئاغَ Them (>2) نه ث ّ نؤملا عمجلا Third Person بِئاغَ
ث ّ نؤملا Third Person بِئاغَ Them (>2) نه ث ّ نؤملا عمجلا Third Person بِئاغَ

Third Person

بِئاغَ

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 دحاولا ركّ ذملا Second Person ضا ح ر ِ َ You (1) ْ نا ت

دحاولا

ركّ ذملا

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

You

(1)

ْ

نا

ت

You (2) ةينثتلا ا مت نا ْ ركّ ذملا
You
(2)
ةينثتلا
ا
مت نا
ْ
ركّ ذملا

Second Person

ضا ح

ر

ِ

َ

02/08/2015

You

(1)

ْ

تِ نا

02/08/2015 You (1) ْ تِ نا Second Person دحاولا ث ّ نؤملا ضا ح ر ِ

Second Person

دحاولا

ث

ّ

نؤملا

ضا ح

ر

ِ

َ

Second Person دحاولا ث ّ نؤملا ضا ح ر ِ َ Second Person ضا ح ر
Second Person دحاولا ث ّ نؤملا ضا ح ر ِ َ Second Person ضا ح ر

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

عمجلا

ركّ ذملا

You

(>2)

ْ

مت ْ نا

02/08/2015

You

(2)

ْ

ا مت نا

You

(>2)

ْ

نت نا

ةينثتلا

ث

ّ

نؤملا

(>2) ْ نت نا ةينثتلا ث ّ نؤملا Second Person عمجلا ث ّ نؤملا ضا ح

Second Person

عمجلا

ث

ّ

نؤملا

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

ث ّ نؤملا Second Person عمجلا ث ّ نؤملا ضا ح ر ِ َ Second Person

Second Person

ضا ح

ر

ِ

َ

02/08/2015

I

(1)

انا

ّ

نؤملا

ث

02/08/2015 I (1) انا ّ نؤملا ث دحاولا First Person مِ لكَ َت م ُ We

دحاولا

02/08/2015 I (1) انا ّ نؤملا ث دحاولا First Person مِ لكَ َت م ُ We

First Person

مِ لكَ َت م

ُ

ث دحاولا First Person مِ لكَ َت م ُ We (>2) نحْ ن عمجلا ةينثتلا ث

We

(>2)

نحْ ن

عمجلا

ةينثتلا

َت م ُ We (>2) نحْ ن عمجلا ةينثتلا ث ّ نؤملا First Person مِ لكَ

ث

ّ

نؤملا

First Person

مِ لكَ َت م

ُ

ركّ ذملا

ركّ ذملا

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 ضام ِ ي Perfect Tense ending in the end-suffix ن ر ص Third Person بِئاغَ

ضام

ِ

ي

Perfect Tense ending in the end-suffix

ن

ر

ص

02/08/2015 ضام ِ ي Perfect Tense ending in the end-suffix ن ر ص Third Person بِئاغَ

Third Person

بِئاغَ

ل ف

ع

He

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 Third Person بِئاغَ ل ف ع Them (2) اوْل ف ع Them (>2) Third Person

Third Person

بِئاغَ

ل ف

ع

Them

(2)

02/08/2015 Third Person بِئاغَ ل ف ع Them (2) اوْل ف ع Them (>2) Third Person

اوْل ف

ع

02/08/2015 Third Person بِئاغَ ل ف ع Them (2) اوْل ف ع Them (>2) Third Person

Them

(>2)

Third Person

بِئاغَ

02/08/2015

تْ

لع

ف

She

02/08/2015 تْ لع ف She ات لعف Them Third Person بِئاغَ (2) Third Person بِئاغَ 41
02/08/2015 تْ لع ف She ات لعف Them Third Person بِئاغَ (2) Third Person بِئاغَ 41

اتلعف

Them

Third Person

بِئاغَ

02/08/2015 تْ لع ف She ات لعف Them Third Person بِئاغَ (2) Third Person بِئاغَ 41
(2)
(2)

Third Person

بِئاغَ

02/08/2015

ْ

لع

ف

ن

Them

02/08/2015 ْ لع ف ن Them (>2) Third Person بِئاغَ ت لع ْ ف You (1)
(>2)
(>2)

Third Person

بِئاغَ

ت لع ْ ف You (1)
ت
لع
ْ
ف
You
(1)

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

02/08/2015

امت لع ْ ف You (2)
امت
لع
ْ
ف
You
(2)

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

لع ْ ف You (2) Second Person ضا ح ر ِ َ ْ مت لع ف

ْ

مت لع ف

ْ

You

(>2)

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

02/08/2015

تِ لع ْ ف You (1)
تِ
لع
ْ
ف
You
(1)

Second Person

ضا ح

ر

ِ

َ

امت لع ْ ف You (2)
امت
لع
ْ
ف
You
(2)

Second Person

ضا ح

ر

ِ

َ

02/08/2015

نت لع ْ ف You (>2)
نت
لع
ْ
ف
You
(>2)

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

لع ْ ف You (>2) Second Person ضا ح ر ِ َ ف ْ ت لع

ف

ْ

ت

لع

I
I

(1)

First Person

مِ لكَ َت م

ُ

02/08/2015

ا ن لع ْ ف
ا
ن
لع
ْ
ف

We

02/08/2015 ا ن لع ْ ف We (>2) First Person مِ لكَ َت م ُ راض

(>2)

First Person

مِ لكَ َت م

ُ

راض م

ع ِ

Imperfect Tense ending in the end-suffix

+

Signs of imperfect tense as pre-fix

عراضملا ةملع

End-Suffix

of imperfect tense as pre-fix عراضملا ةملع End-Suffix رص ن عراضملا ةملع P r e -

رص ن

عراضملا ةملع

Pre-fix

of imperfect tense as pre-fix عراضملا ةملع End-Suffix رص ن عراضملا ةملع P r e -

02/08/2015

يتَ

َ

َا

ع راضملا ةملاع

Pre-

Person

Example

fix

ي

3rd person

ي

ب ر ض َ

ت

3rd person feminine

ب ر ضتَ

(singular and dual)

ت

2nd person

ب ر ضتَ

ا

1st person (singular)

ب

ر ضَا

ن

1st person (dual or more)

ب

ر ضَن

ن 1st person (dual or more) ب ر ضَن Third Person بِئاغَ ل ف ع He

Third Person

بِئاغَ

ل ف ع He ل ف ع ي ْ
ل ف
ع
He
ل ف
ع ي
ْ

عراضملا ةملع

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 Third Person بِئاغَ ل ف ع Them (2) ْ ف نل ع ي ِ يبارعِا

Third Person

بِئاغَ

ل ف

ع

Them

(2)

ْ

ف

نل ع ي

ِ

يبارعِا نون

ف ع Them (2) ْ ف نل ع ي ِ يبارعِا نون اوْل ف ع Them

اوْل ف

ع

Them

(>2)

ْ

ف

نوْ لع ي

نون اوْل ف ع Them (>2) ْ ف نوْ لع ي Third Person بِئاغَ يبارعِا نون

Third Person

بِئاغَ

يبارعِا نون

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 تْ لع ف She ْ لع ت ف عراضملا ةملع Third Person بِئاغَ ات لعف

تْ

لع

ف

She

02/08/2015 تْ لع ف She ْ لع ت ف عراضملا ةملع Third Person بِئاغَ ات لعف

ْ

لع ت ف
لع ت
ف

عراضملا ةملع

Third Person

بِئاغَ

اتلعف

Them

ةملع Third Person بِئاغَ ات لعف Them (2) ْ ف نل ع ت ِ يبارعِا نون
(2)
(2)

ْ

ف

نل ع ت

ِ

يبارعِا نون

Third Person

بِئاغَ

02/08/2015

ْ

لع

ف

ن

Them

02/08/2015 ْ لع ف ن Them (>2) ن لع ْ ف ْ ي ث نؤم عمج
(>2)
(>2)
ن لع ْ ف ْ ي ث نؤم عمج نون ّ
ن
لع ْ
ف ْ ي
ث نؤم عمج نون
ّ

عراضملا ةملع

Third Person

بِئاغَ

ت لع ْ ف You (1) ل ف ع ت ْ
ت
لع
ْ
ف
You
(1)
ل ف
ع ت
ْ

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

Person بِئاغَ ت لع ْ ف You (1) ل ف ع ت ْ Second Person ضا

عراضملا ةملع

02/08/2015

امت لع ْ ف You (2) نل ع ت ْ ِ ف
امت
لع
ْ
ف
You
(2)
نل ع ت
ْ
ِ
ف

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

(2) نل ع ت ْ ِ ف Second Person ضا ح ر ِ َ Second Person

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

ْ

مت لع ف

ْ

You

(>2)

ْ

ف

نوْ

لع ت

02/08/2015

تِ لع ْ ف You (1) نيْ لِع ت ف ْ
تِ
لع
ْ
ف
You
(1)
نيْ
لِع ت
ف
ْ

يبارعِا نون

Second Person

ضا ح

ر

ِ

َ

امت لع ْ ف You (2) نل ع ت ف ْ
امت
لع
ْ
ف
You
(2)
نل ع ت
ف
ْ

ِ

Second Person

ضا ح

ر

ِ

َ

02/08/2015

نت لع ْ ف You (>2) ن لع ْ ف ْ ت
نت
لع
ْ
ف
You
(>2)
ن
لع ْ
ف ْ ت
ث نؤم عمج نون ّ عراضملا ةملع
ث نؤم عمج نون
ّ
عراضملا ةملع

Second Person

ضا ح

ر

ِ

َ

ّ عراضملا ةملع Second Person ضا ح ر ِ َ ف ْ ت لع I (1)

ف

ْ

ت

لع

I (1) ْ ل ف ع ا
I
(1)
ْ
ل ف
ع ا

عراضملا ةملع

First Person

مِ لكَ َت م

ُ

02/08/2015

ْ

ل ف ع ن
ل ف
ع ن

عراضملا ةملع

ا ن لع ْ ف
ا
ن
لع
ْ
ف

We

ل ف ع ن عراضملا ةملع ا ن لع ْ ف We (>2) First Person مِ

(>2)

First Person

مِ لكَ َت م

ُ

Summary

1. STEP 1- Recognise the base letters

1. STEP 2- Recognise whether on the conjugation scales of Perfect or Imperfect

tense, by recognising similarities and

differences between them. (end-suffix and

عراضملا ةملع)

02/08/2015

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

ك تْتَ ت عن م

َ

يع م ستَ

َ

َ

كح ض

َ

َ

ن

نا م رك َ

ي

Exercise 1b

LUNCH BREAK!

!لله دمحلا

02/08/2015

Lesson 2 Part 1 Observing

Additional Letters

What we did in last session

10%
10%
30%
30%

02/08/2015

What we will be doing now الله ءاش نِا

10% 5%
10%
5%

15%

we will be doing now الله ءاش نِا 10% 5% 15% 20% 30% 50% STEP 3
20% 30% 50%
20%
30%
50%

STEP 3

Recognise the additional letters in 3 places in the following order to determine 1. whether درجم يثلث or not, and 2. Which باب it belongs to of the هيف ديزم يثلث

لعف Pre-fix Location Location 3 2
لعف
Pre-fix
Location
Location
3
2

Location

1

02/08/2015

Placing/ Interjecting letters in different parts of the word change the meaning

End-Suffix

in different parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن دِئا وزَّلا فُ ورُ

رص ن

parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن دِئا وزَّلا فُ ورُ حُ َ
parts of the word change the meaning End-Suffix رص ن دِئا وزَّلا فُ ورُ حُ َ

دِئا وزَّلا فُ ورُ حُ

َ

ْ

رص ن دِئا وزَّلا فُ ورُ حُ َ ْ ْ لَ ع َت ف ِا َ

ْ

لَ ع َتف ِا

َ

فُ ورُ حُ َ ْ ْ لَ ع َت ف ِا َ ة ملِكَ لا نُ

ة ملِكَ لا نُ يَْ ع

َ

ة ملِكَ لا ملا َ ُ
ة ملِكَ لا ملا
َ
ُ
ة ملِكَ لا ءاَف َ ُ
ة ملِكَ لا ءاَف
َ
ُ

ةيلِصْ لاا فوْ رحلا

Pre-fix

لا ملا َ ُ ة ملِكَ لا ءاَف َ ُ ةيلِصْ لاا فوْ رحلا P r

02/08/2015

Term Meaning Example Frequency 45% درجم ى ث لاث Just triliteral (i.e. no auxiliary radicals)
Term
Meaning
Example
Frequency
45%
درجم ى ث لاث
Just triliteral (i.e.
no auxiliary
radicals)
ب
تكَ َ
َ
هيف ديزم ى ث لاث
Triliteral with
auxiliary radicals
ب نتَ
َ
َ
جا
53%
درجم عىابر
Just quadriliteral
(i.e no auxiliary
radicals)
رَث ع ب
َ
َ
<1.5%
Quadriliteral
هيف ديزم عىابر
لَ ب ر س تَ
with auxiliary
َ
َ
<0.5%
radicals
98% of all باوبا scales 45% 53% درجم ىثلث هيف ديزم ىثلث
98% of all باوبا scales
45%
53%
درجم ىثلث
هيف ديزم ىثلث
10% others 90% 3 most common باوبا
10% others
90%
3 most
common
باوبا
15% others 85% 3 most common باوبا
15% others
85%
3 most
common
باوبا

02/08/2015

98% of all باوبا scales 53% هيف ديزم ىثلث
98% of all باوبا scales
53%
هيف ديزم ىثلث

85%

40% of all باوبا scales 53% هيف ديزم ىثلث 8 5% ىثلث هيف ديزم 15% 25% 20%

ىثلث هيف ديزم
ىثلث
هيف ديزم

15%

25%

20%

Others

85% 3 most common باوبا 15% others َ م رك َ أ َ
85%
3 most
common
باوبا
15% others
َ
م
رك َ أ
َ

ن تَجا

َ

َ

ب

فَ

ر ص َ َ
ر ص
َ
َ
Others 85% 3 most common باوبا 15% others َ م رك َ أ َ ن تَ

02/08/2015

ى ث لاث

هيف ديزم

85%

ى ث لاث

هيف ديزم

Others

10%

را ض م

ع

َ

م رك ي

بن تَ ج ي

َ

َ

فر ص ي

يضا م

َ

َ

م ر كأ

َ

َ

ن تَج ا

َ

َ

ب

فَ

َ

َ

ر ص

را ض م

ع

َ

يضا م

َ

ر ص ن تَ

ر ص ن تَ س ا

َ

َ

اَق

ي

َ

ل ت ا قَ

س

ي لَ تَ

لبَ

اقَ

ت َ ي َ لَ

ب َ اقَ

تَ

ل َقَ

ب

ت

َي لَ

ب

َقَ

َ

تَ

 

َ َ

( باب

)

ر

د ص

م

م ارك ا

َ

ب

ان ت ج ا

َ

في ر ص تَ

) ر د ص َ َ م ( باب ر ا ص ن ت سا
)
ر
د ص
َ َ
م
( باب
ر ا
ص
ن ت سا
َ
ةَلتَاقَ
م
ل ب اقَ
تَ
ل ب قَ
تَ

02/08/2015

ى ث لاث هيف ديزم

Others

<5%

را ض م

ع

َ

يضا م

َ

رطفَ ن ي

َ

َ

َ

ر م ح ي

ر طفَ ن ا

َ

َ

ر َ م َ ح ا

نش وشَ

خ

ي

َ

نشَ

َ

وشَ

خا

 

َ

َ

( باب

)

ر

د ص

م

ر اطف ن ا

ر ا ر م ح ا

َ

َ

ن اشَ

يش خا

The two “عّ ” باب

يضا م

َ

To act

فر صت

فَ

ر َ صتَ

لَ عفَ

َ

تَ

فر ص

فَ

َ

َ

ر ص

ر ص

َف

لَ

ع

َ

To change

را ض م

ع

َ

فر صتي

فر ص ت َ ي

ل ع فَ

َ

َ

َ

َ

ت َ ي َ

فر صت

َ

فر ص ت

ل ع فَ

ت

02/08/2015

The two “لعاف scales” باب

يضا م

َ

To fight

one another

لتاقت

لتاق

لَ

تاقَ

َ

تَ

لَ تَاَق

To fight

 

لَ َعافَ تَ

لَ َعاَف

را ض م

ع

َ

لتاقتي

لتَاقَ

ت َ ي َ

لَعافَ

ت َ ي َ

لتاقت

ل تاقَ ت

لعافَ

ت

Peculiarities of لاعتفا

ن تَج ا

َ

َ

ب

ة ملَكلا ءاَف

َ

ز ذ د َ دا َ ذا دذا َ د َ زا زا َ
ز ذ د
َ
دا
َ
ذا
دذا َ
د َ زا
زا
َ
ظ ط ض ص طا َ طظا َ َ ظا ط ضا َ ضا َ
ظ ط ض ص
طا
َ
طظا
َ
َ
ظا
ط
ضا
َ
ضا
َ
َ
َ

ل ع فَ

فا

َ ظا ط ضا َ ضا َ َ َ ل ع فَ ف ا َ لَ
َ ظا ط ضا َ ضا َ َ َ ل ع فَ ف ا َ لَ

َ

لَ ع ف ا

َ

لَ ع تَفا

َ

ث ثا َ
ث
ثا
َ

َ

ط صا

ب

َ

َ

َ

َ

ب

ر ط ض ا

َ

عَ دا

ي

ي قَ ت َ ا

02/08/2015

ل . ع . ف

ا ِا فُ ر ص ي ف ر ص ِ ُ ّ ت بنِت ج
ا
ِا
فُ
ر ص ي ف ر ص
ِ
ُ
ّ
ت
بنِت ج ي ب نت جِا
ُ
ْ
ْ
ت
ل ُ بق ت ي ل بقت
لِعاف ي ل عاف
ُ
ُ
ا
ل ُ باق ت ي ل باقت
ت
سِا
ْ
نِا
ْ
دئاوزلا فورحلا

Pre-fix

م ُ ركْ ي ُ م ركْ ا ِ بنِت ج ي ب نت جِا
م ُ ركْ
ي ُ م ركْ
ا
ِ
بنِت ج ي ب نت جِا
ُ
ْ
ْ
ر م ح ي ر م ح ِا
ُ
ْ
ْ
ل ُ بق ت ي ل بقت
ل ُ باق ت ي ل باقت
ر ص نت س ي ر ص نت س ِا
ِ
ْ
ُ
ْ
ْ
ْ
رطِ ف ن ي ر طفنْ
ْ
ِا
ُ

1. نا ح ت ما

َ

2.

3.

4. ا و رَفا ستَ

5.

د ي و ج تَ

َ

ي

ج رخت

َ

َ

و م ل ستَتَ

َ

َ

ن

Exercise 2a

6.

د

8. ر دَقا

9.

َ

7.

را هظا

َ

َ

م ح أ

َ

ن و رظَ تنتَ

َ

َ

أ

ط

10. يف َ

ص

02/08/2015

BREAK!

!لله دمحلا

Lesson 2 Part 2 Observing the vowels

02/08/2015

Observing the vowels and how it all comes together

Recognising the difference(s) between يضام and عراضم scales in these باوبا

Attaching pronouns ريمض (pl. رِئا َ ض َ ) to the لعف

م

as the object هِ ب ل وُع م, yet recognising these

باوبا

ْ

ْ

ف َ

ِ

Recognising the باوبا of درَّ جم يثلَث

Recognising the active ف ورُ عْ م and passive

ْ

َ

ل ْ هجْ ُ م

و

َ

STEP 4

Look at the vowel ةكَ

ر َ ح َ of the ةملك نيع

To determine:

1. whether يضام / عراضم scale 2. باب of درجم يثلث 3. whether active فوْ رعْ م / passive لوهجْ م;

(in conjunction with vowel of first letter)

لعفا

فوْ رعْ م / passive لوهجْ م ; (in conjunction with vowel of first letter) لعف

ةك رح

فوْ رعْ م / passive لوهجْ م ; (in conjunction with vowel of first letter) لعف

ةك رح

02/08/2015

Look at the vowel ةكَ

ح َ of the ةملك نيع

ر

َ

whether يضام

/ عراضم scale

باب of يثلث

درجم

whether

active فوْ رعْ م / passive لوهجْ م

Look at the vowel ةكَ

ح َ of the ةملك نيع

ر

َ

whether يضام

/ عراضم scale

باب of يثلث

درجم

whether active فوْ رعْ م / passive لوهجْ م

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 م ركْ ا He Third Person بِئاغَ م ركْ ي ِ عراضملا ةملع ا ركْ

م ركْ ا

He

02/08/2015 م ركْ ا He Third Person بِئاغَ م ركْ ي ِ عراضملا ةملع ا ركْ

Third Person

بِئاغَ

م ركْ ي ِ عراضملا ةملع
م
ركْ ي
ِ
عراضملا ةملع
بِئاغَ م ركْ ي ِ عراضملا ةملع ا ركْ م ا Them (2) Third Person بِئاغَ

ا ركْ

م

ا

م ركْ ي ِ عراضملا ةملع ا ركْ م ا Them (2) Third Person بِئاغَ نام

Them

(2)

Third Person

بِئاغَ

نام ركْ ي

ِ ِ

يبارعِا نون

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 ا وْ م ركْ ا Them (>2) Third Person بِئاغَ ن وْ م ركْ ي

ا

وْ م

ركْ ا

Them

(>2)

02/08/2015 ا وْ م ركْ ا Them (>2) Third Person بِئاغَ ن وْ م ركْ ي

Third Person

بِئاغَ

ن

وْ م

ركْ ي

ِ

يبارعِا نون

بِئاغَ ن وْ م ركْ ي ِ يبارعِا نون تْ م ركْ ا She م ركْ

تْ

م

ركْ

ا

She

م ركْ ي ِ يبارعِا نون تْ م ركْ ا She م ركْ ت ِ عراضملا
م ركْ ت ِ عراضملا ةملع
م
ركْ ت
ِ
عراضملا ةملع

Third Person

بِئاغَ

02/08/2015

ات ركْ

م

Them

ا

02/08/2015 ات ركْ م Them ا (2) نِ ام ركْ ت ِ يبارعِا نون ن ركْ
(2)
(2)

نِ ام ركْ ت

ِ

يبارعِا نون

ن ركْ ا

مْ

Them

Third Person

بِئاغَ

نون ن ركْ ا مْ Them Third Person بِئاغَ (>2) ن ركْ ي مْ ِ عراضملا
(>2)
(>2)
ن ركْ ي مْ ِ عراضملا ةملع
ن ركْ ي
مْ
ِ
عراضملا ةملع

Third Person

بِئاغَ

02/08/2015

02/08/2015 Second Person ضا ح ر ِ َ ت ركْ ا مْ You (1) م ركْ

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

ت ركْ ا مْ You (1) م ركْ ت ِ عراضملا ةملع
ت ركْ ا
مْ
You
(1)
م
ركْ ت
ِ
عراضملا ةملع
ا م تمْ ركْ ا You (2) نام ركْ ت ِ ِ
ا
م
تمْ
ركْ ا
You
(2)
نام ركْ ت
ِ
ِ

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

02/08/2015

تِ

مْ

ركْ ا

You

(1)

نيْمِركْ ت

ِ

يبارعِا نون

ا You (1) نيْمِ ركْ ت ِ يبارعِا نون Second Person ضا ح ر ِ َ

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

ت ِ يبارعِا نون Second Person ضا ح ر ِ َ Second Person ضا ح ر
ت ِ يبارعِا نون Second Person ضا ح ر ِ َ Second Person ضا ح ر

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

متمْ ْ ركْ ا

You

(>2)

نوْم ركْ ت

ِ

02/08/2015

م تمْ

ا

ركْ ا

You

(2)

نام ركْ ت

ِ

ِ

نت ركْ ا

مْ

You

(>2)

ن ركْ ت مْ ِ عراضملا ةملع
ن ركْ ت
مْ
ِ
عراضملا ةملع
You (>2) ن ركْ ت مْ ِ عراضملا ةملع Second Person ضا ح ر ِ َ

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

(>2) ن ركْ ت مْ ِ عراضملا ةملع Second Person ضا ح ر ِ َ Second

Second Person

ضا ح

ر ِ

َ

02/08/2015

ت ركْ ا

مْ

02/08/2015 ت ركْ ا مْ I (1) م ركْ ا ِ عراضملا ةملع First Person مِ
I (1) م ركْ ا ِ
I
(1)
م ركْ ا
ِ

عراضملا ةملع

First Person

مِ لكَ َت م

ُ

عراضملا ةملع First Person مِ لكَ َت م ُ ان ركْ ا مْ م ركْ ن

ان ركْ ا

مْ

م ركْ ن ِ عراضملا ةملع
م
ركْ ن
ِ
عراضملا ةملع

We

م ُ ان ركْ ا مْ م ركْ ن ِ عراضملا ةملع We (>2) First Person

(>2)

First Person

مِ لكَ َت م

ُ

02/08/2015

Attaching pronouns ريمض (pl. رِئا مضَ

َ

to the لعف as the object هِ ب ل وُع م, yet

recognising these باوبا

ْ

ْ

ف َ

ِ

ه ركْ

م

ا

)