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THE TRANSGENDER MOVEMENT

Transgenderism Activists detach gender from biology. Kids down to


kindergarten are being taught their body is irrelevant to their authentic self. Your
real sex is what you choose to be and not what your born with.
-Antonio Bernard
Part 14
MALE & FEMALE
EQUAL BUT CREATED DIFFERENT
Mat 19:4 And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he
which made them at the beginning made them male and female, Gen 1:27 So
God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male
and female created he them.Gen 1:28 And God blessed them, and God said
unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it:
and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and
over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.
THE BEGINNING OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
“Know that the LORD Himself is
God; it is He who has made us, and
not we ourselves; we are His people
and the sheep of His pasture”
(Psalm 100:3, NASV).

“Thus says the LORD, your


Redeemer, and the One who
formed you from the womb, ‘I, the
LORD, am the maker of all things,
stretching out the heavens by
Myself, and spreading out the
earth all alone . . .'”
(Isaiah 44:24, NASV).
“For You formed my inward parts; You
covered me in my mother’s womb. I will
praise You, for I am fearfully and
wonderfully made; marvelous are Your
works and that my soul knows well. My
frame was not hidden from You, when I
was made in secret, and skillfully wrought
in the lowest parts of the earth. Your eyes
saw my substance, being yet unformed,
and in Your book they all were written, the
days fashioned for me, when as yet there
were none of them”
{ Psalm 139:13-16, NKJV}
“Before I formed you in the womb I knew
you, before you were born I set you apart; I
appointed you as a prophet to the nations”
{ Jeremiah 1:5, NIV}

“Thus says the LORD, your Redeemer, and


the One who formed you from the womb,
‘I, the LORD, am the maker of all things,
stretching out the heavens by Myself, and
spreading out the earth all alone . . .”
{ Isaiah 44:24, NASV}

“But now, O LORD, Thou art our Father,


we are the clay, and Thou our potter; and
all of us are the work of Thy hand”
{Isaiah 64:8, NASV}
"Human development begins at fertilization, the process
during which a male gamete or sperm (spermatozoon
development) unites with a female gamete or oocyte (ovum)
to form a single cell called a zygote. This highly specialized,
totipotent cell marked the beginning of each of us as a
unique individual…A zygote is the beginning of a new
human being (i.e., an embryo).”

-Keith L. Moore, The Developing Human: Clinically Oriented


Embryology, 7th edition. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, 2003. pp. 16, 2
"Every baby begins life within the tiny globe of the
mother’s egg… It is beautifully translucent and
fragile and it encompasses the vital links in which life
is carried from one generation to the next. Within this
tiny sphere great events take place. When one of the
father’s sperm cells, like the ones gathered here
around the egg, succeeds in penetrating the egg
and becomes united with it, a new life can begin.”

-Geraldine Lux Flanagan, Beginning Life. New York: DK, 1996. p. 13.
"The two cells gradually and gracefully become
one. This is the moment of conception, when an
individual’s unique set of DNA is created, a
human signature that never existed before
and will never be repeated.”
-In the Womb, National Geographic, 2005.
WHEN DO OUR SEXES
DEVELOP ?
“The primary development of our sexed
bodies takes place in the womb with the
formation of the gonads, either ovaries or
testes. The secondary development of our
sexed bodies takes place in two stages. It
begins in the womb, with the development
of our reproductive organs, external
genitalia, and sex hormones. Then, it
continues at puberty, when our bodies
reach sexual maturity.”
Excerpt From: Ryan T. Anderson. “When
Harry Became Sally”. Apple Books.
“For the first six weeks of human
embryological development, males
and females develop in more or less
the same way. One textbook
explains that “the early genital
systems in the two sexes are similar;
therefore the initial period of
genital development is referred to
as the indifferent state of sexual
development.”

-Moore and Persaud,


The Developing Human, 304.
As the gonads start to develop, they are referred to as “indifferent
gonads” because under some circumstances they can develop as
either male or female, independent of the genetic sex.

The presence of a Y chromosome with the SRY testis-determining factor


initiates the formation of testicular differentiation in week 7. The absence of
SRY allows the indifferent gonads to continue development into the ovaries.
Excerpt From: Ryan T. Anderson. “When Harry Became Sally”. Apple Books.
The formation of the gonads—testicles and ovaries—then directs subsequent sexual
differentiation. As The Developing Human explains it, “the type of sex chromosome
complex established at fertilization determines the type of gonad that differentiates
from the indifferent gonad. The type of gonads present then determines the type of
sexual differentiation that occurs in the genital ducts and external genitalia.”

The Developing Human, p.304


-Moore and Persaud
Once the ovaries and testes are formed, we read in the Journal of Cellular
Physiology, they become “the primary regulators of mammalian sexual
differentiation by secreting sex-specific hormones that regulate downstream
developmental processes. Thus, these reproductive tissues impose
body-wide and long-lasting phenotypic effects.”
-Nichole Rigby and Rob J. Kulathinal, “Genetic architecture of sexual dimorphism in
humans,” Journal of Cellular Physiology 230, no. 10 (2015): 2305.
THE GENE THEORY
Since 1921 we have known about the gene theory. But
it was only in 1959 that scientists were able to explain why
these chromosomes make a difference and how they do it.

Prior to this time, they were uncertain “whether


femaleness was determined by the presence of two
X chromosomes or by the absence of the tiny Y
chromosome and, conversely, whether maleness was
determined by the presence of a Y chromosome or by
the presence of a single X chromosome.”
Male -Scott F. Gilbert, Developmental Biology (Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer
Associates, 2016), 519–20; and William J. Larsen, Human Embryology
Female
(New York: Churchill Livingstone, 2001), 307.
THE GENE THEORY
Since Scientists now know that “the presence of a Y
chromosome determines maleness and its absence
determines femaleness.”-Larsen, Human Embryology, 307.

This is because the Y chromosome ordinarily carries the


SRY (“sex-determining region on Y”) gene. The SRY gene
contains a transcription factor known as the testis-
determining factor (TDF), which directs the formation of
the male gonads.
Male Female
THE GENE THEORY
Genotype, you may recall, refers to our genetic composition, while
phenotype refers to its physical manifestation, so an ordinary male has
an XY genotype, which expresses itself in a male phenotype
through the development of testes.

The Y chromosome carrying the SRY gene initiates


the formation of the testes, which in turn produce
testosterone, which then masculinizes the body and
contributes to the development of a male.

Male Female
THE GENE THEORY
The formation of the testes gives rise to the sertoli cells, which
produce anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), also known as Mullerian inhibiting
substance (MIS) or factor (MIF), which stops further development of the
Mullerian ducts (which otherwise would develop into the uterus and
fallopian tubes) and causes their regression.

Male Female
THE GENE THEORY
Otherwise, without a Y carrying SRY, the human will normally form
ovaries and develop as a female.This development is guided by
several genes, including RSPO1, WNT4, and FOXL2.

Male Female
THE GENE THEORY
Before a knowledge of the chromosome from 1921 to 1959 ,
How did Medical Doctors, Scientists and Other professions,
went about differentiating and determining the sex of
a human being ?
Apart from reproductive organs, boys and girls have
remarkably similar bodies at birth, though newborn
boys have longer bodies with more lean mass.
-Jonathan C. K. Wells, “Sexual dimorphism of body composition,” Best Practice
& Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 21 (2007): 415.
During puberty, however, bodily differences become more pronounced,
as “the two sexes take increasingly divergent pathways, with girls passing
through puberty earlier and ceasing to grow at a younger age.”
-Jonathan C. K. Wells, “Sexual dimorphism of body composition,” Best Practice & Research:
Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 21 (2007): 416.
“Females enter puberty earlier and undergo a more rapid pubertal transition,
whereas boys have a substantially longer growth period. After adjusting for
dimorphism in size (height), adult males have greater total lean mass and mineral
mass, and a lower fat mass than females. These whole-body differences are
complemented by major differences in tissue distribution.”
-Jonathan C. K. Wells, “Sexual dimorphism of body composition,” Best Practice &
Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 21 (2007): 415.
“Adult males have greater arm muscle mass, larger and stronger bones“, and
reduced limb fat, but a similar degree of central abdominal fat. Females have a
more peripheral distribution of fat in early adulthood; however, greater parity and
the menopause both induce a more android fat distribution with increasing age. ”
-Jonathan C. K. Wells, “Sexual dimorphism of body composition,” Best Practice &
Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 21 (2007): 415.
“Sex differences in body composition are primarily attributable to the action of
sex steroid hormones, which drive the dimorphisms during pubertal development.
Oestrogen is important not only in body fat distribution but also in the female
pattern of bone development that predisposes to a greater female risk of
osteoporosis in old age.”
-Jonathan C. K. Wells, “Sexual dimorphism of body composition,” Best Practice &
Research: Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 21 (2007): 415.
“Man on an average is considerably
taller, heavier, and stronger than
woman, with squarer shoulders and
more plainly pronounced muscles.
Owing to the relation which exists
between muscular development and
the projection of the brows, the
superciliary ridge is generally more
marked in man than in woman.”
-Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man
“His body, and especially his face,
is more hairy, and his voice has a
different and more powerful tone . . .
in woman the face is rounder; the jaws
and the base of the skull smaller; the
outlines of the body rounder, in parts
more prominent; and her pelvis is
broader than in man . . . ”

-Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man


“As Adam came forth from the hand of his Creator, he was of noble
height, and of beautiful symmetry. He was more than twice as tall as
men now living upon earth, and was well proportioned. His features
were perfect and beautiful. His complexion was neither white, nor
sallow, but ruddy, glowing with the rich tint of health. Eve was not quite
as tall as Adam. Her head reached a little above his shoulders. She, too,
was noble--perfect in symmetry, and very beautiful.”

-Signs of the Times, January 9, 1879 , Ellen G. White


“This means that genes for large male size are gradually spread throughout the
population and sexual dimorphism results. ….Women on average are physically
smaller than men. The average woman is about 10 to 15 percent smaller than the
average man. In the United States, the average woman is also four to five inches
shorter than the average man, and weighs about 25 to 40 pounds less.”
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life
by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.103
UPPER BODY STRENGTH
UPPER BODY STRENGTH
“He teacheth my hands to war, so that a bow of steel is
broken by mine arms.” -Psalms 18:34
“But his bow abode in strength, and the arms of his hands were made
strong by the hands of the mighty God of Jacob.” -Genesis 49:24
UPPER BODY STRENGTH
“ I have written unto you, fathers, because ye have known him that is
from the beginning. I have written unto you, young men, because ye are
strong, and the word of God abideth in you, and ye have overcome the
wicked one.” -1Jn 2:14 “The glory of young men is their strength: and
the beauty of old men is the gray head.” -Pro 20:29
UPPER BODY STRENGTH
“Men have about twice as much muscle mass as women,
much of which is located in their upper body and arms, where
it would have been most useful in hunting and defense. ”
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life
by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.104
UPPER BODY STRENGTH
SOLVING PROBLEMS FOR WARRIORS AND HUNTERS
“Upper body strength is important …and is also helpful in
hunting. For men, upper body strength helped men wielding
heavy clubs, spears, stones, and bows and arrows in hunting
animals, as well as in conflicts with human attackers. ”
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.104
UPPER BODY STRENGTH
SOLVING PROBLEMS FOR WARRIORS AND HUNTERS
“Men with more upper body strength were more
successful in these activities, so upper body
strength has been selected for in men.”
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.104
“Therefore, when Feminists call for women to be allowed to go to the
frontline as soldiers in the name of equality, the Conservative points out the
fact that women simply aren’t as physically strong or fast as men. They
believe there’s no room for politically correct quotas or pandering to feelings
in such things because it could cost lives. Truth must take precedence.”
-THE WAR ON TRUTH: How A Generation Abandoned Reality By Mark Fairley
VOCAL CORDS
“Men, because of their larger size, have longer vocal folds and vocal
tracts than women, and so have deeper voices. Men’s pitch frequency
is approximately half as high as women’s. This is another sex
difference that emerges at puberty.” —Evolution and Gender: Why It
Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.105
BIG VS SMALL ADAMS APPLE

Men and women both have
cartilage surrounding their
voice boxes, but because men
have bigger boxes (which give
them deeper voices), their
chunks of cartilage protrude
more. This gives them neck
lumps called Adam's apples.
BIG VS SMALL ADAMS APPLE

But why do men have
deeper voices than women?
The answer is that the pitch
of a man's voice correlates
with the amount of the male
sex hormone testosterone
he has, and his testosterone
level is itself indicative of
his genetic makeup.
Muscular VS Curvy 

Men are, in general, more muscular than women.
Women are just over half as strong as men in
their upper bodies, and about two-thirds as
strong in their lower bodies.
Muscular VS Curvy
While the male metabolism
burns calories faster, the
female metabolism tends to
convert more food to fat.
Women store the extra fat in
their breasts, hips, buttocks,
and as subcutaneous fat in the
bottom layer of their skin
giving a woman's skin its
softer, plumper feel.
Muscular VS Curvy
Male and female bodies are well-
designed for each gender's role in a
primitive society. Women are built for
carrying and birthing children, and
must have wider hips and keep extra
fat in store for the ordeal of
pregnancy.
Muscular VS Curvy
Men, free from the
requirements of childbirth,
benefit from being as strong
and lithe as possible, both in
their search for food, and
when in competition with
other men.

Muscular VS Curvy
“The basal metabolic rate is about 6
percent higher in adolescent boys
than girls and increases to about 10
percent higher after puberty. During
metabolism, girls convert more
energy into stored fat, while boys
convert more energy to muscle and
expendable circulating reserves.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
Muscular VS Curvy
At age eighteen, girls have
almost twice the body fat
(about 33 percent) of boys.
Boys at age eighteen have
about 50 percent more
muscle mass than girls,
particularly in the
upper body.
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD &
WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN
PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior
by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
Muscular VS Curvy
Males, on the average, have
denser, stronger bones, tendons,
and ligaments, which allow for
heavier work. Differences in
metabolism and muscular ability
likely give males a push in this
more energetic direction.

-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
BREAST VS CHEST

Women have breasts, whereas
men have flat chests (but still
with nipples on them).

This is because the genes that code for


nipple development switch on in utero, and
at a very early embryonic stage even before
the genes gear up that turn us into males or
females.Women breast are normally filled
with fat, then become filled with milk when
pregnant for the of nursing her child.


THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
What are the
differences between
male and female
skeletons?
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
MALE BONES ARE BIGGER AND
STRONGER, in both size and
density. Peak male bone mass is
around 50% more than women’s, and
women lose bone faster as we age.
Black people have significantly
stronger bones than whites: black
women’s peak bone mass is the
same as white men’s.
https://fairplayforwomen.com/biological-sex-differences/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
WOMEN AND MEN HAVE THE
SAME NUMBER OF RIBS. We
have 12 pairs, though some
people are born with 11 or 13
pairs to no ill effect
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
MEN HAVE BIGGER HEADS AND
LONGER ARMS AND LEGS than
women, relative to body size.

Sources differ on comparative


limb length but they all agree
women have smaller, lighter heads
& necks. Did you know a human
head weighs about 5kg?
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
The biological sex of an adult
skeleton can be determined with
95% accuracy by measuring the hip
bones alone, 83% accuracy by the
skull, and 80% accuracy by the
long bones (femur & tibia).

https://fairplayforwomen.com/biological-sex-differences/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS

Female Pelvis Male Pelvis

The Difference Between Female Pelvis and Male Pelvis


THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
“The pelvic region is the part of
the body that connects the trunk,
the upper body, to the lower legs
or lower extremities. It is also
where the reproductive organs and
some parts of the small and large
intestines are located.”

http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-female-pelvis-and-male-pelvis/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
“The pelvis has three bones: (1)
hip bones, which are divided
into left and right parts that fuse
as we grow up, next is the lower
part of the spine which is the (2)
sacrum that consists of five
bones that are joined together,
and the (3) coccyx.”
http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-female-pelvis-and-male-pelvis/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
“The mere knowledge of the
differences between the female
and male pelvis is very important,
especially in females, who are
aspiring to become mothers in
the near future.”

http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-female-pelvis-and-male-pelvis/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
“The pelvic symmetry is one of the
most important factors considered
during labor and delivery, whether
delivered through a normal
spontaneous vaginal delivery
(NSVD) or cesarean section
because it serves as the
passageway of the fetus.”
http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-female-pelvis-and-male-pelvis/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
“There are many differences between a
male pelvis and a female pelvis in terms
of structure and function. A male pelvis
is smaller and narrower in nature which
is designed to support a heavy body
build and a stronger muscle structure
while a female pelvis is wider and
roomier and mainly serves for the
purpose of childbearing.”

http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-female-pelvis-and-male-pelvis/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
“Women’s bodies have other
adaptations for childbearing. To
accommodate a growing baby and to
allow for easier childbirth, a woman’s
pelvis is wider than a man’s, her rib
cage is shorter, and her joints are
looser. Looser joints mean that
women are more flexible than men;
female gymnasts can do things that
male gymnasts can never do.”

—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life


by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.106-107
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
“Because of a woman’s wider
pelvis, her legs hit her pelvis
bones at more of an angle than
men’s bones do, which makes
her legs less efficient for running
and her average running speeds
lower. The fastest runners in the
world are always men. ”
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life
by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.106-107
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
“The male pelvis bone is heavier, taller,
and much thicker compared to a female
pelvis that is thinner and denser. The
pelvis is composed of two fused hip
bones also known as the coxal bones,
the coccyx and sacrum. The hip bones
are composed of 3 bones: the illium, the
pubis, and the ischium. These three
bones fuse to form a hip bone.”
http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-female-pelvis-and-male-pelvis/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
“ When these two hip bones are
fused, they form a pubic arch which
differs from a male pelvis and a
female pelvis. The pubic arch is the
defining characteristic between the
two pelvises. In a male pelvis, it is v-
shaped while in the female the pubic
arch is wider. The distal part of the
spine is the sacrum and coccyx.”

http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-female-pelvis-and-male-pelvis/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
“ In a male pelvis, the coccyx is projected
inwards and immovable compared to a
female pelvis that is flexible and
straighter which helps women in the
delivery process. The female sacrum is
wider, shorter, and has less curves. Thus,
it provides more space in the pelvic
cavity compared to a male’s who has a
longer and narrower sacrum.”
http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-female-pelvis-and-male-pelvis/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
“ The pelvis is connected to the
bones in the lower extremities
particularly the femur. The femur is
attached to the acetabulum which is
located at the pelvis. The acetabulum
has a very significant difference
between a male and female pelvis.”

http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-female-pelvis-and-male-pelvis/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS

“ A male acetabulum is much larger than a female acetabulum.


The sciatic notch in the female pelvis is wider than that of a
male pelvis. The pelvic inlet in a female pelvis is slightly oval in
shape while a male pelvis has a heart-shaped pelvic inlet.”
http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-female-pelvis-and-male-pelvis/
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
The Difference Between
Female Pelvis and Male
Pelvis Summary
Female Pelvis Male Pelvis

1.A male pelvis is smaller and narrower while a female pelvis is wider and roomier.
2.A male pelvic bone is heavier, taller, and much thicker while a female pelvic bone
is thinner and denser.
3.A male pelvis has a v-shaped pubic arch while a female pelvis has a pubic arch
that is wider.
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
The Difference Between
Female Pelvis and Male
Pelvis Summary
Female Pelvis Male Pelvis
4.A male pelvis’ coccyx is projected inwards and immovable while a female pelvis
has a flexible and straighter coccyx.
5.A male pelvis has a longer and narrower sacrum while a female pelvis has a
sacrum that is wider, shorter, and less curved.
6.A male pelvis has an acetabulum that is larger while a female pelvis has a
smaller one.
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
The Difference Between
Female Pelvis and Male
Pelvis Summary
Female Pelvis Male Pelvis

7.A male pelvis has a narrower sciatic notch while a female pelvis has a wider
sciatic notch.

8.A male pelvis has a heart-shaped pelvic inlet while a female pelvis has a pelvic
inlet that is slightly oval in shape.
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
WOMENS ELBOWS AND
SHOULDERS are slightly different
from men’s. Our arms bend a little
further from our bodies and are more
mobile at both joints.
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
FINGER LENGTH:
Greater exposure to androgens in
utero leads to a 4th (ring) finger that
is longer than the 2nd (index), as
often seen in men.
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
Because there was little selection
for height, broad shoulders, and
muscle mass in females than there
was in males, the bones of the
female skeleton are shorter and
thinner than a male’s and her
shoulders are narrower.
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for
Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.106-107
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
Narrower shoulders mean that women
hold their arms closer to their bodies
than men do, on average. Women’s
necks tend to be proportionately longer
and slimmer than men’s, on average, in
part because they don’t tend to deposit
fat or muscle around their neck and
shoulders as men do.

—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for


Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.106-107
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
Women’s smaller hands and fingers
mean that women have a better sense of
touch and better fine motor skills than
men—both skills that would be useful to
a gatherer using her hands to find and
pick small fruits, berries, and nuts, and
so may have been selected for also.

—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for


Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.106-107
THE SKELETAL SYSTEMS
WOMEN HAVE A LONGER TORSO.
Our skeleton accommodates
extra reproductive organs and
finds space to push things out
of the way during pregnancy.
It makes our legs shorter than
men’s.
THE
RESPIRATORY
SYSTEMS
THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

“Men, on the average, have


larger windpipes and
branching bronchi and 30
percent greater lung capacity
taken as a percent of their
respective body weights.”

-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:


A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER &
WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by
Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
THE
DIGESTIVE
SYSTEMS
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

“The male digestive system functions at a higher pace. They


have larger teeth, more salivary glands, more active gastric
glands of the stomach. They are therefore more subject to
ulcers. Their metabolic machinery converts more food to
circulating energy and building blocks and less to fat. Their
circulating blood sugar, cholesterol, and amino acids are
higher. They eat more meat and protein and assimilate food
faster. This perhaps accommodates the larger muscle mass
that must be maintained. This is particularly true of young
men still developing muscle. Males, however, often continue
the protein and fat-rich diets well after the body-building
years and years of high activity.”

-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:


A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
DISEASE AND SEX

“The high levels of cholesterol and


triglycerides then collect in blood vessel
plaque, causing hardening of arteries and
constriction of vessels. As a result, males
are more at risk of heart attacks, strokes,
hypertension, and related ailments such as
headaches, ringing ears, and dizziness.”

-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:


A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-184
THE FEMALE BODY STORAGE

“Women, whose metabolism favors fat


storage, have more trouble eating enough to
maintain their needed vitamin and amino
acid requirements without putting on fat as
well. There seems to be some relationship
between a certain minimum level of body
fat and fertility in women. Women athletes,
body builders, or those who are particularly
thin have higher levels of infertility.”
-E. S. Gersh and I. Gersh, Biology of Women (Baltimore:
University Park Press, 1981), pp 288-291.
THE FEMALE BODY STORAGE

“It may be that a certain level of fat


sufficient to carry the developing fetus and
provide milk after birth is necessary before
pregnancy will occur. This would be a
logical, God-given feminine provision to
prevent pregnancies during periods of
unstable food supply or even famine.
Today’s emphasis on being thin may
contribute to the concurrent high
level of female infertility.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
FEMALE GREATER BODY FAT

“Women’s greater fat means that women


tend to have higher core body temperatures
than men—they have more insulation
against the cold. Women also have
adaptions for childcare. Women tend to
sleep more lightly than men. After surgery,
for example, a woman wakes up on average
after seven minutes, compared with slightly
more than 11 minutes for men.”

-—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for


Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.106-107
WOMEN ARE MORE SENSITIVE

“Women are also more sensitive to


small sounds, and they lose their hearing
less quickly as they get older. This is likely
because being a light sleeper and sensitive to
small sounds is useful in childcare. A mother
who is a light sleeper and sensitive to small
sounds is more likely to meet a baby’s needs
in the middle of the night; furthermore, a
wild animal is less likely to succeed in
carrying off an infant if the mother wakes
up when she hears something. ”
-—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for
Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.106-107
SOLVING PROBLEMS Of
CHILDBIRTH and CHILDREARING

“While the primary problem for males over


… time was competition with other males
(including competition as hunters), the
primary problem for women was surviving
childbirth and successfully rearing children.
Childbearing and nursing are highly energy-
intensive activities, and women who had the
most energy stored (as fat) were better off
than leaner women over … time.”

-—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for


Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.105
SOLVING PROBLEMS Of
CHILDBIRTH & CHILDREARING

“In the …environment, periods of scarcity


due to famine or warfare were common, as
were periods of epidemics or disease, which
used up valuable energy reserves.Those
females who had most energy in reserve as
fat were more likely than other females to
successfully deal with times of scarcity and
disease and be successful at childbearing and
nursing, so there was selection for the female
tendency to deposit fat.”

-—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for


Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.105
SOLVING PROBLEMS
Of CHILDBIRTH
& CHILDREARING

“Thus women … have about twice as much


body fat as men. This is true of all males and
females— even women in great physical
condition have more body fat than the
equivalent man.”
-—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for
Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.105
SOLVING PROBLEMS Of
CHILDBIRTH & CHILDREARING

“Female cadets at Westpoint are stronger, fitter,


and leaner than most women, but they still have
about twice the amount of body fat as their male
counterparts. Their smaller size and lower muscle
mass mean that women are physically weaker than
men, on average. Overall, men are about 30 percent
stronger than women, particularly above the waist.”

-—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for


Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.105
WOMEN AND LONGEVITY

“ Men are more likely to die than women at every life stage, from
conception onward. More boys are conceived that girls (about 130–150
males are conceived for every 100 females) and more baby boys die in
utero. At birth, the sex ratio is about 105 boys to 100 girls ”
-Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.108-109

WOMEN AND LONGEVITY
“ In the United States and most other
societies, males have a higher mortality at
every age. Some of these extra male
deaths are due to disease; others are due
to accident. Males are more likely to die
from disease or accident than females.”
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for
Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.108-109
WOMEN AND LONGEVITY
“ So although boys outnumber girls at
birth, by the time a particular group of
children born at the same time are about
30, there are more women than men in
the group. By the time the group is age
85, there will be three women for every
man.”—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for
Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.108-109
WOMEN AND LONGEVITY
“ There are a number of reasons that have been proposed for the sex
difference in longevity. Most of these reasons have to do, either directly or
indirectly, with the consequences of men’s and women’s different roles in the
reproductive process. For men in the …environment, it was more important
to solve immediate adaptive problems such as the problem of getting protein
though hunting, the problem of competing with other men, and finding and
attracting a mate than to solve the problem of living a long time.”—Evolution
and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.108-109
WOMEN AND LONGEVITY
“ …For women, the crucial problem was surviving childbirth and
rearing children. In the …nvironment, if the father died young, the
children could still survive being taken care of by their mother. In that
environment, if the mother died young, her young children, particularly
any child who was still nursing, were also likely to die.”—Evolution and
Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.108-109
WOMEN AND LONGEVITY

“Another reason suggested for greater


female longevity is the sex difference in
chromosomes. Because men have only
one x chromosome (women have two
copies of the x chromosome), there is no
backup copy of the x chromosome if the x
chromosome they have is defective, so
they are more prone to recessive diseases
linked to the x chromosome.”

-—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for


Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.109
WOMEN AND LONGEVITY

“These problems
include congenital
cataracts, color-blindness, deafness,
juvenile glaucoma, hemophilia,
hydrocephalus, mitral stenosis,
nearsightedness, and several neural
defects and mental deficiencies. The y
chromosome itself may be at fault for
some of this as it is prone to
accumulating mutations that may
be deleterious for health.”
-—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for
Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.109
WOMEN AND LONGEVITY

“Mitochondrial DNA may also


be at fault. It is only inherited
from the mother, not the father,
and theoretically could have
mutations that were detrimental
to males if they were neutral or
beneficial for females”

-—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for


Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.109
Woman AND Longevity 

“The larger size of males in
sexually dimorphous species such
as humans may be the result of a
trade-off between size and immune
investment. The mechanism for
these results may be the sex
hormones—estrogen and
testosterone.”
-—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for
Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.109
WOMEN AND LONGEVITY
“ There is evidence that testosterone
blunts the immune response. Men’s blood
has lower levels of immunoglobulin than
women’s blood and this makes men less
resistant to disease. ”
-—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for
Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.109
“ The Testosterone is also linked to aggressive and risky behavior in
males, and this also serves to shorten male life spans through the risk
of death through accident or injury. Estrogen, on the other hand, is
linked to disease resistance. Estrogen appears to increase antioxidants
and decrease oxidants, testosterone appears to increase oxidants,
and this has been linked to the sex differences in aging.”
—Evolution
—Evolution
and and
Gender:
Gender:
WhyWhy
It Matters
It Matters
for Contemporary
for Contemporary
Life Life
by Rosemary
by Rosemary
L Hopcroft
L Hopcroft
,p.108-109
,p.109
“ The sex hormones testosterone and estrogen also seem to affect
genes that sense nutritional state and modulate hundreds of genes,
including genes involved in immunity and stress responses, and
thus influence individual wellness and longevity.”
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.108-109

—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.109
DISEASE IMPACT ON SEX
Scientific journals, such as Biology of Sex
Differences, were founded to highlight research on
sex differences in areas as diverse as responses to
lung cancer, heart disease, and pain sensitivity.
Arthur P. Arnold, distinguished professor of integrative biology and
physiology and director of the Laboratory of Neuroendocrinology of the
Brain Research Institute at UCLA, explained that “Biology of Sex
Differences serves as a forum for discussion of the forces that make females
and males different, and the downstream pathways that are affected by sex-
specific forces. This information will be critical for discovery of factors, often
more prevalent in one sex than the other, that alleviate disease.”
Editor’s Profile, Biology of Sex Differences, n.d., bsd.biomedcentral.com.
WOMEN AND DISEASE

“Women are more resistant to disease than men (at


least prior to menopause) because it was more crucial
for them to stay alive to take care of their offspring
than for men to stay alive. These are the ultimate
reasons why women live longer than men. ”

—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.108-109
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

“Women, on the average, have more stored and circulating


white blood cells. They have more granulocytes and B and
T lymphocytes for fighting infection. They produce more
antibodies faster and thus have a more rapid and effective
response to infectious invaders. They will develop fewer
infectious diseases and succumb to them for
shorter periods of time.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
THE IMMUNE SYSTEM

“Ethologists argue that for females caring for


multiple offspring and interacting with other
females and their off- spring in social groups,
where communicable diseases can spread rapidly,
this is a particularly advantageous trait.

Males who have been historically less involved in


these activities but more involved in hunting,
protection, building, war, etc., are more in need
of a good wound-healing system.”

-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:


A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

“While both sexes have androgens and estrogens, these sex hormones are found in
quite different concentrations in the two sexes. Males begin producing gonadal
testosterone at about the sixth or seventh week of gestation. This has an immediate
effect on all of the organ systems, such that heart rate, respiratory rate, red blood cell
counts, and brain structure are already sexually divergent at birth.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

“Both women and men produce testosterone, which promotes self-confidence,


risk taking, competitiveness, aggression, and sex drive. From puberty on, and
continuing throughout the rest of their lives, men have between ten and one
hundred times more testosterone in their bloodstreams than women. ”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

“The male testosterone level is two to three times that of the female until puberty, at
which time it becomes, on the average, fifteen times higher than that of a female.
Females produce about twice the estrogen of males prior to puberty and eight to ten
times the estrogen after puberty. Female estrogen varies considerably
depending on the time of the menstrual cycle.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

“All of the sexually dimorphic physiological traits mentioned above seem


to be rather directly correlated with the level and ratio of these two sex
hormones. In castrated males or estrogen-treated males, the red blood cell
count, cholesterol level, clotting factors, basal metabolic rate, and many
other factors decrease sharply to levels more like females.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

“Likewise, in males with Klinefelter’s syndrome (who have an extra X chromosome)


and those with gonadal dysgenesis, where testosterone levels are more intermediate
between males and females, physiological traits are intermediate. Such males with
lower testosterone share females’ longer life expectancies and better verbal than
math scores on aptitude tests.These data argue strongly for a biological
rather than any cultural explanation for these sex differences.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
“Sex differences present in all the organ systems across
various mammalian species go far beyond the superficial
anatomical characteristics necessary for reproduction. These
differences are direct responses to the levels of circulating
hormones, which differ significantly between the sexes.”

-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:A Response to Evangelical


Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM , Chapter 16: The Biological Basis
for Gender-Specific Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-184
“It is difficult to avoid the
conclusion that these physiological
differences predispose males and
females to certain behavioural

and aptitude leanings. ”


-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:A Response to Evangelical
Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM , Chapter 16: The Biological Basis
for Gender-Specific Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-184
“The debate heats up considerably when we suggest that
there are fundamental differences in the structure and
function of the brain and nervous system that predispose the
sexes to certain behaviors and capacities. Nevertheless, it
would be very strange to find hormones affecting all other
systems and not the nervous system.”

-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:A Response to Evangelical


Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM , Chapter 16: The Biological Basis
for Gender-Specific Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-184
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEMS
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

“ Men also have relatively larger


hearts and can pump a larger
volume of blood. Males have 10
percent higher red blood cell
counts, higher hemoglobin
readings, and consequently
higher oxygen-carrying
capacity.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson ,
page 282-284
THE MALE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

“ They have higher circulating


clotting factors including vitamin
K, prothrombin, and platelets.”
-A. Glucksman, Sexual Dimorphism in Human and Mammalian
Biology and Pathology (Academic Press, 1981), pp. 77-110.
(Academic Press, 1981), pp. 77-110.
THE MALE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

“ Their rapid clotting and


higher basal metabolic rate
leads to more rapid healing
of wounds and bruises.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:
A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-284
THE FEMALE
CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

“ Partly because they are smaller,


on average, women’s hearts beat
faster than men’s.”

—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for


Contemporary Life by Rosemary L
Hopcroft ,p.106-107
THE SEX DIFFERENCES IN
SPORTING PROWESS

“Women’s bodies were built to


withstand the rigors of childbirth
and to endure subsistence and
childcare activities on a daily
basis…”
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for
Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.107
“Men’s bodies were built for occasional bursts of high speed and/or
exertion. Thus it is the sports that utilize high speed and high levels of
exertion plus upper body strength—short-distance running, weightlifting, for
example—where men excel. Women tend to excel at sports that require
endurance, and/or flexibility, such as diving and gymnastics.”
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.107
“Fast running speed would have
been advantageous for males in
hunting and defense, and men’s
bodies have adaptations that help
them be capable of short bursts of
high speed. Men’s greater height
means that they have longer legs
than women, on average. ”

—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.105-106
“Further, men have greater lung capacity and
bigger hearts, and their blood carries more
oxygen-bearing hemoglobin, characteristics that
help fuel their muscles with oxygenated blood
necessary during great exertion.

Men have more efficient cooling systems than


women do. They have more sweat glands than
women and therefore produce more sweat, the
evaporation of which helps the body cool down
after bursts of effort and energy.”

—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary


Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.105-106
“Males have more sweat glands and can dissipate heat
faster than females. Women have a thicker layer of
subcutaneous fat that acts as insulation and energy
reserve. Consequently, they can withstand cold better
and have better energy supply for activities requiring
extraordinary endurance.

Women have raised their performance in long-


distance swimming, running, and other endurance
sports until it is similar to that of males, which their
physiology favors. But males retain a significant
advantage in sports that require short bursts of
strength, such as sprints.”

-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD:


A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM.
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific. Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282-184
“Women’s extra fat also gives them an edge when it comes to long-distance
swimming. A woman’s larger amount of fat makes her body more buoyant, so
her body stays higher in the water. It also insulates her from the cold. Men’s and
women’s times for swimming the English Channel are very similar, despite
men’s greater upper body strength. Men are better at sports that require
accuracy, strength, and speed in throwing, such as baseball, American-style
football, javelin, shot put, archery, and other sports. ”
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.107
“Thus, the woman’s body is shaped and
padded with fat to facilitate gestation,
childbirth, and lactation. Women’s greater
endurance is necessary because carrying
around a small child for hours requires
constant effort and endurance, rather
than the short bursts of effort needed
for hunting and defense. ”
—Evolution and Gender: Why It Matters for Contemporary
Life by Rosemary L Hopcroft ,p.108
Job 12:7 But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee; and the
fowls of the air, and they shall tell thee: Job 12:8 Or speak to the
earth, and it shall teach thee: and the fishes of the sea shall declare
unto thee. Job 12:9 Who knoweth not in all these that the hand of the
LORD hath wrought this? Job 12:10 In whose hand is the soul of
every living thing, and the breath of all mankind.
Leonard Sax itemizes some of these: “Wherever you look among the
primates, you’ll find that young females show much more interest than
young males do in taking care of babies. That’s certainly true of baboons,
rhesus monkeys, marmosets, and vervet monkeys. It’s also true for humans:
girls, on average, are much more likely to embrace little babies and be
interested in babies than boys are.” -Sax, Why Gender Matters, 61.
Ethological Observations on Sex: “Ethologists are students of animal
and human behavior who draw generalizations regarding social
behavior across animal and human groups. They point out that among
most higher social mammals studied, males are more aggressive than
females and take dominant leadership roles in social groups.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD : A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE
GRUDEM ,Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282
Ethological Observations on Sex: “Males are more territorial, competing and
sparring with other males for control of resources, societies, and, in particular,
control of access to reproductive females.Among most mammals, males tend to
build hierarchical social order. They are more reactive and less cautious. They
are involved in breaking up squabbles of lesser ranking males, females, and
juveniles. They set directions and courses of action for the group as a whole.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD : A Response to Evangelical Feminism ,
Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM ,Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282
Ethological Observations on Sex: “Females are more involved in parenting
as a result of the close dependence of infants on maternal milk supply.
Females of most groups studied are not as driven by competitive, territorial
or hierarchical urges. They tend to socialize more horizontally and equally
with other females. They are cautious in mating, solicitous particularly of
males that are the most dominant and control the most resources. ” -RECOVERING
BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD : A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM ,Chapter 16: The Biological
Basis for Gender-Specific Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282
Ethological Observations on Sex: “Females are more concerned with
parenting, nurturing, and maintaining pair bonds with mates through
grooming or care-giving behaviors. They tend in their broader social
contacts to be less confrontive and combative and more interested in
building and maintaining social bonds. They are peacemakers and
conformists to group expectations.” -RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD : A Response to
Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM ,Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific Behavior by Gregg Johnson ,
page 282
Anthropologists Observations on Sex: “Anthropologists find similar kinds
of universal sex-specific behaviors among human cultures. Of two hundred
fifty cultures studied, males dominate in almost all. Males are almost always
the rule makers, hunters, builders, fashioners of weapons, workers in metal,
wood, or stone. Women are primary care givers and most involved in child
rearing. ” -RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD : A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE
GRUDEM ,Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282
Anthropologists Observations on Sex: “Their activities center on
maintenance and care of home and family. They are more often involved in
making pottery, baskets, clothes, blankets, etc. They gather food, preserve
and prepare food, obtain and carry firewood and water. They collect and
grind grain.” -RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD : A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER &
WAYNE GRUDEM ,Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282
Anthropologists Observations on Sex: “The fact that these universals
transcend divergent animal groups and cultures suggest that there must be
more than a cultural basis for these sex differences. The data point to
biological predeterminants of gender-related behavior. ”

-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD : A Response to Evangelical Feminism ,


Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM ,Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282
“Indeed, as we survey the biology of mammals and humans in
particular, we find sex-related differences in all of the organ
systems, including the brain and nervous system.”
-RECOVERING BIBLICAL MANHOOD & WOMANHOOD : A Response to Evangelical Feminism , Edited by JOHN PIPER & WAYNE GRUDEM ,
Chapter 16: The Biological Basis for Gender-Specific Behavior by Gregg Johnson , page 282
REFERENCES BELOW
https://www.dropbox.com/sh/mc08vpdjz1gzke0/
AAAQ517HZnf5ntn9jVX4dxxua?dl=0
-Antonio Bernard , dindinbernard1@hotmail.com

Part 14