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NELTA

Teaching ESP at the Tertiary Level in Bangladesh: A


General Perspective
Sharmin Siddique

Abstract

English is a foreign language in Bangladesh, and the tertiary students of private


universities of different departments come with different vocational needs. General
English courses cannot cater to the specific needs of the students of different
departments. Moreover, at a tertiary level, English language courses should be
designed not only to help students receive good grades, but also cater to their
future workplace needs. In these cases, English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is more
applicable than General English language courses. On the other hand, teaching ESP
courses is more challenging and difficult than teaching General English courses.
The article aims to characterize ESP, analysing its need in Bangladesh and identifying
teachers’ roles in its teaching. A survey was conducted for data collection in which
two different sets of questionnaires were used for teachers and students. Twenty
English language teachers and 64 undergrad students from the Department of Civil
Engineering from different universities participated in the survey. Results of the
survey have been presented with some recommendations for its pedagogic
management.

Keywords: English for Specific Purpose, Tertiary level, Role of teachers, Needs
analysis

Introduction to the demand of the students of different


departments so that the students not only
In Bangladesh, all private universities at pass exams and receive good grades, but
the tertiary level offer some language also obtain professional development at
courses (credit, as well as non-credit, which work, for language learning is not only
include Basic English or English having knowledge of a language but also
Fundamentals, English Composition, Public knowing how to function using it in the real
Speaking, Technical Writing and world. Although all private Universities in
Communication, Advanced Reading Bangladesh offer mandatory English
Strategies and Writing). These language language courses, after completing these
courses, in theory, are designed according courses very few students achieve enough

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proficiency and accuracy in English to purpose of learning the language is


apply it in the job market. In this regard, principal, and it is directly related to the
Long (2005) states: vocational needs of the learners. Harding
(2007) defines ESP as:
General (language for no purpose)
courses at any proficiency level Whereas ‘General English’ is
almost always teach too much, e.g., sometimes, perhaps unfairly, labeled
vocabulary, skills, registers or styles English for no obvious purpose, in
some learners do not need, and too ESP- English for Specific Purposes-
little, e.g., omitting lexis and genres the purpose for learning the language
that they do. Instead of one-size-fits is paramount and relates directly to
all approach, it is more defensible to what the learner needs to do in their
view every courses as involving vocation or job (p. 6).
specific purposes (p. 19).
In all definitions of ESP, two elements are
As English is a foreign language in obvious: the sense of purpose and the sense
Bangladesh, tertiary-level students come to of vocation (Harding, 2007). Coffey (1984)
private universities not only from different discerns that ESP is a rapid and cost-
levels of language competence but also with effective use of the English language to
different needs. For example, the skills that carry on a course of academic study (EAP)
a Microbiology student needs varies from (Coffey, 1984). Lorenzo (2005, p.1) states
the needs of a Business Administration that ESP “concentrates more on language
student. Thus, General English courses in context than on teaching grammar and
cannot cater to the language needs of the language structures.”
specific students (Huq, 2011). Furthermore,
a foreign language learner would feel more Dudley- Evans and John (1998) describe
confident if he/she knew the appropriate some absolute and some variable
vocabulary related to a particular job. In characteristics to define ESP. According to
this regard, ESP is more applicable than them, ESP has the following absolute
General English courses to the vocational characteristics:
needs of non-departmental students.
z ESP is intended to meet specific needs
The article discusses some of the pertinent of the learners.
features of ESP, analyses its needs for
Bangladeshi tertiary students and, based on z ESP uses the fundamental
the survey results, suggests ways to meet methodology and activities of the
and for teachers to cater to students’ needs. disciplines that it serves.

What is ESP? z ESP is focused on the language suitable


to the activities in terms of grammar,
ESP is not a product but an approach to lexis, register, study skill, discourse
language learning where the content and and genre.
the method are based on the learners’
particular needs to learn the language Similarly, variable characteristics include:
(Hutchinson and Waters, 2002). In ESP, the

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z ESP may be linked to or planned for coursework at secondary and tertiary


specific disciplines. levels. (Harding, 2012, p. 7)

z ESP may use a changed methodology In this regard Burton (2009) states:
from General English.
ESP is not a monolithic universal
z ESP is estimated to be designed for phenomenon. Rather, it has
adult learners. It may be designed for developed at different speeds in
secondary school level learners. different countries of the world and
all the phases of development can be
z Usually, ESP is designed for the found functioning somewhere in the
intermediate or advanced students. world at the present time. It could be
said that ESP has increased over the
z Some basic knowledge of the language decades as a result of market forces
systems is expected in most ESP and a greater awareness amongst the
courses. academic and business community
that learners’ needs and wants
The term ESP emerged in 1960’s as general
should be met wherever possible (p.
English language courses could not meet
12).
the needs of the learners. After the end of
Second World War in 1945, English was Because of the increasing needs of ESP in
accepted as an international language. The Bangladesh, most national and
rise of the United States as a superpower in international companies, banks, non-
technology and commerce, the revolution government organizations, and software
in linguistics (shifting attention away from companies are arranging in-house language
defining the formal features of language training programs. These companies focus
usage to the ways in which language is used on their immediate language needs. In
in real life), and the shifted focus to learners Bangladesh, ESP training is not only limited
were identified as the three main reasons to Business English, but also established in
for the emergence of ESP (Hutchinson & the fields of science and technology,
Waters, 2002). Nowadays, in EFL countries, aviation, marine navigation, medical
the demand for ESP is growing rapidly for professionals, etc. (Huq, 2011, p. 269)
the following reasons. First, vocational
learning and training throughout the world Needs Analysis and Target
is increasing as education turns into less Situation Analysis
academic and more practical- and
application- oriented. Second, spreading Needs analysis is an essential and
globalization, which includes politicians, fundamental part of ESP, and has come
business leaders, academic professors, hotel through many stages. In Munby’s
receptionists, nurses and site forepeople, Communicative Syllabus design in 1978,
has chosen English as the language of situations and functions were the
international communication. . Third, framework of needs analysis where
throughout the world, primary education communicative needs were the basis for
covers the General English syllabus; thus, needs analysis. Based on the work of Munby,
students do not wish to repeat the same we also became familiarized with the term
Target Situation Analysis (Songhori, 2008).
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Hutchinson and Waters (2002) distinguish Munby’s Communicative Needs


between target needs and learning needs. Processor
First of all, the instructors have to make a
basic distinction between the target needs Communicative Need Processor (CNP)
(what the learners need to do in the target (Munby 1978) is a set of need exploring
situation) and the learning needs (what the procedures, which according to Waters
learners need to do to learn). They also (2002), provided a turning point in the
classify target needs into necessities, lacks development of ESP. The CNP, as a
and wants. Necessities are the skills that the framework, enables teachers and/or course
learners think they want to improve. Lacks designers in identifying needs of a
have been defined as the gap between the particular group or groups of learners.
target proficiency and the existing
proficiency in English. Wants are individual The CNP model considers the following
lacks of the learners in the target language. elements: participants, communication
They also provide the framework of needs needs processor, profile of needs, meaning
analysis which is called Target Situation processor, the language skills selector, the
Analysis (TSA). linguistic encoder, and the communicative
competence specification.
To analyze the target needs the following
checklist can be used: Besides, the CNP includes eight parameters
which give a description of specific
· Why is the language needed? communication needs. The parameters
include purpose domain, setting,
· How will the language be used? interaction, instrumentality, dialect,
communicative event, communicative key,
· What will the content areas be? target level (for a detailed discussion of the
parameter, see Munby, 1978).
· Who will the learners use the language
with? The CNP has been criticized by many
researchers. Flowerdew and Peacock
· When/Where will the language be (2001), for example, claimed the CNP
used? model to be simplistic which merely
generated a simple idea about learners’
Similarly, to understand the learning needs,
needs. These models did not characterize
the following checklist can be used:
needs of all stockholders (i.e. teachers) and
only identify some of learners’ biographical
· Why are the learners taking the course?
information. West (1994) mentions the
· How do the learners learn? shortcomings of CNP due to its complexity,
learner-centeredness, constraints, and
· What resources are available? language, the teaching establishment, and
the user – institution.
· Who are the learners?
Situation Analysis
· When/Where will the course take
place? According to this approach the sources of
information are the students. Dudley-
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Evans and John (1998, p.125) state that The teacher then becomes a material
“PSA estimates strengths and weaknesses provider and designer of the course
in language, skills, learning experiences.” (Huq,2011, Dudley Evans& John, 1998).
The background information and the level Thirdly, ESP teachers might have to work
of education about the learners can provide with the cooperation of sponsors or subject
us with information about their present specialists. ESP teachers have to anticipate
abilities. potential problems and avoid them, while
creating a harmonious working
According to Dudley-Evans and John arrangement. The collaboration should be
(1998), there are eight components of needs a two-way process. The subject teacher can
analysis which have been grouped into four assist to learn more about the learner’s
areas including: (target situation analysis target situation; on the other hand, the ESP
and objective needs analysis, linguistic teacher can make the specialist aware of
analysis, discourse analysis, and genre the language problems learners face
analysis, subjective needs analysis, and (Huchinson and Waters, 2002). In addition,
present situation analysis. teachers should research the aim that they
want to achieve. Then, they should design
Roles of ESP Teachers a course, arrange materials, and find out
the particular interests of the students. At
The role of ESP teachers involves much
the same time, ESP teachers should research
more than teaching, because teaching ESP
the content and context of the course to
is more challenging and difficult than
fulfill the needs of the students. Sometimes
teaching General English. Dudley-Evans
they are left with no options than to design
and John (1998) propose following five key
and develop their own materials (Bracaj,
roles of ESP teacher: teacher, course
2014). Finally, General English courses are
designer and material provider,
well-studied and improved by methodology
collaborator, researcher and evaluator
specialists. On the other hand, an ESP
Firstly, the teaching of ESP becomes more
course is unique; thus, it is not possible to
targeted. The ESP teacher, for example,
design an ESP course to satisfy all ESP
identify certain students’ needs, design and
students. Therefore, ESP courses need
develop the course/material accordingly,
continual evaluation in which teachers
and then help students attain the material.
have to get involved. They have to evaluate
The teacher’s role, in this sense, is to create
the students’ progress and teaching
authentic, communicative environment in
effectiveness. Additional evaluation of
class in which students learn the content.
course and teaching materials are also
Secondly, and in corollary to the first, the
crucial in ESP classes (Bracaj, 2014).
ESP teacher is not only a selector or adaptor
of authentic materials but also a developer Purpose of the Study
of their own materials. To devise the
materials, the ESP teacher may survey the As it is outlined above, both teachers and
availability of the material, select units students face challenges in an ESP class. For
from the course book to adapt if required, this reason, the present research has been
and add a number of extra units. He/she undertaken to support the teachers as a
can provide a whole set of material only means to comprehend the needs and the
where no suitable material is unavailable. challenges of an ESP class. The study is an

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attempt to find out the role of ESP teachers Data Collection Tools
to facilitate learners to achieve their ESP
needs. This is also an endeavor to identify For collecting information, questionnaires
some strategies to apply in an ESP class to were prepared for both the students and
make it more effective to motivate ESP teachers. The questionnaires for the
learners. students contained 12 fixed alternative
questions, and for the teachers 5 fixed
Methodology questions with one open-ended question. In
the open-ended question, the teachers were
This is descriptive exploratory research allowed to provide their comments and
that maintained survey method for data suggestions. After collecting the survey
collection. The purpose of the study is to results, the responses were counted into
identify the purpose of Advanced English percentage into two tables. In this research,
Language classes, the areas of language the opinions and feedbacks of the respondents
students want to develop, and the types of were given priority.
logistic support and class the students want.
The study also intends to investigate the Findings
role of the teachers, when students should
enroll in the course, the type of material that Responses from students
the students think should be included in the
course, and so on. For the primary data This study aimed to evaluate the responses
collection process, two separate sets of collected from the tertiary level students of
structured questionnaires were designed. the private universities. In the
The first set of questionnaire was designed questionnaire (See Appendix B), the first
for the students (see appendix A), and the question was about students’ current level
second set of questionnaire was designed of proficiency in English. In reply, 46.875%
for the teachers (see appendix B).The answered they have average level of
sources of secondary data collection proficiency level in English. From the reply
process were publications, research studies of the second question, it has been found
and journals. After analyzing the data the that 25% students preferred study, 12.5%
responses were counted, tallied and students preferred research, 12.5% students
calculated into percentages. preferred social purpose, and 25% students
preferred profession, whereas 25% students
For the questionnaire survey, 64 preferred study abroad option as the
undergraduate students from the immediate purpose to learn Technical
Department of Civil Engineering of Writing and Communication course. The
Stamford University Bangladesh and East third question was about when the students
West University, and 20 teachers from the use English. In reply, 53.123% students
same universities have been selected. The answered they use English when studying.
experience of the teachers varies from 2 to Similarly, the next question asked about the
12 years. Among the participants, 10 are areas the students wish to develop more.
assistant professors, 6 are senior lecturers, 37.5% students chose speaking, 3.125%
and 4 are lecturers. The universities, students selected listening, 18.75% students
teachers, and students were selected selected to develop reading, 6.25% students
randomly for the survey. preferred writing, 15.625% chose

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vocabulary, 6.25% students preferred whether English courses should use


grammar. In the next question, the students materials more relevant to their major
were asked if they knew the reason of doing courses. In reply, 75% students selected
Technical Writing and Communication “Yes” option. The following question was
course. In reply, 56.25% students replied about the role the students like teachers to
they want to develop professional play. 62.5% students answered teachers
communication in writing and speaking. should play the role of facilitator and guide.

Next, the students were asked about the


time of enrollment in this course. In reply,
as the figure below illustrates, 62.55%
students opined the course should be
offered in the beginning of the program.

Figure 1. Reasons for an ESP course

Similarly, the next question asked was if


they knew how the students want the
instructional materials to be delivered.
43.75% students wanted the instructional Figure 2. Students’ want of time enrollment in ESP course
materials to be delivered face to face, and
57.25% students wanted the instructional In the last question the students were
materials to be delivered through online enquired about the type of material they
and multimedia. In the seventh question, think the course should include.12.5%
students think the course should include
the students were inquired of the type of
textbooks, instruction/equipment
classroom they want for the Technical
manuals, CDs, DVDs, videotapes, 25%
Writing and Communications course. In students think that the course should
reply, 37.5% students preferred classroom include materials used on a job, such as
with white-boards and OHP, 12% students work forms, charts and samples of relevant
wanted classroom multimedia facilitated course assignment and relevant papers,
with sound system, 25% demanded internet 31.25% students opined the course should
and multimedia facilitated classroom with include materials from websites like
sound system, and 25% students desired business letters, emails, resume, memos,
internet and multimedia facilitated press releases, dialogues, telephone
classroom with sound system and conversations, and so on, and 31.25%
decorated with posters and maps. In the students selected combination of all
options.
eighth question, the students were asked
what kind of English class the students like.
Responses from teachers
In reply, 87.5% students preferred class
with lot of activities, pair/group work and After collecting data from the teachers’
projects. Then the participants were asked questionnaire (See Appendix C), it has been

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found that, 100% teachers considered teaching English for Specific Purpose at
Advanced Reading Strategies and Writing/ tertiary level.
Technical Writing and Communication
course to be designed to cater the 1. Needs analysis of the students should
vocational needs of the students. Similarly, be done at the beginning of the course
80% teachers wanted the instructional to develop the curriculum content,
materials to be delivered through on line teaching materials, and methods, and
and multimedia. etc. to bridge up the gap between classroom
material and requirements of the
workplace.
2. ESP learners do not require all topics
of General English, instead they should
be taught limited and specific topics
according to their professional needs.
To bridge the gap between what is
written in the textbook and what is
needed in the workplace, the educators
should cover the specific academic and
Figure 3. How the instructional materials occupational areas, so the learners can
should be delivered face the real world when they enter the
job market.
In addition, most of the (80%) teachers
3. Teachers have to know the specific
wanted classroom to be equipped with
purpose of the learners that they use
internet, and multimedia with adequate
in professional life, and have to
sound system. Agreeing with students, 60%
simulate those activities in the
teachers want the students should enroll at
classroom.
the middle of the program. The survey also
found that, 80% teachers thought the 4. The students of the particular
course should include materials used on a department can be supplied materials
job, such as work forms, charts and samples according to the professional needs of
of relevant course assignment and relevant their own fields.
papers, and the course should incorporate 5. Teachers can adapt ideas about those
materials from websites like business professionals and organize the
letters, emails, resume, memos, press materials accordingly. For example,
releases, dialogues, telephone the students of Pharmacy and Business
conversations, may attend the same course but with
different materials. The teacher may
Recommendations get a clear idea what type of
communication bankers, pharmacists,
On the basis of the analysed data and the
multi-national executives need in their
findings, and the open-ended question set
profession.
for the teachers, the following suggestions
can be recommended. The implementation 6. The course can be helpful for the
of these recommendations may help to students if it is designed according to
bring about some positive changes in

Journal of NELTA, Vol 22 No. 1-2, December 2017 83


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the needs, level and objectives to and difficult than a General English teacher.
the students. Teachers should be given some special
training according to the vocational needs
7. Instructors should have professional
of students. The syllabus should be properly
job experience or training to provide
designed and material should be
maximum output. The concerned
appropriately developed to cater all the
universities should take
components of the future workplace of the
responsibilities to offer ESP training for
learners. Furthermore, rather than being a
existing and future teachers.
traditional teacher, an ESP instructor
8. At the tertiary level, students are well should play the role of a guide and
aware of grammar rules and errors; facilitator to get learners involved.
they can learn easily with classroom
activities by using real-life References
communication.
Bracaz, M. MSC. (2014). Teaching English
9. Instead of enrolling in the beginning or
for Specific Purposes and Teacher
at the end of the program, students
Training. European Scientific Journal.
should enroll in ESP courses at the
10(2), 40-49.
middle of the program.

Limitations of the Study Burton, M. (2009). An account of ESP-with


possible feature directions. English for
Although the objective of the study was Specific Purpose. 3(24), 8-18. (retrieved
well defined, some limitations need to be from http://www.esp-world.info).
mentioned for future improvement. Only
private universities have been selected for Coffey, B. (1984). State of the art article -
data collection. Inclusion of public English for Specific Purposes.
universities might present a different Language Teaching. 17(1), 2-16.
scenario all together. Monetary and time
Dudly-Evans, T. & St. John, M. (1998).
constraint acted as a barrier to conduct the
Developments in English for Specific
research in a large scale. The research was
Purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge
conducted on a small group of students (64)
University Press.
and teachers (20). Study was conducted
only in the capital city of Dhaka; Flowerdew, J. & Peacock, M. (2001). Issues
universities situated in other large cities in EAP. A Preliminary Perspective.
could be included for more applicable Cambridge: Cambridge University
generalization. The research of limited Press.
context can act as a sample parameter to
carry out future research of a larger scale. Harding, K. English for Specific Purposes.
(2012). Oxford: Oxford University
Conclusion Press.
The article is an attempt to provide an Huq, S, ATM. (2011). Opportunities and
overview of ESP, its characterizing features, Challenges in Teaching ESP in Private
needs analysis and the roles of ESP teachers. Universities in Bangladesh. Crossings:
The role of an ESP teacher is more complex

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Ulab Journal of English Studies.3(1), www.usingenglish.com/teachers/


259-272. articles/teaching-english-for-specific-
purposes-esp.html.
Huchinson, T., & Waters, A. (2002). English
for Specific Purposes: A learner-centered Munby, J. (1978). Communicative Syllabus
approach. Cambridge: Cambridge Design. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. University Press.

Long, M. (2005). Second language needs Songhori, H. M. (2008). Introduction to


analysis. Cambridge, Cambridge Needs Analysis. English for Specific
University Press. Purpose world.4, 1-25.

Lorenzo, F. (2005). Teaching English for West, R. (1994). Needs Analysis in language
specific purposes. UsingEnglish.com. teaching. Language teaching, 27(1),1-
Retreived March 2, 2014 from http:// 19.

Appendix A: Designing a Course Outline to teach Technical Writing and


Communication for Civil Engineering

• to gain understanding of the


importance of the organization
techniques of writing adapting to a
variety of audiences and occasions
• to demonstrate an ability to prepare
and deliver effective written responses
• to improve skills in critical reading and
thinking.
Syllabus
Aims and Objectives • Writing notes
This course is primarily designed to provide • Writing messages (condolence, thanks,
the opportunity for understanding and and congratulations)
improving communication skills: specially
reading and writing • Writing E-mail

• to become an informed reader and • Writing Memo


critic of any text written in English • Press Release
• to gain an understanding of the • Writing advertisement & notices
underlying principles of effective
writing styles • Graph Analysis
• Business Letter (Claim, Adjustment)

Journal of NELTA, Vol 22 No. 1-2, December 2017 85


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• CV & Cover Letter Target Situation Analysis


• Learning technical vocabulary
Moving ahead from the basic reading and
• Editing/Correction writing techniques introduced in
• Reading Comprehension COMPOSITION course, a more critical,
thorough, creative and analytical responses
Materials are sought in Technical Writing and
Required Textbook: Communication. This course is designed to
cultivate an understanding of the
1. Heffernan, James A.W, John. E. Lincoln
and Janet Atwill, Writing – A College psychological, social, political and practical
Handbook, W.W.Norton & Company significance of communication in English
with special emphasis on students’
2. How to Write First-class Business spontaneous judgment and articulation.
Correspondence. L. Sue Bough. NTC
Publishing
3. Langan, John, English Skills, 7th
edition, McGraw-Hill Publications.
Course Assessment
• Class Work
• Home Work
• Group Activity
• Class Test
• Peer Evaluation
• Reports
• Library Research
• Written and Verbal discussions with
supervisor/instructor
• Assignments etc.
Grade Scale

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Appendix B: Survey Questionnaire for the Students and their responses:

Table-1: The MCQ questions asked to the students and their responses

Question Topic Responses

1. What is the level of current


Excellent Very Good Average
proficiency level in Poor 8.125%
3.125% good6.25% 28.125% 46.875%
English?
2. What is the immediate
Study Research Social Trave
purpose to learn Technical Profession Study abroad 25%
25% 12.5% purpose l6.25%
Writing and Communica- 25%
6.25%
tion course?
3. When do the students learn Studying Socializing At home Others Studying and Socializing and
English? 53.123% 9.375% 3.125% 18.75% socializing at home 9.375%
6.25%
4. What are the areas of Speaking
Speaking Listening Reading Writing Vocabulary Grammar Speaking and
language the students want 37.5% 3.125% 18.75% 6.25% 15.625% 6.25% and reading
3.125% vocabulary
to develop? 3.125%
5. What are the reason of To develop To develop To develop
doing Technical Writing and professional skill in job To develop
A&C B&D
Communication course? communication writing interview presentation
3.125% 6.25%
in writing and business skill skill
speaking correspondence 15.625% 9.375%
56.25% 9.375%
6. How do the students want
the instructional materials to be Face to face43.75% On line and multimedia based
delivered? 57.25%

7. What type of classroom Internet and Internet and multimedia


Classroom with Multimedia
the students want for the multimedia facilitated with sound
white-board and facilitated with
Technical Writing and facilitated with system and decorated
OHP37.5% sound
Communications course? with posters and maps
system12.5% sound system 25%
25%
8. Kind of English class the Class with lot of activities , pair/ Teaching only by the teacher and no
students like group work and projects 87.5% activity by the students 12.5%
9. Whether English courses
should use materials more Yes75% No25%
relevant to their major courses
10. What kind of role the Teacher as a facilitator and guide Traditional role of teacher who controls
students like teachers to 62.5% everything in the class 37.5%
have?
11. Time of enrollment in this In the beginning of the At the middle of the In the last
course program 31.25% program 62.5% trimester 6.25%

12. What type of material the Textbooks, Materials used on a job, Materials from websites
such as work forms, like business letters, Combination
students think the course should instruction/Equipment charts and samples of emails, resume, memos,
manuals, CDs, DVDs, of all
include? relevant course press releases, dialogues, 31.25%
videotapes12.5% assignment and relevant telephone conversations,
papers25% etc.31.25%

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Appendix C: Survey Questionnaire for the Teachers


The following table shows the MCQ questions asked to the instructors and their responses:

Table-2: The MCQ questions asked to the teachers and their responses

Question Topic Responses

1.Should Advanced Reading


Strategies and Writing/ Yes 100% No 0%
Technical Writing and
Communication course be
designed to cater the vocational
needs of the students?

2. How do the teachers want


the instructional materials to Traditionally face to face 20% On line and multimedia based 80%
be delivered?

3. What type of classroom Multimedia Internet and Internet and multimedia


teachers want for the Classroom with facilitated multimedia facilitated with sound
Advanced Reading Strategies white-board and with sound facilitated with system and decorated with
and Writing/Technical Writing OHP 0% sound system
system 0% posters and maps20%
and Communication course? 80%
4. When the students should In the beginning of At the middle of the In the last trimester20%
enroll in the course? the program 20% program 60%

5. What type of Material the Textbooks, Materials used on a Materials from


teachers think the course instruction/ job, such as work websites like business
should include? Equipment forms, charts and letters, emails, resume, Combination
manuals, CDs, samples of relevant memos, press of all 80%
DVDs, videotapes course assignment releases, dialogues,
0% and relevant papers telephone
10% conversations,
etc.10%

Contributor
Sharmin Siddique is an Assistant Professor in the department of English at Stamford
University Bangladesh. She obtained B.A. (Hon’s) and M.A. (Literature) from National
University. She also completed M.A. (ELT) from Presidency University. At present she is
pursuing M.Phil. at Bangladesh University of Professionals. Her areas of interest include
ELT Management, Language Skills, Syllabus Design and Material Development.

88 Journal of NELTA, Vol 22 No. 1-2, December 2017