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UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI CENTRE FOR DISTANCE LEARNING EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching Profession (2 Units)

UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI CENTRE FOR DISTANCE LEARNING

EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching Profession (2 Units)

OF MAIDUGURI CENTRE FOR DISTANCE LEARNING EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching Profession (2 Units) Course Facilitator:

EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

STUDY GUIDE

Course Code/ Title:

Credit Units:

Timing:

Total hours of Study per each course material should be twenty Six hours (26hrs)

at two hours per week within a given semester.

You should plan your time table for study on the basis of two hours per course

throughout the week. This will apply to all course materials you have. This implies

that each course material will be studied for two hours in a week.

Similarly, each study session should be timed at one hour including all the

activities under it. Do not rush on your time, utilize them adequately. All activities

should be timed from five minutes (5minutes) to ten minutes (10minutes). Observe

the time you spent for each activity, whether you may need to add or subtract more

minutes for the activity. You should also take note of your speed of completing an

activity for the purpose of adjustment.

Meanwhile, you should observe the one hour allocated to a study session. Find out

whether this time is adequate or not. You may need to add or subtract some

minutes depending on your speed.

You may also need to allocate separate time for your self-assessment questions out

of the remaining minutes from the one hour or the one hour which was not used

out of the two hours that can be utilized for your SAQ. You must be careful in

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

utilizing your time. Your success depends on good utilization of the time given;

because time is money, do not waste it.

Reading:

When you start reading the study session, you must not read it like a novel. You

should start by having a pen and paper for writing the main points in the study

session. You must also have dictionary for checking terms and concepts that are

not properly explained in the glossary.

Before writing the main points you must use pencil to underline those main points

in the text. Make the underlining neat and clear so that the book is not spoiled for

further usage.

Similarly, you should underline any term that you do not understand its meaning

and check for their meaning in the glossary. If those meanings in the glossary are

not enough for you, you can use your dictionary for further explanations.

When you reach the box for activity, read the question(s) twice so that you are sure

of what the question ask you to do then you go back to the in-text to locate the

answers to the question. You must be brief in answering those activities except

when the question requires you to be detailed.

In the same way you read the in-text question and in-text answer carefully, making

sure you understand them and locate them in the main text. Furthermore before

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

you attempt answering the (SAQ) be sure of what the question wants you to do,

then locate the answers in your in-text carefully before you provide the answer.

Generally, the reading required you to be very careful, paying attention to what

you are reading, noting the major points and terms and concepts. But when you are

tired, worried and weak do not go into reading, wait until you are relaxed and

strong enough before you engage in reading activities.

Bold Terms:

These are terms that are very important towards comprehending/understanding the

in-text read by you. The terms are bolded or made darker in the sentence for you to

identify them. When you come across such terms check for the meaning at the

back of your book; under the heading glossary. If the meaning is not clear to you,

you can use your dictionary to get more clarifications about the term/concept. Do

not neglect any of the bold term in your reading because they are essential tools for

your understanding of the in-text.

Practice Exercises

a. Activity: Activity is provided in all the study sessions. Each activity is to

remind you of the immediate facts, points and major informations you read

in the in-text. In every study session there is one or more activities provided

for you to answer them. You must be very careful in answering these

activities because they provide you with major facts of the text. You can

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

have a separate note book for the activities which can serve as summary of

the texts. Do not forget to timed yourself for each activity you answered.

b. In-text Questions and Answers: In-text questions and answers are provided

for you to remind you of major points or facts. To every question, there is

answer. So please note all the questions and their answers, they will help you

towards remembering the major points in your reading.

c. Self

Assessment

Question:

This

part

is

one

of

the

most

essential

components of your study. It is meant to test your understanding of what you

studied so you must give adequate attention in answering them. The

remaining time from the two hours allocated for this study session can be

used in answering the self- assessment question.

Before you start writing answers to any questions under SAQ, you are

expected to write down the major points related to the particular question to

be answered. Check those points you have written in the in-text to ascertain

that they are correct, after that you can start explaining each point as your

answer to the question.

When you have completed the explanation of each question, you can now

check at the back of your book, compare your answer to the solutions

provided by your course writer. Then try to grade your effort sincerely and

honestly to see your level of performance. This procedure should be applied

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

to all SAQ activities. Make sure you are not in a hurry to finish but careful to

do the right thing.

e-Tutors: The eTutors are dedicated online teachers that provide services to

students in all their programme of studies. They are expected to be twenty- four

hours online to receive and attend to students Academic and Administrative

questions

which

are vital

to

student’s

processes

of

their studies.

For

each

programme, there will be two or more e-tutors for effective attention to student’s

enquiries.

Therefore, you are expected as a student to always contact your e-tutors through

their email addresses or phone numbers which are there in your student hand book.

Do not hesitate or waste time in contacting your e-tutors when in doubt about your

learning.

You must learn how to operate email, because e-mailing will give you opportunity

for getting better explanation at no cost.

In addition to your e-tutors, you can also contact your course facilitators through

their phone numbers and e-mails which are also in your handbook for use. Your

course facilitators can also resolve your academic problems. Please utilize them

effectively for your studies.

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Continuous assessment

EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

The continuous assessment exercise is limited to 30% of the total marks. The

medium of conducting continuous assessment may be through online testing, Tutor

Marked test or assignment. You may be required to submit your test or assignment

through your email. The continuous assessment may be conducted more than once.

You must make sure you participate in all C.A processes for without doing your

C.A you may not pass your examination, so take note and be up to date.

Examination

All examinations shall be conducted at the University of Maiduguri Centre for

Distance Learning. Therefore all students must come to the Centre for a period of

one week for their examinations. Your preparation for examination may require

you to look for course mates so that you form a group studies. The grouping or

Networking studies will facilitate your better understanding of what you studied.

Group studies can be formed in villages and township as long as you have partners

offering

the

same

programme.

Grouping

and

Social

Networking

are

better

approaches to effective studies. Please find your group.

You must prepare very well before the examination week. You must engage in

comprehensive studies. Revising your previous studies, making brief summaries of

all materials you read or from your first summary on activities, in-text questions

and answers, as well as on self assessment questions that you provided solutions at

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

first stage of studies. When the examination week commences you can also go

through your brief summarizes each day for various the courses to remind you of

main points. When coming to examination hall, there are certain materials that are

prohibited for you to carry ( i.e Bags, Cell phone, and any paper etc). You will be

checked before you are allowed to enter the hall. You must also be well behaved

throughout your examination period.

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

STUDY SESSION I: MEANING OF TEACHING AND METHODS OF TEACHING

1.1 INTRODUCTION

This topic introduces students to the meaning of teaching and different methods of teaching which include class teaching method, lecture method, discussion method, recitation method, group teaching method, individualized method, project method, questioning method and simulation games method. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods will also be discussed.

1.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this study session, students should be able to:-

i. Define teaching.

ii. List the different methods of teaching.

iii. Explain some of the methods of teaching.

Iv. List the advantages and disadvantages of some of these methods.

1.3 MEANING OF TEACHING

Teaching is variously defined by different people to suit their perception of the concept. Teaching, according to Clark and Starr (1970), is an attempt to help people acquire some skills, attitude, knowledge, ideas and appreciation. In other words, the teacher’s task is to create or influence desirable changes in the behaviour of his or her own students. Van Dalen and Brittel (1950) define teaching as the guidance of the students through planned activities so that they (students) may acquire the richest learning possible from their experiences. Clark (1995) sees teaching as the interaction between a teacher and student under the teacher’s responsibility in order to bring about expected change in the student’s behaviour.

Teaching can be defined as a vehicle for Education. Olatunji (1996) described it as a social function that aims at guiding necessary growth in others. Nwachi (1991) defined it as the imparting of knowledge from one person to another and the guiding of someone to behave in a particular manner. Frankena (1965) expressed that teaching cannot be done by just anybody because it involves:

(a)

Conscious and deliberate activities

(b)

Less experienced or immature people to be taught and

(c)

A body of knowledge to be imparted.

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

From the above characteristics, it is clear that teaching is a unique exercise and it is an occupation that needs to be given serious attention at all levels.

1.4METHODS OF TEACHING

Teaching method is very essential to both learners and teachers; it facilitates the understanding of lesson if properly used. There is no single method that is seen as the best of all methods; teaching therefore depends on the situation, subject matter, and the learners involved. In this section, we shall examine different teaching methods which include:

a. Class teaching method

b. Lecture method

c. Discussion method

d. Recitation method

e. Group teaching method

f. Individualized method

g. Project method

h. Questioning method

I. Simulation games method

1.4.1 CLASS TEACHING

This is a method of teaching taught together. Teachers find this method to be easy and convenient; for instance, teachers find it easier, more convenient to plan a lesson for the whole class than to plan for individuals or groups. This method is also economical as regards time, effort, and material. It is not however, suitable for students; all students in mathematics, for instance, may find it difficult. If well planned, class teaching is an invaluable method of sharing teaching. It can lead to knowledge and experience and can encourage competition.

1.4.2 LECTURE METHOD

The lecture or didactic method is a teaching strategy in which the teacher makes a verbal presentation of ideas to the students. The students receive these ideas meaningfully or by rote. This method involves much talking on the part of the teacher. In this method of teaching, all students in the class are taught the same thing at the same time. Here, the students most often become passive learners.

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It is one of the more suitable teaching methods for more educated students, like those in the universities. The teacher or lecturer prepares a body of information which he delivers to the students with little or no interruptions. Public lecture by eminent scholars or politicians follows the same model. At the end of a lecture, a few questions may be asked by the audience to clarify or elaborate on areas of doubt or confusion. Although there is a temptation for the teacher/lecturer to want to talk and talk, he should resist this because pupils are inevitably reduced to being mere listeners and note-takers.

There are both advantages and disadvantages to this method. It should also be borne in mind that it is rarely used for small children who may not take in elaborate, lengthy speeches, however graphic or lucid they may be in order to make this lecture method work. The teacher has to bear in mind that he should organize the lecture to make sure the children follow the points and the sequence of thought. He should speak slowly, clearly and graphically for the best effect. Not all subjects are appropriate for this method. The sciences, crafts arts, and music do not readily lend themselves to it. Any sort of pictorial illustration (e.g. visual aids, pictures, diagrams, sketches, slides, films, epidiascopes) is most helpful when should be encouraged for discussion, reflection, clarification and comparison.

1.4.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF LECTURE METHOD

a. It is economical in terms of time, space, effort, and money

b. It is a good method of teaching large classes, especially in these days of large student enrolment in schools

c. It is applicable for teaching a range of school subjects

d. The method is appropriate for communicating information to students with reading problems

e. Well organized lectures are an excellent strategy for reviewing and expanding subject content, and for explaining difficult concepts

f. Gives the instructor the chance to expose students to unpublished or not readily available material.

g. Allows the instructor to precisely determine the aims, content, organization, pace and direction of a presentation.

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

1.4.2.2 DIS ADVANTAGES OF LECTURE METHOD

a.

It limits the student from using all his senses

b.

It does not encourage students to contribute to the lesson

c.

The teacher may be misunderstood by the students sometimes

d.

It does not cater for individual differences

e.

It is possible for discussions to be dominated by a few vocal students

f.

Places students in a passive rather than an active role, which hinders learning.

g.

Encourages one-way communication; therefore, the lecturer must make a conscious effort to become aware of student problems and student understanding of content without verbal feedback.

h.

Requires the instructor to have or to learn effective writing and speaking skills.

i.

1.4.2.3 WAYS OF IMPROVING LECTURE METHOD

a. Present your facts slowly, clearly, point by point

b. Repeat constantly

c. Illustrate your lessons fully

d. Use questions to involve students in the lesson

ITQ: you have studied the concept of lecture method, advantages and disadvantages of lecture method

and ways of improving lecture method. List the ways in which lecture methods would be improved.

ITA:

The ways of improving lecture methods are:

a. Presents your facts slowly, clearly, point by point

b. Repeat constantly

c. Illustrate your lessons fully

d. Use questions to involve students in the lesson

1.4.3 DISCUSSION METHOD

A discussion method is a teaching method in which teachers and students share ideas, compare and contrast views on a given problem, a question, or a situation. The method assumes that students have some background information on the topic of the discussion. The discussion can be

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

teacher led or student led with teacher guidance. It can be used to promote inquiry and develop problem solving skills.

1.4.3.1 ADVANTAGES OF DISCUSSION METHOD

a. Discussions help students to become independent thinkers

b. It provides students with opportunities for optimum interaction

c. It provides good practice for problem solving

d. It provides the teacher an opportunity for better understanding of the students

e. It is also useful for planning classroom activities as a way to involve students in the teaching-learning process

1.4.3.2 DIS ADVANTAGES OF DISCUSSION METHOD

a. It is time consuming

b. It does not allow for easy coverage of the syllabus and therefore it cannot be used too often

c. Wrong information may be shared if some contributors are unsure of their points

d. It may be boring to some students who do not know much about the topic

e. It is possible for discussions to be dominated by a few vocal students

ITQ: you have learnt what discussion method is and the advantages and disadvantages of discussion

method as well. List the advantages of discussion method.

ITA:

The disadvantages of discussion methods are:

a. It is time consuming

b. It does not allow for easy coverage of the syllabus and therefore it cannot be used too often

c. Wrong information may be shared if some contributors are unsure of their points

d. It may be boring to some students who do not know much about the topic

e. It is possible for discussions to be dominated by a few vocal students

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

1.4.4 RECITATION METHOD

The recitation method involves questions and answers session where the teacher asks a set of questions and the students are expected to answer them. The teacher could base the questions on what he or she expects the students to know from their assigned readings, projects, previous lectures and other activities. The main purpose of this method is to enable the teacher to find out if the students have mastered what they are expected to have read in textbooks. Lecture notes other materials earlier assigned to them. The recitation method can be used to teach concepts and principles and for explaining and elaborating ideas.

1.4.4.1 ADVANTAGES OF RECITATION METHOD

a. The recitation method is useful for assessing students’ understanding of instruction or assignments

b. It is useful for developing student understanding of concepts and principles

c. It enhances students participation in the lesson

d. It provides feedback to the teacher

ITQ: you have studied recitation method and its advantages. List the advantages of recitation

method.

ITA:

The advantages of recitation methods are:

a. The recitation method is useful for assessing students’ understanding of instruction or assignments

b. It is useful for developing student understanding of concepts and principles

c. It enhances students participation in the lesson

d. It provides feedback to the teacher

1.4.5 GROUP TEACHING

This method of teaching takes care of individual differences in students; here, the students are grouped according to their abilities. Sometimes, students are taught in groups of supposed equal abilities; or mixed abilities in group teaching; the teacher teaches the class in games and as a unit. While each group engages in one activity at a time, the teacher attends to the group in turns.

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1.4.5.1 RULES FOR GROUPING

EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

(i)

Groups may not be of the same size

(ii)

Each group should have a leader

(iii)

Grouping is not meant to be permanent

(iv)

Leaders should be changed from time to time

(v)

Grouping should be done on the following bases:

a. Similar abilities

b. Mixed abilities

c. Interest

ITQ: you have studied group teaching method and rules for grouping as a method of teaching. List the

rules for grouping method.

ITA:

The rules for grouping method are:

(vi)

Groups may not be of the same size

(vii)

Each group should have a leader

(viii)

Grouping is not meant to be permanent

(ix)

Leaders should be changed from time to time

(x)

Grouping should be done on the following bases:

d. Similar abilities

e. Mixed abilities

f. Interest

1.4.6 INDIVIDUALISED METHOD

This method of teaching takes care of individual differences and observable characteristics common among human beings. People normally differ from one another in various ways; such differences may be related to intelligence, personality, perception, motivation, attitudes, interest, special abilities and physical characteristics. After a teacher identifies the kind of differences among his students, he should then tailor his method to meet the needs of individual learner. This method of teaching helps the student, to learn at his own speed and within the limit of his capacity. It also helps the teacher to relate on a

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

more personal level with the learner; by this method students are kept busy so that there is little or no room for cheating. On the other hand, this method may hinder good social development. It hardly provides room for competition. It also requires more time on the part of the teacher to enable him prepare well.

1.4.7 PROJECT METHOD

This method of teaching is defined as a planned practical activity that is meant for a group of learners aimed at producing concrete results. Here, topics are normally given, and the students go out to collect facts or data and subsequently write down their findings. Educational visits are also seen as project method, since students are expected to ask questions on the site of visit and write up a report.

1.4.7.1 ADVANTAGES PROJECT METHOD

(i)

It makes learning a social activity

(ii)

It makes the aim of learning clear as it gives concrete objectives to be tackled at a time

(iii)

It helps students to retain the experience gained from the project for a long time

1.4.7.2 DISADVANTAGES PROJECT METHOD

(i) It is time consuming

ITQ: you have studied project teaching method. Advantages and disadvantages of project method were

also discussed. What are the advantages of project method?

ITA:

The advantages of project method are:

(i)

It makes learning a social activity

(ii)

It makes the aim of learning clear as it gives concrete objectives to be tackled at a time

(iii)

It helps students to retain the experience gained from the project for a long time

1.4.8 QUESTIONING METHOD

This is a method of teaching where a teacher asks series of questions in order to guide students learning. One of the natural ways that a child learns is through questioning. Teachers questions

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

help in recalling relevant information already learnt on which may be built. Teacher’s questions should flow from and relate directly to the material or topic being taught. This will help in drawing information from the child.

1.4.8.1

TEACHER

PRINCIPLES

OF

HANDLING

STUDENTS

RESPONSES

BY

A

a. Do not ridicule students when they give wrong answers.

b. When a student gives a partially correct answer, he should be told what part of the answer he has given correctly and which part is wrong.

ITQ: you have studied Questioning as a teaching method and principles of handling students’ responses by a teacher. What are the principles of handling students’ responses?

ITA:

The principles of handling students’ responses by a teacher are:

a. Do not ridicule student when they give wrong answers.

b. When a student gives partially correct answer, he should be told what part of the answer he has given correctly and which part is wrong.

1.4.9 SIMULATIVES GAMES

This most effective way through which children learn is by playing games or activity. This method of teaching therefore focuses much on activity or role-playing. In this case the child assumes and acts out such roles as father, mother, teacher, doctor or lawyer.

1.4.9.1 ADVANTAGES OF SIMULATIVES GAMES

(i)

It helps students to understand the lesson more because they participated in acting the role out

(ii)

Facts learnt in such a lesson can be retained for a longer period

(iii)

It helps children acquire the sense of recognition through feelings, seeing or smelling

(iv)

Motor plays in simulation games help to strengthen muscular coordination to the child

(v)

It helps the child to be independent; to live and work in harmony with others; and to express himself and gain experience at the same time

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

1.5 SUMMARY OF UNIT 1

In this section, the term teaching is defined as the interaction between a teacher and student under the teacher’s responsibility in order to bring about expected change in the student’s behaviour. Nine different teaching methods were examined; advantages and disadvantages of the teaching methods were also discussed.

ITQ: you have learnt in this section that teaching, like Education, is variously defined by different

people to suit their perception of the word and cannot be done by just anybody because it involves three things. What are these basic things?

ITA:

The three basic things are:

- Conscious and deliberate activities

- Less experienced or immature people to be taught and

- A body of knowledge to be imparted.

1.6 SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE

Having studied this topic, you should be able to answer the questions below:

1. What is teaching?

2. List any five methods of teaching.

3. Explain some of the methods of teaching.

4. List the advantages and disadvantages of some of these methods.

REFERENCES

N.T.I. ((1983) Methods and Strategies in Education. Module11, Units 1-6.Kaduna.

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

STUDY SESSION II:

2.1 INTRODUCTION

Having examined some of the definitions of teaching in the previous section, it is pertinent to also examine who a teacher is. This is because the success of any system of education depends, to a large extent, on the number of teachers, their quality, their devotion to duty and their effectiveness in the job. It is as a result of this central position of the teacher that it is often said that no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers. Who, then, is a TEACHER?

WHO IS A TEACHER?

2.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this study section, you should be able to:-

iv. Explain who a teacher is?

v. List qualities of a good teacher

vi. Explain some of the qualities of a good teacher

2.3 WHO IS A TEACHER?

A Teacher is person who has knowledge and skills in a variety of subject areas and the ability

and preparation to teach them to others. “Teachers” are usually found in classroom settings and

pre-service education programmes. Alaezi (1990) describes teachers as those involved in the act

of changing human behaviour and transformation of society for better, particularly when their

actions render them perceptibly significant, respectable and recognizable to others because of the consequences they accomplish and the unique manner they do them. This definition of a teacher implies that he must possess knowledge and methods of imparting it that could bring about positive change in the learnersattitude/behaviour. Before one answers the name “teacher”, he must consciously attempt to receive training in the art of teaching that will equip him with the requisite knowledge, skills, techniques, aptitude and methods necessary for the job. The teacher,

in the course of his teaching, help his students to:

- Acquire, retain and be able to use knowledge;

- Understand, analyze, synthesize and evaluate skills;

- Establish habits and

- Develop attitudes.

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

2.4 QUALITIES OF A GOOD TEACHER

Many people thought that just anyone who could hold a piece of chalk and stand in front of learners is a teacher. Studies have shown this to be a wrong notion. For an individual to be regarded as a good teacher, he/she needs to possess a number of characteristics that befit the noble profession. It is the possession of these qualities that endears him/her to his/her students and the society. Failure to possess and display any or some of these qualities makes people cast doubt on the genuineness of his training and interest in the profession. Some of the qualities a good teacher is supposed to possess include the following:-

a. Good character

b. Very competent to handle his/her student

c. Willing to add to his/her knowledge

d. Flexible and open minded

e. Faces reality in an objective way

f. Neatness

g. Firmness

h. Kindness and understanding

Good character:

The teacher, as a molder of lives must be an embodiment of good character. A good and effective teacher is one who respects the truth, who is sincere in word and act, and whose personal life sets a good example to his students.

Very competent to handle his/her teaching subject:

A good teacher must know his subject inside out, not just what he is to cover as shown in the syllabus.

Willing to add to his/her knowledge:

Education is not static: new knowledge, skills, ideas and insight of application of this knowledge come out daily. A teacher who does not update his knowledge regularly becomes stale and outdated. Effective teachers always find the slightest opportunity to update their knowledge and skills. A good teacher is a practical scholar, a student of the academic discipline.

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

Flexible and open minded:

A good teacher is not fixed and limited in his ways. He is always ready to receive new ideas especially those that will foster positive development. He sees things in different angles, thus approaches a topic from several viewpoints. He has a creative mind.

Faces reality in an objective way:

A good teacher does not allow his emotions to cloud his judgment. He has a way of ascertaining facts. A teacher seeks help and tries to free himself from any emotions that will upset him and or make him sway to personal or irrational judgment on topical issues.

Neatness:

A good teacher leads by example in this regard. Though not necessarily expensive but his

dressing should be neat, clean and smart. He should emphasize the nature of cleanliness in his students and should try to live a healthy life.

Firmness:

As much as the teacher is kind towards his students, he should be firm in ensuring fair-play and equal treatment to all. Students are often confused when he changes his rules frequently. A Teacher’s weaknesses are exposed by his inconsistency in enforcing rules for acceptable mode of behaviour. Any attempt to show preferential treatment to his students will make him lose respect and so lack his students’ confidence.

Kindness and understanding:

A good teacher is always friendly and to his students. Being aggressive does not help the

situation as it will only distance the students from the teacher, thus making it difficult for him to understand their problems. A good teacher always takes interest in his students’ genuine personal problems with utmost confidentiality with a view to enlisting their confidence.

2.5 SUMMARY OF THE UNIT 2

In this section we examined who a teacher is and discussed some of the qualities of a good

teacher.

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

ITQ:

In this section you have learnt who a teacher is and qualities of a good teacher. What are these qualities?

ITA:

These qualities are:

a. Good character

b. Very competent to handle his/her student

c. Willing to add to his/her knowledge

d. Flexible and open minded

e. Faces reality in an objective way

f. Neatness

g. Firmness

h. Kindness and understanding

2.5 SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE

Having completed this unit, you should be able to answer the following questions:

i. Who is a teacher?

ii. What are the qualities of a good teacher?

iii. Briefly explain some of the qualities of a good teacher

REFERENCES

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

STUDY SESSION III: TYPES OF TEACHERS

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This section deals with the characteristics of different types of teachers. These differences in characteristics suggest some different approaches to teaching and learning activities. In the same way, the advantages and disadvantages of these characteristics will also be examined.

3.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES

At the end of this topic, you student be able to

i. Identify different types of teachers

ii. Compare and contrast the characteristics of different types of teachers

iii. Enumerate some advantages and disadvantages of these characteristics

3.3 TYPES OF TEACHERS

Teachers are classified according to role they play in the classroom. The role a teacher plays in the classroom has great effect upon the teaching-learning situation. Teachers can be categorized into four major groups. These are:-

1. Laissez faire teachers

2. Authoritarian teachers

3. Benevolent autocratic teachers

4. Democratic teachers

3.3.1 LAISSEZ FAIRE TEACHER

The term laissez faire is a French expression which literally means ‘let people do what they wish.’ This is a teacher who can hardly maintain discipline or order in his class. He has no rules in his class and he is virtually lazy. He has no clearly defined goals and he neither encourages nor discourages his students. Students do not know exactly what to do and how to do it. His students tend to behave the way they like and have no respect for him. Teamwork is almost impossible since most of the students do not know exactly what to do. The morale of the students is always low and their work is poor. Effective classroom control to this kind of teacher becomes a very difficult if not an impossible task.

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3.3.1.2 ADVANTAGES OF LAISSEZ FAIRE TEACHER

a. It foster social relationship

b. It provides climate for freedom

c. It gives a spirit of independence to the individual learners

3.3.1.3 DISADVANTAGES OF LAISSEZ FAIRE TEACHER

a. It brings about indiscipline in classroom

b. It hinders spirit of teamwork

c. It negatively affects learning and productivity

3.3.2 THE AUTHORITARIAN TEACHER

This is a teacher who is firm and rigid in his demands and dealings with his students. He does not condone any slight deviation from moral behaviours. He has many rules and regulations which must be strictly adhered to without complaints by students. He has numerous forms of punishments which are harsh in nature. He keeps constant eyes on his students and is always ready to find fault with any students who deviates from his expected normal behaviour. He hardly praises his students since he believes that this will spoil them and make them lazy. Such a teacher believes that students should not be left on their own, but they should be under his watchful eyes for them to get the best out themselves. Students under this kind of teacher always live under constant fear of severe punishment. They became very submissive, passive recipients of whatever the teacher has for them to learn. They lack confidence in themselves and initiatives. Such students may be found irritable and unwilling to cooperate but rather engage in back-biting since this is the only way to avoid the teacher’s wrath. The progress of students drops the opportunity to relax a little and feel comfortable.

3.3.2.1 ADVANTAGES OF AUTHORITARIAN TEACHER

a. It ensures strict discipline among students

b. It cultivates a sense of compliance to class activities

3.3.2.2 DISADVANTAGES OF AUTHORITARIAN TEACHER

a. It

fear

psychologically

instills

in

the

mind

of

students,

which

may

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consequently

affect

them

EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

b. It kills students initiative

c. It hinders cordial relationship between a teacher and his students

3.3.3 THE BENEVOLENT AUTOCRATIC TEACHER

This is a teacher who is seen by his student as being autocratic but he does not know in the real sense that he is autocratic. He develops interest in his students and always praises them for any good performance. His problem is that he always feels that his own ways of doing things are the best and therefore insists that things must be done in his way. He is not ready to take any advice from anybody. All students must conform to the standards he sets in their work, talk and general behaviours in the classroom. He always struggles to win arguments. Most students like this type of teacher personally but dislike his methods. Students have to depend greatly on him for all direction. Although, the amount of students class work may be high and of good quality, students depend upon the teacher for direction, initiative and sense of creativity.

3.3.4 THE DEMOCRATIC TEACHER

This is a teacher who is very cooperative and is willing to share planning and decision-making with all in his class. He is always ready to give help, guidance, and assistance to those who need it, while at the same time he helps the rest of the class body. He encourages group participation among his students. He is always objective and impartial in his dealings with students and hardly uses punishment to foster learning. He praises and rewards his students for a job well done. The teacher’s behaviour makes students to like him and always want to be near him; they regard him as their friend. The quality and quantity of class work produced by such students is high. The behaviour of such a teacher influences his students to learn and praise one another’s effort and achievements and assume responsibilities on their own. There are few problems of discipline or motivation whether the teacher is present in the classroom or not, since the students have learnt to assume responsibilities.

3.3.4.1 ADVANTAGES OF DEMOCRATIC TEACHER

a. It improves productivity and teamwork among students

b. It cultivates a sense of responsibility

c. It develops cordial relationships among students and between teachers and students

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3.4 SUMMARY OF UNIT 3

Teachers are classified according to the role they perform in the classroom. The role a teacher assumes in the classroom has a great effect on studentslearning. Teachers are categorised as follows:

a. Laissez faire teacher

b. Authoritarian teacher

c. Benevolent autocratic teacher

d. Democratic teacher

In addition, the advantages and disadvantages of the above categories of teachers were also discussed.

ITQ:

In this unit, you have learnt that teachers are classified according to the role they perform in the classroom. In your opinion, which one is the best?

ITA:

3.5

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE

i. List the different types of teachers

ii. Make a distinction of different types of teachers

iii. Compare and contrast the characteristics of different types of teachers

iv. Enumerate the advantages of the Democratic type of teacher

REFERENCE

Bello J.Y. (1981). Basic Principle of Teacher. Ibadan, Spectrum, Books Ltd.

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STUDY SESSION IV: PROFESSION

EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

4.1INTRODUCTION

In this unit, you will be introduced to the concept of profession and its characteristics.

4.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of this topic, you are expected to:

a. Define the term profession

b. List characteristics of profession

c. Explain some of the characteristics of profession

4.2 PROFESSION

The term profession has been defined by different authors. Obidi (1975) defined a profession as an occupation that claims the exclusive technical competence and which also adheres to the service ideals and allowed ethics of professional conduct. Hoyle and Megarry (1980) claimed that a profession is an occupation that asserts an exclusive monopoly of knowledge, having definite standard and possesses the ability to convince the generality of the public that its services are unique.

Falade (1993) claimed that a profession contains essential characteristics such as an occupation that carried with it great responsibility and that member of a profession possess special skills and competencies based upon a long period of theoretical and practical training. William (1981) stated that profession usually exercises a system of control or a code of ethics over practice through professional societies, associations and institutions or sometimes by law. Olatunji (1996) is of the opinion that a profession is the application of intelligent technique to the ordinary business of life acquired as a result of prolonged and specialized training.

Finally, a profession is a type of higher grade, non-manual occupation, with subjectively

recognized occupational status, possessing a well defined area of study or concern and providing

a definite service after advanced training and education. From the various definitions of a profession, one can see clearly that it possesses certain characteristics.

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4.3.1 Characteristics of a profession

There are many characteristics of profession which are identified as the criteria for judging profession and they vary from one scholar to other. Some of the characteristics of a profession are:

a. Knowledge

b. Professional code of conduct or Ethics

c. Professional Organization

d. Legal recognition of the profession by the government and the public

e. Freedom of practice

f. Entry into the profession is strictly controlled

g. A profession provides in-services and professional growth for practice

h. Period of internship or apprenticeship

4.3.2 Knowledge:

A profession should require specialized knowledge to equip the practitioner with the basic

mental skills and sound scientific foundations of such profession. This knowledge must be acquired through specialized intellectual study and training. It is acquired through attendance of formally recognized institutions of learning. The mastery of the core relevant knowledge requires high intelligence and long period of intensive training.

4.3.3 Professional code of conduct or Ethics:

A profession should have laid down standards, which ensure control of entry into the occupation. The code should also guide the behaviour of members. This code includes traditions, customs and standards of practice identified as good enough for the profession which

practitioners are expected to rigidly adhere to. Examples of such conduct are: professional should

be versed in their areas of specialization; they should not exploit the ignorance of their clients

(students) but be ready to use their exposure for benefits of the clients. According to Richey (1979) the professional code contains the “dos and don’ts” of the profession. It should also have backing so that members who flout any of the ethics may be expelled and license to practice withdrawn, or subjected to other recognized professional disciplinary measure(s).

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4.3.4 Professional Organization:

EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

A profession should have strong organization aimed at protecting or fostering its professional

interest. In Nigeria, we have the Nigerian Medical Association (NMA), the Nigerian Bar Association (NBA) etc. It is regrettable that the Nigerian Union of Teachers (NUT) is only registered and recognized as a trade union.

4.3.5 Legal recognition of the profession by the government and the public:

The public should recognize a typical profession. For example doctors, lawyers, engineers and teachers are highly recognized and respected in the society. The public trusts their judgement

and skills. The society believes that a nation cannot do without the services of doctors, lawyers, engineers and teachers because of their outstanding services to humanity. The government also gives legal recognition to professions through acts of parliament or decrees. The Nigerian Bar Association, the Nigerian Medical Association and the Nigerian Union of Teachers all have government legal recognition. For example, Decree no. 31, of May 1993 gave legal recognition

to teaching as a profession but it appears the decree is yet to be operational in Nigeria.

4.3.6 Freedom of practice:

There is absolute and complete freedom to practice the profession. A practitioner derives psychological satisfaction and personal pride and displays excellent and quality job as a result of high degree of autonomy granted him to make decision on his clients as he/she thinks fit.

4.3.7 Entry into the profession is strictly controlled:

This is guided by setting and enforcing standard for selection, training, licensing and certification. There should always be an entry qualification. For instance, nobody can belong to the profession of law unless he had been called to Bar and enrolled as an advocate by the Nigerian Bar Association (NBA).

4.3.8 A profession provides in-services and professional Growth for practice:

Various professional organizations institute conferences, seminars, workshops and lectures to update the knowledge and skills of members. This is to enable them cope with innovations, improve and maintain minimum standard of professional practice.

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4.3.9 Period of internship of Apprenticeship:

In the process of professional practice, the professional should acquire absolute knowledge needed to practice the occupation. For example, a doctor requires at least one year of houseman ship. A pharmacist requires one year of internship, a teacher requires at least 12 weeks of teaching practice, an engineer requires at least one year of industrial training experience and a lawyer requires at least one year of practical-experience in the law school to qualify as professionals.

4.4 SUMMARY OF UNIT 4

You have learnt in this unit the meaning of profession and the qualities of profession.

ITQ:

In this unit, you have studied the concept of profession and it characteristics. Briefly define profession.

ITA:

Profession is an occupation that asserts an exclusive monopoly of knowledge, having definite standard and possesses the ability to convince the generality of the public that its services are unique.

4.5 SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

1. What is profession

2. Discuss four characteristics of profession

REFERENCES

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

STUDY SESSION V: TEACHING PROFESSION IN NIGERIA

5.1 INTRODUCTION

Teaching profession in this context is seen as an occupation based on specialized intellectual training. Hence, this topic is aimed at examining requirements necessary for a professionally recognized teacher. It also analyzes the positions and shortcomings in the teaching profession in Nigeria.

5.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of this unit, you should be able to;

i. Define teaching profession

ii. Explain the indices of teaching profession

iii. Analyze whether or not teaching is a profession in Nigeria

5.3 PROFESSIONALISM IN TEACHER EDUCATION

Profession may be defined as an occupation based on specialized intellectual study and training, aimed at supplying skilled service or advice to others for a definite fee or salary. A teacher is a professional when he commands the respect of his peers, his students, and his community. He earned this respect because he is better prepared. He has expert knowledge about the subject he teaches. He is determined to be involved in policy decisions, which affect his welfare as well as his teaching conditions and most importantly because he is interested in the teaching job.

It could therefore be seen from above that the concept of professionalism negates the proposition in Nigeria that anybody can teach. Thus, a teacher has to be professionally trained. However, the question is, does teaching really qualify to be regarded as a profession in Nigeria? To answer the above question, we need to analyze a number of essential features which include:-

i. Involvement of unique, exclusive, specialized and systematic occupational knowledge

ii. Acquisition of esoteric knowledge and expertise through long period of advanced education and training

iii. Continuous in-service growth

iv. Prorisim of lifelong vocation/courses and permanent membership

v. Possession of closely-knit organization with group consciousness

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vi. Possession of self-autonomy and authority to control admission, recruitment, training, license, certificate standard of practice and retention of members

vii. Affirmative public recognition and respect and professional mandate or authority often backed up by laws

viii. Service oriented and in the best interest of society for purpose of satisfying some specific social needs

ix. Possessing professional code of ethics for regulating and controlling the conduct of its

practicing

x. Ability of the professional to demonstrate competence through passing some prescribed examinations usually organized by an appropriate body Teaching satisfies some of the features outlined above. It satisfies for example the professional attribute involving intellectual activity and operations. The cornerstone of teaching as an occupation is intellectualism more especially at the tertiary level.

Education is concerned with teaching and learning. Education as a discipline therefore has its own specialized body of knowledge. This includes knowledge of the subject matter, the child to be taught; how he learns, purpose of education itself; its philosophy, history, sociology, construction and evaluation of curriculum; test and measurement procedures; the administration of education enterprise and so on. To be a professional teacher, one needs to master such body of knowledge. Viewed from this angle, therefore, teaching qualifies to be regarded as a profession. It is however, argued that teaching in Nigeria lacks specific qualities which would embody the entire characteristics of a profession. Adesina (1980) argued that teaching is still far from being recognized as a profession. He contended that people are employed into teaching without the necessary professional qualification. He also argued that teacher education programmes are recruiting mainly those who cannot secure admissions into other programmes.

For teaching to be effective as a profession, it has to address itself to the following tasks:

a. The profession should be free of “hitch-hikers” who pretend to be teachers. This is because if membership is open to all trained and untrained teachers, then it is not a profession. Thus, teaching service in this country should control its membership to reflect its desiring dignity. Membership should be restricted to those who had gone through any of the approved teacher training programmes.

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b. Those so-called teachers with first degree without education background should go back to the University for a Postgraduate Diploma in education if they want to professionalize.

c. Offering teaching appointments to those whose background and training are related to education should be discouraged.

d. There should be an effective functioning and dynamic professional organization for the teachers. Such an organization should be saddled with the responsibility of protecting the interest of teachers at all levels. It should also be charged with the duty of improving education in the community; it should participate in the development of school policies and curriculum; it should also be responsible for making the teaching profession attractive that sincere and able persons will want to join it.

e. Registers should be opened in which all teachers are registered and classified according to their qualification and certificate. Thus, there is need to support the National Teachers Council for the registration of teachers and the maintenance of high professional standards nationwide.

5.4 SUMMARY

In this study section, you have studied teaching profession in Nigeria and indices of teaching profession.

ITQ:

In this unit, you have studied teaching profession in Nigeria and indices of teaching professionalism. List out the indices of teaching profession.

ITA:

The indices of professionalism are:

i. Involvement of unique, exclusive and specialized occupational knowledge

ii. Specialized knowledge and expertise through long period of training

iii. Continuous in-service growth

iv. Possessing professional code of ethics

5.5 SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

i. Define teaching profession

ii. Discuss the indices of teaching profession

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iii. Discuss whether or not teaching is a profession in Nigeria

5.6 REFERENCE

Ali, H. (1992). Professionalism in Teacher Education in Nigerian University. Issue and Expectation. Lagos: Evdor Graphic Press & pub.

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

STUDY SESSION VI: LESSON PLANNING

6.1INTRODUCTION

In this unit, you will be introduced to lesson planning, forms of lesson plan and steps involved in

designing lesson plan.

6.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of this topic, you are expected to:

a. Define lesson plan

b. List the steps involved in lesson planning

c. Write a comprehensive lesson plan

6.3 LESSON PLANNING

A lesson is a structured period of time where learning is intended to occur. It involves one or

more students (also called pupils or learners in some circumstances) being taught by a teacher or

instructor. A lesson may be either section of a textbook (which, apart from the printed page, can also include multimedia) or, more frequently a short period of time during which learners are

taught a particular subject or how to perform a particular activity. Lessons are generally taught

in a classroom but may instead take place in a situated learning environment.

A lesson plan is a teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. It is the lowest and specific level of instructional plan. It is derived from the analysis of the unit plan. The lesson plan is to the teacher what the architectural plan is to the builder. If the plan is defective, all efforts by the teacher aimed at changing or modifying behaviour are unlikely to be successful.

Lesson plan, as the name implies, is a systematic arrangement of human and material resources for the orderly execution of instructional activities to achieve pre-determined objectives. It is an indispensable tool for you as teachers. It aids your memory and helps you to impart relevant knowledge ; you will have a good control of your class and you can illustrate your lesson adequately. For learning to take place, the subject matter has to be systematically planned and presented in a logical and stimulating manner. If, on the other hand, the subject matter is not well planned, presentation becomes fragmentary and often lacking in substance. The presentation of a

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lesson calls for careful analysis of the situation, the determination of the teaching method to be adopted, the objectives to be achieved and the selection of learning activities for all those to benefit from the teaching experience.

Lesson plan involves stating learning objectives; thinking through what the students will know or be able to do after the lesson; what information, activities, and experiences the teacher will provide; the time needed to reach the objective; what books, materials, and media support will be provided by the teacher; and the method(s) of instruction.

Finally, lesson plan should not be made too long neither should it be made too short. It should be however be long enough to show very clearly what will happen during the lesson. If for instance, you fail to attend to your class but you have already planned well, another teacher can stand in for you and teach the lesson using the already developed lesson plan.

6.4 FORMS OF LESSON PLAN

There are basically two forms lesson plan. These are the ‘unit plan and recitation method’. The unit of plan lasts for at least a week and has a series of lessons, planned together as a unit. The recitation method is where a single lesson is planned for each topic.

Bello (1981) states that it is often difficult to say categorically, what is the best form of writing lesson plan. The form you use depends on the nature of the subject.

The way you plan your lesson in English language, for example, may be quite different from the way you plan in physical and Health Education. Whatever form you want to adopt, it should include the following:

i. General information

ii. Behavioural objectives

iii. Previous knowledge/entry behaviour

iv. Introduction

v. Presentation

vi. Evaluation

vii. conclusion

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6.5 GENERAL INFORMATION

This includes the subject, topic, date, time, class, teacher’s name, teaching aids, etc.

6.6 BEHAVIOURAL OBJECTIVES:

Behavioural objectives are used to spell out specific purposes to be achieved at the expiration of the learning-teaching process of a particular subject matter. In order words, it is what students should be able to do at the end of the lesson

In stating behavioural objectives, the three domains are to be considered as stated by Bloom (1956) Taxonomy of Educational objectives. Also when stating objectives, the statement should always be in active verb e.g. to identify, to explain, to draw etc. The three domains are:

(i). Cognitive domain: it deals with thinking or mental abilities, knowledge and intellectual abilities. The statement of the objective will use words such as: to identify, to measure, to describe, to state, to name etc.

(ii). Affective domain: It deals with values, emotions, love, and feeling. The statement of objective will take the form of: - to appreciate, to respond, to realize, to perceive etc.

(iii). Psychomotor domain: It deals with the manipulative skills, the physical abilities, reflex movement and fundamental movement. The statement of objectives will be as: to reach, to speak, to read, to write, to study, to draw, to dramatize, to experiment, to construct etc.

6.7 PREVIOUS KNOWLEDGE:

Is the assumed knowledge or experiences acquired previously by the learner elsewhere - within or outside the school setting - the church, mosque, market place, peer group, family or society. It must be relevant to the present lesson’s topic.

6.8 INTRODUCTION:

This Phase is known as motivation. We must get the learner in a proper mood for the new learning. It must be connected with the old experience. The commonest approach used here is to ask questions revising the last lesson and gradually lead to the new subject matter. We try to ease tension and ensure the students’ curiosity and interest for the new experiences. The use of jokes, anecdotes etc are also allowed.

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6.9 PRESENTATION:

This refers to the statement of what is to be taught in the lesson and how it should be taught. It should be logically and sequentially divided into steps. This is to enable the teacher emphasize important points at each step and it should not be unnecessarily divided into many steps because it is the point where the ground is prepared for the realization of the objectives of the lesson. The number of your steps should be determined by the number of your objectives. It is the breaking down of the topic into relevant ideas and concepts. It is at this stage that the students receive the pockets of knowledge they is expected to go home with it. It is the stage in which all the materials, resources, knowledge and learning strategies are put into action. It is the main body of the lesson plan where the teacher is expected to deliver his lesson in stages or steps. Each step must be brief, specific, not too broad nor too sketchy.

6.10 EVALUATION:

This is where the teacher tends out whether his lesson is successful or otherwise. It is anything done by the teacher to assess the extent to which the set objectives have been achieved. Here, the teacher assesses the behaviour of his students in line with the stated behavioural objectives. It is also used to find out if the lesson has been understood by the students. Similarly, is used to test the learning process and determine whether or if they are succeeding or not. Here the teacher asks questions and also encourages the students to ask questions. Students are also given tasks or activity to do, which the teacher checks/marks and also assists the weak ones. The questions to be asked should be clearly written in the lesson plan.

6.11 SUMMARY

In this study section you have learnt that a lesson is a structured period of time where learning is intended to occur and lesson plan is a teacher’s detailed description of the course of instruction for an individual lesson. It is also the lowest and specific level of instructional plan. Types of lesson plan and steps involved in lesson planning were also discussed.

ITQ:

In this unit, you have studied the concept of lesson planning, forms of lesson plan and steps involved in lesson plan. List the forms of lesson plan.

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ITA:

The forms of lesson plan are:

a. Unit plan and

b. Recitation method

6.12 SELF ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

a.

What is lesson plan?

b.

List the types of lesson plan

c.

Enumerate the steps involved in lesson planning

c.

Using topic of your choice write a comprehensive lesson plan

6.13 REFERENCES

N.T.I (1983) Methods and Strategies in Education Module II, Units 1-6, Kaduna. Mishara R.C, (2011) Lesson Planning. A.P.H pub. New Delhi,India.

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EDU 100: Introduction to Teaching profession

STUDY SESSION VII: SCHOOL RECORDS AND RECORD KEEPING

7.1 INTRODUCTION

It is obligatory that the teacher keep some important records in his school. Records provide basic information about the pupils throughout their stay in the school system. The information from the record will guide school administrators, teachers, and counsellors to take decisions about pupils in the areas of discipline, promotion, counseling, placement and assigning of responsibilities. It can also assist teachers to perform their duties efficiently and to build up a history of the students. As the society is increasingly becoming more and more enlightened and as the pupils and students are becoming increasingly aware of their rights and privileges, some of the records become weapons of defense for teachers. It is against this backdrop that the paper examines some of the records that are supposed to be kept by classroom teachers and those you would need to keep when you become headmasters or principals.

7.2 LEARNING OUTCOMES

By the end of this topic, you are expected to:

a. Identify the essential school record to be kept by a school

b. Enumerate the characteristics of a good record keeping

c. List some importance of school records

d. Discuss the essential school record to be kept by a school

7.3 Types of School Records

Educational management involves planning, controlling, implementing and monitoring of policies, as well as teachersand studentsactivities. It embraces daily management as well as the formulation of short, medium and long-term objectives, policies and strategies in support of the educational goals (Bock, 2011). Good record keeping is critical to the success of any school system, no matter the size and whether or not it is in the public or private (UNESCO, 2005). In the public sector, the rendering of accounts for public scrutiny is key to accountability in governance (Ololube, 2009). As such, records keeping play a significant role in effective school management, and if records are not well managed, the school management function suffers (Gama, 2010). To this end, school records can be classified into two types: statutory and non- statutory records. Statutory records are records prescribed by education edicts and laws of a state

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which must be maintained by school administrators. Non-statutory records, while not prescribed by law, are equally as important to the smooth functioning of a school. Ololube (2013, pp. 104- 107) has identified a number of examples of the records found in schools and school systems:

7.3.1 Admission and withdrawals register:

The admission and withdrawals register shows the names of students that are enrolled each year in various classes in a school and the names of those who withdrew from various classes in the school.

7.3.2 Attendance register:

Attendance register shows the daily record of student attendance in each class in the school. At the end of every term, the class teacher closes the register and submits it to the school head to crosscheck and sign.

7.3.3 Class timetable:

Class timetables are a record of how, when and where classes are held. These keep students organized and informed about upcoming classes and help students to manage their time and schedule.

7.3.4 Education edicts and laws:

Education edicts are announcements of a law governing an educational system. They are decrees or proclamations issued by an authority that have the force of law.

7.3.5 Health records:

Are records of the names of students who were ill and sent to local health centers, school sick bays or the hospital for treatment. These records indicate the nature of the sickness and the treatment administered.

7.3.6 Individual cumulative record card:

This is a continuous record or a combination of records that contain comprehensive information about a student. It provides a summary of a student’s academic progress in school and also includes the student’s name, age, date of birth, date of admission, family background, social or extracurricular activities, etc.

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7.3.7 Lesson plan:

Lesson plans are records kept to guide teachers during their teaching activities. These are written on a weekly basis to determine what and how the teacher will teach. A lesson plan is developed based on the school’s scheme of work, unit plan or curriculum. It is presented to the head teacher for assessment, signature, date and name before it can be used for teaching.

7.3.8 Log book:

A log book is an important official record kept to track significant happenings that take place in

the school such as the death of students and staff, dates of resumption and closing of the school term, staff and student misbehaviour, etc. The head teacher keeps this book secure and must be presented to the Ministry of Education or School Board upon request.

7.3.9 National Policy on Education:

The National Policy on Education (NPE) is a policy formulated by a government to promote education across the country. The policy covers early childhood, primary (elementary), secondary, and higher education. It also includes adult and non-formal education, technical and vocational education, distance education, educational services, planning, administration and supervision, and financing education.

7.3.10 Disciplinary records:

Disciplinary records are kept to protect students from arbitrary punishment from teachers and to exonerate teachers from unwarranted criticisms by parents or students. In most cases, the head teacher approve of any disciplinary action before it is administered to a student or students. Records concerning the disciplinary action and its approval are documented for future reference.

7.3.11 School cash book:

A school cash book is a system that helps organise school finances. It is a simple record that

details all payments made and income received. It shows receipt of items and all expenditures. This book is kept with the accountant or clerk in the absence of a school treasurer.

7.3.12 School stock book:

The school stock book shows the current supply of equipment and other materials in the school.

It is usually divided into two parts. The first part showing the consumables items (chalk, dusters,

diary, registers, etc.) and the other are showing non-consumable items (furniture, television, tape

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recorders, sporting and athletic equipment, etc.). It contains name, date of supply, and expiring dates of goods supplied, if applicable.

7.3.13 School timetable:

A school timetable is a table used for coordinating four basic elements (students, teachers, subjects, and time slots, otherwise called periods) in a school system.

7.3.14 School diary:

The school diary, also known as a teacher’s record of work, shows the things that are to be done and have been done each term for each class/subject in a school. This record helps to keep teachers motivated and on task (to complete the syllabus by the end of the term) and ensures continuity.

7.3.15 Staff and student movement book:

The staff and student movement book details the entry and exit of staff and students in a school.

7.3.16 Transfer and leaving certificates:

Transfer and leaving certificates are the forms approved by the Zonal Inspector of Education and signed by the head teacher at the request of parents to permit their children to leave one school to attend another as a result of a parent’s work transfer, etc.

7.3.17 Visitor’s book:

The purpose of a visitor’s book is to keep records of the names and addresses of visitors, date and time of visits, purpose of visits and who the visitor requested to visit. This book is kept by the head teacher or his or her assistant.

7.3.18 Syllabus:

A syllabus is an outline and a summary of topics to be covered in a school. A syllabus for a certain subject is often set out by an examination body such as the West African Examination Council (WEAC) which conducts, supervises and controls the quality of examinations for uniformity.

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7.3.19 Scheme of work:

A scheme of work is a guideline that defines the structure and content of a subject. It shows how resources such as books and equipment are to be used and how class time, class activities and class assessments are to be carried out to ensure that the learning aims and objectives of the subject are met. A scheme of work can be shared with students so that they have an overview of their subjects

7.3.20 Curriculum:

A curriculum is the set of subjects and their content offered at a school. A curriculum is prescriptive and is based on a more general document that specifies what topics must be understood and to what level to achieve a particular grade or standard in an educational system.

7.4 Characteristics of Good Record Management

Managing school records according to Fasasi in Osakwe (2011) is meant to enhance the performance of school administrators. An adequate records management programme co- ordinates and protects an institutions records, sharpens the effectiveness of records as management memory, and helps to simplify intra-organisational and communication problems. The management of records in schools, like in any other organization, is a cyclic process involving principals, teachers, students, messengers and cleaners. Most records are handled by school heads and are kept manually, hence the processing, retrieval and ultilisation of records is not always easy. According to Ibara (2010) the following are characteristics or attributes of good record management (although modifications can be made):

7.4.1 Completeness:

Complete and comprehensive records should be kept to give users all the information needed to

plan and make effective decisions.

7.4.2 Cost:

Records should not be too expensive to keep. This means that the financial cost of collecting, analyzing, synthesizing, storing and retrieving records should be reasonable.

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7.4.3 Flexibility:

Data is flexible if it can be used by more than one user at different times for different purposes.

7.4.4 Quality:

The quality of any information contained in any record must be accurate and reliable. The greater the accuracy and reliability, the higher the quality of information, and the more likely the information system is to work well.

7.4.5 Relevance:

A relevant record is one that is useful to the needs of the system. A good deal of irrelevant information is kept, particularly in schools. Information that is no longer relevant and not required by law should be securely disposed of.

7.4.6 Retention and Disposition of Records:

The disposition of records does not entirely mean destruction. Disposition can also include transfer of records to a historical achieve, to a museum, etc. In the case of schools, however, most records are disposed of when no longer needed. The public officials concerned may destroy these records upon expiration of the retention period.

7.4.7 Timeliness:

Information contained in a record should be retrievable as it is needed rather than after important decisions have been made.

7.4.8 Variability:

This refers to the degree of consensus arrived at among various users examining the record. The greater the consensus among users, the more accepted the record.

7.4.9 Maintenance:

The maintenance of records involves all activities that ensure that they are in good condition, and kept in an orderly state. This is a central function of records management.

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7.5 Importance of Record Keeping

Record keeping generally concerns the administrative activities that are concerned with achieving cost-effectiveness and efficiency in the creation, maintenance, use and disposal of the records of educational institutions throughout their entire life cycle and in making the information they contain accessible in support of the school business administration (UNESCO, 2005). Thus, it is essential that records are kept in school for effective administration, because proper record keeping facilitates retrieval of valuable information that might be helpful in day- to-day operations and decision making in school systems globally (Durosaro, 2002). According to Ololube (2013, p. 103), “the importance of good record keeping transcends into short and long term benefits and affects the overall achievement of educational objectives”. Ololube (2013, pp. 103-104) identified some additional and important reasons for records keeping in schools:

7.5.1 Accountability:

Record keeping is vital to an education system’s information cycle as a whole, because of its fundamental role in the process of efficient information production and collection. School records are an important means of accountability because they provide proof. Records such as cash books and stock books help to ensure accountability as they show income, expenditures and stock levels in a school. These cash and the stock books can then be made available to auditors on demand for the auditing of school funds and facilities.

7.5.2 Decision Making:

School records help school administrators to make decisions. Records provide raw data that enable coherent, balanced and objective decisions on issues such as promotion, student and staff discipline, and teaching and learning performances.

7.5.3 Employment:

Properly kept records on the human resources serve useful employment and planning related purposes. The number of staff, their areas of specialization, qualifications, age, gender, and so on will help the principle to determine the human resource needs and assets of his or her school. Consistent information kept about employees can also be used in employee performance appraisals.

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7.5.4 Guidance Counsellors:

School records are of great importance to school guidance counsellors as these records can provide counsellors with a holistic picture of the students they counsel (academic grades and achievements, disciplinary measures taken and/or extracurricular activities) and can help counsellors to track student progress.

7.5.5 Information Bank:

Records kept in schools serve as an information bank from which school administrators can recall information as needed.

7.5.6 Information for Parents:

Parents often want to know how their children or wards perform academically. Records of school report cards and/or end of term results should be kept by schools should parents wish to review or discuss past student performance.

7.5.7 Planning:

Accurate data assists educational planners to identify areas of need that should be addressed or accorded priority attention.

7.5.8 Student Academic Achievement and Behaviour:

Certificates and testimonials are issued to graduating students to show how they performed during their studies. Properly kept records can help considerably in the accurate production of thorough certificates/testimonials.

7.5.9 Subject Time Table:

School time tables help in the coordination of staff and student activities and work. Keeping track of time tables from year to year can help a school and school administrators determine which combination of classes and teaching assignments work best to optimize teaching and learning.

7.5.10 Supervisors/Inspectors:

The availability of records enables supervisors or inspectors to objectively assess student and staff performance and offer advice or proposals for improvement.

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7.6 Safely Managing and Preserving School Records

School records management involves the storage, retrieval and use of information. It is the application of systematic and scientific control to all the recorded information that schools need for school administration. Poor records management results in difficulties in administering, planning and monitoring of educational systems globally (Ololube, 2013). In fact, poor records management and the lack of staff development with regards to the entire information cycle are responsible for a number of management and policy implementation problems in schools and ministries of education (Chifwepa, [n.d]). While different methods or systems can be used to bring about efficient records management, there are some basic rules that must be respected. The management of school records involves all activities that ensure that they are in good condition, and kept in an orderly state (Ololube, 2013). Some of the ways records can be safely managed and preserved to are:

7.6.1 Classification:

This is the method of arranging records and files perfectly into groups according to subject. It ensures that school records are arranged in a logical order. The logical arrangement of files is central because it guarantees that files have their specific places and can be retrieved without snag and significant loss.

7.6.2 File Storage:

After a classification system has been determined and files have been labelled, files should then be arranged accordingly and kept in a filing cabinet drawer. A filing cabinet or cabinets should be used for this purpose. The cabinet drawers in which the files are housed must also be labelled clearly and the files appropriately organised so as to maintain the relationship of the files to one another.

7.6.3 File maintenance:

It is important to check the files periodically to ensure that they are in good condition, since they are prone to wear and tear. Some records in files may be loose and could fall out easily. These should be securely attached and reattached.

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7.6.4 Check Out:

When records or files are lent to users, a system must be worked out that tracks where and when certain files or records were lent to a user. Small cards may be designed to enable efficient control over the flow of files.

7.6.5 Natural factors:

School records should be properly arranged and secured from natural hazards such as flooding, insects, rain, sun, termites and wind.

7.7 SUMMARY

This study section discusses the concept of school record, types of school record keeping, characteristics of good record keeping, importance of school record and safely managing and preserving school records.

ITQ:

The management of school records involves all activities that ensure that they are in good condition, and kept in an orderly state. List out the ways records can be safely managed and preserved.

ITA:

Some of the ways records can be safely managed and preserved are:

a. Classification

b. File Storage

c. File maintenance

d. Check Out

e. Natural factors

7.8 SELF-ASSESSMENT QUESTIONS

After studying this unit, you should be able to answer the following questions for your self- assessment purpose:

a. Identify the essential school records to be kept by a school

b. Enumerate the characteristics of a good record keeping

c. List some importance of school records

d. Discuss the essential school records to be kept by a school

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7.9 REFERENCES

Akanbi, O. (1999). Records in School Administration. Ilorin: Haaytee Press & Publishing Company.

Bock, J. R. (2011). The Importance of an Effective Records Retention Policy. Retrieved October 15 2014 from http://fleeson.com/2011/05/11/the-importance-of-an-effective-records-retention- policy/.

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