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Society of Petroleum Engineers

SPE 30242

Technology Leading the Way to Mukhaizna Heavy Oil Development

L. Lievaart, * K.M. AI Hinai, * K.J. AI Khabori, * 1. van Wunnik, * D. Masson, * I.H. AI-Kindy
and PJ. Mul
Petroleum Development Oman
* SPE Members

Copyright 1995, Society of Petroleum Engineers, Inc,

This paper was prepared for presentation at the International Heavy Oil Symposium held In Calgary, Alberta, Canada, 19-21 June1995,

~:~~p~~e~:..~s r~~~cte~ f~r ~~es~nt~ti~n %an SP E Program Committee foilowlng review of Information contained In an abstract submitted by theauthor(s), Contents of the paper as presented
S lewe y e ,ocle y 0 elro Ieum Engineers and are sUbjected to correction by the author(s), The material, as presented, does not necessarily reflect an ' osition of th~
p~~~~s?~~~;r~~~~~s~~~;~et:~t offl~e;s, ~r ~embers, p~pers
ItS presented at SPE meetings are SUbject to pUblication review by Editorial Committees of the SOciety of petrol~~m Engineers,
the paper is presented wr~ L'bo a~ a ~~~ poonost more t an 300 words, Iilustratlons may not be copied, The abstract should contain conspicuous acknowledgment of where and by whom
, e I rar an, '" ox 833836, Richardson, TX 75083·3836, U,S.A. (Facsimile 214-952-9435),

Abstract Theoretical studies and numerical simulations have shown

the dry individual well recoveries to increase proportionally
Mukhaizna was discovered in Central Oman in 1975. The with increasing distance to the oil-water contact. Reservoir
field contains large volumes of 150 API crude (STOUP 375 performance during dry production is characteristic of
mIn m3 , in situ viscosity 1700 mPa.s). During the mid 80's it increasing pore compressibility with increasing rock stress.
was established that production rates from initial vertical Significant hysteresis is observed between the increasing and
wells were marginally economic, both primary and on steam decreasing rock stress cycles. Core plug measurements and
soak. In recent years the introduction of new technology, pressure recordings in a dedicated observation well have
especially the drilling of horizontal wells, has significantly served to validate the results of the modelling study. Based
advanced the fields potential for commercial development: on the results of the pilot, the fields expectation ultimate
recovery was increased from 5.3 to 11.0 mIn m3.
A pilot project using five 1000 m long horizontal wells was
started in August 1992. The wells were produced with As a next step towards full field development, a strategic
progressive cavity pumps, with production being trucked to a development project has been formulated aimed at narrowing
production station at 60 km distance . Productivity down remaining uncertainties with respect to reservoir
improvements of a factor 4 over (cold) vertical wells were performance. Production from ca. 10 horizontal wells will
obtained. The project demonstrated that owing to the high commence in 1996. Dedicated early production (satellite)
pore compressibility of the shallow, unconsolidated Gharif facilities will be used, to which the oil will be evacuated with
reservoir rock, associated with grain crushing, and the field- admixed water through a 30 km, large diameter pipeline
wide presence of a Middle Gharif shale, satisfactory primary under downhole pump pressure.The current project planning
recoveries of 100,000 m3 or more can be obtained from basis includes a number of technology applications aimed at
increas~d cost effectiveness, such as a revised casing scheme,
horizontal wells at acceptable (lateral) distances to the oil·
water contact. alternatiVe subsurface pumping systems with high output
pressure rating, coriolis flow meters and telemetry.
Targetting of the additional project wells will be based on a
References and illustrations at end of paper 3D seismic survey acquired during the second half of 1994.

Technology Leading the Way to Mukhaizna Heavy Oil Development SPE 30242
Following a successful project, full field development may wells and discusses the way forward to full scale field
proceed early in the next century. development.

Horizontal well UUot drilling

A pilot project to assess the economic viability of primary
The Mukhaizna field, located in Central Oman, covers an (cold) production from Mukhaizna using horizontal wells was
area of some 200 km2. It contains 375 min m3 of heavy oil kicked off in August 1992 with the drilIing of first horizontal
(150 API, 1700 mPa.s) in two culminations which are MKN~5. A total of 5 horizontals were drilled. All wells were
separated by a saddle (Fig.l: structure map). It was drilled with a vertical pilot hole first, to provide control on
discovered in 1975 by well MKN~I, which established the structure and hydrocarbon distribution, and subsequently
presence of oil in channel sands of .the Permian Upper and sidetracked in a direction perpendicular to the main channel
Middle Gharif formations. The Upper and Middle Gharif sand direction (to link up a maximum number of channels to
reservoirs are separated bya Middle Gharif shale (Fig.2: the individual wellbores). Wells 5,6 and 7 were drilled in the
type~log) that can be correlated fieldwide, but both reservoirs crestal area of the Northemctllmination,in an area of known
share the same oil~water contacts in the two culminations good sand development in the Upper Gharif Unit-2. Well 9
respectively. The Northern culmination appears filled to the was drilled in the same area in the Middle Gharif. Well 8 was
structural spill~point of the Upper Gharif, whereas the drilled in the Upper Gharif Unit-2 in a more downdip
Southern culmination has a: shallower oil-water contact, position. The first horizontal well, MKN-5, was drilled at 150
possibly due to leakage through the boundary fault (Fig.3: m distance to existing vertical well MKN~2, which served as
cross~section) . a monitor well for pressure observation during pilot
pt'Oduction (Fig. I).
The Gharif reservoir sands are course to medium grained
fluvial sediments, deposited on a low gradient alluvial plain The horizontal well design catered for an intermediate 13
with a general South~east to North~west channel direction. 3/8" casing set at approximately 450 m, from which an 8 112"
The sands are higWy unconsolidated. Total porosities are pilot hole was drilled vertically and logged. The pilot hole
between 25-35 % and permeabilities range from 0.1~10 was subsequently plugged back, and a 12 114" medium radius
Darcies. In Mukhaizua, the Upper Gharif Unit~ I is very shaly (150 m) build section drilled with 9 5/8" casing set at top
and poorly developed. The bulk of the oil is contained by the reservoir. In all wells the 8112" horizontal hole sections were
Upper Gharif Unit~2 which is characterised by a high neHo~ completed with 7" predrilled liner. In those wells where the
gross ratio typically in excess of 50 %, which is believed to predrilled liner stood up prior to reaching TD (with horizontal
be sufficiently high to allow for full 3D pressure hole sections ranging from 600~1l00 m) it was cut and
communication between the. individual channel sands. The retrieved from above the 9 5/8" casing shoe. The 4 112" wire-
Middle Gharif is also well developed, but due to its proximity wrapped screens that were in any case planned as insert liners
to the oil-water contact contains only 20 % of the total for sand control were then partially run outside the 7" liner in
STOUP ofthe field. open hole (Fig.4, Table-I).

Dwing 1985, afterdriIling 3 additional wells, the field was TABLE-!: HQRIZONTAL WELL CQMPLETIOJ,SS
put on initial production. Averageproduction rates from the
four vertical wells were low and only marginally economic at Horizontal 7" liner in 4112"WWS
some 25 m3/d of dry oil per well. Based on the observed WELL section open hole in open hole
production performance expectation reserves were (m) (m) (m)
established as 5.3 min m3 (2 % of total STOUP, then
estimated as 265 min m3). In view of the relatively high MKN-5 1015 675 340
development costs when using vertical wells, primary MKN~6 977 872 61
development of the field was not foreseen for the next 25 MKN-7 1077 857 220
years. A steam soak trial which was carried out itt· 1987 MKN~8 933 867
resulted in a doubling of the production rate, but as it was MKN-9 592 592 19
established that the cost increase associated with thermal
recovery was equivalent to the rate increase, this. option was The wells were drilled with calcium carbonate/XC polymer
not considered viable to lead to accelerated development of mud. As hole stability in the Gharif sand/shale sequences was
the field. perceived a risk, a high mudweightof 13.3 kPaim was
initially used to prevent hole collapse. The mud weight has
In the early 90's, horizontal drilling .was successfully been successfully lowered in subsequent wells, and the last
introduced in Oman. A pilot development using horizontal well was drilled >'wi.th amud~weight of 12 kPaim. After
wells was started in Mukhaizna in 1992. This paper describes instalIing the liners, the wells were washed with 1.5-2 times
the applied horizontal well technology, analyses the open hole volume of hydrocWoric acid, to remove the
production performance of the successful horizontal pilot calcium carbonate mudcake.

SPE 30242 L.Lievaart et al.
All wells were logged using standard resistivity/porosity Table.-3: Productivity Improvement Factors
tools. Logs were run on wireline in vertical holes and on
drillpipe in the horizontal hole sections. Interpretations were WELL PI PIF
based on a Waxman~Smitsl shaly sands model for saturation (m3/d/kPa)
determination (fable~2).
MKN-5 0.028 4
MKN-7 0.042 6
Net Av. Av. MKN-8 0.011 2
WELL pay porosity S(oil) N/G MKN-9 0.027 4
(m) (%) (%) (%)
All wells produced relatively dry. A significant watercut of
MKN~5 412 29 58 58 some 25 % developed in well MKN~5 only. Production rates
MKN~6 244 29 51 50 were relatively stable. At the end of the test well MKN~5,
MKN~7 519 31 63 54 which had been on production longest, Le. for 449 days, had
MKN~8 255 28 46 43 produced a total of 41 ,000 m3 of oil (Fig.5 and Table-4).
MKN~9 544 34 70 96
Table-4: Well Production Performance
(N/G includes all hydrocarbon bearing sands. Net pay
restricted to S(oil) > 50%) Initial Final Test Final
WELL oil rate oil rate days BSW
Although average porosities of all wells are very high, (m3/d) (m3/d) (-) (%)
average hydrocarbon saturations exhibit significant variation.
Core analyses (from a core taken in well 5 pilot hole) have MKN-5 130 90 449 25
demonstrated this to be related to a varying amount of MKN~6 60 60 153 2
(decomposed) feldspars being present in the reservoir sands, MKN-7 135 140 269 5
which have locally created significant fractions of secondary MKN~8 55 80 58 10
porosity. As a result, high capillary bound water saturations MKN-9 60 100 62 8
occur within the oil column, depending on sand quality.
Individual well performances confirmed the much improved
economics of Mukhaizna heavy oil development by
Production performance horizontal wells horizontal drilling. In spite of the relatively short duration of
the tests, results are sufficiently conclusive to serve as the
Progressive cavity pumps (PCP) were installed in all wells. basis for further field development planning.
In the first wells the pumps were hung off above the build
section. In later wells the pumps were installed deeper, with Reservoir performance
the deepest installation at the 67° deviation level. The last 2
wells were equipped with high pressure PCP pumps: to keep Production performance during the 1992~ 1993 production
the tubing head pressure above the bubble point pressure pilot has been dominated by compaction drive. Pressure
range of 2200~3400 kPa thereby allowing continuous flow waves travel very slowly in Mukhaizna as a combined result
rate measurement using Coriolis flowmeters. of the high oil viscosity and high pore compressibility.
During the pilot period the effects of production drawdown
Well MKN-5 came on stream in September 1992. MKN-6 to did not reach the aquifer, the strength of which was hence not
-9 were hooked up in 1993. In the absence of a nearby tested.
flowstation, the wells were produced into heated bitumen
tankers. Production was subsequently trucked over a distance Uni~axial pore compressibility was determined
of 60 km to the Rima production station, from where it was experimentally on a number of Mukhaizna core plug samples.
exported through the existing pipeline. Dehydration was Two groups of core plugs are distinguished. One group is
achieved by adding 200 ppm of demulsifier during tanker characterised by a relatively low compressibility of between
loading, and heating the tankers. This was sufficient to bring 1-3 x 10-6 / kPa, and shows fairly little variation with
the crude on pipeline specifications of < 0.5 % water. effective stress. The other group has compressibilities
Having completed the operation safely, trucking was reaching 10-18 x 10-6 / kPa, with a strong stress dependency
terminated on 31st December 1993, in line with PDO's (Fig.6). The different compressibility levels cannot be
corporate policy to minimise road traffic exposure. correlated with grain size, but are a function of cementation.
Core photographs (SEM) have shown that at higher stress
The horizontal wells performed well. On average they levels significant grain crushing occurs in the poorly
achieved a four~fold productivity improvement factor (PIP) cemented sands, whilst the calcite cement in the better
over the equivalent vertical wells (fable-3).

Technology Leading the Way to Mukhaizna Heavy Oil Development SPE 30242
cemented sands prevents the quartz and feldspar grains from Based on the favourable results of the 5-well horizontal
crushing (Fig.7a,b). drilling pilot and the observed production performance;
supported by core analyses and successful history matching,
Fluid flow in Mukhaizna is predominantly through the more it is predicted that an ultimate recovery of 100,000 m3 of oil
permeable, poorly cemented sands, where also the bulk of the will be achievable for a typical development pattern based on
oil is located. As a result, the reservoir performance during 1000 m long horizontal wells at 1000 m spacing.
pilot production has been dominated by the response of the Consequently, the ultimate recovery expectation for
high compressibility rock. This has been confirmed in a Mukhaizna has been increased from 5.3 to 11.0 mIn m3 of oil
history-match of the pressure response of observation well (equivalent to 5 % of the volume of oil contained by the
~-2 to the production from horizontal well ~-5 at 150 Upper GharifUnit-2that is not directly underlain by bottom
m lateral distance. The history match was obtained in a 3- water).
dimensional sector model using Shell's propietary simulator
More&, which allows for the specification of pore The way forward
compressibility asa function of stress. The matching
continued after MKN-5 was closed in again (Fig.8). The horizontal well pilot has demonstrated the technical and
Significant compressibility hysteresis was observed, With the economic viability of developing heavy Mukhaizna crude
pore compressibility during reservoir repressurisation being with 1000 m long horizontal wells. However, at this stage
an order of magnitude lower than during pressure depletion, several elements of subsurface uncertainty still remain that
thus lending further support to the concept of grain crushing. need to be resolved by further production testing prior to
The compressibility curve used to obtain a match of the deciding on the timing and scale of full field development.
pressure response of well ~-2 during depletion is in line Areas of further investigation are the size and strength of the
with the laboratory measured core plug compressibilities for aquifer, the production performance of wells after water-
crushing, unconsolidated sands. The compressibility during breakthrough, the field-wide sealing capacity of the Middle
reservoir repressurisation is much low~r, and equivalent to Gharif shale, the presence and effects on fluid flow of small
that of non-crushing rock (Fig.6). This is in line with throw faults, the effects of pore compressibility on well
expectations, as the cru&hing process would be irreversible. A productivity and the remaining structural uncertainties
further confirmation of the high pore compressibilities has associated with the lack of seismic velocity control on the
been obtained during the drilling of wells ~-6 and ~7. undrilled flanks.
Half a year after start of production of well ~-5 these
wells found no measurable pressure depletion, in line with The next round of Mukhaizna development will consist of a
theoretical predictions (Based on the high measured pore strategic production project to remove remaining subsurface
compressibilities, depletion levels at these wells were uncertainties. A 3D seismic survey has been acquired over
predicted to be < 25 psi). the field in 1994. Based on the results of the interpretation
The history match obtained with the progressive compaction scheduled for 1995, &ome 5 additional wells will be drilled in
model applied is much better than can be obtained with a strategic positions, aimed at gaining a max:imum of additional
constant compressibility model of equivalent effective il1formation on reservoir and well performance. To allow for
average value (Fig. 8) three years of continuous production, the produced liquids
will be evacuated to the nearest flowstation (Sadad) through a
The history matched simulation model has been used to 32 Ion long pipeline. The pipeline will be laid using
predict the ultimate recovery as a function· of well spacing reclaimed 18" linepipe, to minimize capital exposure. For the
under depletion drive conditions. In view of the observed purpose of the test, the Sadad flowstationcapacity will be
water production from well MKN-5, two cases are expanded to provide sufficient dehydration capacity for the
considered : (i) mobile connate water and (ii) immobile very viscous Mukhaiznacrude. To facilitate this process,
connate water. For horizontal wells with 1000 m horizontal demulsifier will be added at the production manifold to be
sections and a typical well spacing of 1000 m, the ultimate installed in Mukhaizna.
recovery under depletion drive ranges from 110,000-150,000 The crude oiVwater mixture i& planned to be pumped to
m3 (Fig.9). Sadad using downhole pump pressure. To minimise friction
The effect of a strong aquifer was also investigated.· Due to losses in the pipeline, it is planned to admix water in
the slow travelling of pressure disturbances in the very soft Mukhaizna. The water will be produced from a dedicated
Mukhaizna system, even wells at relatively short distances to well that will be drilled to test the aquifer response.
the aquifer will still have significant dry production periods, As the friction losses associated with mixtures/emulsions of
resulting in dry recoveries equivalent to some 50 % of the very viscous cnlde with water are potentially very severe, a
ultimate recovery achievable under depletion drive. Even pipeline testloop is being built in a flowstation in the area to
after water breakthrough it is predicted that the wells will carry out tests with actual Mukhaizna crude/water mixtures.
achieve a significant additional recovery, .albeit at high Based on the test results the decision may be taken to lay a
watercuts. For a typical 1000 m long horizontal well at 500 m small diameter pipeline from Sadad to Mukhaizna, to allow
distance to the oil-water contact a total cumulative recovery for admixing light Sadad crude at the Mukhaizna production
0000,000 m3 is still predicted tobe achievable (Fig.lO). header.

SPE 30242 L. Lievaart et al.
An investigation is currently ongoing to select the most measurement using Coriolis flowmeters, whilst maintaining
optimum subsurface pumping system. The objective is to pump-off conditions downhole.
deliver a maximum drawdown whilst maintaining 4000 kPa
tubing head pressure. The high tubing head pressure is The next round of field development will be based on 3D
required to keep the gas in solution to allow for continuous seismic (already acquired). It will be aimed at removing the
flow rate monitoring using Coriolis meters, and to provide remaining subsurface uncertainties at minimum cost, whilst
sufficient pipeline entry pressure to deliver the crude to carrying out further technology optimisation trials in
SOOad. Alternatives under consideration are (i)hydraulic preparation of full field development.
pumps, which require additional tubings plus high pressure If successful, full field development may proceed early in the
surface facilities to supply power fluid, but may offer the next milennium.
advantage of reduced friction losses due to downhole dilution
of well fluids or (ii) high pressure PCP pumps (either Aknowledgements
installed conventionally or on coiled tubing) which have a
proven track record but required frequent operating staff The authors wish to thank the Ministry of Petroleum and
presence owing to their individual power generation supply. Minerals of the Sultanate of Oman and the Management of
A key objective of the project design is to minimise costs by Petroleum Development Oman for permission to publish this
minimising the requirement for operator visits during the paper.
three years project life. To this end the wells will be equipped They would also like to thank the many colleagues in
with Coriolis meters with data transmission through Petroleum Development Oman and Koninklijke Shell
telemetry. Watercut determination wil be through wellhead Exploration and Production Laboratory Rijswijk who have
samples. The project will be operated from Sadad. contributed to the planning, execution and evaluation of the
The option to eliminate one casing string from the current successful pilot project for their valuable contributions and
well design is under consideration. However, no plans exist suggestions for the preparation of this paper.
to reduce the diameter of the horizontal hole section, as the
current design caters for a 4 112" wire-wrapped screen References
partially run in open hole. Smaller sizes are not feasible as
the friction losses of the very viscous crude inside e.g. 27/8"
1. Waxman, M.H. and Smits, L.J.M., Electrical
screens would become too significant.
Conductivities in Oil-bearing Shaly Sands
SPE Journal, June 1968.
Production from this strategic project will commence in
1996. If successful, it will form the basis for full field
development which may commence around the turn of the


Five horizontal wells were drilled in Mukhaizna. On average

they achieved a productivity improvement of a factor 4 over
vertical wells. Average wellrates were 100 m3/d of 1700 cP

The initial dry production performance of the wells is

governed by a favourable, high pore compressibility that
results from stress induced grain crushing of the poorly
cemented Gharif reservoir sands.

Owing to the field-wide presence of a Middle Gharif shale,

significant dry production volumes of 50,000 m3 or more can
be achieved from Upper Gharif wells at a minimum (lateral)
distance of 500 m to the oil-water contact.

During a one year production test, the horizontal well pilot

has demonstrated the technical and economic viability of
developing the heavy and viscous Mukhaizna crude.

High pressure progressive cavity pumps have been

successfully used to maintain flowing wellhead pressures
sufficiently high to allow for continuous flow rate

181 OAS TNPH -Co15
100 1.98LDEN 2.95
0.2 20
0.5 0 SOSH 1 I


OOT 877.5

0) owe

OOT 901.1

Figure 1 Figure 2


Top Upper Gharif Reservoir Vertical Hole Type Log

ubi 9

ARUMA _...1HL!!:'
481 466.8m


631 9.5/8"FB GP·T 654.5m



TO: 1960m AHo


Completion diagram

A A'
-. -. -.
(proj.3500m) MKN-3 (proj.400m) MKN-7
-. •






TO '.830m TO: 828m


TO : 873m TO: 854m



Figure 3
Geological cross-section A·A'



·;; 'l~~~r
.... -

'n ': ~~~~i:~~~~~


lr~ ;i~
: "

. """"'--""""'-4



Jul-93 Sep-93 Nov-93

" .. ,.....:I:

4/ e--

... 15

... V... ~


r' ,
MUKHAlZNA-6 PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE Uniaxial. . 40I -' Uniaxial pore

compactJ<)n compressibility
• ' '1 . ~- "~'~iSOOO'Q.
coeffiCient (approx.)
~.'" •
100 .~ . :::: t "=t _- ~- ff -; (x 10E-5 bar)
- ~SO .,... ,"., ~~~ 30I • 9 xlO-6kPa-'

"''1 ~
~ II:l 0 I I .... - ;: - -- - -,' _:) .-0- - - - - - , ~ :{: :: I O U ! ....



~ ~
-): 100
0 1 I I
. .

oo 8 ~ _
. 30000
-~- -
- _ .,
. Z O O O O >'::<~

-- .
. 10000
. .. 0
BE ....

"-. ~
v .... ...

. • 3

t , •

Sep--92 Nov-92 J~n-93 Mar-93 May--'93 Jul-93 Sep-93 Nov-9'3
I o J ,.. "a""
II.. 11&
tt o
MUKHAlZNA-8 PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

~I: '.i'

- 6 80.
-- ! 4 0

J.n-93 "lar·93
!if .
1 1


_ -j


- •.: 0
_~ ,4000 ~ ~ ~


Axial effective stress (bar)

... Coarse-grained
• Medium-grained

~-~ '001 1SO

~ <000' ,
: : ; ] 3 0 0 0 0 ]. ~
o Fine-grained
.s ~ 100 ZOOOO g .. Compaction curve MKN-2 history match
~., so . .. 10000 ~ E Compressibility hysteresis
o I I . I I I " 0 u-
Sep-92 Nov-92 J;'0-9.3 Mar-93 May-g3 JU-I-93 Sep-93 Nov-93

- ' - ' - ' GrossRate - - - O i . Rate _ .. - ... SSW - .... ,.- FSHP ---Cum. Oil

Figure 6
FigureS Compaction measurements on MKN-5
Production Performance core material
0.. W
::E ..J
«(f) ll.
0 ~C)
0 x::;
a:C) 0;:)
w- o:t>
\-0: c«
z;:) wo:
wt> !zLL
wo: wz
°LL w«
....1_ offi
'a: « ....ILL

8ffi iilo
0......1 ;;:w
00 oifi
J:ii: ll.al
0..> ««
«I- 0:"
Oz "z
b~ b~
J::I: D..(f)
r-- r--
w w
a: ;:)
rL "rL

Figure B
Mukhaizna Pulse Test History Match
(MKN-2 Pressure response)


4-_---Constant Compressibility Model (3.5E-61/kPa)
9000 +----"~"""'lI
Compressibility Hysteresis 2.25E-6 kPa-l)
~ 8500
::l y...-
~ 8000 Progressive Coinpecllon Model
( Compectlon curve Fig. 6 )
e! 7500


0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Pulse Test Period Days

400000 -r------,,...-----,------,-.------, 400000 I
350000+--===1~===+=.\~/--4_--_"74 350000 i /

300000-l-----1--,...---+:f----h.,e-----1 300000
i:l 250000 - I - - - - - I - - - + - I - - - , A . . - . b - - - - - I
1:l 250000
/ ./
~ 200000 - I - - - - - I - - / - - - 4 - - - - - b - - - _ I
~ 200000
~ 150000-l-----.J~_,,4---+----b---_I
~ 150000
" "
" "

100000 V -- ;;

-- --
50000+~+--If-----+-----j-----l 50000

o-l-----I-----I-----b-----I o
o 1000 2000 3000 4000 o 1000 2000 3000 4000

Figure 9: Recovery per well versus the well spacing. Figure 10 : RecQvery per well versus the well spacing. The well
The well length is 1OOOm. The drive is by length Is1000m. Aquifer vs. depletion case. For
depletion only. aquifer case the distance of the well to the aquifer is
taken as 0.5 x well spacing. Well rates are kept
constant at 12sm3/d. Connate water is mobile.