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BASIC STOICHIOMETRY

AT THE END OF THIS SECTION, STUDENTS ARE


EXPECTED TO:
a.Find the amount of substances used
and produced in a chemical
reaction
b.Find the percent yield of a reaction
c. Determine the limiting reactant in a
reaction
STOICHIOMETRY
➢Concerned with finding the relative
quantities of reactants and products in
a chemical reaction
➢The guiding principle to find
quantities of substances in a reaction is
the law of conservation of mass which
says that matter is neither created in a
chemical reaction
➢The total mass of the reactants is
equal to the total mass of products
MOLE
➢The standard unit of measurement in chemistry for
communicating how much of a substance is present
➢An amount of a substance that contains Avogadro’s
number of atoms, ions, molecules, or any other
chemical unit
➢1 mole has 6.02x1023 atoms, ions, molecules or
any other chemical unit
MOLE
➢1 mole of basketballs has 6.02x1023 basketballs
➢1 mole of ping-pong balls has 6.02x1023 ping-pong balls
➢1 mole of basket balls and 1 mole of ping-pong balls imply
that there are as many balls in 1 mole of basketballs as there
are balls in 1 ping-pong balls
➢But since we know that basketballs are heavier than ping-
pong balls implies that 1 mole of basketball and 1 mole of
ping-pong balls have vastly different masses
MOLE
➢Avogadro’s number is
HUGE!!!
➢1 mole of basketball =
6.02x1023 basketballs
➢That’s
602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
basketballs! It would fill a
bag the size of Earth!
MOLAR MASS
➢What is the molar mass of one atom
of iron?
➢Fortunately, periodic table of
elements displays this information
➢The atomic mass of an element tells
us the mass in grams of 1 mole of that
element
➢For Fe, it is 55.85 grams per mole
➢Put differently 1 mole of Fe has a
mass of 55.85 grams
EXAMPLE 1. FINDING THE MOLAR MASS OF
ELEMENTS
Find the molar mass of
the following elements.
a.Ti
b.N2
c. Zn
d.3Zn
EXAMPLE 1. FINDING THE MOLAR MASS OF
ELEMENTS
Solution:
a. Go to the periodic table of elements and check the
atomic mass of Tin. It is 47.88 grams per mole
(47.88g/mol)
b. How many atoms of nitrogen does N2 has? It has 2.
Since the atomic mass of nitrogen is 14.01, its molar
mass is 14.01g/mol. For N2 it is
14.01g N2 𝟐𝟖.𝟎𝟐𝐠 𝐍𝟐
2x =
1 mol 𝟏 𝐦𝐨𝐥
EXAMPLE 1. FINDING THE MOLAR MASS OF
ELEMENTS
Solution:
c. The atomic mass of Zn is 65.39 grams per
mole. Its molar mass is 65.39 g/mol
d. There are 3 atoms of Zn in 3Zn. The molar
mass of 3Zn is
65.39 g Zn 𝟏𝟑𝟎.𝟕𝟖 𝐠 𝐙𝐧
3x =
1 mol 𝟏 𝐦𝐨𝐥
EXAMPLE 2. FIND THE MASS IN GRAMS
Find the mass in grams
of the following
substances
a. 7.50 moles of
aluminum
b. 4.46 moles of zinc
c. 5.01 moles of Cl2
EXAMPLE 2. FIND THE MASS IN GRAMS
Solution
We shall solve these problems using the conversion factor
approach
a. Molar mas of Al is 26.98 g/mol. Using the conversion factor
approach, we are led to
26.98 g
7.50 mol Al x 1 mol
= 7.50 x 26.98 g Al
= 202.35 g Al
EXAMPLE 2. FIND THE MASS IN GRAMS
Solution
b. Molar mass of Zn is 65.39 g/mol
65.39 g
4.46 mol Zn x
1 mol
= 4.46 x 65.39 g Zn
= 291.64 g Zn
EXAMPLE 2. FIND THE MASS IN GRAMS
Solution
c. Molar mass of Cl2 is 2 x 35.45 g/mol or 70.90
g/mol. The weight in grams of 5.01 moles of
Cl2 is
70.90 g
5.01 mol Cl2 x
1 mol
= 5.01 x 70.90 g Cl2
= 355.21 g Cl2
EXAMPLE 3. FINDING THE MASS IN GRAMS

Find the mass in grams


of the following
compounds
a. 3.8 moles of Na Cl2
b. 5.4 moles C4H4
c. 7 moles of (NO2)3
EXAMPLE 3. FINDING MASS IN GRAMS
Solution
a. Find the molar mas of each element in the compound, then add them. We shall
present our solution in table form
No. of Mass per Mass per
Element Multiply
Atoms atom mole

Na 1 22.99 1 x 22.99 22.99


Cl2 2 35.45 2 x 35.45 70.90
Mass per mole of NaCl2 93.89
EXAMPLE 3. FINDING MASS IN GRAMS
Solution
a. Find the total mass in grams of 3.8 moles of NaCl2

Substance Solution Mass (g)

3.8 mol NaCl2 3.8 x 93.89 356.78


EXAMPLE 3. FINDING MASS IN GRAMS
Solution
b. Find the mass in grams of 5.4 moles of C4H4

No. of Mass per Mass per


Element Multiply
Atoms atom mole

C 4 12.01 4 x 12.01 48.04


H 4 1.008 4 x 1.008 4.032
Mass per mole of C4H4 52.072
EXAMPLE 3. FINDING MASS IN GRAMS
Solution
b. Find the total mass in grams of 3.8 moles of NaCl2

Substance Solution Mass (g)

5.4 mol C4H4 5.4 x 52.072 281.19


EXAMPLE 3. FINDING MASS IN GRAMS
Solution
c. Find the mass in grams of 7 moles of (NO2)3

No. of Mass per Mass per


Element Multiply
Atoms atom mole

N 3 14.01 3 x 14.01 42.03


O 6 16 6 x 16 96
Mass per mole of (NO2)3 138.03
EXAMPLE 3. FINDING MASS IN GRAMS
Solution
c. Total mass in grams of 7 moles of (NO2)3

Substance Solution Mass (g)

7 mol (NO2)3 7 x 138.03 966.21


NEXT TOPIC:
CALCULATING
RELATIVE QUANTITIES
OF SUBSTANCES IN A
CHEMICAL REACTION