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SIA 269/4:2011 Civil Engineering 505 269/4

Erhaltung von Tragwerken – Stahl-Beton-Verbundbau


Maintenance des structures porteuses – Structures mixtes acier-béton
Mantenimento di strutture portanti – Strutture miste acciaio-calcestruzzo

Existing structures –
Composite steel and concrete structures

269/4
Entwurf vom 13. Januar 2016

Reference number Published by


SN 505269 /4:2011 en Swiss Society of Engineers
and Architects
Valid from: 2011-01-01 P.O. Box, CH-8027 Zurich

Number of pages: 16 Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich Price category: 20


Any corrections to and comments on this publication can be found at www.sia.ch/korrigenda.

The SIA assumes no liability for any damages which might be caused through the application of this publication.

2011-01 1st Edition

2 SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich


CONTENTS

Page

Foreword .................................................... 4

Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
0.1 Limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
0

0.2 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
0.3 Deviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Terminology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1.1 Technical terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
1

1.2 Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
2

2.2 Construction materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


2.3 Structural analysis and verification . . . . . . 7

Appendix

A Examination values for the ultimate

(normative) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
resistance of shear connectors

SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich 3


FOREWORD

Code SIA 269/4 describes the procedures to be followed in the preservation of composite steel and concrete structures
and is directed at specialists in the preservation of structures as well as owners of structures and specialists involved in
construction management and the execution of construction work.

Code SIA 269/4 forms part of the SIA’s structural codes related to the preservation of structures and is supplemented by
the following codes:
– Code SIA 269 Existing structures – Bases for examination and interventions
– Code SIA 269/1 Existing structures – Actions
– Code SIA 269/2 Existing structures – Concrete structures
– Code SIA 269/3 Existing structures – Steel structures
– Code SIA 269/5 Existing structures – Timber structures
– Code SIA 269/6 Existing structures – Masonry structures
– Code SIA 269/7 Existing structures – Geotechnics.

Technical Sheet SIA 2018 continues to apply to the examination of existing buildings with respect to earthquakes.
However, it is planned to supplement the codes for existing structures with a Code SIA 269/8 Existing structures –
Seismic aspects.

Code SIA 269/4 regulates the preservation aspects of composite steel and concrete structures which are not covered in
Codes SIA 264 and 264/1.

Codes SIA 269 Project Management Team and Working Group SIA 269/4

4 SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich


0 SCOPE

0.1 Limitations

0.1.1 Code SIA 269/4 applies to the preservation of composite structures made of steel and concrete as a com-
ponent of existing structures. It addresses those aspects not covered in Codes SIA 269/2 and SIA 269/3.

0.1.2 The present code applies in combination with Codes SIA 269 and SIA 269/1 to SIA 269/3 as well as with
Code SIA 264. The principles of Code SIA 269/4 shall be applied analogously for applications outside of the
scope of these codes.

0.1.3 In the case of modifications of composite steel and concrete structures, in general new structural components
shall be treated according to Code SIA 264 and existing structural components according to Code SIA 269
together with Code SIA 269/4. It is permissible to deviate from this rule with respect to the definition of the
variable actions if different limitations are appropriate on the basis of specific considerations.

0.1.4 Code SIA 269/4 shall not be used for the design and dimensioning of new composite steel and concrete
structures.

0.2 References

Superseded codes and guidelines to which reference is made shall not be incorporated in the service crite-
ria agreement or in the basis of design as code-related requirements, but only by way of reference, and only
in order to document former design criteria.

0.3 Deviations

0.3.1 Deviations from the present code are permissible provided they are sufficiently well-founded, theoretically
or experimentally, or justified by new developments and new knowledge.

0.3.2 Deviations from the code shall be clearly documented in the construction documents together with the rea-
sons for such deviation.

SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich 5


1 TERMINOLOGY

1.1 Technical terms


The technical terms used in Codes SIA 260, SIA 264, SIA 264/1 and SIA 269 apply.

1.2 Symbols

1.2.1 Latin upper case letters

A cross-sectional area

Fv,Rd,act examination value for the shear resistance of a bolt

PRd,act examination value for the ultimate resistance of studs considered in Code SIA 264

PRd,A,act examination value for the shear resistance of loop and hook anchors

PRd,B,act examination value for the shear resistance of a block connector

PRd,K,act examination value for the shear resistance of combinations of block connectors and anchors

PRd,L,act examination value for the shear resistance of shear connections with bolts neglecting friction

PRd,R,act examination value for the shear resistance due to friction

PRd,W,act examination value for the shear resistance of an angular connector

1.2.2 Latin lower case letters

b width

fcd,act examination value for the concrete compressive strength

fsd,act examination value for the yield strength of reinforcing steel

fyb,act updated characteristic value for the yield strength of the base material of the bolt

h height
kc factor for determination of the concrete strength

t thickness, depth

1.2.3 Greek letters


α angle

β angle

μk characteristic friction coefficient

ν factor

1.2.4 Special symbols

ø diameter

1.2.5 Abbreviations
KBD headed stud connector

6 SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich


2 PRINCIPLES

2.1 General

2.1.1 The interaction of the composite members including all force transmissions shall be verified.

2.1.2 When carrying out the condition survey, the presence and type of the bond shall be determined.

2.2 Construction materials

2.2.1 In particular, the following properties of shear connectors shall be updated:


– shear resistance
– deformation capacity
– fatigue resistance (in the case of shear connectors subjected to fatique).

2.2.2 The influences of deterioration and defects on the ultimate resistance and the deformation capacity of the
shear connectors shall be taken into consideration.

2.2.3 The resistance of severely deteriorated shear connectors shall be neglected. However, possible unfavoura-
ble influences (e.g. notch effects) shall be taken into consideration.

2.2.4 The material properties of profiled steel sheeting for composite floors shall be determined on the basis of
information from the time of production or experimentally using a recognised testing method.

2.3 Structural analysis and verification

2.3.1 The verification of the composite action shall be carried out using elastic or plastic analysis methods taking
into consideration the force-deformation behaviour of the shear connectors. The specifications of Code SIA
264 apply to the choice of method.

2.3.2 If not all shear connectors show a sufficient deformation capacity according to the specifications of Code SIA
264, the interface shall be analysed using elastic methods.
2.3.3 If verification is carried out using elastic resistance methods, the shear forces shall be distributed according
to the superposition principle taking into consideration the construction sequence and the loading history.
Thus, no verification of the deformation capacity is required.

2.3.4 The examination values for the ultimate resistance of headed stud connectors shall be determined in accor-
dance with the specifications of Code SIA 264. The examination values for the ultimate resistance of other
shear connectors shall be determined in accordance with Appendix A or experimentally in accordance with
the specifications of Code SIA 264.

2.3.5 For composite floors, the examination values shall be determined on the basis of manufacturer’s data from
the erection time or experimentally in accordance with the specifications of Code SIA 264.

2.3.6 The specifications of Code SIA 264 apply for the fatigue verification of headed stud connectors. For other
type of shear connectors and where conditions differ from the specifications of Code SIA 264, fatigue veri-
fication should be carried out based on the fatigue categories of Code SIA 263 as well as in accordance
with the specifications in Codes SIA 269/2 and SIA 269/3.

SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich 7


APPENDIX A (normative)

EXAMINATION VALUES FOR THE ULTIMATE RESISTANCE OF SHEAR CONNECTORS

A.1 General

A.1.1 This appendix provides advices on the examination of the shear resistance of shear connectors not covered
by Code SIA 264.

A.1.2 The provisions in Code SIA 264 apply unchanged to the examination of the shear connectors treated in this
appendix.

A.1.3 With the exception of the headed stud connectors with helical reinforcement in Section A.6 and the stud con-
nectors without head in Section A.7, none of the shear connectors treated in this appendix exhibit sufficient
deformation capacity according to the provisions of Code SIA 264.

A.2 Shear resistance of block connectors, T-, U- and horseshoe connectors

A.2.1 The construction details of the shear connectors treated in Section A.2 are represented in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Shear connectors treated in section A.2 and definition of areas Ac1 and Ac2
Figur 2: Definition der Werte für b und t

Ac1 Ac1
b t
b
t
t
Block connector T-connector

Ac1
Ac1

U-connector Horseshoe connector Top view Side view

Ac2 1:5 Ac2


Ac1 1:5
Ac1
Ac1 1:5 Ac2

1:5 1:5

A.2.2 When determining the examination value for the shear resistance, a uniform concrete compression may be
assumed without further investigation if the following conditions are respected:
– the connector height of a block connector is not greater than 4 times the dimension in the longitudinal
direction of the beam
– the height of a block connector is not greater than 10 times the flange thickness or 150 mm
– a b/t ratio of 4 is fulfilled for the flange of T-connectors (see Figure 2)
– U-connectors are manufactured from rolled steel profiles
– the height of the U-connector is not greater than 15 times the web thickness or 150 mm
– a b/t ratio of 15 is respected for the web of the profile of the U-connector (see Figure 2)
– the height of a horseshoe connector does not exceed 20 times the value for the sheet thickness of the
horseshoe or 150 mm.

8 SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich


Figure 2: Definition of values b and t

b t
b
t
t

A.2.3 Where the conditions in accordance with Section A.2.2 are fulfilled, the examination value for the shear resi-
stance of an anchor in accordance with Section A.2 in the direction of the beam axis is determined as:

PRd,B,act = kc · Ac1 · fcd,act (1)

where:

kc = (2)
Ac2
Ac1
Ac1 area on the side of the shear connector facing the load shown in Figure 1
Ac2 concrete area on the side of the shear connector facing the load shown in Figure 1, increased at a gra-
dient of 1:5 up to the next rear side of an anchor.

Without further investigations, kc ≤ 2.5 for normal concrete and kc ≤ 2.0 for lightweight concrete apply.

A.2.4 The possibility of premature brittle failure of the welds has to be ruled out. No detailed verification is needed
if the welds between block connectors and steel beam exhibit 1.2 times the ultimate resistance per anchor.
When examining the welds, the eccentricity of the applied force on the shear connector shall be taken into
consideration.

A.2.5 Without detailed verification, the reinforcement elements and their connection to the block connector shall
be verified for a tensile force of at least 10% of the shear resistance.

A.3 Shear resistance of loop and hook anchors

A.3.1 Shear connectors shown in Figure 3 are referred to as loop and hook anchors.

Figure 3: Typical loop and hook anchors

_ _

A.3.2 Without detailed verification, anchors and loops not oriented in the direction of the shear force shall be
neglected in calculations.

A.3.3 The conditions of Codes SIA 262 and SIA 269/2 apply to the anchoring length and the mandrel diameter.

A.3.4 Without detailed verification, the welds of hook and loop anchors shall be verified for 1.2 times the examination
value of the plastic normal force resistance of the anchors.

A.3.5 The examination value for the shear resistance of a single loop or hook anchor is determined as:

PRd,A,act = As· fsd,act · cosα · cosβ (3)

cross-sectional area of an anchor rod


angle between the inclined anchor rod or anchor loop and the flange plane of the beam shown in
As

Figure 3
α

angle in the horizontal plane between the anchor rod and the longitudinal axis of the beam shown in
Figure 3.
β

SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich 9


A.4 Shear resistance of combinations of block connectors and anchors

A.4.1 Without further investigations, the examination value for the shear resistance of combinations of shear con-
nectors in accordance with Section A.2 (block connectors) and Section A.3 (anchors) may be determined
as follows:

PRd,K,act = PRd,B,act + ν · PRd,A,act (4)

In general, ν = 0.7 where loop anchors are used and ν = 0.5 where hook anchors are used.

A.4.2 The possibility of premature brittle failure of the welds has to be ruled out. No detailed verification is required
if the welds between block connectors and steel beams exhibit 1.2 times the ultimate resistance per con-
nector. When examining the welds, the eccentricity of the applied force on the shear connector shall be
taken into consideration.

A.5 Shear resistance of angular connectors

A.5.1 Shear connectors shown in Figure 4 are referred to as angular connectors.

Figure 4: Angular connectors

Direction of action of the shear force

•3 ø h

A.5.2 The height h shall be less than or equal to 10 times the value of the thickness of the angle’s leg or 150 mm.
For the determination of the examination value for the shear resistance in accordance with Section A.5.3,
the width b of the angular connector is limited to 300 mm.

A.5.3 The examination value for the resistance of an angular shear connector is determined as:

PRd,W,act = 10 · b · h · fcd,act (5)


3/4 2/3

width of the angular connector in mm


height of the angular connector in mm.
b
h

A.5.4 Without detailed verification, the welds shall be verified for an eccentricity of h/4 and 1.2 times the exami-
nation value for the shear resistance of the angular connector.

A.5.5 In order to prevent lifting of the concrete slab, the reinforcement shall fulfil the following condition:

As · fsd,act ≥ 0.1 · PRd,W,act (6)

As cross-section of the pushed through reinforcing steel.

10 SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich


A.6 Shear resistance of headed stud connectors with helical reinforcement

A.6.1 For concrete qualities lower than or equal to C25/30, the examination value for the shear resistance of hea-
ded stud connectors with helical reinforcement (see Figure 5) may be increased by 15% compared to the
examination value for the shear resistance of headed stud connectors without helical reinforcement in
accordance with Code SIA 264.

A.6.2 For higher concrete qualities, the examination value for the shear resistance may be increased compared
to the values in Code SIA 264 if this is verified experimentally.

A.6.3 The presence of adequately compacted concrete in the region of the helical reinforcement shall be verified.

Figure 5: Stud connector with helical reinforcement

A.7 Shear resistance of stud connectors without head

A.7.1 It shall be verified that at least 10% of the shear resistance of the connectors is available as tensile force.
The tensile resistance can e.g. be provided by means of loop anchors. Excessive distances between the
securing tensile anchors in the longitudinal direction of the beam shall be avoided. Without further verifica-
tion, the distance between the individual tensile connecting elements shall not exceed five times the thick-
ness of the concrete slab, and at most 1.0 m.

A.7.2 Without detailed verification, frictional forces shall not be used to provide the tensile connection.
A.7.3 If the requirements in accordance with Section A.7.1 are respected and the stud connectors are welded
using the drawn-arc welding process or an equivalent method, the shear resistance of stud connectors may
be examined in accordance with the specifications for headed stud connectors in Code SIA 264. Otherwise,
an experimental examination of the shear resistance is recommended.

A.8 Shear resistance of shear connections with prestressed high-strength


bolts
A.8.1 The longitudinal shear forces between steel beam and concrete member can be transferred by friction and
prestressed high-strength bolts (see Figure 6) in accordance with Section A.8.4. The bolts shall be prestressed
in accordance with Code SIA 263/1. For bolted connections in which clearance is ruled out, the shear resis-
tance in accordance with Section A.8.5 may be taken into account. A combination of friction and shear shall
not be taken into account.

A.8.2 It shall be verified that the load transfer into the concrete is ensured under the bolt head.

A.8.3 It shall be verified that the resistance to splitting tensile forces is ensured.

SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich 11


Figure 6: Prestressed high-strength bolt with helical reinforcement to resist splitting tensile forces

Compression plate

PVC tube

Helical reinforcement

High-strength bolt

A.8.4 The examination value for the shear resistance per bolt due to friction taking into consideration creep and
shrinkage effects of the concrete is determined as:

PRd,R,act = μk · 0.42 · As · (7)


fyb,act
γv

characteristic friction coefficient between steel and concrete (given in Table 1 or 5% fractile value in
the case of experimental determination)
μk

cross-sectional tensile stress area of the bolt


partial safety factor for shear connectors in accordance with Code SIA 264
As
γv

Table 1: Friction coefficient μk

Surface treatment of steel Concrete surface Friction coefficient μk

as rolled without formwork oil 0.6

as rolled with formwork oil 0.5

zinc primer without formwork oil 0.4

non-slip coating without formwork oil 0.3

A.8.5 If friction is neglected, the examination value for the shear resistance per bolt is derived from the examina-
tion value for the shear resistance of the bolt Fv,Rd,act and the examination value for the ultimate resistance
of the shear connection for concrete failure PRd,act in accordance with Code SIA 264:

PRd,L,act = min {Fv,Rd,act ; PRd,act} (8)

12 SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich


SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich 13
14 SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich
Abbreviations for the organisations represented in the commission SIA 264

EPFL Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Lausanne


ETH Zürich Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich
FOT Federal Office of Transport

SIA 269/4, Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich 15


Project Management – Codes for Existing Structures Working Group SIA 269/4
Existing structures – Composite steel and
concrete structures

Dr. Paul Lüchinger, dipl. Ing. ETH, Zurich (chairman) Dr. Roland Bärtschi, dipl. Ing. ETH, Ehrendingen
Prof. Dr. Eugen Brühwiler, dipl. Ing. ETH, Lausanne (chairman)
Thomas P. Lang, dipl. Ing. ETH, Berne Dr. Walter Borgogno, dipl. Ing. ETH, St. Gallen
Prof. Thomas Vogel, dipl. Ing. ETH, Zurich Prof. Dr. Martin Mensinger, dipl. Ing. TU, Dintikon
Prof. Dr. Jean-Paul Lebet, dipl. Ing. ETH, Lausanne

Commission SIA 264 “Composite steel and concrete structures”

President Thomas P. Lang, dipl. Ing. ETH, Berne FOT

Dr. Roland Bärtschi, dipl. Ing. ETH, Ehrendingen Consulting Engineer


Dr. Walter Borgogno, dipl. Ing. ETH, St. Gallen Consulting Engineer
Members

Michel Crisinel, dipl. Ing. ETH, Lausanne EPFL


Prof. Dr. Mario Fontana, dipl. Ing. ETH, Zurich ETH Zürich
Prof. Dr. Tullio Frangi, dipl. Ing. ETH, Muttenz University of applied Science
Prof. Dr. Albin Kenel, dipl. Ing. ETH, Rapperswil-Jona University of applied Science
Prof. Dr. Jean-Paul Lebet, dipl. Ing. ETH, Lausanne EPFL
Prof. Dr. Martin Mensinger, dipl. Ing. TU, Dintikon TU Munich / Industry
Dr. Peter Ritz, dipl. Ing. ETH, Kastanienbaum Consulting Engineer
René Ryser, dipl. Ing. ETH, Aigle Industry
Dieter Stucki, dipl. Ing. ETH, Aigle Consulting Engineer
Prof. Dr. Franz A. Zahn, Dipl.-Ing. TH, Konstanz University of applied Science

Approval and validity

The SIA’s central committee for codes and regulations approved the present code SIA 269/4 on 23 November 2010.

It is valid as from 1 January 2011.

Copyright © 2011 by SIA Zurich

All rights are reserved, including the right to print extracts, partial or full reproduction (photocopy, microcopy, CD-ROM,
etc.), storage in data processing systems and translation.

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