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LIBER XXV: THE RITUAL OF THE STAR RUBY An Improved Form of the Lesser Ritual of the Pentagram (With Commentary by Antonio Lau)

Facing East, in the centre, draw deep deep deep thy breath, closing thy mouth with thy right forefinger prest against thy lower lip. Then dashing down the hand with a great sweep back and out, expelling forcibly thy breath, cry: ΑΠΟ ΠΑΝΤΟΣ ΚΑΚΟΔΑΙΜΟΝΟΣ. With the same forefinger touch thy forehead, and say ΣΟΙ, thy member, and say Ω ΦΑΛΛΕ, thy right shoulder, and say ΙΣΧΥΡΟΣ, thy left shoulder, and say ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΣ; then clasp thine hands, locking the fingers, and cry ΙΑΩ. Advance to the East. Imagine strongly a Pentagram, aright, in thy forehead. Drawing the hands to the eyes, fling it forth, making the sign of Horus, and roar ΘΗΡΙΟΝ. Retire thine hand in the sign of Hoor-pa-Kraat. Go round to the North and repeat; but say NUIT. Go round to the West and repeat; but whisper BABALON. Go round to the South and repeat; but bellow HADIT. Completing the circle widdershins, retire to the centre, and raise thy voice in the Paian, with these words ΙΟ ΠΑΝ with the signs of N.O.X. Extend the arms in the form of a Tau, and say low but clear: ΠΡΟ ΜΟΥ ΙΥΓΓΕΣ ΟΠΙΣΩ ΜΟΥ ΤΕΛΕΤΑΡΧΑΙ ΕΠΙ ΔΕΞΙΑ ΣΥΝΟΧΕΣ ΕΠΑΡΙΣΤΕΡΑ ΔΑΙΜΟΝΕΣ ΦΛΕΓΕΙ ΓΑΡ ΠΕΡΙ ΜΟΥ Ο ΑΣΤΗΡ ΤΩΝ ΠΕΝΤΕ ΚΑΙ ΕΝ ΤΗΙ ΣΤΗΛΗΙ Ο ΑΣΤΗΡ ΤΩΝ ΕΞ ΕΣΤΗΚΕ. Repeat the Cross Qabalistic, as above, and end as thou didst begin.

Paragraph 1: “Facing East, in the centre, draw deep deep deep thy breath, closing thy mouth with thy right forefinger prest against thy lower lip. Then dashing down the hand with a great sweep back and out, expelling forcibly thy breath, cry: ΑΠΟ ΠΑΝΤΟΣ ΚΑΚΟΔΑΙΜΟΝΟΣ.”

Ruach means breath (“draw deep deep deep thy breath… expelling forcibly thy breath


There are 5 Parts of the Soul, each corresponding to an Element; in Liber 777 column LXVII, Ruach is attributed to Air (line 11). In the Tarot, Air is attributed to Atu 0, the Fool:

The really important feature of this card is that its number should be 0. It represents therefore the Negative above the Tree of Life, the source of all things. It is the Qabalistic Zero. It is the equation of the Universe, the initial and final balance of the opposites; Air, in this card, therefore quintessentially means a vacuum. (The Book of Thoth)

Closing the mouth with the right forefinger is a gesture NEARLY identical to the sign of Hoor- pa-Kraat in paragraph 3, but HERE it is not referred to as such. Perhaps this is to indicate that there is a distinct difference between this gesture and the sign which typically follows the sign of Horus. (Although Hoor-pa-Kraat, the Egyptian God of Silence, is also associated with the Fool of Tarot.)

ΑΠΟ ΠΑΝΤΟΣ ΚΑΚΟΔΑΙΜΟΝΟΣ is a phrase of 21 letters, which may indicate Atu XXI, The Universe. As the Fool is Aleph, the Universe is Tau:

The two cards together accordingly spell the word Ath, which means Essence. All reality is consequently compromised in the series of which these two letters form the beginning and the end. This beginning was Nothing; the end must therefore be also

Nothing, but Nothing in its complete expansion

(The Book of Thoth)

Note that ΑΠΟ is 3 letters, ΠΑΝΤΟΣ is 6 letters, and ΚΑΚΟΔΑΙΜΟΝΟΣ is 12 letters. It is as if the force doubles in strength with each word. Compare this idea with that of the word “breath” being repeated three times in the first sentence.

In a letter to Charles Stanfeld Jones (Frater Achad) dated January 11, 1916, Crowley translated

this phrase as: “ ‘From every evil spirit.’ i.e., depart, all evil.”

Paragraph 2: “With the same forefinger touch thy forehead, and say ΣΟΙ, thy member, and say Ω ΦΑΛΛΕ, thy right shoulder, and say ΙΣΧΥΡΟΣ, thy left shoulder, and say ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΣ; then clasp thine hands, locking the fingers, and cry ΙΑΩ.”

This is “the Cross Qabalistic” referred to in paragraph 9. Crowley’s translation is “To Thee, O Phallus, (be) Might (and) Grace, IAO.”

In Liber 777 Revised, the explanation for Column XXI (The Perfected Man) reads: “These

attributions all refer to those parts of the human body on the Tree of Life.” They are as follows:

1 Kether, 2 Chokmah, 3 Binah: the Face - Daath: the Neck


Chesed, 5 Geburah: the Arms


Tiphareth: the Breast


Netzach, 8 Hod: the Reins


Yesod: the Phallus and Vulva

10 Malkuth: the Buttocks and Anus [Also, the note to Liber 777, Column CIII (The Ten Divisions of the Body of God) reads:

Jesod the membrum virile; and Malkuth the anus.”]

It seems highly significant that the one and only footnote in Liber XXV specifically indicates

Ω ΦΑΛΛΕ and none of the other Greek words: “The secret sense of these words is to be sought

in the numeration thereof.” The total Qabalistic value of Ω ΦΑΛΛΕ is 1366. ΚΤΕIΣ, the Vulva, is 535 and ΦΑΛΛOΣ, the Phallus, is 831. 535 + 831 = 1366. Phallos Kteis combined is identical to the Lingam Yoni and the Rosy Cross. The combination might suggest Hermaphroditus, the son of Aphrodite (Venus/Netzach) and Hermes (Mercury/Hod), even alluding to the bi-sexual and androgynous Baphomet of Eliphas Levi.

A similar gender balance can be found between Geburah (“Mother made flesh fierce and

active”) whose element is Fire, and Chesed (“Father made flesh — authoritative and paternal”) whose element is Water; ΙΣΧΥΡΟΣ corresponds to Geburah as ΕΥΧΑΡΙΣΤΟΣ to Chesed.

THE CROSS QABALISTIC (above left), a collage by Antonio Lau to illustrate Liber 777 Column
THE CROSS QABALISTIC (above left), a collage by Antonio Lau to illustrate Liber 777 Column

THE CROSS QABALISTIC (above left), a collage by Antonio Lau to illustrate Liber 777 Column XXI (The Perfected Man), whose attributions can also be applied to the Thelemic Qabalistic Cross that was used in the Abbey of Thelema (forehead- Ateh, breast- Aiwass, genitals- Malkuth, right shoulder- ve-Geburah, left shoulder- ve-Gedulah, and le-Olamn Amen back at breast) among other variations; THE TREE OF LIFE (above right), from Magick Without Tears, included here to show symmetry and perspective.

The hands are then clasped, we presume, upon the breast. The final component of the Cross Qabalistic rests at Tiphareth. In the Tetragrammaton formula, Tiphareth is the Son, produced from the union of Father and Mother, and Air, the result of uniting Fire and Water.

He cries that name of God which throughout History has been echoed by one religion to another, the infinite swelling paean I.A.O.! This name, I.A.O. is qabalistically identical with that of THE BEAST and His number 666, so that he who invokes the former invokes also the latter. (Magick in Theory and Practice)

Paragraph 3: “Advance to the East. Imagine strongly a Pentagram, aright, in thy forehead. Drawing the hands to the eyes, fling it forth, making the sign of Horus, and roar ΘΗΡΙΟΝ. Retire thine hand in the sign of Hoor-pa-Kraat.” Paragraph 4: “Go round to the North and repeat; but say NUIT.”

Paragraph 5: “Go round to the West and repeat; but whisper BABALON.” Paragraph 6: “Go round to the South and repeat; but bellow HADIT.”

Imagining a Pentagram in the forehead would again recall the image of Levi’s Baphomet, to which reference was already made in connection with the Cross Qabalistic.

was already made in connection with the Cross Qabalistic. ΘΗΡΙΟΝ - Therion- is the Greek word

ΘΗΡΙΟΝ- Therion- is the Greek word for “Wild Beast” used in the Book of Revelations. Crowley writes: “That which is beneath is like that which is above. The Beast and the Scarlet Woman are avatars of Tao and Teh, Shiva and Sakti.” The Scarlet Woman is, of course, Our Lady Babalon. He also writes: “Nuit is Matter, Hadit is Motion, in their full physical sense. They are the Tao and Teh of Chinese Philosophy; or, to put it very simply, the Noun and Verb in grammar.”

The vocal instructions roar/say/whisper/bellow imply a connection to the Kerubim. Leo (the Lion) is the Kerub of Fire, Aquarius (the Man) is the Kerub of Air, Scorpio (the Eagle) is the Kerub of Water, and Taurus (the Bull) is the Kerub of Earth. Scorpio is the t hreefold Eagle- Serpent-Scorpion; whisper refers to either the sound of the eagle’s wings, the hiss of a serpent, or the natural silence of the scorpion. Another interesting connection to Baphomet is to be found in the various images that associate him with Lion, Man, Eagle and Bull: the Lion and the Serpent in the Gnostic Mass; the Androgyne of Khunrath; the double-headed Eagle in chapter 33 of Liber 333; and in The Book of Thoth we read: “Von Hammer-Purgstall was certainly right in supposing Baphomet to be a form of the Bull-god, or rather, the Bull-slaying god, Mithras.”

The first thing students tend to notice is that the order around the circle differs from that of the Zodiac, according to its annual sequence. The second thing that SHOULD have been noticed is that Fire in the East, Air in the North, Water in the West, and Earth in the South conforms to the Classical Elements as arranged by Aristotle, connected by the sensory qualities of “hot” (Fire and Air), “wet” (Air and Water), “cold” (Water and Earth), and “dry” (Earth and Fire). The third thing that I eventually noticed is that this sequence is how they are arranged in both the Hierophant and the Universe cards painted by Lady Frieda Harris. (In these, East would then

be in the lower right corner, North in the upper right, West in the upper left, and South in the lower left.)

right, West in the upper left, and South in the lower left.) One explanation is that

One explanation is that the Sun viewed from the Earth, photographed at the same exact spot on the same exact time of day for a year, will produce an analemma. Due to the Earth’s axial tilt, an analemma takes the form of a figure-eight. In The Canon, William Stirling writes: “From the allusion by Vitruvius to the Analemma, or diagram for determining the axis of the earth by the equinoctial shadow, we may infer that it was the practice of the builders to set up a figure such as he describes at the foundation of a temple.” And Crowley states that The Canon should be studied carefully before constructing the Altar.” (Liber ABA, part 2) In an analemma charted from Greenwich, England the mid-points dating Taurus (May 1), Leo (August 1), Scorpio (November 1) and Aquarius (February 1) all show up in the corners of this figure. If either of the Hierophant and the Universe cards painted by Lady Frieda Harris were turned upside down, the graph would show that the Zodiac signs are in the identical positions to the corresponding Kerubim.

upside down, the graph would show that the Zodiac signs are in the identical positions to

The Kerubic attributions in this ritual would therefore represent a distinct pattern which symbolically reflects the actual nature of our Planet Earth, its true relation to the Sun and the constellations along the ecliptic. Mathersdrawing of the Magical Circle in his edition of The Greater Key of Solomon has the Hexagram of Fire in the East, that of Air in the North, Water in the West, and Earth in the South. This arrangement defies both the “Microcosmic Elements” and the “Macrocosmic Elements” said to be attributed to the Golden Dawn rituals of the Pentagram and Hexagram.

Paragraph 7: “Completing the circle widdershins, retire to the centre, and raise thy voice in the Paian, with these words ΙΟ ΠΑΝ with the signs of N.O.X.”

The N.O.X. signs are:

Puer (N), the grade sign of 6=5; Vir (O), the grade signs of 7=4; Puella is a sign of hesitation before Mulier (X) the Babe in the Abyss; Mater Triumphans (also called “Isis Rejoicing”) is the grade sign of 8=3. The N.O.X. signs are partially explained by Crowley in a few letters sent to Charles Stanfeld Jones, most of which were published in Hymenaeus Beta’s 1997 edition of Liber ABA. They represent the Night of Pan. The N.O.X. signs are described in Liber V vel Reguli:


standing with feet together, and head erect. Let his right hand (the thumb

extended at right angles to the fingers) be raised, the forearm vertical at a right angle with

the upper arm, which is horizontally extended in the line joining the shoulders. Let his left hand, the thumb extended forwards and the fingers clenched, rest at the junction of the thighs


the feet being together. The hands, with clenched finger and thumbs thrust out

forwards, are held to the temples; the head is then bowed and pushed out, as if to symbolize the butting of an horned beast


standing with his feet together, head bowed, his left hand shielding the

Muladhara Cakkra, and his right hand shielding his breast


The feet are widely separated, and the arms raised so as to suggest a crescent.

The head is thrown back


Triumphans (The feet are together; the left arm is curved as if it supported a

child; the thumb and index finger of the right hand pinch the nipple of the left breast, as if

offering it to that child).

[The order of the signs follow that of Liber XXXVI (Puer, Vir, Puella, Mulier, and Isis Rejoicing), rather than the order given in Liber V (Puella, Puer, Vir, Mulier, Mater Triumpans).]

According to commentaries in Liber 333:

N is the Tarot symbol, Death; and the X or Cross is the sign of the Phallus. Nox adds to 210, which symbolises the reduction of duality to unity, and thence to negativity, and is thus a hieroglyph of the Great Work. The word Pan is then explained, Π, the letter of

Mars, is a hieroglyph of two pillars, and therefore suggest duality; A, by its shape, is the pentagram, energy, and N, by its Tarot attribution, is death. IO is the rapture-cry of the Greeks, also symbolic of Phallos Kteis and Lingam Yoni. Baphomet is identified with Pan, the All-Begetter.

Crowley attributed the Hebrew letters Nun, Ayin, and Tzaddi to N.O.X. Nun is Scorpio, ruled by Mars. Tzaddi is Aries, also ruled by Mars. Mars is Exalted in Capricorn, the Zodiac sign attributed to Ayin. He also wrote that the Sign of Mulier (X) represents Virgin Isis. In Liber 777 column XX (Complete Practical Attribution of Egyptian Gods), Isis is listed under Aries. The N.O.X. signs are to be given in the order given above, all five given while facing East. This would seem to suggest the raising of the magician’s consciousness across the Abyss to Binah, the sphere of Saturn. However, as a preliminary banishing to all ritual work, this glimpse beyond the Abyss may be merely superficial, as a reminder to what it is that we are aspiring to. Or perhaps the Paian, combined with the N.O.X. signs, was intended to allow the higher influence from above to descend upon the consciousness, as implied in the commentary to chapter 31 of Liber 333:

The reason is situated in Daath, which corresponds to the throat in human anatomy. Hence the title of the chapter, “The Garotte”. The idea is that, by forcing the mind to follow, and as far as possible to realise, the language of Beyond the Abyss, the student will succeed in bringing his reason under control. As soon as the reason is vanquished, the garotte is removed; then the influence of the supernals (Kether, Chokmah, Binah), no longer inhibited by Daath, can descend upon Tiphareth, where the human will is situated, and flood it with the ineffable light.

Paragraph 8: “Extend the arms in the form of a Tau, and say low but clear:


Before me the Iynges, behind me the Teletarchs, on my right hand the Synoches, on my left; the Daemons; for about me flames the Star of Five, and in the Column stands the Star of Six.”

The Names of the Guardians come from The Oracles of Zoroaster. ΙΥΓΓΕΣ is 6 letters ΣΥΝΟΧΕΣ is 7 letters ΔΑΙΜΟΝΕΣ is 8 letters ΤΕΛΕΤΑΡΧΑΙ is 10 letters

Placed on the Tree of Life according to these numbers (6-Tiphareth, 7-Netzach, 8-Hod, and 10- Malkuth), they surround Yesod (FOUNDATION), the 9th Sephira. ΤΗΙ ΣΤΗΛΗΙ, “the Column” IN THE CENTRE, is 9 letters.

In Liber Librae we read: “Equilibrium is the basis of the Work. If thou thyself hast not a sure FOUNDATION, whereon wilt thou stand to direct the forces of Nature?” And at the end of this lecture is written: “Establish thyself firmly in the equilibrium of forces, IN THE CENTRE of the Cross of the Elements, that Cross from whose centre the Creative Word issued in the birth of the Dawning Universe.” The Kerubim correspond to Yesod [Liber 777 column C], which is Sephira 9. Liber XXV has 9 paragraphs. “The number Nine is sacred, and attains the summit of perfection.” (The Oracles of Zoroaster, also quoted by Crowley in The Book of Thoth) The central position of this ritual is Yesod. Also, consider the connection to Pan: Purity is to live only to the Highest; and the Highest is All; be thou as Artemis to Pan.” (The Heart of the Master) “In Greek mythology Artemis, the Goddess of the Moon, is virgin; she yielded only to Pan.” (Eight Lectures on Yoga)

Consider the image of the Sephiroth placed upon the symbol of Venus. Yesod is IN THE CENTRE of an equidistant cross with Tiphareth at the top, Malkuth at the bottom, Netzach and Hod on each side at the same level as Yesod. Now, look at the Hexagram of the Planets on the Tree of Life diagram (next page); then adjust those two triangles to the points of the Sephiroth on the Venus symbol. Compare this unusual hexagram to the Hierophant card in The Book of Thoth, of which we read: “before the Manifestor of the Mystery is a hexagram representing the macrocosm.” Turning the bottom line of our drawing’s Fire triangle into Λ, our unusual hexagram gives an exact match to the one on the card.

In The Oracles of Zoroaster, the Supernal Triad is called “Father” (Kether), “Intellect” (Chokmah), and “Power” (Binah). This corresponds to the World of Atziluth. Beneath these lie the 3 successive, descending worlds: the Empyrean, the Ethereal, and the Elemental. (See Diagram 48 from The Temple of Solomon the King.) According to The Oracles: “The Intelligible Iynges themselves understand from the Father; by Ineffable counsels being moved so as to understand. He gave His own Whirlwinds to guard the Supernals, mingling the proper force of His own strength in the Synoches.” Whirlwinds are another title of Iynges. The Iynges connect Kether to Tiphareth through Gimel, and represent the divine power in the Empyrean World (Chesed, Geburah and Tiphareth). This corresponds to the World of Briah. The Teletarchs are comprehended in the Synoches.” The Synoches represent the Ethereal World (Netzach, Hod, and Yesod), corresponding to the World of Yetzirah. That is, the Iynges “mingling” with the Synoches are in turn “comprehended” in the Teletarchs as this process continues to the Elemental World, ruled by Hypezokos (“Flower of Fire” — as the Angels of Malkuth are called Ashim, “Flames”). This corresponds to Assiah. Through the Paths and Triangles and Circles, the Guardians act upon each other and the Tree of Life on all levels of this Ritual of the Star Ruby. ΙΥΓΓΕΣ, ΣΥΝΟΧΕΣ, and ΤΕΛΕΤΑΡΧΑΙ “are the guardians of the works of the Father,” each acting on all 3 of the Worlds while ΔΑΙΜΟΝΕΣ “derive their subsistence from the aerial rulers, being the charioteer of the aerial, terrestrial, and aquatic dogs.” The Daemons of Plato are spiritual beings, somewhere in between divine and mortal, who watch over each individual. From as early as 1909 and as late as 1944, Crowley CONSTANTLY draws the student’s attention to The Oracles of Zoroaster throughout his magical writings.

Typical intellectuals are quick to point out that The Oracles belong to the school of Neo- Platonism and not actual Zoroastrianism. But we have to remember the fact that the Greeks usually used the names of their own gods when writing about those of other cultures. The Amesha Spenta (“Divine Sparks”) are similar to the Iynges; the “close association with rituals of sacrifice and worship” of the Yazatas make their function similar to the Teletarchs (“Masters of Initiation”); the Ahuras and Daevas could easily be considered plausible counterparts of the diametrically opposed Synoches and Daemons. Very few of the fragments from The Oracles have survived, so we can’t know how close the rest of the text was to the Gathas of Zarathushtra. According to The Oracles, “first the Priest who governeth the works of Fire, must sprinkle with the Water of the loud-resounding Sea.” In Zoroastrianism, water and fire are agents of ritual purity, and the associated purification ceremonies are considered the basis of ritual life. Several other comparisons could be made.

In Liber 777 column XI, Tiphareth is Air, Netzach is Fire, Malkuth is Earth, and Hod is Water. Compare this to the Kerubic intonations of the God-names in paragraphs 3-6. Leo (Fire) is in the same place as Tiphareth (East), Taurus (Earth) in Netzach (South), Scorpio (Water) in Malkuth (West), and Aquarius (Air) in Hod (North). This would seem to suggest that ΙΥΓΓΕΣ partakes of both Air and Fire, ΣΥΝΟΧΕΣ of both Fire and Earth, ΤΕΛΕΤΑΡΧΑΙ of Earth and Water, and ΔΑΙΜΟΝΕΣ Water and Air, calling to mind the Invocation of the Heart Girt with a Serpent:

every Spirit of the Firmament and of the Ether: upon the Earth and under the Earth, on Dry Land and in the Water; of Whirling Air, and of Rushing Fire.”

Paragraph 9: Repeat the Cross Qabalistic, as above, and end as thou didst begin.

This beginning was Nothing; the end must therefore be also Nothing, but Nothing in its complete expansion


Several instructions in the Official Publications of A.'.A.'. have certain points that aren’t entirely clear, even though they were carefully worded in order to help the student avoid confusion in these matters. It was presumed that Crowley (as well as G. C. Jones and J. F. C. Fuller) would be teaching his students personally, so hed be able to answer such questions directly when they arose. The entire structure was based on the Probationer having his/her Neophyte as personal guru, as the Neophyte had his/her Zelator, and so on up until the Aspirant reached the grade of Adeptus Minor. Or maybe the language he used to describe the gestures were universally known among English speakers of his time. From the beginning, “dashing down the hand with a great sweep back and out” gave me pause; “dashing down the hand” was easy enough, and a sweeping motion of the hand was not hard at all to comprehend. But “back and out” seemed a little odd. Even when I watched Youtube videos, I wasnt quite convinced. The most typical gesture was to make this “great sweep” down and BACK, ending with the finger pointing to the Western edge of the circle. But that didn’t really make sense to me, especially regarding the “out” part. Another version was to swing the hand down toward the direction of the Southwest, continuing all the way around to about three-

quarters of a circle, ending with the finger pointing up about 12 inches from the right side of the head. Based on the wording of Liber XXV, it made more sense. But in practice, it felt awkward and a little off. What did he mean by “back and out”? Specifically, what did he mean by “out”? These questions were on the back burner of my mind when I was looking through Liber 333 for more clues; but then I took special notice of chapter 23, almost by accident. The several repetitions of the phrase “get out” reminded me of a scene in the sixth Harry Potter movie: Professor Slughorn pulls his hand out of his pocket and dashes it down, then swings it forward in “a great sweep” up, yelling “Now GET OUT of here at once!” This immediately clicked with me. APO in this context essentially meant the same as GET OUT. I recalled Crowleys words in Magick Without

Tears: “

the eyes averted, when one sees a person dressed in a religious (Christian) uniform

as if Slughorns gesture could easily fit the description of “a downward and outward sweep of the arm.” It also seemed to me that it would be more effective than either of the first two gestures

already described, if one actually had the nerve to do this upon seeing a priest or nun, which brings us to an amusing story by Kenneth Grant:


‘apo pantos kakodaimonos’ with a downward and outward sweep of the arm,

It seemed

While at Hastings, he showed me an averse counterpart - a curse to be used on encountering members of the Christian and other old aeonfaiths. With a downward and outward sweep of the arm, and with eyes averted, one mutters Apo pantos kakodaimonos[Depart from me all evil spirits]. I did this one day when we passed two nuns on the sea front. Crowley halted, looked at me with mock astonishment, and said: “I wouldn’t have had the nerve to do that.” (Remembering Aleister Crowley)

Ultimately, the preference lies with the individual, but it ought to be highly beneficial to the magician if each of these three interpretations were taken into consideration, thought through, and experimented with.

Imagine strongly a Pentagram, aright, in thy forehead.” This also requires a little thought and a lot of practice. It would be natural (almost automatic) to interpret “imagine strongly” as:

visualize the figure clearly in your mind. And many have done exactly that. But the trick would be to do this with your eyes open. While having your eyes open isn’t absolutely necessary, if you try to imagine the Pentagram with them closed, it is too likely that the same problems associated with dharana will occur, as explained in Liber ABA Part 1:

The moment then that the student takes a simple subject or rather a simple object and imagines it or visualizes it, he will find that it is not so much his creature as he supposed. Other thoughts will invade the mind, so that the object is altogether forgotten, perhaps for whole minutes at a time; and at other times the object itself will begin to play all sorts of tricks. Suppose you have chosen a white cross. It will move its bar up and down, elongate the bar, turn the bar oblique, get its arms unequal, turn upside down, grow branches, get a crack around it or a figure upon it, change its shape altogether like an Amoeba, change its size and distance as a whole, change the degree of its illumination, and at the same time change its colour. It will get splotchy and blotchy, grow patterns, rise, fall, twist and turn; clouds will pass over its face. There is no conceivable change of which it is incapable.

Not to mention its total disappearance, and replacement by something altogether different!

Instead of being fixed “in thy forehead” one soon realizes that the Pentagram has moved a few inches in front of thy face, is level to thy nose rather than thy forehead, and occasionally decides that it would rather be a different color and shape than a red pentagram, such as a purple triang le. [In Liber 333, chapter 25, “the Pentagram has the red colour of Geburah.”] And unlike the Banishing Pentagram of the Earth, it must be imagined FULLY FORMED instead of drawn from any of the starting points. It is a COMPLETE red Pentagram which already includes all five Elements within itself. I have found it helpful to draw a Pentagram on paper, each line 5 inches in length and ¼ inch thick, with red ink. I would stare at it often for the sake of improving memory recall. Another helpful technique is to ask a friend to draw a Pentagram about half that size on your forehead, with face paint or even lipstick. Then look at it in a mirror until this reflection leaves a strong impression on your mind. The imagination should not be limited to only that of visualization. Sometimes it is even better to imagine that you can FEEL it in your forehead; to KNOW that it is there with a very strong sense of conviction. It takes a lot of practice, but this sort of awareness gets easier with each effort. It also takes a lot of practice to fling it with the sign of Horus while simultaneously vibrating the Godname. Note that in Liber XXV, there are no instructions to “Stand with arms outstretched” at the beginning. According to Liber O: “This injunction does not apply to gods like Phthah or Harpocrates whose natures do not accord with this gesture.” Apparently the natures of Therion, Nuit, Babalon and Hadit also do not accord with this gesture.

And all five N.O.X. signs must be made in “the centre” facing the East. I soon realized that raising my voice in the Paian required more than simply saying “IO PAN” with every sign. Again, while looking for clues in Liber 333, a sentence from chapter 45 also caught my eye:

The Chinese cannot help thinking that the octave has 5 notes.” I eventually decided upon singing IO PAN three times for every sign, according to the notes of the strings on a guitar (E, A, D, G, B). That is: three IO PANs in E while making the sign of Puer, three IO PANs in A while making the sign of Vir, and so forth. As the pitch of my voice goes higher, the volume of my voice also goes higher. I used one full breath for every set of 3 IO PANs, inhaling in between each sign. Of course, this would be 15 IO PANs altogether. In Liber 777 and The Book of Thoth, Pan is attributed to Ayin, Atu XV (15). At first I thought this discovery was a stroke of genius, but soon after I accepted the possibility that maybe I was just being lazy. I also doubt that my voice actually conformed to those exact notes; but I like to imagine that whatever notes I’m singing sound pleasant enough.

Each magician can work out the details of the Guardians on their own, but here I’ll mention how well the Iynges fit the descriptions of the angels in the Cry of the 11th Aethyr: “I perceive that an Angel is standing on either side of me; nay, I am in the midst of a company of armed angels, and their captain is standing in front of me. He too is clad in silver armour; and about him, closely wrapped to his body, is a whirling wind, so swift that any blow struck against him would be broken.” The double-Gamma central to ΙΥΓΓΕΣ correspond to Gimel, the Moon and Silver, hence the silver armour. And “Whirls” has been suggested as one translation of Iynges, by G.R.S. Mead. Also, “They have wings upon their helmets” and are armed with swords and

spears. Notice that the names ΙΥΓΓΕΣ, ΣΥΝΟΧΕΣ, and ΔΑΙΜΟΝΕΣ all end in ΕΣ, similar to the way the names of the Hebrew Archangels end with AL. In Liber 777, epsilon corresponds to

Aries and sigma to Fire, easily attributable to swords and spears. Even in the switch of Heh (epsilon) and Tzaddi (psi), Aquarius is the Kerub of Air, and the Sword is the magical weapon of Air. It should also be noted that when facing East, one can see to the right (South) and left

(North), but not behind (West)

standing in front of me.” Comparing the attributions of the directions to those of Liber Resh might also explain why ΤΕΛΕΤΑΡΧΑΙ is in the West. Weather permitting, we can see the Sun (for the most part) at sunrise, noon and sunset, but NEVER at midnight. Therefore, it is only fitting that the main Guardians (ΙΥΓΓΕΣ, ΣΥΝΟΧΕΣ, and ΤΕΛΕΤΑΡΧΑΙ) be in those places and ΔΑΙΜΟΝΕΣ (who are not associated with them but with Hecate) in the North with Nuit. Some students might notice that any book published from 1995 have an extra iota added to ΣΥΝΟΧΕΣ, making it ΣΥΝΟΧΕIΣ. But the only reason this is so, is because Martin P. Starr

somehow convinced Hymenaeus Beta that it was the correct spelling in Greek. But this might well be false. The actual Greek in the text is ΣΥΝΟΧΕYΣI. Other variations are given as ΣΥΝΟΧΩN, ΣΥΝΟΧIKΩN and ΣΥΝΟΧHIΔAΣ, according to the rules of declension, but not ΣΥΝΟΧΕIΣ. Perhaps this suggestion was influenced by the spelling of KTΕIΣ?

an Angel is standing on either side of me

and their captain is


In Liber 333, ΚΕΦΑΛΗ ΚΕ chapter 25, paragraphs 3-6 were originally written:

Advance to the East. Imagine strongly a Pentagram. aright, in thy forehead. Drawing the hands to the eyes, fling it forth, making the sign of Horus, and roar ΧΑΟΣ. Retire thine hand in the sign of Hoor pa kraat. Go round to the North and repeat; but scream ΒΑΒΑΛΟΝ. Go round to the West and repeat; but say ΕΡΩΣ. Go round to the South and repeat; but bellow ΨΥΧΗ.

This version is significantly popular with officers confirmed by the Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica, presumably on account of its inclusion of Chaos/ΧΑΟΣ. Crowley wrote the first draft of the Gnostic Mass shortly after Liber 333 was published.

In the Vault of the Adepts in the 5=6 ritual of the Golden Dawn, the attributions of the Kerubim are as follows: the Lion/Leo in the East, the Eagle/Scorpio in the North, the Man/Aquarius in the East, and the Bull/Taurus in the South. Therefore, most students automatically assume that these follow the same Elemental directions as the Lesser Ritual of the Hexagram in Liber O, since it is reasonable to assume that roar = the Lion, scream = the Eagle, say = the Man, and bellow = the Bull. Certainly, this arrangement would appear to give us the formula of the Tetragrammaton around the Circle widdershins: Fire, Water, Air and Earth. It is also assumed that the God-names fit this same pattern of:




Psyche/Heh final/Daughter/Malkuth/Earth And this would appear to be confirmed by the commentary to Liber 333, chapter 11: “Chaos

and Babalon are Chokmah and Binah

However, there seems to be some odd inconsistencies with the Tetragrammaton formula and how it relates to the God-names. According to Hesiod, Chaos was the first of the primordial deities, followed by Gaia, Tartarus and Eros. Among the three other Greek God-names, Babalon is inconsistent with the rest. At best, we might be lenient enough to equate her with Gaia (“And I believe in one Earth, the

Mother of us all

(Venus-Netzach) and Hermes (Mercury-Hod) according to The Book of Thoth (Atu VI, The Lovers). While Chaos and Eros are primordial deities, Psyche is not. Here, one distinct Eros of classical Greek mythology is conflated or confused with the other. None of the God-names seem to match up, except in odd, incompatible ways. Later, Crowley would often warn the student:

Above all, do not mix the planes.” But as I stated in my commentary on the Lesser Ritual of the Pentagram, “With the exception of IHVH/Raphael/Air, the other God-names, Archangels and Elements do not match up with their traditional correspondences.” We cannot expect the God-names, Elements and the Four Quarters to match up with perfect consistency. To give Crowley the benefit of the doubt, perhaps his intention was to attempt to fit all three different Elemental arrangements into this ritual in a very ingenious manner:


Eros is attributed to Yesod in Liber 777, and he is the son of Aphrodite

1) A superficial suggestion of the Tetragrammaton formula; 2) The arrangement of the classical elements of Aristotle in connection to the Sephiroth; 3) A very subtle connection to the FIAT: Chaos is the “one Air” in the East. Babalon is the “one Earth” in the North. The closest affinity of Eros (in the West) as the God of Love (Agape) to any of the four Elements is Water; and in the Triplicities of the Zodiac, Gemini is “Water of Air.” Finally, Psyche is the actual word used for “Soul” in The Oracles of Zoroaster, in which we read: “The Soul, being a bright fire, by the power of the father, remains immortal, and is mistress of life, and fills up many of the recesses of the world.” That is, Psyche is the Soul which is the “bright fire” and Fire is generally

associated with the South.

Another theory I had was that Crowley was trying to consolidate the Lesser Banishing Rituals of both Pentagram and Hexagram together, eliminating the need for more than one complete banishing altogether. All the same, while many wild philosophical speculations could be built on this mismatched scheme, it is no wonder Crowley eventually chose to change both the associations of the God-names and Kerubim altogether. Whatever his reasons, the later revisions seem much more consistent, sensible and intelligent.

In closing, I arrived at all these theories and ritual methods through intensive study and constant practice. I cannot possibly say for sure that any of these are what Crowley intended, and I certainly cannot insist that my methods are THE RIGHT WAY. But so far, it is the best I’ve been able to come up with. And I’m more than willing to change certain ritual gestures if another can demonstrate that other methods would be an improvement on my own. Ultimately, the preference of the practice lies with the individual.