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Course Title: Property - Law 211 (Pre-Law 119)

A. Concept of Property (Art. 414)


1. Requisites
2. Thing vs. Property
B. Immovable Property (Art. 415)
C. Movable Property (Arts. 416-418)

 United States v Tambunting; G.R. No. L-16513; January 18, 1921.


 Laurel v Abrogar; G.R. No. 155076. February 27, 2006 & reconsideration
January 13, 2009.
 Berkenkotter v Cu Unjieng; G.R. No. L-41643; July 31, 1935.
 Philippine Refining Co. v. Jarque; G.R. No. L-41506; March 25, 1935
 Mindanao Bus Co. v. City Assessor & Treasurer; G.R. No. L-17870; September
29, 1962
 Serg’s Products v PCI Leasing; G.R. No. 137705; August 22, 2000
 Davao Sawmill v Castillo; G.R. No. L-40411; August 7, 1935
 Prudential Bank v Panis; G.R. No. L-50008; August 31, 1987
 Caltex v Central Board of Assessment; G.R. No. L-50466; May 31, 1982
 Benguet Corp v Central Board of Assessment; G.R. No. 106041; January 29,
1993
 Tumalad v Vicencio; G.R. No. L-30173; September 30, 1971
 Makati Leasing & Finance Corp. v. Wearever Textiles; G.R. No. L-58469; May
16, 1983
 Santos Evangelista v Alto Surety; G.R. No. L-11139; April 23, 1958
 Tsai v Court of Appeals; G.R. No. 120098; October 2, 2001
 Burgos, Sr. v Chief of Staff; G.R. No. L-64261; December 26, 1984
 Lopez v Orosa and Plaza Theater; G.R. Nos. L-10817-18; February 28, 1958
 Yap v Tanada; G.R. No. L-32917; July 18, 1988
 Machinery and Engineering Supplies v. Court of Appeals; G.R. No. L-7057;
October 29, 1954

3. Arts. 419-426
 Province of Zamboanga v City of Zamboanga; G.R. No. L-24440; March 28,
1968
 Salas v Jarencio G.R. No. L-29788; August 30, 1972
 Cebu Oxygen v Bercilles; G.R. No. L40474; August 29, 1975
 Chavez v Public Estates Authority; G.R. No. 133250; July 9, 2002

Check applicable sections of the Local Govt Code (RA 7160) and Indigenous People’s
Act (RA 8371)

Ownership (Arts. 427-439, NCC)

A. Definition.

B. Bundle of rights included in ownership (jus utendi, etc.).

C. Other specific rights found in the Civil Code.

1) Right to exclude. Doctrine of self-help.


2) Right to enclose/fence.
3) Right to just compensation (expropriation).
4) Right to hidden treasure.
5) Right to space and subsoil.
6) Right to accession (discreta/continua).
7) Right to recover ownership/possession.

a) For immovable property:


i. Accion reivindicatoria.
ii. Accion publiciana.
iii. Forcible entry.
iv. Unlawful detainer.
v. Writ of possession.
vi. Writ of injunction.

b) For movable property:


i. Replevin.

 Hilario v Salvador; G.R. No. 160384. April 29, 2005.


 Sampayang v CA; G.R. No. 156360; January 14, 2005.
 Santos v Ayon; G.R. No. 137013; May 6, 2005.
 Ganila v CA; G.R. No. 150755; June 28, 2005.
 Ross Rica Sales Center v Sps Ong; G.R. No. 132197; August 16, 2005.
 Peralta-Labrador v Bugarin; G.R. No. 165177; August 25, 2005.
 Serina v Caballero; G.R. No. 127382; August 17, 2004.
 Perez v Mendoza; G.R. No. L-22006; July 28, 1975.
 Dizon v CA; G.R. No. 101929; January 6, 1993.
 Alim v CA; G.R. No. 93213; August 9, 1991.

D. Limitations on Real Right of Ownership.

1) General limitations:
 Police Power (Art. 436).
 Taxation.
 Eminent Domain (Art. 435 NCC).

2) Specific limitations:
 Legal servitudes/easements.
 By contract, stipulation, last will, donation.

3) Other limitations: Arts. 431(sic utere tuo ut alienum non laedas), 432
(necessity), 637, 644, 649, 652, 670, 676-679, 684-687, 2191, 694-707
(nuisance).

 Churchill & Tait v Rafferty; G.R. No. L-10572 December 21, 1915.
 Taxicab Operators v Board of Transportation; G.R. No. L-59234; September 30,
1982.
 Republic v Castellvi; G.R. No. L-20620; August 15, 1974.
 City Govt of Quezon City v Ericta; G.R. No. L-34915; June 24, 1983.
 Republic v PLDT; G.R. No. L-18841; January 27, 1969.
 U.S. v Causby; 328 U.S. 256; May 27,1946.
 Lunod v Meneses; G.R. No. 4223; August 19, 1908.

Right of Accession (Arts. 440-475 NCC)

Concept/Definition

Kinds of Accession

1) Discreta (fruits).
 Bachrach v Seifert; G.R. No. L-2659. October 12, 1950.
 Bachrach Motor v Talisay-Silay; G.R. No. 35223. September 17, 1931.
 Equatorial v Mayfair; G.R. No. 133879. November 21, 2001.
2) Continua.
a) Over immovables.
i) Artificial/industrial – BPS
 Bernardo v Bataclan; G.R. No. 44606. November 28, 1938.
 Ignacio v Hilario; G.R. No. L-175. April 30, 1946.
 Sarmiento v Agana; G.R. No. 57288. April 30, 1984.
 Depra v Dumlao; G.R. No. L-57348. May 16, 1985.
 Tecnogas Phil v CA; G.R. No. 108894. February 10, 1997.
 Ortiz v Kayanan; G.R. No. L-32974. July 30, 1979.
 Geminiano v CA; G.R. No. 120303. July 24, 1996.
 Pleasantville Devt Corp v CA; G.R. No. 79688; February 1, 1996.
 Felices v Iriola; G.R. No. L-11269. February 28, 1958.
 Sps Nuguid v CA (2005); G.R. No. 151815. February 23, 2005.
ii) Natural.
Alluvium.
 Republic v CA; G.R. No. L-61647. October 12, 1984.
 Grande v CA; G.R. No. L-17652. June 30, 1962.
 Republic v Meneses; G.R. No. L-61647. October 12, 1984.
Avulsion.
 Heirs of Navarro v IAC; G.R. No. 68166. February 12, 1997.
Change of course of river.
 Baes v CA; G.R. No. 108065. July 6, 1993.
 Binalay v Manalo; G.R. No. 92161. March 18, 1991.|||
Formation of islands.
iii) Reverse accession.
b) Over movables.
i) Conjunction and adjunction.
Inclusion or engraftment.
Soldadura.
Tejido.
Escritura.
Pintura.
ii) Commixion and confusion.
 Siari Valley Estates v Lucasan; G.R. No. L-11005. October 31,
1957.
 Montelibano v Bacolod Murcia; G.R. No. L-5416; July 26, 1954.
iii) Specification.

Quieting of Title (Arts. 476-481 NCC)


Nature.
Prescription.
Who are allowed to bring?
 Heirs of Olviga v CA; G.R. No. 104813. October 21, 1993.
 Pingol v CA; G.R. No. 102909. September 6, 1993.
 Titong v CA; G.R. No. 111141. March 6, 1998.
 Sps. Portic v Cristobal; G.R. No. 156171. April 22, 2005.
Co-Ownership (Arts. 484- 501 NCC)
1. In General (distinguish from joint tenancy, partnership)
a. Definition (Arts. 484-486; 493; 1620))

 Pardell v Bartolome; G.R. No. 4656, November 18, 1912.


 Basa v. Aguilar, G.R. No. L-30994, September 30, 1982.
 Spouses Del Campo v. Abesia, G.R. No. L-49219, April 15, 1988.
 Delia Bailon-Casilao v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 78178, April 15, 1988.
 Oliveras v. Lopez, G.R. No. L-29727, December 14, 1988.
 Tagarao v. Garcia, G.R. No. 40064, December 04, 1934.
 Rivera v. Peoples Bank and Trust Co., G.R. No. 47757, April 17, 1942
 Gatchalian v. Collector of Internal Revenue, G.R. No. 45425, April 29, 1939

b. Special rights of co-owners (Arts. 487-492; 494; 1088; 1620; 1623)

 Melencio v. Dy Tiao Lay, G.R. No. 32047, November 01, 1930.


 Lavadia v. Cosme de Mendoza, GR No. 47996, May 09, 1941
 Tuason v. Tuason, Jr., G.R. No. L-3404, April 02, 1951
 Mariano v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 101522, May 28, 1993.
 Arcelona v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 102900, October 02, 1997.
 Adlawan v. Adlawan, G.R. No. 161916, January 20, 2006.

c. Special rule on marital properties (Art. 90 Family Code)

2. Acquisition
a. Marriage (Family Code 88; 91-93; 96; 116-7; 120)
b. Cohabitation (Family Code 147-8)
c. Joint purchase (NCC 1452)
d. Succession (NCC 1078)
e. Donation (NCC 573; 753)
f. Chance (NCC 472)
g. Hidden treasure (NCC 438)
h. Easement of party wall (NCC 658)
i. Contract
In general (NCC 494)
Universal partnership (NCC 1778-1780)
Associations (NCC 1775)
j. Occupation (NCC 713-720)
 Punsalan v. Liat, G.R. No. 18009, January 10, 1923.

k. Condominium (RA 4726 Condominium Law)


 Twin Towers Condominium Corp. v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 123552, February
27, 2003.

3. Termination (NCC 494-501; 543; 1092-3)


a. Total destruction of thing.
b. Merger of all interests in one person.
c. Acquisitive prescription.
d. Partition or division. (NCC 494-496)
i. Right to ask for partition/limitations
ii. Effect of partition
iii. Right of creditors of individual co-owners.
iv. Procedure (Rule 69 Rules of Court).

POSSESSION (Arts. 523 to 561)

A. Definition and concept.


i) In general (Arts. 523-561 NCC)
ii) Who exercises (Arts. 524; 532; 535; 538 NCC)
iii) Status (Arts. 526-29 NCC)
B. Essential requisites of possession.
i) Holding/control of thing or right.
ii) Animus possidendi.
C. Degrees of holding of possession.
i) Mere holder without title
ii) With juridical title but not ownership.
iii) With just title or title sufficient to transfer ownership, but not from the true
owner.
iv) With just title from true owner.
D. Cases of possession.
i) In one’s own name; name of another. (Art. 524 NCC)
ii) Concept of owner; mere holder. (Art. 525 NCC)
iii) Good faith; bad faith. (Art. 526 NCC)

E. What things or rights may be possessed. (Art. 530 NCC)

F. What may not be possessed by private persons.

G. Acquisition of possession.
i) Ways of acquiring possession (Art. 531 NCC)
ii) By whom possession acquired. (Art. 532 NCC)
iii) What does not affect possession (Arts. 536; 537; 538 1119)
H. Effects of possession.
i) Right to be respected, protected and restored of possession.
a) Actions to recover possession:
Accion interdictal
Accion publiciana
Accion reivindicatoria
Replevin
b) Self-help (Art. 429 NCC)
ii) Entitlement to fruits (Arts. 544 & 549 NCC)
iii) Reimbursement for expenses (Arts. 552; 553 NCC)
iv) Possession of movable acquired in good faith (Art. 559 NCC)

I. Effect of possession in concept of owner.


i) Possession after lapse of time may ripen into full ownership.
ii) Presumption of just title (Arts. 541; 1131 NCC)
iii) Possessor may bring actions (except accion reivindicatoria)
iv) Self-help (Art. 429 NCC)
v) Register real right in Registry of Property.
vi) Good faith- right to fruits and reimbursement.
vii) Upon recovery of possession – fruits and damages.
viii) Rights over the thing possessed that the law authorizes.
ix) Good faith/bad faith possession.

J. Presumptions in favor of possessor.


i) Good faith until contrary is proved (Art. 529 NCC)
ii) Continuity of initial good faith (Art. 528 NCC)
iii) Same character in which possession was acquired (Art. 529 NCC)
iv) Non-interruption of possession in favor of present possessor (Arts. 554;
1120-24 NCC)
v) Art. 561 NCC.
vi) Other presumptions (Arts. 426; 533; 1078; 541; 1141 NCC)

K. Possession may be lost by (Arts. 555-557 NCC):


i) Abandonment
ii) Assignment
iii) Destruction; goes out of commerce
iv) Possession by another (subject to Art. 537 NCC)

Cases:
 Pleasantville Devt Corp v CA; G.R. No. 79688. February 1, 1996.
 Kasilag v Rodriguez; G.R. No. 46623. December 7, 1939.
 Banco Espanol Filipino v Peterson; G.R. No. L-3088. February 6, 1907.
 Macasaet v Macasaet; G.R. Nos. 154391-92. September 30, 2004.
 Cuaycong v Benedicto; G.R. No. 9989. March 13, 1918.
 Astudillo v PHHC; G.R. No. L-28066. September 22, 1976.
 Peran v CFI; G.R. No. L-57259. October 13, 1983.
 Yu v Honrado; G.R. No. L-50025. August 21, 1980.
 Cordero v Cabral; G.R. No. L-36789. July 25, 1983.
 Lasam v Director; G.R. No. 42859. March 17, 1938.
 People v Estoista; G.R. No. L-5793. August 27, 1953.
 Tan Queto v CA; G.R. No. L-35648. February 27, 1987.
 Edca Publishing v Santos; G.R. No. 80298. April 26, 1990.
 Ledesma v CA; G.R. No. 86051. September 1, 1992.
 Suobiron v CA; G.R. No. 109903. November 20, 1995.

USUFRUCT (Arts. 562 to 612 NCC)

Cases on Usufruct

1) Fabia v. David, G.R. No. L-123, December 12, 1945.


2) Board of Assessment Appeals of Zamboanga del Sur v. Samar Mining Co., Inc.,
G.R. No. L-28034, February 27, 1971.
3) Baluran v. Navarro, G.R. No. L-44428, September 30, 1977.
4) National Housing Authority v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 148830, April 13, 2005.
5) Alunan v. Veloso, G.R. No. 29158, December 29, 1928.
6) Claridad v. Novella, G.R. No. L-12666, May 22, 1959.
7) Mercado v. Real, G.R. No. 45534, April 27, 1939.
8) Vda. De Albar v. De Carangdang, G.R. No. L-13361, December 29, 1959.
9) Pascual v. Angeles, G.R. No. 1511, July 26, 1905.
10) Pichay v. Querol, G.R. No. 4452, October 01, 1908.
11) Reyes v. Grey, G.R. No. 6969, December 20, 1911.
12) Tufexis v. Olaguera, G.R. No. 9865, December 24, 1915.
13) Municipality of Paoay, Ilocos Norte v. Manaois, G.R. No. L-3485, June 30, 1950.
14) Orozco y Mortera v. Araneta, G.R. No. L-3691, November 21, 1951.
15) Bachrach v. Seifert, G.R. No. L-2659, October 12, 1950.
16) Vda. de Bautista v. Marcos, G.R. No. L-17072, October 31, 1961.
17) Gaboya v. Cui, G.R. No. L-19614, March 27, 1971.
18) Hemedes v CA G.R. No. 107132. October 8, 1999.
19) Lopez v. Constantino, G.R. No. 48882, March 17, 1943.

EASEMENTS AND SERVITUDES (Arts. 613-693 NCC).

a) Easements
1) Definition
2) Characteristics – NCC 617-618
3) Classification – NCC 613-616, 619, 634, 688
4) Rights and obligations – NCC 624-633
5) Creation
i. By title – NCC 622, 624
ii. By will of the owners – NCC 619, 688-693
iii. By law – NCC 619, 634-636
iv. By prescription – NCC 620-622
6) Termination/abatement – NCC 631(2)
 Cid v. Javier, 108 Phil 239; G.R. No. L-14116. June 30, 1960.
 Francisco v. Paez, 54 Phil 239; G.R. No. 31118. January 14, 1930.
 Benedicto v. Court of Appeals, 134 Phil 122; G.R. No. L-22733. September 25,
1968.
 Iloilo Cold Storage v. Municipal Council, 24 Phil 471; G.R. No. 7012. March 26,
1913.
 Monteverde v. Generoso, 52 Phil 123; G.R. No. 28491. September 29, 1928.
 Hidalgo v. Balandan, 91 Phil 489; G.R. No. L-3422. June 13, 1952.
 Sitchon v. Aquino, 98 Phil 458; G.R. No. L-8191. February 27, 1956.
 Velasco v. Manila Electric Co., 40 SCRA 342; G.R. No. L-18390. August 6, 1971.
 Farrales v. City Mayor of Baguio, 44 SCRA 239; G.R. No. L-24245. April 11,
1972.
 Timoner v. People, 125 SCRA 830; G.R. No. L-62050. November 25, 1983.
 Estate of Gregoria Francisco v. Court of Appeals199 SCRA 595; G.R. No. 95279.
July 25, 1991.
 Tamin v. Court of Appeals, 208 SCRA 863; G.R. No. 97477. May 8, 1992.

7) Legal Easements

a) In favor of adjacent properties

RIGHT OF WAY – NCC 649-657


 Archbishop of Manila v. Roxas, 22 Phil 450; G.R. No. 7386. March 30, 1912.
 Cuaycong v. Benedicto, 37 Phil 781; G.R. No. 9989. March 13, 1918.
 Valderrama v. North Negros, 48 Phil 492; G.R. No. 23810. December 18, 1926.
 North Negros v. Hidalgo, 63 Phil 664; G.R. No. 42334. October 31, 1936.
 Bernardo v. Court of Appeals, 97 Phil 131; G.R. No. L-7248. May 28, 1955.
 Francisco v. Intermediate Appellate Court, 177 SCRA 527; G.R. No. 63996.
September 15, 1989.
 Costabella v. Court of Appeals, 193 SCRA 333; G.R. No. 80511. January 25,
1991.
 Encarnacion v. Court of Appeals, 195 SCRA 74; G.R. No. 77628. March 11,
1991.
 Solid Manila Corp. v. Bio Hong, 195 SCRA 748; G.R. No. 90596. April 8, 1991.
 Quimen v. Court of Appeals, 257 SCRA 163; G.R. No. 112331. May 29, 1996.

PARTY WALL – NCC 658-666


 Lao v. Heirs of Alburo, 33 Phil 48; G.R. No. 10372. December 24, 1915.

LIGHT & VIEW – NCC 667-673


 Cortes v. Yu-Tibo, 2 Phil 24; G.R. No.911; March 12, 1903.
 Fabie v. Lichauco, 11 Phil 14; G.R. No. 3598. July 24, 1908.
 Saenz v. Figueras Hermanos, 13 Phil 666; G.R. No. 2085. August 10, 1909.
 Amor v. Florentino, 74 Phil 403; G.R. No. 48384. October 11, 1943.
 Gargantos v. Yanon, 108 Phil 888; G.R. No. L-14652. June 30, 1960.

INTERMEDIATE DISTANCES – NCC 677-681

LATERAL & SUBJACENT SUPPORT – NCC 684-687

b) Pertaining to waters
Natural drainage – NCC 637, Pres. Decree 1067 (Water Code) 50
Riparian banks – NCC 638, Water Code 51
Drainage of buildings – NCC 674-676
Dam – NCC 639, 647, Water Code 38-39
Drawing water – NCC 640-641, Rep. Act 7942 (Mining Code), s. 73
Aqueduct – NCC 642-646, Water Code 13, 25, 46-49, 67

Sluice gate – NCC 647


 Tanedo v. Bernad, 165 SCRA 86; G.R. No. 66520. August 30, 1988.
 Ayala de Roxas v. City of Manila, 9 Phil 215; G.R. No. L-3144. November 19,
1907.
 Lunod v. Meneses, 11 Phil 128; G.R. No. 4223. August 19, 1908.
 Salazar v. Gutierrez, 33 SCRA 242; G.R. No. L-21727. May 29, 1970.
 Relova v. Lavarez, 9 Phil 149; G.R. No. L-3623. November 6, 1907.
c) Easement against nuisance – NCC 682-683
d) Special easements – Mining Code (RA 7942) Sec .75

b) Waters
1) Ownership – NCC 502-503, Water Code (P.D. 1067 as amended) Secs. 5-6
2) Use of public waters – NCC 504-506, Water Code 31-52
3) Waters in private property – NCC 507-511, Water Code
5-6, 13-14, 25, 32, 41
4) Subterranean waters – NCC 512-514, Water Code 8-9, 13,
17, 32, 39, 64
5) General provisions – NCC 515-518, Water Code (all
remaining provisions)

NUISANCE (Arts. 694-707 NCC)


 Smart Communications, Inc. v. Aldecoa, G.R. No. 166330, September 11, 2013.
MODES OF ACQUIRING OWNERSHIP
Occupation, intellectual creation, donation, etc.
DONATION
A. Nature of donations.
B. Requisites of donations.
C. Kinds of donations.
1) As to taking effect: inter vivos, mortis causa, propter nuptias.
2) As to cause or consideration.
3) As to effectivity or extinguishment.
4) Importance of classification.
5) Characteristics of a donation mortis causa.
6) Distinction between mortis causa and inter vivos.
D. Who may not give or receive donations.
E. Who may give or receive donations.
F. Acceptance of donations: who may accept; time of acceptance .
G. Form of donations.
H. What may be donated.
I. Effect of donation.
J. Revocation and reduction of donations.

Cases:
 Shopper's Paradise Realty & Development Corp. v. Roque, G.R. No. 148775,
January 13, 2004.
 Castro v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. L-20122, April 28, 1969.
 C-J Yulo & Sons Inc. v. Roman Catholic Bishop of San Pablo Inc., G.R. No.
133705, March 31, 2005.
 Sec. of Education v. Heirs of Dulay, Sr., G.R. No. 164748, January 27, 2006.
 Heirs of Doronio v. Heirs of Doronio, G.R. No. 169454, December 27, 2007.

PRESCRIPTION
A. Concept and kinds of prescription.
B. Prescription of ownership and other real rights.
C. Prescription of actions.

Cases:
 Heirs of Malabanan v. Republic, G.R. No. 179987, September 03, 2013.
 Heirs of Padilla v. Magdua, G.R. No. 176858, September 15, 2010.
 Cutanda v. Heirs of Cutanda, G.R. No. 109215, July 11, 2000.