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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY 1

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Chapter 1

THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

Introduction

Management is very important in every institution without it no institution can able to

achieve its desired goals. Management as defined by Abelos et. al. (2006) is the practice of

consciously and continually shaping organizations, all organizations have people who are

responsible for helping them achieve their goals. It is also a specialty in dealing with matters

of time and human relations as they arise in organizations. Furthermore Jones and Georges

(2006) explained that management is the planning, organizing, leading, and controlling of

human and other resources to achieve organizational goals efficiently and effectively. A

school as an educational institution, it is inevitable to have a good management practice in

order to fulfill its desired goals.

A school is an organization that seeks to educate individual through the teaching and

learning process. As an organization, it composes of different personnel or members working

together to achieve its desired goals and one of those personnel is the teacher. The teacher is

the main working force of the school and the core of the teaching and learning process. Since

the job of the teacher is to teach, it is very important that the teacher possesses the art of

teaching. Zulueta (2006) stated that teaching has always been thought of as one of the noblest

of professions, and a teacher, likewise, one of the noblest human beings. It is believed that an

individual, who possessed a noble heart, will be willing to assume a great responsibility to

society the development of good citizens, the inculcation in and cultivation of the mind, the

heart, and the soul of the youth, the love of beauty, goodness and truth. In line with his noble

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commitment to facilitate learning and to help pursue thrusts and programs, teachers are

expected to uphold the professional standard of teaching profession by manifesting a genuine

enthusiasm and pride in their calling.

According to Good and Brophy (2002), effective teachers have three characteristics

that are essential to support student learning: have positive expectations for student success;

good classroom managers; and know how to provide instruction.

The classroom is the second home of both teacher and students. Teacher inside the

classroom plays a lot of significant roles. According to Corpus and Salandanan (2007), one of

the most important roles that teacher play is that of a classroom manager. Furthermore

Salandanan (2009) also added that a teacher as a classroom manager maintains order and

discipline so as to bring forth a favorable and enjoyable learning environment. Effective

teaching and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom. When chaos

becomes the norm, both teacher and student suffer. In contrast, a well managed classroom

provides an environment in which teaching and learning can flourish. But a well managed

classroom does not just come out from nowhere. It takes a good deal of effort to create that

conducive classroom climate. The person who is most responsible for creating it is the

teacher. Likewise, Zulueta (2006) also agreed that the teachers as manager in the progressive

school are the primary responsible for the effective management of the various activities

directly related to the learning process. The teacher provides direct instruction, keeps

students on task, asks appropriate questions and emphasizes comprehension, monitoring, and

learning skills.

Meador (2004) stated that one of the biggest challenges for all teachers and

especially first year teachers is how to handle classroom management. For Kelly (2013),
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classroom management is the term educators use to describe methods of preventing

misbehavior and dealing with it if it arises. In other words, it is the techniques teachers use to

maintain control in the classroom. Classroom management is one of the most feared parts of

teaching for new teachers. For the students, lack of effective classroom management can

mean that learning is reduced in the classroom. For the teacher, it can cause unhappiness and

stress and eventually lead to individuals leaving the teaching profession.

Public educational institution in the Division of Pampanga is committed in providing

progressive education by developing the full potential of each student. Holistic development

is the primary concern. It can only be attained by providing every student with the facilities

that encourage learning and open the avenue for it. Since fruitful learning can be achieved in

a well-managed learning environment, the school is looked upon as the agency of society to

provide these opportunities.

Since a well-managed classroom environment is a prerequisite of an effective

teaching-learning process, the researcher seeks to find out the classroom management skills

of public secondary teachers in Lubao, Division of Pampanga.

Statement of the Problem

This study aimed to answer: What are the classroom management skills of the public

high school teachers in Lubao, Division of Pampanga for the School Year 2013-2014.

Specifically, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. How may the profile of the respondents be described as to:

1.1 Age;
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1.2 Gender;

1.3 Civil status;

1.4 Highest educational attainment; and

1.5 Length of service?

2. How may the classroom management skills of the respondents be described along the

following:

2.2 Organizational plan;

2.2 Scheduling;

2.3 Record keeping;

2.4 Physical environment;

2.5 Discipline; and

2.6 Establishing routine?

3. Is there significant difference on the classroom management skills of the respondents

when they were grouped as to:

3.1 Age;

3.2 Gender;

3.3 Civil status;

3.4 Highest educational attainment; and

3.5 Length of service?

4. What is the implication of the findings to the classroom instruction?


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Significance of the Study

Since teachers are primarily responsible in the proper management of their classroom

in order to facilitate and maximize learning and to secure a safety environment, it is

necessary for them to have a good management skill. The findings of this research will be of

great help to the following:

To the school administrators, this research will provide them the profile of their

teacher’s skills in classroom management. They will become aware of the strengths and

weaknesses of the teacher in order for them to help their teachers in any means.

To the teachers, this research will serve as diagnosis of their classroom management

skills, a reflection of themselves and of other teachers. They will know what skills they need

to develop. They can also compare and contrast their skills with one another so that they can

support one another for their own improvement.

To the students, this research will benefit them in attaining their educational needs by

providing them a harmonious, hazard-free, and conducive learning environment so that their

potentials can be developed to the fullest.

Scope and Delimitation

The study aimed to determine the classroom management skills of the public high

school teachers in Lubao, Division of Pampanga during the School Year 2013-2014.

This study includes the profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender, civil status,

highest educational attainment, and length of service and their classroom management skills

in terms of organizational plan, scheduling, record keeping, physical environment, discipline,

and establishing routines.


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The respondents were limited to the public high school teachers in Lubao, Division

of Pampanga.
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Notes in Chapter 1

Abelos, Alex V. et. al. (2006). Organization and Management. Malabon: Education
and Publishing House.

Jones, Gareth R. and Jennifer M. George (2006). Contemporary Management. New


York: McGraw-Hill Irvin.

Zulueta, Francisco M. (2006). Principles and Methods of Teaching. Mandaluyong


City: National Book Store.

Good, Thomas L. and Jere E. Brophy (2002). Looking in Classrooms. 7th edition.
Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Corpuz, Brenda B., and Gloria G. Salandanan (2007). Principles of Teaching 1.


Quezon City: Lorimar Publishing Co.

Salandanan, Gloria G. (2007). Elements of Good Teaching. Quezon City: Lorimar


Publishing, Inc.

Meador, Derrick (2013). Classroom Management 5 Effective Classroom Management


Strategies. Website copyright by About.com. 2013. Retrieved at http://teaching.about.com/
od/classroommanagement/tp/Classroom-Management.

Kelly, Melissa (2013). Definition of Classroom Management. Website copyright by


About.com, 2013. Retrieved at http://712educators.about.com/od/classroomhelpers/g/
Definition-Of-Classroom-Management.htm. Retrieved on September 22, 2013.
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Chapter 2

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This chapter presents relevant theories, related literature, and studies that are

significant to the problem under investigation. The researcher made use of foreign and local

studies to determine the similarities and differences of those studies with the present study.

Studies made by writers were analyzed to serve as substantial reference and to provide

valuable information in enhancing the present study.

A. Relevant Theories

This study on the classroom management skills of teachers in public high school in

Lubao, Division of Pampanga is premised on the most significant and commonly applied

theories in the field of works namely: goal setting theory, role theory, image theory,

and balance theory.

According to Locke & Latham’s (1990) as cited by Miles (2012), the Goal Setting

Theory rests on the belief that life is a process of goal oriented action. Goals can be defined

as a result that individuals try to accomplish. In organizations, people are motivated to direct

their attention toward and achieve goals. Goals have both an internal and an external aspect

for individuals. The highest levels of performance are usually reached when goals are both

difficult and specific. The more difficult a goal assigned to someone, the greater the resulting

performance level. When a specific, difficult goal is set for employees, then goal attainment

provides those employees with an objective, unambiguous basis for evaluating the

effectiveness of their performance.

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This theory is related to the study because in order for the teachers to have a sense of

direction, goals are necessary. These goals will serve as guide for the day to day activities

and also criteria of what is expected to achieve for the students.

According to Biddle (1979) as cited by Miles (2012), the central idea in Role Theory

is that people are socialized or conditioned to play roles in a way that helps maintain a stable

society or social order. Role theory examines behaviors that are characteristic of people

within situation or contexts and various processes that produce, explain, or predict those

behaviors. Role theory contains four major underlying propositions. First, some behaviors are

patterned and form a role, and are characteristically performed by a person within a situation

or context. Second, roles often involve social position, or are characteristic of a person in the

role who shares common identity, such as the role of a teacher, doctor, or nurse. Third, roles

often have expectations meaning that people know when someone is playing a role, and so

have expectations about what behaviors that person will perform when playing the role.

Fourth, roles persist one’s time because they are often embedded in larger social system.

Fifth, people must be taught roles, or be socialized into them, and may find joy or sorrow

when play different roles.

This theory is related to the study because teachers play various roles in a typical

classroom, and one of the most important roles is a classroom manager. Effective teaching

and learning cannot take place in a poorly managed classroom.

The Image theory of Mitchell & Beach (1990) as cited by Miles (2012) focuses on an

individual making decision in the context of a relationship or may later be changed. It offers

a portrait of behavioral decision processes, decision are being made intuitively and

automatically since people most often make decisions using simple, easy, non-analytic, and
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rapid processes for reached decision, even when the decision has considerable importance to

the decision made. It posits that there are three types of images: the value image; the

trajectory image; and the strategic images. The value image comprises the decision mater's

principles, such as morals, ethics, values, ideals, standards of equity, justice, loyalty, and

goodness, taken together with his or her moral, civic, and religious beliefs. The value image

represents the ''self-evident truths'' for which the decision makes stands. It helps the decision

makes determine which goals are worthy of pursuits and which are not. The trajectory image

refers to the future state that the decision makes is trying to achieve, the agenda that the

decision makes in trying to follow. The strategic image comprises the various plans,

strategies, and tactics that have been adopted for achieving the trajectory image.

This theory is related to the study because a teacher tends to project a good image to

the students. It could be of a parent which shows love and care for his students and at the

same time a person in authority that keep all things in order inside the classroom. If a teacher

projects the right image to his student it will lead to a good relationship with his students.

In the Balance Theory of Heider (1958), the main idea in management is that

maintaining a harmonious balance of sentiments is implicit goal in interaction with other

people. A major assumption of the theory is that people tend to organize their thoughts,

beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors in meaningful, sensible, and consistent ways. People are

aware of their surroundings and of the events that take peace their environment through a

process of perception. People are affected by their environment and cause changes in their

environment. People have wants and sentiments with regards to others, have a sense of

belonging with others, and hold others accountable to certain standards. All of this
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determines the roles that other people play in person's life space and now that individual

reacts to other people.

A key concept in the theory is ''sentiments''. Sentiments are positive or negative

valuations that an individual has to toward other people objects. A sentiment refers to the way

a person feels about something, such as another person or an object (Miles, 2012).

This theory is related to the study because classroom management has the great effect

on student achievement. Since students cannot learn in a chaotic, poorly managed classroom

it is very important that the teacher maintained the balance inside the classroom. In order to

achieve these teachers need to give proper actions that provide clear consequences for

unacceptable behavior likewise teachers need to recognize and reward

acceptable behavior.

These four theories have great relevance to the present study because they set up the

different principles needed in order to establish a harmonious relationship between the

members of an educational institution especially teacher-student relationship. Teachers could

use these theories as frameworks in achieving their desired goals and objectives. These goals

will also serve as guide on the roles teachers play and the image they project in order to

maintain balance inside the classroom. This could ensure that optimum, meaningful, and

maximum learning experiences are provided for the students. This serves as an assurance that

the programs of education are realized and the goals of education are achieved.

B. Related literature

Foreign Sources

According to Seda (2008), from the beginning of teaching experience, teachers

commonly express their concern about controlling the students and creating a disciplined
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environment in order to create a proper atmosphere for learning and classroom

management that is commonly mentioned as the most intricate aspect of teaching. Today,

classroom management is becoming an increasing problem for teachers and administrators in

primary schools because of changes in educational environments.

Cowley (2003) added that developing and maintaining a positive atmosphere in the

classroom is absolutely essential for effective teaching and for good behavior management.

Although creating a positive atmosphere in the classroom takes hard work and often a great

deal of energy, in the long run it will be making a life far easier for the teachers.

Classroom management according to Peace Corps (2003) is the teacher’s behaviors

that facilitate learning. A well-managed classroom increases learning because students spend

more time on task. The following are strategies towards effective classroom management:

create an effective learning environment; establish classroom procedures; create a

motivational environment; make every minute count; keep everyone engaged; teach life

skills and good learning habits; be creative; and use project design and

management techniques.

Weinstein and Evertson (2006), characterize classroom management as the actions

taken to create an environment that supports and facilitates academic and social–emotional

learning. Toward this goal, teachers must develop caring, supportive relationships with and

among students; organize and implement instruction in ways that optimize students’ access to

learning; use group management methods that encourage students’ engagement in academic

tasks; promote the development of students’ social skills and self–regulation; and use

appropriate interventions to assist students with behavior problems. Garrett (2012) also

describes classroom management as a process consisting of key tasks that teachers must
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attend to in order to development an environment conducive to learning. These tasks include:

organizing the physical environment, establishing rules and routines, developing caring

relationships, implementing, engaging instruction and preventing and responding to

discipline problems.

Marzano and Marzano (2003) highlighted that classroom management is a key to

high student achievement. In their research, they found out that teachers' actions in their

classrooms have twice the impact on student achievement as do school policies

regarding curriculum, assessment, staff collegiality, and community involvement.

Effective classroom manager provides effective instruction, so management is an integral

part of learning process.

According to Oakley (2010), to be a good teacher the following classroom

management skills are needed: authority; knowledge; individualization: patience; and

time-management.

Classroom management is closely linked to issues of motivation, discipline

and respect. Methodologies remain a matter of passionate debate amongst teachers;

approaches vary depending on the beliefs a teacher holds regarding educational psychology.

A large part of traditional classroom management involves behavior modification, although

many teachers see using behavioral approaches alone as overly simplistic. Many teachers

establish rules and procedures at the beginning of the school year. Gootman (2008) stated

that rules give students concrete direction to ensure that one’s expectation becomes a reality.

According to Denti (2012), every teacher dreams of the perfect well-behaved class,

but the reality can be quite different. In order to maintain control of the classroom and to

promote an enhanced classroom environment the following strategies might be of help:


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improve teaching and classroom management skills; enhance knowledge base; and

maintain a positive attitude.

Foley (2002), stated that classroom management, especially with elementary and

junior high age students, never ends. It is an ongoing process, but once the foundation is laid,

it only takes occasional reminders. Some classroom management tips to help teachers settle

problems, or prevent them from occurring, so that they can spend more of the classroom hour

on teaching and learning are: take charge of the class; focus on the disruptive students; let

students choose their seats; give incentives to do their best on assignments; keep an eye on

the students; and establish consequences for misbehaving.

Furthermore, he stated that good classroom management starts the first day of school.

Once students learn there will be consequences for misbehavior, they usually come around.

The following three steps to help that will set up consequences: determine what

consequences will be effective with your students; tell students that there will be

consequences for misbehavior; and follow through with consequences for misbehavior.

Barbetta and Bicard (2005) said that in an effort to maintain order in the classroom,

sometimes teachers can actually make the problems worse. Therefore, it is important to

consider some of the basic mistakes commonly made when implementing classroom

behavior management strategies. For example, a common mistake made by teachers is to

define the problem behavior by how it looks without considering its function.

More so, they mentioned that interventions are more likely to be effective when they

are individualized to address the specific function of the problem behavior. Two students

with similar looking misbehavior may require entirely different intervention strategies if the

behaviors are serving different functions. Teachers need to understand that they need to be
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able to change the ways they do things from year to year, as the children change. Not every

approach works for every child. Teachers need to learn to be flexible. Another common

mistake is for the teacher to become increasingly frustrated and negative when an approach is

not working. The teacher may raise his voice or increase adverse consequences in an effort to

make the approach work. This type of interaction may impair the teacher-student

relationship. Instead of allowing this to happen, it is often better to simply try

a new approach.

More so, they emphasized that inconsistency in expectations and consequences is an

additional mistake that can lead to dysfunction in the classroom. Teachers must be consistent

in their expectations and consequences to help ensure that students understand that rules

being enforced. Hence, teachers should communicate expectations to students clearly and be

sufficiently committed to the classroom management procedures to enforce

them consistently.

McTutyre (2007) enumerated the three essential skills that are needed for effective

classroom management namely: Patience. Patience is a virtue and classroom patience is a

necessity in order to maintain good working relationships with the students; Determination.

Effective classroom management takes skill, but it also takes determination. It is needed to

determine and establish authority in the classroom at all costs, or deterioration in student

behavior is expected. The teachers with the most effective classroom management skills are

the teachers who are determined to follow through, and apply their rules consistently,

whatever the situation; and Consistency. If there is no consistency in the classroom, effective

classroom management is hard to achieve. The teachers who have the least problems with

student behavior are the teachers who deal with the students in a consistent fashion.
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According to Kelly (2012), classroom discipline and management causes the most

fear and consternation in new teachers. However, classroom management is a skill that is not

only learned but practiced daily. Furthermore she enumerated ten tips that can lead to

successful classroom management and discipline namely: start the school year with a good

classroom management and discipline plan; fairness is key; deal with disruptions with as

little interruption as possible; avoid confrontations in front of students; stop disruptions with

a little humor; keep high expectations in your class; over plan; be consistent; make rules

understandable; and start fresh every day.

As stated by Rossiter (2004), classroom management is essential to effective

teaching. If students are unruly, disruptive or simply not paying attention, it's impossible for

the teacher to lead them through their lessons and for them to learn what they need to learn.

New teachers are not always prepared for managing their classrooms, and even experienced

teachers can find themselves exasperated by uncooperative students. Classroom management

skills can help make a classroom a more conducive environment for learning. Successful

classroom management requires managing content by moving the lesson along at an

appropriate speed to keep students engaged but not overwhelmed, as well as monitoring

behavior and encouraging students to be appropriate and respectful of one another. The

teacher also must manage the classroom as a social system by encouraging relationships

among the students that foster cooperative behavior with one another and with the teacher.

The more the teacher can communicate to students that he really cares by showing a personal

interest beyond the class work, the more students will want to cooperate because they see the

teacher as a person with whom they have a personal relationship. This can be accomplished
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by having genuine conversations with students about such things as hobbies

and personal interests.

Tronshaw (2001) said that teaching is a noble and rewarding profession, but definitely

not without its trying moments. Applying classroom management skills when the students try

a teacher’s patience will help him maintain his/her cool. Challenging issues will arise in any

classroom, but if teachers have tools in place to deal with them, they will be able to take a

deep breath and remember why they had chosen the profession in the first place. The most

important element of classroom management is clearly communicating to the students what

type of behavior is expected and what type would not be tolerated. Outline each expectation

for behavior on the first day of class, and periodically reiterate them over the course of the

school year. Leave the rules posted in a highly visible location for easy reference. Make sure

the students understand the consequences for bending or breaking the rules. When students

do not abide by the rules, have a plan of action ready, such as written warnings, infraction

slips, detention, visits to the office or suspension of certain activities. A good classroom

manager is organized and has an agenda planned for each day. Students who are used to a

routine are less likely to deviate from it. Students reflect back what they see; if they see

chaos, they will give chaos. If they see order, they will likely reflect order. Be flexible; if

events call to deviate from the agenda, that is fine, but get back on track as quickly as

possible. Students respond best when a schedule is set and followed as closely as

possible.

According to Diamond (2003), classroom management is the term teachers and

instructors used to describe the act of managing their classroom and students to ensure that

stressful and non-educational situations are avoided and students learn topics and subjects
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effectively. Classroom management involves more than the management and discipline of the

students but also the availability of additional information on topics. Effective classroom

management will make life less stressful for teachers and ensure that students are provided

with the correct tools and a calm environment in which to learn.

Classroom management will differ from one teacher to another because of the

teacher's personality, teaching styles, preparedness and number of students in the classroom

at any given time. Effective classroom management involves teachers being prepared for

lessons, motivating students, providing proper and effective discipline, making students feel

comfortable, building student self-esteem and designing constructive and

entertaining lesson plans.

Classroom management is important for effective teaching and ensuring that students

learn the material rather than committing it to short-term memory for regurgitation of facts

on tests. Engaging students in lectures by moving around the room, asking questions, and

employing both verbal and nonverbal teaching methods ensure that students are paying

attention and taking more from the learning experience than simple facts. Engaging students

boosts their confidence and makes the lesson more effective.

Bear and Manning (2008), suggested preventative approaches to classroom

management, which involve creating a positive classroom community with mutual respect

between teacher and student. Teachers using the preventative approach offer warmth,

acceptance, and support unconditionally - not based on a student’s behavior. Fair rules and

consequences are established and students are given frequent and consistent feedback

regarding their behavior. One way to establish this kind of classroom environment is through

the development and use of a classroom contract. The contract should be created by both
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students and the teacher. In the contract, students and teachers decide and agree on how to

treat one another in the classroom. The group also decides on and agrees to what the group

will do should there be a violation of the contract. Rather than a consequence, the group

should decide on a way to fix the problem through either class discussion, peer mediation,

counseling, or by one on one conversations leading to a solution to the situation.

Preventative techniques also involve the strategic use of praise and rewards to inform

students about their behavior rather than as a means of controlling student behavior. In order

to use rewards to inform students about their behavior, teachers must emphasize the value of

the behavior that is rewarded and also explain to students the specific skills they

demonstrated to earn the reward. Teachers should also encourage student collaboration in

selecting rewards and defining appropriate behaviors that will earn rewards.

As explained by Kizlik (2012), classroom management and management of student

conduct are skills that teachers acquire and hone over time. These skills almost never "jell"

until after a minimum of few years of teaching experience. To be sure, effective teaching

requires considerable skill in managing the myriad of tasks and situations that occur in the

classroom each day. Skills such as effective classroom management are central to teaching

and require "common sense," consistency, a sense of fairness, and courage. These skills also

require that teachers understand in more than one way the psychological and developmental

levels of their students. The skills associated with effective classroom management are only

acquired with practice, feedback, and a willingness to learn from mistakes.

Linsin (2013) accorded that one reason many teachers struggle with classroom

management is because they confuse motivation and accountability. Although related, they

are two separate areas of classroom management. To be effective, they must remain separate.
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Teachers run into trouble when their attempts to motivate students to behave interfere with or

replace the accountability process. It’s a fly-by-the-seat-of-the-pants method of classroom

management that leaves them stressed and scratching their heads wondering what they are

doing wrong. Keeping them separate, however, it can be magic.

There are only two effective ways to hold students accountable. The first, which is a

response to individual misbehavior, is to dispassionately follow the classroom management

plan. A student breaks a rule and a teacher should enforce a consequence. It is as simple as

that. The second is employed when the class as a whole fails to follow directions or perform

a routine as taught. It entails stopping students in their tracks, rewinding to the beginning of

the transitional period or the transition itself and starting again. Both ways are action-

oriented. In other words, a teacher should do something in response to misbehavior, which is

a key characteristic of effective accountability. Any and all talk is held to a minimum. The

wonderful thing about both methods is that there is no guesswork. A teacher knows precisely

what to do in response to every incident of misbehavior individual or otherwise. The central

message to students is that the teacher do not choose to enforce a consequence, they do by

their behavior.

Local Sources

Classroom management according to Bilbao, et. al. (2006) is an integral part of the

teaching process. It suggests providing a classroom environment that is conducive to

learning, such as appropriate time scheduling for various activities and an orderly placement

of furniture and instructional materials. A clean and well lighted area, together with a

comfortable seating arrangement, make the classroom an inviting place for promoting
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interaction and a much welcome feeling of togetherness. Records of performance are well-

kept and reported to keep tract of progress. Discipline indicating complete behavior control is

well established.

Zulueta (2006) stated that classroom management is an integral part of teaching. In

order that a teacher can teach effectively, he must be able to manage his students. No matter

how much potential teacher has, if he is unable to control students in his classroom, little

learning will take place. Furthermore, it is perceived that inadequate classroom management

is widely considered by the public to be one of the major educational problems. The

classroom cannot function well without the teacher. The success of the teaching activities in

the classroom depends to a great extent on the ability of the teacher’s

classroom management.

Furthermore, he enumerated some approaches to classroom management, these are:

Assertive Approach by Lee and Marlene Carter. This approach to classroom management

expects the teacher to specify rules of behavior and consequence for disobeying them. These

rules and consequences should be communicated clearly to the students during the find day

of classes; Business-Academic Approach by Carolyn M. Evertson and Edmund T. Emmer. A

well-managed classroom that is free from disruptions, where students behave in an orderly

manner and are involved enthusiastically in learning, exist where teachers have a clear idea

of the type of classroom conditions, student’s behavior and instructional activities they wish

to produce; Behavior Modification Approach by James Watson and B. F. Skinner. Teachers

utilizing this approach spend little time on the personal history of the learners or on searching

for the reasons or causes brought about by a particular problem. Teachers strive to increase

this involvement in the occurrence of appropriate behavior through a systematic and


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inconsistent system of giving records and to reduce the possibility of in appropriate behavior

through punishment or penalty for misbehavior; and Group Managerial Approach by Jacob S.

Kounin. It emphasized the important responding immediately to group student behavior that

might be undesirable in order to prevent problems rather than having to deal with them after

they come up. If a student misbehaves, and the teacher stops the misbehavior immediately, it

remains an isolated which is not noticed, is ignored, or is allowed to continue for too long, it

might spread throughout the group and eventually becomes more serious

and chronic.

As stated by Acero, et. al. (2007), the management of a classroom includes control of

its physical conditions as well as the materials of instruction. It also includes care of the

routine factors and discipline of the class. Some factors that fall under physical conditions

such as the size of the room, its lighting and ventilation are not within the teacher’s control

but a resourceful teacher can help make improvements to make the classroom a place

which is conducive to learning.

According to Garcia (2005), classroom management consists of three principal

components, namely; leadership, classroom atmosphere and discipline or control. Classroom

leadership according to Doyle (1986) as cited by Garcia refers to the actions and behaviors

manifested by a teacher to influence the learners to put foster effort toward the achievement

of the goals and objectives of instruction.

Tenedero (2011) stated that the classroom learning environment involves design,

seating arrangement, temperature, color, sound, light, and peripheral learning materials.

Generally, the seating arrangement is linear for care on the part of the teacher to check

attendance. Teacher-factor is very important. A highly motivated teacher excites and


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emotionally provokes students to learn. Almost always, a boring teacher produces

a boring class.

According to Sahagun (2006), the following areas are which beginning teacher

frequently need help include: letting up a classroom for the first time; learning school

routines and produces; designing lesson plan; developing classroom management skill;

responding effectively to behavior and discipline problems; teaching with limited resources;

motivating students and engaging them in class activities; creating a community of learners;

working effectively with minority learners, learning disabled and special need students;

understanding social and environmental factors that may contribute to student behavior and

performance; assessing student performance; understanding new government and district

standards and assessments, and how they affect teaching strategies; understanding procedures

and policies related to curriculum adoption; learning to communicate with and involve

parents; developing organization and time management skills; identifying opportunities for

professional development; and connecting theories and teaching methods learned in college

to classroom practice.

As for Pingol (2006), the following are tips for effective teaching on the first day of

school: plan the work and work the plan; discuss the expectations with regards to

participation, discipline, and regulations in the class and school at a whole; be prepared to

involve the pupils on the first day in some exciting lessons; teaching begins where the

learner is; start the year off by presenting a firm image of oneself; command respect; be

confident; be flexible; take some calculated risks; and work at staying healthy.

Santiago (2004) stated the different aspect that an effective teacher should focus on

classroom management, these are; Firstly Correct habits; Habits refer mainly to an
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extensively practiced and well-established manner of behavior. The development of habits of

planning, organizing, and presenting materials should be such that they indicate basic

assumption-namely that learning is not a halter of performing for teachers, but rather is a

process in which learners must be actively engaged. The classroom leaders can develop

correct habits for this function of by having an open mind which is receptive to new ideas for

making improvement, resulting in the formation of better habits; Secondly Physical

classroom environment. It was discovered that under good physical conditions, students not

only learn better but also conduct themselves in a manner which makes bitter learning

possible a successful teacher automatically considers the arranges it necessary; and Lastly

Good discipline. It is just a matter of establishing control or rapport with the students.

One of the components of classroom management is time management. According to

Honrejas (2005), many teachers lose control of time by allowing a number of time wasters to

occur. Furthermore, he enumerated some tips how to save time: start on time; give clear

instruction; prepare visual information ahead of time; move distribution of handouts quickly;

expedite subgroup reporting; don’t let discussion drag on; swiftly obtain volunteers; be

prepared for tired or lethargic groups; quicken the pace of activities from time to time; and

get the class’ prompt attention.

C. Related Studies

Foreign Studies

As presented in the study entitled “Evaluation Study of Competencies of Secondary

School Teachers in Punjab in the Context of Classroom Management” by Saeed (2009) who

shared that there are so many characteristics and traits of personality and all the
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characteristics, qualities and competencies need training, grooming, improvement and

development. The best classroom environment is one that results in efficient learning.

Discipline involves employing guidance and teaching techniques to encourage students to

become self-directive and therefore to create an atmosphere conducive to learning. Teachers

are decision-makers as they manage the daily routines of their classrooms. Some teachers

squeeze out every minute of learning possible. They are highly organized and well prepared,

and they constantly think and plan ahead. This doesn't mean that they create a cold classroom

atmosphere where students feel unwelcome. Rather, they are warm and enthusiastic teachers

who are simply well organized and equally well versed in teaching. The major objective of

the study was as to investigate the problems of classroom management of the secondary

school teachers in Punjab. The population of the study consisted of the heads of the teacher

training institutions, teacher educators, heads of secondary schools, secondary school

teachers, and students. The sample included randomly selected ten heads of teacher training

institutions, 50 teacher trainers, 800 hundred heads of secondary schools, 4,000 secondary

school teachers and 4,000 students. Four questionnaires (one each for heads, teacher trainers,

teachers and students) were developed for collection of data. Data were collected, analyzed

and interpreted in the light of objective by using the Chi- Square. It was concluded from the

study that the majority of respondents agreed that secondary school teachers were aware of

time management skills, kept the classroom environment conducive for learning, and

improved the learning skills of the students by using different behavior modification

techniques. The majority of respondents agreed that secondary school teachers were dealing

with the students in a non-psychological way; it was the common areas in which secondary

school teachers had weak competencies. For improving the classroom management skills, in-
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service short courses should be planned and attendance of secondary school teachers in such

courses should be made obligatory. For maintaining the discipline in the class, teacher should

be trained in such a way that they properly understand each and every method with its proper

use in particular situations. Short courses, seminars and symposia should be organized on a

regular basis to refresh the knowledge of working secondary teachers. Teachers should

understand human, as well as educational psychology and apply it in their teaching process in

the classroom.

Similarly, O’Neill and Stephensen (2011), in their study titled “Teacher Classroom

Behaviour Management Preparation in Undergraduate Primary Education in Australia: A

Web-Based Investigation. Australian Journal of Teacher Education,” elaborated that

classroom behavior management is an essential skill required by all teacher graduates to

facilitate instruction in curriculum content. It described the classroom behavior management

(CBM) content on offer in Australian undergraduate primary education programs. To date, no

nationwide studies exist that report the CBM instruction on offer in pre-service teacher

education programs. Thirty-five primary teacher preparation programs were reviewed. Thirty

programs (85.7%) contained mandatory course-work in CBM, 108 units contained relevant

content, and 33 of those were stand-alone CBM units (30.6%). More units were found with

CBM content embedded within methods or inclusion units than stand-alone CBM units. The

mean hours of CBM instruction per mandatory stand-alone unit was 31.46 hours, 25.5 for

stand-alone electives, and 2.3 hours within embedded units. The content of CBM units is

reported as well as the research interests of the unit conveners and instructors.

In the study of Webster-Stratton, et al. (2008) titled “Preventing Conduct Problems

and Improving School Readiness: Evaluation of the Incredible Years Teacher and Child
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Training Programs in High-Risk Schools,” emphasized that school readiness, conceptualized

as three components including emotional self-regulation, social competence, and

family/school involvement, as well as absence of conduct problems play a key role in young

children's future interpersonal adjustment and academic success. Unfortunately, exposure to

multiple poverty-related risks increases the odds that children will demonstrate increased

emotional deregulation, fewer social skills, less teacher/parent involvement and more

conduct problems. Consequently intervention offered to socio-economically disadvantaged

populations that includes a social and emotional school curriculum and trains teachers in

effective classroom management skills and in promotion of parent-school involvement would

seem to be a strategic strategy for improving young children's school readiness, leading to

later academic success and prevention of the development of conduct disorders. The study’s

randomized trial evaluated the Incredible Years (IY) Teacher Classroom Management and

Child Social and Emotion curriculum (Dinosaur School) as a universal prevention program

for children enrolled in Head Start, kindergarten, or first grade classrooms in schools selected

because of high rates of poverty. Trained teachers offered the Dinosaur School curriculum to

all their students in bi-weekly lessons throughout the year. They sent home weekly dinosaur

homework to encourage parents' involvement. Part of the curriculum involved promotion of

lesson objectives through the teachers' continual use of positive classroom management skills

focused on building social competence and emotional self-regulation skills as well as

decreasing conduct problems. Matched pairs of schools were randomly assigned to

intervention or control conditions. Results from multi-level models on a total of 153 teachers

and 1,768 students are presented. As the study revealed, children and teachers were observed

in the classrooms by blinded observers at the beginning and the end of the school year.
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Results indicated that intervention teachers used more positive classroom management

strategies and their students showed more social competence and emotional self-regulation

and fewer conduct problems than control teachers and students. Intervention teachers

reported more involvement with parents than control teachers. Satisfaction with the program

was very high regardless of grade levels. Conclusions: These findings provide support for the

efficacy of this universal preventive curriculum for enhancing school protective factors and

reducing child and classroom risk factors faced by socio-economically

disadvantaged children.

Having connection is the study of Reglin, et al. (2012) with the title “The Effect of a

Professional Development Classroom Management Model on At-Risk Elementary Students'

Misbehaviors.” The problem in the study was that at-risk elementary school students had too

many classroom disruptive behaviors. The purpose was to investigate the effect a

Professional Development Classroom Management Model would have on reducing these

students' misbehaviors. The study implemented a classroom management model to improve

the classroom management skills of the 11 teachers who worked with the 224 students in the

four grade levels. The generic research design was the concurrent mixed methods research

design. Descriptive statistics were calculated; the inferential statistical model was the two-

sided z test. Findings for research question 1 showed the mean number of discipline referrals

decreased by 11 referrals. Findings for research question 2 showed the number of

suspensions decreased by 26 suspensions.

Meanwhile, Koki et. al. (2000), in their research entitled “Prevention and Intervention

for Effective Classroom Organization and Management in Pacific Classrooms,” conclude that

the purpose of classroom organization and management is helping students to become self-
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initiating and responsible for their own behavior and learning so that they achieve well in

school. The teacher's responsibility is to provide the framework and to intervene judiciously

when appropriate. To do this, the teacher must be constantly aware of preventive and

interventional considerations when responding to inappropriate student behavior. This skill is

an essential requirement for teacher competence. It was also found out that current research

for effective classroom management supports a broader definition of classroom management

than formerly reflects a change in direction. In a preventive classroom, the bottom line is not

curtailing student misbehavior but setting the stage so that such problems do not occur.

Instead of focusing entirely on what the teacher can do to control students, researchers are

exploring methods creating, implementing, and maintaining a classroom environment that

support student learning.

Similarly, the study of Toprakci (2012) titled “Rethinking Classroom Management: A

New Perspective, a New Horizon,” suggested a new perspective and a new horizon by

analyzing the concept of classroom management in the literature of traditional classroom

management from a scientific and dictionary view. It may be said that there are serious

problems regarding the settlement of the meaning of "classroom management" in the

educational literature, where thousands of studies are carried out at a speed that almost could

consume the concept. In order to understand what this concept means, making a small

research about what the concept in the given language means and finding out the common

points in the literature may be a contributory study. As be seen that, the basic analysis in

dictionary, the title of "Classroom Management" is used incorrectly and it neglected the mean

of "Class" word. However, the classroom is only a room of class in which teaching or

learning activities can take place. Then, it corrected to use the title of "Class Management" or
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"Class Based Management" because of "room" is only a place where class makes the

teaching and learning activities or lesson, course, and lecture.

Meanwhile, the study of Oliver, Wehby, and Reschly (2011) entitled “Teacher

Classroom Management Practices: Effects on Disruptive or Aggressive Student Behavior

found out that: Whole-classroom, multi-component programs for classroom management

have a significant, positive effect on decreasing problem behavior in the classroom. Students

in the treatment classrooms in all 12 studies showed less disruptive, inappropriate, and

aggressive behavior in the classroom compared to untreated students in the control

classrooms where “treatment as usual” or typical classroom management practices were

occurring. The overall mean classroom effect size of either .71 or .80 indicates a positive

effect that significantly impacts the classroom environment. Teachers who use universal

classroom management approaches can expect to experience improvements in student

behavior, improvements that establish the context for effective instructional practices to

occur. The analysis of the effect sizes did not indicate a significant difference between effects

sizes, indicating they were drawn from the same hypothetical distribution. Said another way,

this means there were no systematic differences in the way the studies were conducted such

as duration of treatment, assignment procedures, or population that may account for

differences in effect sizes. Likewise, treatment characteristics did not have a significant

impact on the overall mean classroom effect size, and there was no statistically significant

difference between studies using COMP or other classroom management packages. Results

will be discussed in terms of the limitations of study features reported (e.g., treatment

fidelity) and implications for research and practice.


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Having similarity is the presiding study of Holt, Hargrove, and Harris (2011) titled

“An Investigation into the Life Experiences and Beliefs of Teachers Exhibiting Highly

Effective Classroom Management Behaviors.” This study investigated the life experiences

and beliefs of highly effective teachers exhibiting effective classroom management. It

explored the beliefs, background, and experiences of exemplary teachers in the area of

classroom management. In order to meet the growing demands being placed on teachers and

students, it is incumbent upon educators to understand how the teachers who are highly

effective became so. It is through understanding the experiences of the developmental

process as well as the beliefs that guide behaviors that we can enable, equip, and empower

others to become effective as well. Research has identified classroom management as the

variable with the greatest impact on student learning. As the manager of the classroom, the

teacher has been identified as the single most important factor in student success. This

qualitative phenomenological research study used narrative inquiry to investigate the life

experiences and beliefs of eight teachers who consistently exhibit effective classroom

management behaviors. The findings suggested techniques that highly effective teachers have

in common, life experiences that influence teachers' decisions and behaviors, and the values

and beliefs that guide their management systems. Recurring story elements included showing

caring behaviors; demonstrating respect; building relationships; being organized and

prepared; feeling responsible for student learning; and the influence of family, spirituality,

and self-efficacy. Furthermore the study suggested that teachers with effective classroom

management skills have the ability to build relationships with students and implement well-

developed classroom procedures. They also exhibit a belief in the relational care of students.
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School experiences, family relationships, and spiritual background were factors identified in

the development of these teachers.

Relatively, on the study of Chafouleas, et al. (2012) titled “An Evaluation of a

Classwide Intervention Package Involving Self-Management and a Group Contingency on

Classroom Behavior of Middle School Students. Journal of Behavioral Education,” explained

that the effectiveness of an intervention package involving self-management and a group

contingency at increasing appropriate classroom behaviors was evaluated in a sample of

middle school students. Participants included all students in each of the 3 eighth-grade

general education classrooms and their teachers. The intervention package included strategies

recommended as part of best practice in classroom management to involve both building skill

(self-management) and reinforcing appropriate behavior (group contingency). Data sources

involved assessment of targeted behaviors using Direct Behavior Rating--single item scales

completed by students and systematic direct observations completed by external observers.

Outcomes suggested that, on average, student behavior moderately improved during

intervention as compared to baseline when examining observational data for off-task

behavior. Results for Direct Behavior Rating data were not as pronounced across all targets

and classrooms in suggesting improvement for students.

In addition, the study of Ratzburg (2010) entitled “Classroom Management and

Students' Perceptions of Classroom Climate,” explored the influence of classroom

management interventions on students' perceptions of the classroom climate. The study

revealed that there was no significant difference between the treatment conditions or change

on the pre and posttest administrations of the CAS (Classroom Atmosphere Survey). Results

of this study provide direct evidence related to the efficacy of a specific model for developing
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effective classroom management plans. This study promotes social change by helping to

inform interventions and professional develop models to improve strategies of best practice

in teaching, especially ones that incorporate reciprocal strategies for integrating student input

as an essential element for ongoing teacher effectiveness in a world where the student's voice

is often missing.

In the study entitled “Classroom Behavior Problems: The Relationship between

Preparedness, Classroom Experiences, and Self-efficacy in Graduate and Student Teachers”

that was undertaken by Giallo and Little (2003), the researchers found out that teachers, who

are the most effective classroom managers, are teachers who are the most confident in their

abilities. Therefore, the importance of preparedness and classroom experiences as factors that

are involved in the development and maintenance of teacher self-efficacy in behavior

management were assessed. Differences in self-efficacy in behavior management between

graduate and student teachers were also assessed. The participants in this study were 54

primary education teachers with less than three years experience, and 25 student teachers in

their final year of primary education training. The results revealed a significant positive

association between self efficacy in behavior management, preparedness and classroom

experiences. Furthermore, preparedness and classroom experiences significantly predicted

teachers’ ratings of self-efficacy in behavior management. However, both graduate and

student teachers reported feeling only moderately prepared and self-efficacious, with 83.5%

of the total sample indicating they would like additional training in the area of behavior

management. The present findings provide important information for teacher training

programs and school support structures. The primary aim of this study was to assess the

importance of preparedness and classroom experiences as factors that may contribute to the
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development and maintenance of teacher self-efficacy in classroom behavior management.

As hypothesized, the results revealed a significant association between these factors and self-

efficacy in behavior management. Furthermore, the hypothesis stating that preparedness and

classroom experiences would significantly predict teachers’ ratings of self-efficacy was

supported. A further aim was to assess for differences in self-efficacy and perceived

preparedness between graduate and student teachers. This hypothesis was not supported, with

the results indicating that teachers have a greater sense of self-efficacy and perceived

preparedness than student teachers.

On the other hand, the study of Wubbles (2011) entitled “An International Perspective

on Classroom Management: What Should Prospective Teachers Learn?” provides an

overview of the treatment of classroom management in teacher education and teaching

around the world. Six approaches to classroom management are distinguished: classroom

management approaches that focus on external control of behavior, on internal control, on

classroom ecology, on discourse, on curriculum, and on interpersonal relationships. The

study revealed that no clear picture of cross-national differences in classroom management

practices or pervasiveness of one of the approaches was found.

Another study of Ikoya and Akinseinde (2010) entitled “Classroom Management

Competencies of Intern-Teachers in Nigeria Secondary Schools,” found out the adequacy of

the current classroom management training program for intern teachers in Nigerian

Universities. Major findings revealed no significant difference in classroom management

competencies of male and female interns as regards leadership and discipline but there is

significant gender difference in communication competencies. There is variability in

classroom management competencies of intern teachers from Arts, Science, Social Science
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and Technical Education programs. The intern teachers see classroom discipline as a major

problem confronting them.

Similarly, the study of Ben-Perets, Eilam and Landler-Pardo (2011) entitled “Teacher

Education for Classroom Management in Israel: Structures and Orientations,” examined how

classroom management is taught in teacher education in Israel. Results suggested that almost

all teacher education programs offer at least one course on classroom navigation and

management. However most of these courses are elective rather than mandatory. Classroom

management is mainly treated as a technical/behavioral issue. Cultural issues, which are of

major importance in the heterogeneous Israeli classrooms, are not on the agenda in most of

these courses.

While in the study conducted by Martin, Yin and Mayall (2006) entitled “Classroom

Management Training, Teaching Experience and Gender: Do These Variables Impact

Teachers' Attitudes and Beliefs toward Classroom Management Style?” represents a

continuation of research efforts to further refine the Attitudes and Beliefs on Classroom

Control (ABCC) Inventory. The study investigated the: impact of classroom management

training on classroom management style; differences in attitudes toward classroom

management between novice and experienced teachers; and differences between male and

female teachers beliefs toward classroom management. Results revealed significant

differences between males and females and between novice and experienced teachers on

Instruction Management subscale scores. There were significant differences regarding the

People Management subscale scores between novice and experienced teachers, and those

with and those without training in classroom management. Implications for future research

and practice are discussed.


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On the other hand, the study of Abu-Tineh and Khasawneh and Khalaileh (2011)

entitled “Teacher Self-Efficacy and Classroom Management Styles in Jordanian Schools,”

revealed that Jordanian teachers practice the instructional classroom management style more

than the other management styles: behavior management and people management. However,

people management was rated the style least practiced by Jordanian teachers. Further,

Jordanian teachers who participated in this study perceived themselves to have a higher level

of personal teacher efficacy compared to general teacher efficacy. Finally, personal teacher

efficacy has the highest and significant relationship with each of the classroom management

styles and classroom management styles overall. However, the general teacher efficacy was

found to be correlated insignificantly with each of the classroom management styles and the

classroom management styles overall.

In relation to the above mentioned study, MacSuga and Simonsen (2011) in their

study entitled “Increasing Teachers' Use of Evidence-Based Classroom Management

Strategies through Consultation: Overview and Case Studies,” revealed that teachers can

minimize inappropriate or disruptive student behavior and increase academic engagement

through the use of evidence-based classroom management practices. However, many teachers

are not aware of or fluent with these practices. Pre-service teacher training programs often

fail to adequately prepare teachers to manage their classrooms, and traditional models of

professional development like training without follow-up are largely ineffective. Therefore,

schools need an effective way to support teachers' classroom management. Previous research

suggests that in-depth training such as modeling, role play, and self-assessment and

consultation in combination with self-monitoring and performance feedback may increase

teachers' use of evidence-based classroom-management practices. They presented a model


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developed to increase teachers' use of these practices. This model includes: a classroom

management checklist that teachers can use to self-assess across time; and a consultation

approach that incorporates action planning and performance feedback, which experienced

personnel can use to assist classroom teachers in implementing evidence-based classroom

management strategies.

Likewise the study of Garrett (2008) entitled “Student-Centered and Teacher-

Centered Classroom Management: A Case Study of Three Elementary Teachers,”

documented the classroom management beliefs and practices of three teachers reputed to

implement student-centered instruction and to examine the relationship between their

instructional and managerial approaches. Results indicated that, although all three teachers

used an eclectic approach, two teachers tended to be more student-centered while one was

more teacher-centered with respect to classroom management. Results also indicated that the

teachers did think about the relationship between instruction and classroom management, but

not in terms of using student-centered management to support their student-centered

instruction. Rather, they thought about what management strategies were necessary to

successfully implement a particular lesson.

The study of Seda (2008) entitled: “Classroom Management Approaches of Primary

School Teachers and Exploring If Their Management Approaches are Consistent with the

Constructivist Curriculum.” Results of the study indicated that primary school teachers prefer

to use student-centered management approach rather than teacher-centered approach. That is

teachers’ management approaches are consistent with the constructivist instruction.

Furthermore, some background variables were found to affect the classroom management

approaches of teachers. A significant difference was found in classroom management


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approaches of teachers with respect to teaching experience, branch, type of certification and

average number of students teachers have in their classes while no significant difference

was found with respect to gender variable.

While in the research of Allen (2010) entitled “Classroom Management, Bullying,

and Teacher Practices,” discussed that while bullying in schools has begun to receive

attention, little is known about the relationship between classroom management and bullying

in the classroom. The process for exploring this relationship will be a review of research and

literature related to bullying in the school environment, classroom management, teacher

practices, and student behavior. Research from a number of fields suggests that several

variables conspire to create environments where bullying is more likely to occur. These

include harsh and punitive discipline methods, lower-quality classroom instruction,

disorganized classroom and school settings, and student social structures characterized by

antisocial behaviors. Future directions indicate a need for pre-service and in-service

education on classroom management practices and student bullying. Additionally, future

research should consider an investigation of the relationship between classroom management

practices and student bullying, as well as further exploration of teacher bullying of students

and student bullying of teachers.

Local Sources

Trias (2007) conducted a study entitled: “Classroom Management of High School

teachers in the High School Department of the University of the Visayas and Its Relevance to

their Teaching,” found out that classroom order must happen before learning can happen.

Order he said must be present for student engagement to be present. Order creates an
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environment where students are engaged. He further added that perhaps it is not order that

leads to engagement, but engagement that leads to order. Teaching multiple intelligences

engages more students. Most students engaged means increased participation. Increased

participation means increased success. Increased success means increased feelings of

accomplishment, confidences, and self-esteem. This eliminates major causes of students’

behavioral problems and classroom management problems. Less students acting out means

that the increased in students learning and increased student success.

On the study of Varon (2007) entitled “The Study of Teaching Strategies and

Classroom Management in Large Class: Success, Problems, and Solutions in Negros

Occidental High School,” it was revealed that: the activities which consisted of teaching

strategies and classroom management helped promote interaction and motivation for

language learning in large class; and if the activities have too many sub-activities, then time

spent on them is problematic. It was suggested that sub-activities be minimized but rather

focus on activities that will sustain the interest of the students towards the objective for a

better learning.

Meanwhile, Bambico (2006), in the thesis entitled “Classroom Management in

Secondary Schools: A Study of Student-Teachers’ Successful Strategies,” found three out of

seven strategies that have potential for more lasting success, namely: changing the pace of

the lesson, even to the point of restructuring a learning activity, using the least intrusive

intervention along a sequence of non-verbal to verbal strategies and conferring privately with

compliance. These strategies were reported to be fruitful. They promote student self-control,

moral development, a willingness to cooperate, and an interest in learning. Presumably, many


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teachers, including novice teachers and those responsible coaching them, could use the

strategies that these student teachers used successfully.

Having connection in the above cited study, the study conducted by Naguiat (2011)

entitled “Common Classroom Management Practices of Teachers in the Public Elementary

Schools in the District of Hermosa.” This study revealed that the most common classroom

management practices among teachers are: care of the classroom routine; classroom

discipline; guidance and direction of the learning process; democratic technique; and social

relationship to pupils. Also, there is a significant difference in the four areas of classroom

management practices such as guidance and direction of the learning process, classroom

routine, democratic technique and social relationship of pupils except on classroom discipline

when the respondents are group according to age and length of service, while there is a

significant difference in all classroom management practices when the respondents are

grouped according to highest educational attainment and in-service training. Meanwhile,

there is no significant difference in all the five areas of classroom management practices of

teachers when grouped according to gender and civil status.

In relation, Jimenez (2005), in the study entitle “Techniques for Effective Classroom

Management for a Year-Round,” revealed that effective classroom management and

organization during the first few weeks of class are crucial in determining expectations,

behavior patterns and procedures that will set the tone for the rest of the year. Effective

classroom management is essential in maintaining an organized and civil classroom. The

keys to effective classroom management are: organization of procedure and resources, a well

arranged classroom environment, monitoring student progress, anticipating and handling

classroom problems and designing an effective learning center. By providing these


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management skills in the classroom, teachers will clearly and effectively manage any class

and go above and beyond expectations.

Relatively, Dela Cruz (2000), on the thesis entitled “Classroom Management: Its

Relation to Teaching Efficiently of the Faculty of Colegio de Kidapawan,” found out that

control of classroom’s physical condition as well as the materials of instruction are essential

tool for classroom management. Therefore, classroom itself is the society that needs its own

rules and regulation to keep pace and harmony within it. The following salient facts of

effective classroom management were also drawn: the teacher himself/herself must be the

model of courteous behavior; classroom management is the major responsibility of the

teacher; the classroom cannot function well without the teacher; and the success of the

activities in the classroom depends on the capability of the teacher as a classroom manager.

She concluded that control of physical condition, providing materials of instruction, and

being a model of courteous behavior as a teacher and setting rules and regulations are

effective classroom management that gives peace and harmony in the classroom.

The study of Vitanzos (2013) entitled “Teachers’ Empowerment and Organizational

Development in the Second District of Bataan,” stipulated that on the principal and

organizational development in terms of educational attainment, trainings attended, years of

supervisory experience and performance from the previous year were perceived very

satisfactory rating. On the level of organizational development, the principals considered the

level of organizational development of teachers in terms of physical facilities development,

pupils’ development, curriculum development, and staff development as very effective. On

the significant relationship of the profile of principals, there is no significant relationship

between the administrator’s educational attainment and overall organizational development.


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However, educational attainment is significantly correlated with staff development.

Evidently, work experience is not significantly related to organizational development as

suggested by the negligible correlation coefficient. Interestingly, performance is significantly

related to staff development. However, the relationship is only moderate. It is not

significantly related to staff development. However, the relationship is only moderate. It is

not significantly related to the overall organizational development. Therefore, it implies that

the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between supervisors’ profile in

terms of organizational development is accepted. On the significant relationship of teacher

empowerment regarding decision making autonomy, self-efficacy, status and professional

development with the level of organization development, decision making is correlated

highest with the overall organizational development. On relationship of teacher’s autonomy

with organization development, it is moderately correlated highest with overall

organizational development. With respect to teacher’s status, it has moderately high

correlation with the overall organizational development. Further, professional development is

only moderately correlated with the overall organizational development. Furthermore, the

overall empowerment is moderately highly correlated with overall organizational

development. Therefore, the null hypothesis that is no significant relationship between

teacher empowerment and organizational development is rejected. On the comparison of

perceptions as regards to teacher empowerment between the principals and teachers, there is

no significant difference in perception on teachers’ autonomy and self-efficacy were

observed between teachers and principals as implied. On the other hand, teachers and

principals differ in perception when it comes to teachers’ involvement in decision-making,

teachers’ status and teachers’ professional development. Overall, a significant difference in


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perception on teacher’s empowerment is observed between teachers and principals. The

negative t-value indicated that principals’ mean perception is higher compared to that of the

teachers. Evidently, the level of principals’ perceived support for teacher empowerment is

greater than the level of principals’ perceived support for teacher empowerment is greater

than the level by which the teachers themselves feel or observe. On the comparison of

perception as regards to level of organizational development between principals and teachers,

there are significant differences in perceptions between teachers and principals on physical

facilities, pupil, and staff development. Direct inspections of the mean values indicated that

principals have higher level of regard on the level of organizational development compared

to the teachers. Overall, principals have a significantly higher mean perception on

organizational development than the teachers. As concluded, the null hypothesis that there is

no significant relationship between the principals’ profile and teachers’ empowerment and the

level of organizational development is partially upheld.

Meanwhile, the study entitled “Faculty Preparedness Vis-À-Vis Quality Contribution

Evaluation (QCE) in Functional Areas of the Institution: Basis for Sustainable Faculty

Development Program” conducted by Sanchez-Enriquez (2013), showed that on the

university related factors, this covers leading scheme, incentives and implementation of

policies. These three (3) indicators obtained a very satisfactory rating. On the level of faculty

preparedness in QCE functional areas, along the area of instruction, a very satisfactory rating

was recorded. However, in terms of research, extension and production, the level of

preparedness yielded was only satisfactory. On the correlation of college faculty related

factors and level of preparedness, among profile variables of college faculty, age, length of

service and faculty rank are not significantly correlated with the overall level of faculty
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preparedness. On the other hand, teaching load in terms of number of hours per week and

educational attainment are significantly correlated. Gender was also found to be significantly

associated with the overall level of faculty preparedness in terms of instruction, research,

extension and production. Area of specialization and number of training and training level

were not associated with the overall faculty level of preparedness. Attendance in research

training does not affect the level of preparedness in instruction but related to the level of

preparedness in research, extension and production. Similarly, training in extension is

correlated with extension, research, and production but not in instruction. On the correlation

of university related factors and level of preparedness, the university related factors

composed of loading scheme, incentives, and implementation of policies are all significantly

correlated with the level of preparedness on extension alone and not associated with the level

of preparedness on instruction, research and production. Loading scheme was also found

correlated with the overall level of preparedness and likewise related with the level of

preparedness in extension. Among the variables affecting the level of preparedness of college

faculty in QCE functional areas, training on research was found as the best predictor, when

taken singly. On the other hand, when taken in combination, the three best predictors were

training on research, teaching load and training on extension collectively. Based on the

findings, faculty development on research training was proposed. As concluded that the lone

null hypothesis that faculty profiles and university related factors does not significantly affect

the level of faculty preparedness in instruction, research, extension, and

production is partly upheld.

Similarly, Alegado (2010), on the study entitled “Predictors of Faculty Performance at

the Bataan Peninsula State University,” exposed that on the level of performance of the
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faculty members in terms of instruction, research, and extension is very satisfactory. Also, the

level of performance of faculty in instruction as separate function is very satisfactory.

Meanwhile, on the level of performances of faculty in research and extension areas are

similarly rates with fair verbal rating. On the effects of the personal and institutional profiles

on the level of performances of faculty members, the faculty members’ profile in terms of

age and teaching load significantly affect their level of performance in instruction, research,

and extension, while gender, civil status, educational attainment, academic rank, and teaching

experience showed no significant effect. The institutional profile in terms of laboratory

rooms and service vehicles significantly affect the level of performance of the faculty

members in instruction, research, and extension, while campus size, locale and campus

resources in terms of human resource, library holdings, budget, classrooms, buildings,

comfort rooms, shop rooms, and offices showed no significant effect on the level of

performance of the faculty members.

De Jesus (2002) made an investigation entitled “Correlates of Performance of Public

Elementary Teachers in the Division of Bataan.” His study focused on the level of

performance of elementary teachers for the school year 2000-2001 as rated by the principal

and as rated by themselves using the PAST. The study disclosed that there were 28

respondents or 186.98% rated outstanding by the principals while 31 or 18.02 rated

themselves similarly. One hundred forty (140) teachers received a very satisfactory rating

from the principals while 132 or 76.74% rated themselves likewise. Only four (4) were rated

by the principal satisfactory in contrast to the nine (9) teachers who rated themselves

satisfactory. Nobody was rated fair and unsatisfactory both by the principals and the teachers

themselves. With a slight difference of .02 in the mean of both the principals’ and the
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teachers’ rating, the former is 8.93 while the latter is 8.95, the level of performance of the

respondents fell on the very satisfactory level. On the test of significant difference between

the principals’ rating and the teachers’ rating of their job performance for the school year

2000-2001 using the PAST, the study finds a significant difference showing the same

perception of the principals and the teachers as regards to latter’s performances. On the test

of significant relationship between the correlates and the job performance of teachers using

the PAST, a positive but negligible relationship to teachers’ job performance was disclosed,

specifically on age, educational qualification, level of training, length of service,

psychological attributes, and civil status. Only sex showed relationship with the performance

of teachers. Hence, it rejects the hypothesis that sex has no significant relationship with the

performance of teachers. The following were concluded: the performance level of teachers

was described a very satisfactory; there is no significant difference between the ratings of the

principals’ and the teachers themselves of their job performance using the PAST; and the

correlates of job performance such as age, civil status, educational qualification, level of

trainings attended, length of service, and psychological attributes have no significant

relationships with the job performance of teachers, but sex did.

Relatively, Palmares (2009), on the study entitled “Teaching Functions Vis-À-Vis

Teacher’s Performance,” showcased that on teaching functions as to instructional

presentation, this revealed that the average mean of very often, could be concluded that the

faculty respondents were erudite in their area of specialization. On instructional monitoring,

the average weighted mean of very often displayed that this area was significant to say that

the respondents and their students were assured of their given grade. On instructional

feedback, the most prominent item where the respondents identified the indicator where they
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were most effective was in the use of instructional feedback. With a rank of always, this was

a manifestation of faculty’s concern and commitment for students. On the performing non-

instructional duties, this exhibits the scale of very often, which showed the concern and

assurance of the faculty for the safeness of their students in every activities they do may it be

inside the classroom or outside. On teacher’s assessment, evaluation, and performance

approval as to teaching competencies, teaching skills, management skills, and evaluation

skills were assessed. Teaching skills was an area where it could be concluded that they were

knowledgeable in their area of specialization that would not be difficult for them to show

teaching strategies that would best fit their lessons. On the management skills, the faculty

showed here that one way of helping their students to accomplish their work correctly and

accurately, that is, be clear with the instructions on assignments, research work, and projects.

On the evaluation skills, an often scale predicted that faculty were constantly trained to

sharpen their decision making skills, they were aware of the school rules and regulations and

therefore they were expected to implement legal actions towards discipline problems.

Meanwhile, on teacher’s assessment, evaluation, and performance approval as to personal

and social competencies, the respondents gave regards about themselves as revealed by the

often scale equivalent, this divulged that teacher’s foremost and paramount concern in the

classroom was the learning of the students, and effective discipline. The development of

students into a well-rounded personality with quality achievement should be well-

maintained. One of faculty’s responsibilities was to awaken student’s mind by inspiring them

through his personality and competitiveness. On the test of significant relationship between

teacher’s profile and teaching functions, the respondents regarded teaching functions showed

a high correlation to educational attainment, year of teaching experience and relevant


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trainings and seminar attended. This suggested that education was very essential factor on

mastery of subject, knowledge, skills and attitudes towards teaching. Years of teaching

experience was obvious reason for this was that teachers who specialized in certain subject

content were able to explore various teaching styles and approaches. On the other hand,

trainings and seminars also showed that this could be added factor in teaching functions,

lessons learned were very vital in the continuity of teacher’s enhancement program.

Meanwhile, on the test of significant relationship between teaching functions and teacher’s

assessment, evaluation, and performance appraisal, the respondents showed the relationship

in which the teaching skills, management skills and evaluation skills correlate with the

teaching functions with scale equivalent of very high correlation, high correlation, very small

correlation on the part of the evaluation skills and performing non-instructional duties and

very small correlation on the personal and social competencies. Teacher’s assessment,

evaluation, and performance appraisal in terms of personal and social competencies are

showed a very small correlation scale equivalent. Meaning that these qualities of teachers

were entrenched traits of teachers but not necessarily mean that they are useful for teaching

performance because it is based on the prescribed criteria in Teacher’s Assessment,

Evaluation and Performance Appraisal System for Teachers (TAEPAST). As concluded, the

null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between the profile of the teacher and

the teaching functions and the level of their performance was partially upheld.

On the other hand, on the proficiency of teachers, as reflected by the study entitled

“Level of Proficiency of Public Elementary Schools in the City Division of Balanga,

spearheaded by Tablan (2008), revealed that on the level of proficiency of elementary

schools, generally, the pupil development of school was very good since almost 90%
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prioritized pupil development. In the same manner, staff development, curriculum

development, physical facilities, and monitoring and evaluation were very good. Overall, the

level of proficiency of elementary schools was very good. On the effect of school community

related factors on level of proficiency of elementary schools, generally, a very small positive

correlation and not significant relationship of teacher-pupil ratio on the level of proficiency

of elementary schools showed that teacher-pupil ratio attained in most schools could not in

any way affect the programs in pupil development, staff development, curriculum

development, physical facilities development, and monitoring and evaluation of the schools.

On the average, the very small negative correlation and the significant result between the

level of proficiency of elementary schools and textbook-pupil ratio affect the programs on

pupil development, staff development and physical facilities development. In general, a very

small positive correlation and significant result in level of proficiency of elementary schools

is due to location of school. Significant result appeared as to the physical facilities of schools.

To sum up, a very small negative correlation and not significant result in the level of

proficiency of elementary schools was due to classification of schools. In summary, a

significant result with a very small positive correlation in physical facilities was found

significant to the level of proficiency of elementary schools. Generally, a not significant

result and a very small negative correlation were manifested in the level of proficiency of

schools as to teacher trainings. By and large, the fiscal management of schools elicited a very

small negative correlation and not significant result on the level of proficiency of elementary

schools. Conclusively, a very small positive correlation and not significant result was seen as

to effect of supervisory practices on the level of proficiency of elementary schools.

Generally, a not significant result emanated and a very small negative correlation of
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community relations to level of proficiency of elementary schools appeared. It was

concluded that six (6) out of nine (9) variables have no significant effect on the level of

proficiency of elementary schools, these included teacher-pupil ratio, classification of school,

trainings of teachers, fiscal management, supervisory practices and community relations. The

three (3) other variables significantly affect the level of proficiency of elementary schools

namely, textbook-pupil ratio, location of school, and physical facilities. These, therefore,

became the basis to partially accept the tested lone null hypothesis that the school community

related factors do not affect the level of proficiency of elementary teachers.

Accordingly, Estrella (2010), magnified in the study entitled “Personality and Work

Values of Faculty Members at Columban College” that on the personality trait of the faculty

members, the result of 16 PF personality test revealed the following: instructors have high

range of being warmth, reasoning, being emotionally stable, dominance, liveliness, rule-

consciousness, social boldness, sensitivity, and abstractedness. On the other hand, a low

range was found on vigilance, privateness, apprehension, openness, self-reliance,

perfectionism, and tension. On the work values of faculty members, the respondents value

discipline, creativity, integrity, and patience as important. On person-related factors and work

values of the faculty members, age was found to establish a negative relationship to work

values, whereas, years of teaching experience, gender, civil status, and educational attainment

were found to be insignificant. The personal-related factor was found to establish a multiple

correlation r of 0.596 and a coefficient of determination of R = .356. Hence, the null

hypothesis stating no relationship between person-related factor and work values of the

faculty were hereby rejected. On personality trait and work values of the faculty,

abstractedness and tension show significant relationship to work values and the rest were
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found to be insignificant. It was concluded that there was a significant relationship between

the person-related factor of the faculty members especially on their age and work values.

Also, there was no significant relationship between personality trait and work values of the

faculty members. But it was revealed that of all the personality trait only abstractedness and

tension shows significant relationship on work values.

A study on “Emotional Intelligence and Teaching Competencies of Bataan

Montessori School Faculty,” was investigated by Taculog (2006) found out that on the level

of emotional intelligence of Bataan Montessori School faculty members in terms of

intrapersonal, interpersonal, and adaptability, stress management, and general mood, it was

deemed to have very satisfactory rating. Generally, the emotional intelligence of the faculty

members was rated very satisfactory. On the level of teaching competencies of the faculty

members, these were rated outstanding, while decision-making was recorded a very

satisfactory rating. A significant difference was found between the emotional intelligence and

the level of teaching competencies of the faculty members. It was also revealed that when

taken in combination, interpersonal and general mood serve as the best predictors in the level

of teaching competencies. It was followed by adaptability and general mood aspects of

emotional intelligence as recorded. And when taken singly, the study revealed that general

mood EQ serves as the best predictor among the aspects of emotional intelligence which

influences the level of teaching competencies. The following were concluded: faculty

members of Bataan Montessori School were rated very satisfactory in their emotional

intelligence; the teachers are doing well in the jobs as attested by their commendable attitude

in molding the learners, however, decision-making needs to be improved; emotional

intelligence was found to have significant relationship on teaching competencies, therefore,


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when the emotional intelligence is high, consequently, the level of teaching competencies

also increases likewise teachers are not only cognitively intelligent but also emotionally

competent; and faculty members always look at the brighter side of life and maintain a

positive attitude even in the face of adversity and negative feelings.

Considerately, the findings of the study “Teachers' Profile, Competencies, and

Academic Achievement in Science and Technology III in Selected Public High Schools in

Bulacan” by Acosta (2002), revealed that while teachers were perceived as competent by

their students and administrators, the criteria by which their competence were being

evaluated in school did not reflect all the specific minimum competencies that they were

supposed to possess in relation to what their students were expected to have learned in order

to perform well in the standardized achievement test. The null hypothesis that there was no

significant difference between the perceptions of the administrators and students on the

teachers’ level of competency in Science and Technology III was rejected. The low level of

academic achievement of students in Science and Technology III despite the perceived high

level of competency of their teachers implies that the latter have not been effective in

attaining their instructional objectives. The null hypothesis that there was no significant

relationship between the profile of the teachers and their competency in Science and

Technology III was rejected with respect to the relevant trainings and seminars they have

attended. However, the null hypothesis was not rejected with respect to age, gender, civil

status, educational qualifications, length of relevant teaching experiences, and length of

service. The null hypothesis that there was no significant relationship between teacher

competency and students’ level of academic achievement in Science and Technology III was

rejected with respect to the teachers’ knowledge of the subject matter and their teaching
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strategies. The null hypothesis was not rejected with respect to communication skills, use of

instructional aids and materials and classroom management and discipline. The teachers’

attendance in relevant trainings and seminars appears to be a key factor in improving the

students’ level of academic achievement, the former, being a significant determinant of

teacher competency.

Having relation is the study “Relationship Between Profile, Teaching Competencies,

and Effectiveness of Science and Technology Teachers” by Trine (2011) that in the analysis

of the level of competencies of the teacher-respondents as described by personal-social

competency, intructional competency, professional competency, and technical competency

were all rated as 5 or always. On the performance level of the students based on the report of

the Department of Education, Culture, and Sports, Division of Bataan, reflected by the result

of achievement test of high school students for the school year 1999-2000, the students have

a level of performance rated as 4 or very satisfactory in the minimum competencies for high

school. On the relationship between the profile variables and teaching competencies as

described by educational qualification, years of teaching experience, in-service trainings,

commitment, and performance rating, a no significant relationship was found. On the

relationship between teaching competencies and effectiveness as measured by the

performance level of students in division achievement test, a no significant relationship was

found. As concluded, the level of competencies of the science and technology teachers in the

Division of Bataan in terms of personal-social, instructional, professional, and technical is 5

(always competent); the the performance level of the students in science and technology is

classified as very satisfactory; there is no significant relationsjip between teaching

competencies and educational qualifications, years of teaching experience, in-service


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education, commitiment, and performance; and teaching competencies are not significantly

related to the effectivenees as measured by the performance level of students in the division

achievement test.

On the other hand according to the study conducted by Diaz (2003) entitled

“Influence of Management Skills and Conflict-Handling Styles of Administrations on Job

Performance and Satisfaction of Teachers in selected Private Elementary School in

Paranaque City,” as cited by Roque (2009), found out that an organization requires people to

work together and to communicate with one another. Also the school, public or private is an

organization composed of people interacting with one another. These people are similar in

some ways but are different in personalities, perceptions, views, set of values, attitudes,

beliefs, resources, and experiences. On the level of importance of management skills needed

in the implementation of NSEC, the secondary principals perceived the nine skills as very

important to them. Arranged according to their level of importance, these are skills in

organizing, managing fiscal resources and properly, evaluating, coordinating, planning,

directing, research, controlling, and reporting. The classroom teachers perceived five (5)

skills as very important in the implementation of NSEC. These are skills in planning,

coordinating, research, organizing, and reporting. Four skills were deemed important and

these are skills in directing, evaluating, controlling and managing fiscal resources

and properly.

Asuncion (2001) conducted a study entitled: “Professional Preparation and

Management Skills of Secondary School Heads in the Division of Romblon,” as was cited by

Roque (2009). The following were the findings: conceptual and technical skills under

management are significantly related with educational qualifications of secondary heads


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under .05 level of significance; human relation skills under management significantly

influenced performance rating of secondary school heads; and rapport as one concept of

human relation skills is always demonstrated by secondary school heads.

The commonality of the previous studies both foreign and local and the present

studies are only on classroom management and how it affects the behavior and performance

of the students while the present study focus to determine the classroom management skills

of the teachers and if classroom management skills of the respondents differ when

they are grouped differently.

Conceptual Framework

The study used the Input – Process – Output Approach. The Figure below shows how

it will be conducted.
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INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

Figure 1
The Paradigm of the Study
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Figure 1 illustrates the conceptual framework of the study which equated with the

system that is composed of the essentials of the input, process, and output.

The input shows the profile of the respondents in terms of their age, gender, civil

status, educational attainment, and length of service; the respondents’ classroom management

skills in terms of organizational plan, scheduling, record keeping, physical environment,

discipline, and establishing routine were included; and the significant differences of

classroom management skills and the profile of the respondent and the implication of the

findings of the classroom management skills of the public high school teachers of Lubao,

Division of Pampanga.

On the other hand, the process frame included the data gathering device which is the

questionnaire and the statistical tools used for data analysis that include frequency,

percentage, ranking and weighted mean, T-test and F-test.

And on the last frame which is the output, the expected outcome of the study which is

the improvement of the classroom management skills of the teachers was the goal of the

study.

Hypothesis

To provide definite directions and to place the study in clear intensions, this inquiry

tests the null hypothesis:

There is no significant difference on the classroom management skills of the

respondents when they were grouped as to age, gender, civil status, educational attainment,

and length of service.


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Definition of Terms

In order to establish a common understanding of the terms used in this study, the

following are defined.

Classroom Management Skills. As applied in this study, these refer to the skills of the

teachers that are composed of organizational plan, scheduling, record keeping, physical

environment, discipline, and establishing routine.

Discipline. As for the study is concerned, this is the strategy of teachers in controlling

students’ behavior in the class.

Division of Pampanga. One of the four division offices of the Department of Education in the

province of Pampanga.

Integrated School. This refers to the public schools that offer secondary education but the

jurisdiction or management is in the hand of the elementary principal or supervisor.

Lubao. It is the locality of the teachers being included as respondents of the study. It is one of

the municipalities of Pampanga located at the Second District.

Organizational planning. As applied in the study, this refers to the preparation and planning

of the activities inside the classroom, rules and regulations, time allotment and materials for

the achievement of goals.

Public High School Teachers. This refers to the respondents of the study, particularly those

teaching in the public secondary educational institution.

Physical environment. As implied in the study, it is the conducive, child-friendly, and

learning-enforced environment or set-up of the classroom that facilitate holistic and optimum

learning opportunities.
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Record keeping. As the study is concerned, it involves the compiling, conglomerating, and

organizing of important records or documents of students’ progress and school files of the

teachers.

Routines. As used in the study, these are the established day-to-day activities and tasks of

both teachers and students in reinforcing learning and good behavior in education.

Scheduling. As the term used in the study, it involves the organization of schedules of time

allotted for different activities in the classroom to be done in a particular school year.
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Notes in Chapter 2

Miles, Jeffrey A. (2012). Management and Organizational Theory: A Jossey-Bass


Reader. California: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2012.

Seda, Yasar. (2008). Classroom Management Approaches of Primary School Teachers


in Kastamonu, Turkey, Master’s Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey.

Cowley, Sue (2003). An Agony Aunt for Teachers Sue Cowley’s Teaching Clinic;
London: MPG Books Ltd.

Peace Corps. Classroom Management, Washington D. C.: Information Collection and


Exchange (ICE).

Weinstein, Carol S. and Carolyn M. Evertson (2006). Handbook of Classroom


Management: Research Practice and Contemporary Issues. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence
Erlbaum Associates.

Marzano, R. J. & Marzano, J. S. (2003). The Key to Classroom Management.


Educational Leadership, 61(1), 6-13. Retrieved at http://www.schoolimprovement.com/
classroom-management-keys/.

Oakley, Carrie (2010). 5 Classroom Management Skills Every Teacher Must Have.
Retrieved at http://www.soyouwanttoteach.com/5-classroom-management-skills-every
teacher-must-have/.

Gootman, Marilyn E. (2008). The Caring Teacher's Guide to Discipline: Helping


Students Learn Self-Control, Responsibility, and Respect. K-6. 2008, p.36.

Denti, Louis G. (2012). Proactive Classroom Management, K-8: A Practical Guide to


Empower Students and Teachers. Thousand Oaks, California: A SAGE Publications
Company.

Barbetta, P., Norona, K. & Bicard, D. (2005). Classroom Behavior Management: A


Dozen Common Mistakes and What to Do Instead. Preventing School Failures. Vol. 49, Issue
3, p 11-19.

Kelly, Melissa (2013). Definition of Classroom Management. Website copyright by


About.com, 2013. Retrieved at http://712educators.about.com/od/classroomhelpers/g/
Definition-Of-Classroom-Management.htm. Retrieved on September 22, 2013.

http://www.nea.org/tools/51721.htm

http://712educators.about.com/od/discipline/tp/disciplinetips.htm
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BATAAN PENINSULA STATE UNIVERSITY 66
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Chapter 3

METHODS OF RESEARCH

This chapter presents the method and technique of the study, research locale,

population of the study, data collection, data processing and statistical treatment, and

validation of the instrument that has been used in the present studies.

Methodology

This study aimed to determine the classroom management skills of public high school

teachers in Lubao, Division of Pampanga using the descriptive method of research.

According to Aquino (2006), descriptive method is to describe systematically a

situation or area of interest factually and accurately. Descriptive research goes beyond mere

gathering and tabulation of data. It involves the element or interpretation of the meaning of

significance of what is described. The description is often combined with comparison and

contrast involving measurement, classification, interpretation and evaluation.

Best (2006), added that descriptive method describes and interprets what is. It deals

with the relationships between variables, testing of hypotheses and the development of

generalizations, principles, and theories that have universal validity.

As for gatect.org (2011), descriptive research does not fit neatly into the definition of

either quantitative or qualitative research methodologies, but instead it can utilize elements of

both, often within the same study. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research

question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic. Descriptive statistics

tell what is, while inferential statistics try to determine cause and effect. The type of question

66
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asked by the researcher will ultimately determine the type of approach necessary to complete

an accurate assessment of the topic at hand. Descriptive studies primarily concerned with

finding out "what is.”

For Tenejero (2011), descriptive studies aim to provide an accurate descriptive of a

situation or of an association between variables from which one can than make some

statements about certain group or population. Accuracy and reliability in their findings,

descriptive studies of ten require quantitative measures for variables under investigation, as

well as sufficient number of cases or unit for data collection and analysis.

More so, Ary, et al. (2010) shared that survey research or also called descriptive

research uses instruments such as questionnaires and interviews to gather information from

groups of individuals. Surveys permit the researcher to summarize the characteristics of

different groups or to measure their attitudes and opinions toward some issue.

Population of the Study

The study was conducted to 260 public secondary teachers from 10 public secondary

schools in Lubao, Division of Pampanga during School Year 2013-2014. The subsequent

table on the next page shows the total population of the study.
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Table 1

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of the Respondents

School Frequency Percentage


Bancal Pugad Integrated School 3 1.15
Baruya National High School 15 5.77
Del Carmen High School 18 6.92
Lubao National High School 50 19.23
Remedios High School 26 10.00
San Jose Gumi Integrated High School 4 1.54
San Roque Dau National High School 58 22.31
San Vicente National High School 46 17.69
Sta. Cruz National Integrated High School 34 13.08
Sta. Teresa 2nd National High School 6 2.31
Total 260 100

As could be gleaned from the table above, Majority of them came from National High

School namely: San Roque Dau National High School obtained 22.31 percent of the

respondents; followed by Lubao National High School with a 19.23 percent of the

respondents; while 17.69 percent of the respondents came from San Vicente National High

School; and lastly Sta. Cruz National Integrated High School having 13.08 percent of the

respondents. On the other hand, the least percentage schools came from Integrated and

Coastal Schools namely: Sta. Teresa 2nd National High School having 1.54 percent of the

respondents; followed by San Jose Gumi Integrated High School having 1.54 percent of the

respondents; and lastly Bancal Pungad Integrated School having 1.15 percent of the

respondents which is the least densely populated of all the school in Lubao in terms of

number of teachers. This shows that majority of the respondents came from big high schools

in Lubao, where classroom management skills of teachers are always been challenged and

manifested due to the high numbers of students.


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Sampling Technique

The researcher used Universal Sampling Technique in selecting the respondents from

all the secondary schools in Lubao, Division of Pampanga. All the respondents were given

equal chances to be included as respondents of the study.

Research Instrument

The researcher used a questionnaire as the main tool in gathering the data needed.

Good (1971) as cited by Magsajo-Sarno (2010), defined questionnaire as a list of planned,

written questions related to a particular topic, with space provided for indicating the response

to each question, intended for submission to a number of for reply.

According to Ary, et al. (2010) a questionnaire is an instrument in which respondents

provide written responses to questions or mark items that indicate their responses.

The questionnaire was patterned to the predictors of classroom management

presented in the book of Bilbao (2006). Due to this, the questionnaire was divided into two

parts namely:

Part I . The Profile of the Respondents. This part of the questionnaire focused on the

demographic profile of respondents which include age, gender, civil status, highest

educational attainment, and length of service. The researcher believed that these variables

have something to do with the assessment of teachers’ classroom management skills.

Part II. The Classroom Management Skills of the Teachers. In this part of the

questionnaire, the classroom management skills practices being undertaken along with the

indicators: organizational plan, scheduling, physical environment, record keeping, discipline,

and establishing routine as practiced by the teachers themselves were included.


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Preparation and Validation

After a series of research in the preparation and validation of instrument, the draft of

the questionnaire was presented to the thesis adviser for suggestion and improvement.

Dry run was administered among the teachers of Diosdado Macapagal Memorial

High School at the Floridablanca, Pampanga. Then the questionnaire was distributed to the

identified 260 public secondary teachers of Lubao, Division of Pampanga during the school

year 2013-2014.

The researcher secured a written permission from the school division superintendent

through the district supervisor to conduct the study and distribute copies of the questionnaire.

The researcher personally administered the questionnaire to respondents. The questionnaire

was retrieved from the respondents and subjected for interpretation by the researcher. The

researcher was only able to retrieve 260 out of 270 respondents having 97 percent of the

retrieval rate. The reason why the 10 or 3.70 percent of the respondents was not able to

answer or complete the questionnaire is that they were absent and on leave because of

sickness, pregnancy, or traveling for an official business.

Data Processing and Statistical Treatment

There were only 260 out of the 270 teachers in the Lubao, Division of Pampanga who

are involved in the study. The researcher tallied and tabulated the data manually. The data

and information that has been gathered from the questionnaire were treated using the

following statistical tools.

1. Frequency. It was used to determine the number of the respondents with the response to

the item.
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2. Percentage. It is the rate per hundred in which is obtained by dividing the total number of

the respondent’s responses.


Formula:

Where: P = percentage
F = frequency
N = number of respondents

3. Weighted Average Mean. It is used to arrive at a verbal description of each of the items in

all the five indicators.


Formula:

Where: WM = Weighted Mean


TWF = Total Weighted Frequency
N = number of respondents

The scale on the next page was taken from Likert in treating the perception of the

respondents on the classroom management skills of high school teachers.

Scale Description
4.20 – 5.00 Always
3.40 – 4.19 Often
2.60 – 3.39 Sometimes
1.80 – 2.59 Rarely
1.00 – 1.79 Never

4. T-test is used to determine significant difference between two groups of means.


Formula:

Where: X1 = average of mean of the first group


X2 = average of mean of the second group
SS1 = sum of square of the first group
Formula:

SS1 =
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SS2 = sum of square of the second group

Formula:

SS2 =

N1 = number of cases of the first group


N2 = number of cases of the second group

5. F-test or Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is used to test the significant difference of the

means of three or more independent samples.

Formula:

Where: S12 = sum of square divided by the degree of freedom of the treatment
variable
2
S2 = sum of square divided by the degree of freedom of the error
Variable

Formula:

Totss = SSt + SSE


SSt = Totss – SSE
SSE = Totss – SSt

Where:

SSt = sum of squares of the treatment variable


SSE = sum of square of the error variable
MS = mean square for treatment variable
MSE = mean square for error variable
Totss = Total sum of squares

Notes in Chapter 3
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