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AIM: DETERMINING IONIZATION

ENERGY AND
ELECTRONEGATIVITY OF
ELEMENTS
DO NOW: 1. LIST IN ORDER OF INCREASING
ATOMIC RADII:
MAGNESIUM, SILICON, BARIUM, BROMINE
2. DO NOW ON METALS, NONMETALS, AND
METALLOIDS WORKSHEET
IONS

• Positive and negative ions form when


electrons are transferred between atoms.
• Metals tend to lose electrons; nonmetals
tend to gain those electrons
ANION

• An ion with a negative charge


• (N-3, O-2, Cl-1)
CATION

• An ion with a positive


charge
• (Na+1, Ca+2)
IONIZATION ENERGY
• The energy required to remove an electron
from an atom.
• The bigger the ionization energy value the
harder to lose an electron (the stronger the
atom is holding on to its electron)!
FIRST IONIZATION ENERGY

• The first ionization energy is the energy


required to remove the first electron from
its atom.
• First ionization energy tends to decrease
from top to bottom within a group and
increase from left to right across a period.
SECOND AND THIRD IONIZATION ENERGY

• The second ionization energy is the


energy required to remove an electron
from an ion with a 1+ charge.
• The third ionization energy is the energy
required to remove an electron from an
ion with a 2+ charge.
IONIZATION ENERGY – DOWN A GROUP
Na has more energy
levels (farther from
protons) than Li
making it easier to
lose the outer
electron.

As you move down a


group or family the
ionization energy
decreases (easier to
lose outer electron –
more energy levels).
IONIZATION ENERGY – ACROSS A PERIOD
Both have the same
number of energy
levels, but Be has
more protons pulling
stronger on the
outer most electron.

As you move across


a period, the
ionization energy
increases (herder to
lose outer electron –
more protons).
WHICH HAS LOWEST IONIZATION ENERGY?

• Chlorine
• Sodium
• Magnesium
• Argon
ELECTRONEGATIVITY

• The ability of an atom to attract electrons


when the atom is in a compound.
• The ability of an atom to steal an electron
from another atom (electron thieves).
ELECTRONEGATIVITY

• In general, electronegativity values


decrease from top to bottom within a
group. For representative elements, the
values tend to increase from left to right
across a period.
ELECTRONEGATIVITY – DOWN A GROUP
Li has fewer levels than
sodium making it easier for
the protons in the nucleus to
grab another atom’s electron.

As you move down a group or


family the electronegativity
decreases (harder to steal
electrons – more energy
levels).

The more energy levels act as


a shield.
ELECTRONEGATIVITY – ACROSS A PERIOD
Both have the same number of
energy levels, but Be has more
protons pulling stronger on
another atom’s electron.

As you move across a period,


the electronegativity increases
(easier to steal electrons –
more protons).

*Noble Gases do not have


desire to steal electrons
because of outer shell!*
WHICH HAS LARGEST ELECTRONEGATIVITY?

• Chlorine
• Sodium
• Magnesium
• Argon
TRENDS (ATOMIC RADIUS
ELECTRONEGATIVITY IONIZATION ENERGY)

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