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Elton John D.

Delos Santos, RN, MAEd


Instructor, UB-SN
Cellular Diversity
 The average adult has nearly 100 trillion cells
 There are about 200 different types of cells
General Rules:
 All organisms are composed of one or
more cells
 All living cells came from other living
cells
 Cells are the basic units of structure
and function of an organism
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic

Types of Cells
Major differences
CHARACTERISTICS PROKARYOCYTES EUKARYOCYTES
NUCLEUS Non-membrane Membrane-bound
bound
DNA Single Multiple
CHROMOSOMES Circular Linear
HISTOMES -/+ +
ORGANELLES - +
CELL WALL Peptidoglycan -/cellulose/chitin
REPRODUCTION Binary fusion Asexual/sexual
RIBOSOMES 70s 80s
ETS Cell membrane Mitochondria
Animal Cell vs. Plant Cell
Cell Structures
Nucleus
 Double membrane-
bound control
center of the cell.
 contains
chromosomes, each
of which consists of
a single molecule of
DNA
Nuclear structures
 Nuclear envelope
 Nuclear pores
 Nucleolus - Small, discrete, spherical, densely
staining structures made up of RNA; produces
ribosomes
Nuclear structures
 Centrosome
/centromere
very small rounded
bodies found on both
ends of the nucleus
regulates the rate of
cell division and
multiplication
Contains centriole
Nuclear structures

 Chromosomes
 long, linear chromatin materials combined
with protein molecules
 contain the genes that represent all the
traits of an individual
 the genes are composed of segmented DNA
Packing of DNA into a Chromosome
Nucleus

Nucleus
1 µm Nucleolus
Chromatin

Nuclear envelope:
Inner membrane
Outer membrane

Nuclear pore

Pore
complex

Rough ER

Surface of nuclear
envelope. Ribosome 1 µm

0.25 µm

Close-up of
nuclear
envelope

Pore complexes (TEM). Nuclear lamina (TEM).


TYPES OF CELLS
Based on number of
chromosomes
a. SOMATIC CELLS: make up the living
structures of the body (body cell or
autosomes)
b. SEX CELLS or GAMETES or germs cells
(gender)
Fertilization
Male
(22)
44 + XY
(boy) or
44 + XX
(girl)
Female
(22)
TYPES OF TRAITS
 DOMINANT TRAIT:
One which is present or evident or manifested
in majority of the offspring or children in every
generation

 RECESSIVE TRAIT:
 One which may be seen only in a minority of
offsprings
The trait may even disappear in one generation
but will re-appear in succeeding generations
TYPE OF EXPRESSION OF
HEREDITARY TRAITS
 PHENOTYPE
 The physical observable aspects of heredity as
handed down from generation
 Eg. Type of hair, eyes

 GENOTYPE
 The non-observable, non-physical aspects of
heredity
 Eg. IQ, talent, temper, aptitude in math, inherited
diseases like asthma, allergy, DM, epilepsy,
hemophilia, insanity, color blindness
Cell Membrane
Other names: Plasma membrane/plasmalemma
 Protective layer
 separates the cell’s internal environment
from the outside environment
 selective barrier
 Gives the size and shape of the cell
 plays a role in cellular communication
Plasma Membrane
Layers and Composition
 Mucopolysaccharide or Carbohydrate
 Outer Protein layer(peripheral)
 Double-layered lipid layer
 Inner protein layer (integral)
Structure of the Plasma Membrane
Structure of a Membrane

 Glycoproteins - membrane proteins with a


carbohydrate group attached that
protrudes into the extracellular fluid

 Glycocalyx - the “sugary coating”


made up of the carbohydrate portions of
the glycolipids and glycoproteins
Membrane Permeability

 The cell is either permeable or impermeable


to certain substances
 The lipid bilayer is permeable to oxygen,
carbon dioxide, water and steroids, but
impermeable to glucose
Factors Affecting Passage of
Substances

 Degree of ionization
 Lipid solubility
 Water solubility
 Size of substance
TRANSPORT MECHANISMS IN THE
PLASMA MEMBRANE

 ACTIVE TRANSPORT
 FACULTATIVE OR FACILITATED

 PASSIVE
Active Transport

Extracellular fluid
Na+ Na+/K+ ATPase 3 Na+ expelled 2K+
Extracellular fluid
gradient
Na +
Na+/K+ ATPase 3 Na+ expelled 2K+
gradient

3 Na+ P
Cytosol
K+ Cytosol 3 Na+ P
ATP
gradient
+ 1 2 3 P
K ATP ADP +
gradient 1 2 ADP
3 P 4 2K
imported
Types of gradient

 Concentration gradient

 inequalities in the solute concentration of


2 solutions separated be a semi-
permeable membrane

 Electrical charge gradient

 differences in the net charge of the solute


Facultative or facilitated diffusion
No need for ATP
Need for specific carrier
protein
Cannot move substances
against gradients
Channel-mediated Facilitated Diffusion of
Potassium ions through a Gated K + Channel
Membrane Proteins
Carrier-mediated Facilitated Diffusion of
Glucose across a Plasma Membrane
Extracellular fluid Plasma membrane Cytosol

Glucose Glucose
transporter
1 Glucose
gradient 2

Glucose
Passive diffusion
Common; simplest method
No need for ATP, carrier
proteins
Movement of substances follow
LAWS OF OSMOSIS.
Membrane Proteins
 Osmosis- movement of solvent or water
from a region of lower to higher
solute concentration
 Diffusion – movement of solute particles
from a region of higher to a lower
solute concentration
Transport in Vesicles
 Vesicle - a small spherical sac formed by budding
off from a membrane
 Endocytosis - materials move into a cell in a
vesicle formed from the plasma membrane
 Exocytosis - vesicles fuse with the plasma
membrane, releasing their contents into the
extracellular fluid
 Transcytosis
Phagocytosis
Passive vs. Active Processes

Passive processes Active processes


 substances move across  cell uses energy,
cell membranes without  Requires specific
the input of any energy; carrier CHONS
use the kinetic energy  Even against a
of individual molecules concentration
or ions gradient
 No need for carrier
CHONS
 Osmosis
Facultative vs. Active Transport
Facultative or Facilitated Active processes
Transport
 Does not require energy  cell uses energy

 Needs specific carrier  Requires specific


proteins carrier CHONS
 Cannot move substances  Even against a
against concentration concentration
gradient gradient
Cytoplasm

1. CYTOPLASMIC INCLUSIONS
A. Cytosol
 intracellular fluid, surrounds the organelles

 the site of many chemical reactions

 reactions provide the building blocks for cell


maintenance, structure, function and growth
Vacoulet
Spaces within the cytoplasm
which serve as:
a. Temporary dumping site of
cellular garbage
b. Storage of glycogen
c. Storage of fats
Cytoplasm
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION:
1. Water
 Fixed and free state

(M: 55-65% of the total body weight)


( F: 45-55% of TBW)
( Infants: 70-80% of TBW)
Solutions and their Effects to the cell

 ISOTONIC SOLUTION:

 has the same tonicity & osmolality


as the blood
 Does not affect the amount of
water in cells
Eg. Isotonic saline
Solutions and their Effects to the cell

HYPOTONIC SOLUTION:

 has lower tonicity &


osmolality than the blood
 drives water into the cell
Solutions and their Effects to the cell

 HYPERTONIC SOLUTION:

 has greater tonicity & osmolality than the


blood
 drives water out of the cell into the
environment
Tonicity and its effect on RBCS
How much water does a person
have?
Adult male: 55-65% of total
body weight
Adult female: 45-55% of total
body weight
Infant: 70-80% of total body
weight
Body water
 2/3 of body water is
INTRACELLULAR (inside the 75
Trillion cells)
 1/3 is EXTRACELLULAR
a. Blood compartment
b. Intestine space comppartment
Cytoplasm

2. CHO
 primary source of energy (1gm = 4calories)
 Stored in the form of glycogen or starch

3. FATS or LIPIDS
 Serves as heat insulator & provides tissue
elasticity
 Stored in the form of Triglyceride
Cytoplasm

4. CHONS
 Tissue-building ( 1gm = 4 calories)
 No storage form

5. ELECTROLYTES
 K+, PO4-, Na+, Cl-,
Nucleoproteins
A. Simple proteins
1. Histomes
2. Protamines
B. Nucleic acid (enzyme)
Deoxyribonuclease; ribonuclease  mononucleotide
-----(nucleotidase phosphatase)  nucleoside 
a. Nitrogenous
b. Pentose (sugar)
 NUCLEOTIDE- subunit of nucleic acid
 NUCLEOSIDE- smaller subunit made
of pentose and nitrogenous base.
There are 5 nucleosides
1. Adenosine – adenine 3-D-ribose
2. Guanidine
3. Thymidine
4. Uridine
5. Cytidine
NUCLEOPROTEINS
Characteristics:
1. Proteins conjugated with nucleic
acids
2. Principal constituent of the
hereditary material in chromosomes
3. They are also found in the
cytoplasm (ribosomes)
4. Present in all living cells
NUCLEOPROTEINS
Functions:
1. Duplication
2. Storage, expression and
transmission of genetic
information
COMPOSITION DNA RNA
Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose

Pyrimidine Cytosine Cytosine


Bases Thymine Uracil

Purine Bases Adenine Adenine


Guanine Guanine
Phosphate Present Present
DNA RNA
LOCATION Nucleus Cytoplasm
Mitochondria Ribosomes
Bacteria, Nucleolus
Viruses Bacteria,
Viruses

STRUCTURE Linear or Branched


circular
Nucleotide: Sugar + base + PO4
 fundamental sub-unit of
Nucleic acids
Nucleoside: Sugar + base

PO4

Pentose Base
PYRIMIDINE
1.Thymidylic acid
√ X
2. Cytidylic acid
3. Uridylic acid

PURINE T/C/U/G/A

1. Guanylic acid
2. Adenylic acid
Pyrimidine
Purines
COLOR DNA RNA
TESTS
Feulgen’s Red Negative
Test
Dische Test Blue Negative

Aniline Red Negative


Orcinol Test Negative Green
WATSON & CRICK MODEL OF DNA
Structure:
 consistsof repeating units of
nucleotides
 Doublestranded: coiled together
around a common axis
 Spiral Staircase: double
helix
 The 2 strands are antiparallel
 Sugar-PO4: side of ladder
 N bases connected by H
bonds: Rungs/steps
Note that
the
resulting
strand
comple-
ments the
template
strand
 Complementary base pairing :
The 2 strands are held together
by complementary base pairing
 A = T ; G = C
There are always the same
number of A bases as T bases,
and G as C.
A=T
G=C
1. The base composition of the
DNA of all organisms is
CONSTANT
2. The amount of purine bases
is always EQUAL to the
amount of pyrimidine bases
(1:1)
 A = T ; G = C
CHARGAFF’s Rules of DNA
3. The amount of adenine is
always EQUAL to the
amount of Thymine
4. The amount of Guanine is
always EQUAL to the
amount of Cytosine
 Storesall the information
about the proteins that make-up
the organism (genetic
material).
 Gene:DNA segment that codes
for the biosynthesis of specific
protein
Chromosome: densely packed DNA
during mitosis
 Visible under a light microscope
Euchromatin / Parachromatin:
loosely packed DNA; lightly or
poorly stained areas in the nucleus
 Transciptionally active
DNA
 Heterochromatin / Nuclear
chromatin: consists of densely
packed DNA; darkly stained
areas of the nucleus
 Transciptionally inactive
RNA
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Structure:
 Single-stranded/helix
 Ribose-PO4: backbone
 Bases are variable and stick out
from the backbone; Ratio is NOT
always 1:1
 No thymine = Uracil
RNA Structures
RNA TYPES AMT NUMBER OF
NUCLEO-
TIDES
Messenger RNA 15% 1,200
Transfer or 5% 75
soluble RNA
Ribosomal RNA 80% 1,800
Carrier of genetic information to
the site of protein synthesis
(mRNA)
Essentialcomponent of the
ribosomes
Serves as the genetic material for
some viruses
mRNA:
 carries the genetic code to
the cytoplasm for the
formation of protein
tRNA:
 transfers amino
acid molecules to
the ribosomes
during protein
synthesis
 smaller
rRNA:

 constitute 40-50% of the


ribosomes (attached to the ER
for protein synthesis)

 Function is structural and may


also be catalytic for some
translation reactions
Central dogma in the sequence of
processes lead to CHON synthesis
DNA ---> RNA ---> polypeptide chain
(formation of new CHON)

The DNA molecule serves to DIRECT or


ORDER protein synthesis. The segment
of a DNA molecule that codes for the
biosynthesis of a specific protein is
called GENE
THREE STAGES:
 Transcription
 Translation
 Formation of Polypeptide Chain
Enzyme-dependent process of
generating RNA (mRNA) from
DNA
Catalyzed by a DNA-dependent
RNA polymerase enzyme
Initiation: Gene recognition
 RNA polymerase enzyme & DNA
form a stable complex at the
gene promoter
 Promoter: specific DNA sequence
that acts as a transcription start
site
Elongation
Termination
 the mRNA leaves the nucleus
and goes to the cytoplasm
(ribosomes)
 mRNA - carries the codon or
message
 Okazaki fragments (short
strand DNA) are joined
together by DNA ligase
CODON’S CHARACTERISTICS
 UNIVERSAL- all plants & animals, bacterial cells, are
the same to specify each amino acid (LIVING CELLS)
 DEGENERATE- more than 1 triplets can code for a
particular amino acid
 The first 2 bases are the most SIGNIFICANT &
IMPORTANT. The 3rd base is VARIABLE & is sensitive to
MUTATION
 CONTINUOUS- non-overlapping adjacent or
neighboring codons don’t overlap
 Process by which ribosomes
translate/decode the
information carried by the
mRNA
 Production of 20 amino acids
THE GENETIC CODE:
 Codons/Coding triplet: groups of
3 adjacent bases that specify an
amino acid
 64 codons
 Most amino acids are coded for by
more than one codon
CODONS:
UUU Phenylalanine
UUA Leucine
AUG Methionine
UAU Tyrosine
CAU Histidine
UGG Tryptophan
CODONS:
 AUG = start codon
 UAA, UAG, UGA: stop/termination
codons
 The first 2 bases are more
significant and important.
 The 3rd base is variable and sensitive
to mutation
CODONS: Characteristics
 Universal: All plants & animals
have the same codon to specify
each amino acid
 Degenerate code: more than one
codon can specify the same
amino acid
 Continuous: Code does NOT
overlap; code is read sequentially
 Amino acids are activated first by
combining with ATP to form amino
acyl adenylate (catalyzed by
amino acyl tRNA synthetase)
 The tRNA/soluble RNAs
transport individual a.a. to the
ribosomes based on the
arrangement of the codon.
A.a.

A.a. are activated and


attached to their cognate
tRNA

aminoacylated
tRNA/charged
tRNA
Anticodon: set of N bases used in
the formation of a polypeptide
chain
Cistron: smallest part of a DNA
which may represent a gene
Intron: smaller sub-units of DNA
but cannot represent a gene
Plasmids: closer loops of DNA
material
Large Amino acid
Large subunit Amino acid
P site
P site subunit
Initiator tRNA tRNA
Initiator tRNA tRNA
UAC A site
U A C GG A U G A site
GG A U G C
C
Small P site
P site
Small subunit Anticodon
subunit Anticodon
A site
UAC A site
2 Large and small ribosomal GA U G
U AG C
2 Large and small ribosomal
subunits join to form a functional GG A U G
subunits join to form and
ribosome a functional
initiator tRNA mRNA
ribosome and fits initiator tRNA
into P site. mRNA
Amino acid Codons
Amino acid (methionine) fits into P site. Codons
(methionine) Initiator tRNA
Initiator tRNA 3 Anticodon of incoming tRNA pairs
Anticodon 3 Anticodon
withofnext
incoming
mRNA tRNA
codonpairs
at A site.
Anticodon mRNA with next mRNA codon at A site.
U A CmRNA
UAC GG A U G
GG A U G
Small
mRNA Small subunit
mRNA binding subunit
binding site
site Start codon
Start codon UAC U
1 Initiator tRNA attaches to a
Initiator tRNAstart
attaches to a
UGAGCA UUG U A G
1 codon. GG A U G U A G
start codon.

New
New peptide
peptide bond 4 Amino acid on tRNA at P site
bond 4 Aminoforms
acid on tRNA atbond
a peptide P sitewith
forms amino
a peptide
acidbond
at A with
site.
amino acid at A site.
C
U
GG A
U U G U GC
GG A U G U GC
mRNA
mRNAmovement
Stop codon movement
5 tRNA at P site leaves ribosome,
6 Protein synthesis stops when 5 tRNA at Pribosome
site leaves ribosome,
shifts by one codon;
the ribosome reaches stop ribosometRNA
shiftspreviously
by one codon;
at A site is now
codon on mRNA. tRNA previously
at the Pat A site is now
site.
Key: at the P site.
Key: = Adenine Growing Complete protein
= Adenine mRNA protein
= Guanine tRNA
= Guanine
= Cytosine
= Cytosine
= Uracil
= Uracil
Ribosomes
Comparison between DNA & RNA
Name Deoxyribonucleic Ribonucleic acid
acid
Pentose sugar Deoxyribose Ribose
Structure Double helix Single helix
Location Chromosome Nucleus ribosome
mitochondria
Purine base Adenine, Guanine Adenine , Guanine
Pyrimidine Thymine, Cytosine Uracil, Cytosine
base
Nitrogenous Adenine with Adenine with
base pairings Thymine; Guanine Uracil; Guanine
with Cytosine with Cytosine
Cytoplasm

Cytoskeleton
 network of fibers extending throughout
the cytoplasm
 Also forms the major component of cilia
and flagella
Microfilaments and microtubules
The Cytoskeleton

Microtubule

Figure 6.20 0.25 µm Microfilaments


The Cytoskeleton
The Cytoskeleton
Cytoplasm

2. Organelles
 Specialized & metabolically active
structures/little organs within the cell;
Ribosomes
Ribosomes
 Translate the genetic
code into polypeptide
chains.
 Found attached to the
Rough endoplasmic
reticulum or free in
the cytoplasm.
 60% RNA and 40%
protein.
Ribosomes
Endoplasmic
Reticulum
-Transport of
materials within
the cell
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
 Network of continuous
sacs, studded with
ribosomes.
 Manufactures, pro-
cesses, and transports
proteins for export from
cell.
 Continuous with nuclear
envelope.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

 Involved in the synthesis of lipids,


carbohydrate metabolism, and
detoxification of drugs and poisons.
 Metabolizes calcium.
Golgi Complex

• Specialized portion of ER consists of 3-20


flattened, membranous sacs called cisternae
• modify, sort, and package
proteins and lipids
made by the ER for
transport to different
destinations
Golgi Complex

• Temporary storage depots for cellular


secretions
• Site of synthesis of large CHO
Synthesized
Ribosome protein 1 Transport vesicle
Entry face cisterna
2

Medial cisterna
3
Exit face cisterna

4 Transport vesicle
(to lysosome)
8
Rough ER
6
Transfer vesicle
Proteins in vesicle
4 Membrane membrane merge
7 vesicle
5 with plasma
membrane

Transfer vesicle
Proteins exported
Secretory from cell by exocytosis
vesicle
Plasma
membrane
Lysosome  Single membrane bound
structure.
 Contains digestive
(proteolytic) enzymes that
break down cellular waste
and debris and nutrients for
use by the cell.
 For intracellular defense
mechanism
 Autophagy and heterophagy
Lysosome

Http://anatomy.med.unsw.edu.au/teach/phph1004/1998/WWWlect3/sld005.htm
Lysosomes

1. Primary

2. Secondary
Peroxisomes

 Spherical or oblong structures

 smaller than lysosomes

 Production and degradation of H2O2

 Degradation of certain fatty acids and


amino acids

 Detoxify several toxic substances


Mitochondrion

 Ultrastructure:
 Outer layer
 Inner layer:
 Cristae - series of folds
Matrix - the large central
fluid-filled cavity
Mitochondrion

Intermembrane space

Outer
membrane

Free
ribosomes
in the
mitochondrial
matrix

Inner
membrane

Cristae

Matrix

Mitochondrial
DNA 100 µm
Mitochondrion

 Site of cellular respiration

 More prevalent in physiologically active cells:


muscles, liver and kidneys
 Self-replicate during times of increased
cellular demand or before cell division
Enzyme systems inside
mitochondria
Krebs’s cycle or Tricarboxylic
Acid Cycle or Citric Acid Cycle =
other layer
Electron transport chain or
CYTOCHROME OXIDATE enzyme
system or RESPIRATORY CHAIN
= inner layer
PO4 + Adenosine  AMP
PO4 + AMP  ADP
PO4 + ADP  ATP
Cytoplasmic Inclusions

A. Vacuoles
 Temporary dumping site for cellular
wastes
 Storage of glycogen and fats
B. Inclusions
C. Pigments
D. Fat Droplets
Parts of cell Description or chemical Function
composition
Spherical in shape & separated Cell information center
Cell nucleus from the cytoplasm by a double DNA replication of tRNA
membrane colloid , the nuclear synthesis
envelope
Barrel shaped cell structure found Involved in the organization
Centriole in most animal eukaryotic cells, of the mitotic spindle in the
though absent in higher plants completion of cytokinesis
and most fungi
Part of a cell that is enclosed Site where most cellular
Cytoplasm within the cell membrane activities occur, such as many
metabolic pathways like
glycolysis, and processes such
as cell division
Large complex of RNA/protein Synthesize of protein
Ribosome molecules
Continuous with the outer layer of Insertion into the ER
Rough ER the nuclear envelope membrane; glycosylation;
disulfide bond formation &
rearrangement
Parts of cell Description or chemical Function
composition
Smooth ER Connected to the nuclear Has function in several
envelope metabolic processes including
synthesis of lipids and steroid
Golgi complex Composed of membrane-bound Passage & modifies protein
stacks known as cisternae molecules for transport and
secretion
Lysosome Large spherical organelles that Release energy from food
contain enzymes molecules and transport
energy into usable form
Mitochondria Membrane enclosed organelle Contains enzymes capable of
found in most eukaryotic cells digesting worn cellular parts
or substances that enter cells
Cell Mainly composed of protein and Maintain integrity of the cell,
lipid molecules controls the passage of
membrane materials into & out of the
cell and provides for signal
transduction