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Assi

gnmenton: EVOLUTI ONOFMI CROPROCESSORS


Submi
tt
edby:Jati
nSehgal
,11710287,
EE- 5thSemest
4, er
Submi
tt
edto:
Pr of
.G.
LPahujaSir,
Depart
mentofElect
rical
Engi
neer
ing,
NITKURUKSHETRA
Forthecour se-MicroprocessorsandMi crocont r
oll
ers(EEPC-33)
Contents
I ntr
oduct iont oMi croprocessors
 ListofEv olut
ionofMi cropr
ocessors(
Year ,Wor dsize,
Memor yCapacity
,
Pins,ClockRat e)
 Gener ationsofMi croprocessori.
e.4-
Bit(1st)
,8-Bi
t2nd)
( ,16Bi
t3rd)
( ,32-
t
h t
h
Bit(
4) ,64-Bit(5)
 Adv antagesandDi sadvantagesofMi croprocessors

I
ntr
oduct
ion:
Amicroprocessori
sthatprogrammableICt
hatisusedforexecut
ing
i
nst
ructi
onst otheprocessofdigi
taldat
aorexerci
sedi
gital
contr
olover
t
hedev i
ces.Iti
spri
mar i
l
ywor ksasthecent
ralpr ngu
ocessi nitof
comput
ersy
stem.
Pr
ocessorYearof Word Memory Pi
ns Cl
ockRat
e
I
ntroduct
ion si
ze Capaci
ty
4004 1971 4-
bit 1KB 16 750KHz

8085 1976 8-
bit 64KB 40 3-
6MHz

8086 1978 16-


bit 1MB 40 5-
10MHz

80486 1989 32-


bit 4GBr
eal
,
64TBv
irt
ual 16817*
17 25-
100MHz
PGA

Pent
ium 1993 32-
bit 4GBreal,
32-
bit 237PGA 60-
200MHz
add,
64-bi
tdat
a

Pent
ium Pr
o 1995 32-
bit 64Gbr
eal
,36-
bitadd. 387PGA 150-
200MHz

Cel
eron 1998 32-
bit _
___
___
___
__ _
___
___
___ 2GHz

Pent
ium 4 2000 32-
bit 64GB 423PGA 1.
3-3.
2GHz

I
tani
um 2001 64-
bit 64add.Li
nes 423PGA 733MHz-
1.5GHz

Cor
e2Duo 2005 _
___
___
___ _
___
___
___
__ _
___
___
___ 3GHz

Cor
e2Quad 2006 _
___
___
___ _
___
___
___ 3GHz

Cor
e2 2006Quad(
QX) _
___
___
___ _
___
___
___
__ _
___
___
___ 3GHz
Ext
reme

i
7965XE 2009Quad _
___
___
___ _
___
___
___
__ _
___
___
___ 3.
2GHz

Gener
ati
onsofMI
CROPROCESSORS:
 4Bi
tie.1STGENERATI
. ON(
1946-
1954)
:

Theyusedv acuum t
ubesasCPUcomponent s.Asthehi
ghcostofvacuum t
ubes
prevent
edtheiruseformainmemory
,lesscostl
ybutsl
owerdevi
cessuchasmer cur
y
delayli
neswereusedf ormemor
y.

 8-
Biti
.e.2NDGENERATI
ON(
1955-
1964)
:

Tr
ansi
stor
swer
eusedi
nst
eadofv
acuum t
ubes.Magnet
icdi
skmemor
ywasal
so
devel
oped.Machi
nei
ndependenthi
ghl
anguageswer
eal
sodev
elopedl
i
keFORTRAN
andCOBOL.

 16-
Biti
.
RD
e.3 GENERATI
ON(
1965-
1974)
:

TheyusedICSi
nCPU,I/
Oprocessor
sandot
herel
ectr
oniccomponent
s.Ther
ewer
e
si
gnif
icanti
mpr
ovementsi
nthedesi
gnofmagnet
iccor
ememor y.

 32-
Biti
.e.4TH GENERATI
ON(
1975-
1990)
:

Theyusedmicroprocessor
sasCPU.Mul
ti
functi
onalper
ipher
alchi
psprovi
ding
funct
ionsofi
nter
ruptcontr
oll
er,
DMAcont
roll
er,t
imers/
counter
s,buscont
roll
erona
singl
eICweredeveloped.

 64-
Biti
.e.5TH GENERATI
ON(
1991-
PRESENT)
:

TheyuseVLSIandULSIchips.AnULSIchi
pcont
ainsmil
l
ionsofcomponent
sona
si
ngleI
Cchip.Memorychipsupto1GB,Harddi
skdri
vesupto2000GBandopti
cal
disks
upto50GBareavai
labl
e.

ADVANTAGES:
o Microprocessor 
i
sthatthesearegeneralpur
poseel ectr
onicprocessingdevi
ces
whichcanbepr ogrammedt oexecut eanumberoft asks.
o Microprocessori
sitsspeed,whichismeasuredin hert
z.Forinstance,a
microprocessorwit
h3GHz, shortlyGHziscapableofper f
ormi ng3bill
i
ontasksper
second.
o Microprocessori
sthatitcanquicklymovedatabet weenthev ari
ousmemor y
l
ocations.
DI
SADVANTAGES:
o Themicroprocessorhasal imit
ati
onont hesizeofdat a.
o Mostoft hemi croprocessordoesnotsuppor tfl
oatingpointoper
ati
ons.
o Themai ndisadvant ageisit’
soverheat
ingphy si
cally.
o I
tshouldnotcont actwiththeotherext
ernaldevices.
o Themicroprocessori sdoesnothav eanyinternalperipher
alli
keROM, RAM and
otherI
/Odev ices.