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ASSIGNMENT -3

INNOVATION AND
INVENTION

SUBMITTED TO:- Miss. Harjeet Ma’am.

SUBMITTED BY:- Shourya Tayal.

UID:- 18BCS6566.

BRANCH/SEC:- B.E.(CSE)/CSE25.

SUBJECT CODE:- CST-156.


Q1):- Discuss the emerging
technologies in the field of
computer science and
engineering and Information
Technology by giving
suitable examples?

ANS):- Emerging technologies are


characterized by radical novelty,
relatively fast growth, coherence,
prominent impact, and uncertainty and
ambiguity. In other words, an emerging
technology can be defined as "a
radically novel and relatively fast
growing technology characterised by a
certain degree of coherence persisting
over time and with the potential to
exert a considerable impact on the
socio-economic domain(s) which is
observed in terms of the composition of
actors, institutions and patterns of
interactions among those, along with
the associated knowledge production
processes. Its most prominent impact,
however, lies in the future and so in the
emergence phase is still somewhat
uncertain and ambiguous.
1. Convertible Tablets/Laptops.
Simple tablets and laptops with finger
touch technology are giving way to
more convertible devices with robust
capabilities and more traditional
interfaces. An example is the Lenova X1
Yoga
2. Smart Home Devices. In 2018,
though, look for the competition to
increase, especially from products that
can connect to the big three—Amazon
Echo, Google Home, and Apple HomeKit
.
Augmented Reality. VR is still growing,
and AR is likely to explode this year as
well like last few years – many of which
would be available on mobile.
3. Chip Technology. The laptop
combo chips that combine high
computing power, longer battery life,
huge memory, and major graphics
capabilities. To that point, Intel, in fact,
released a new chip that incorporates
AMD graphics
4. Artificial Intelligence. AI, trends of
the year may be such as smarter
products, smarter vehicles, smarter
processes, smarter consumer goods,
smarter tech solutions, and even
smarter cities & smart companion.
5. IoT(Health Sensors). That is
especially evident in the healthcare
industry. While there are certainly
factors to consider when it comes to
HIPAA compliance and personal data,
the value of sensors to help people
improve their health and well-being is
undisputed. Sleep sensors were an
especially hot item at this year’s
conference, so keep your eyes on those.
Insurance industry is focusing
integration on this IoT devices.
6. 5G Technology. With blazing fast
speeds and high computing power(1
sec), 5G tech is ready to change the
world. Why? The IoT wouldn’t be where
it is without the support and speed of
5G, which promise multigigabit
download speeds in seconds. And that’s
just the beginning.
7. Smarter Cars. Digital
transformation touches the automotive
industry, too. not only self-driving cars.
This year, look for tech advances that
improve the driving experience(smart
drive)—everything from pricey add-on
dashboard companions that include
mobile app integration and
internal/external cameras to less-
expensive options that integrate Alexa
into vehicles and allow users to quickly
schedule, shop, and hear music upon
command.
Q2):- What is machine
learning? Explain in brief?
ANS):- Machine learning is an
application of artificial intelligence (AI)
that provides systems the ability to
automatically learn and improve from
experience without being explicitly
programmed. Machine learning focuses
on the development of computer
programs that can access data and use
it learn for themselves.
The process of learning begins with
observations or data, such as examples,
direct experience, or instruction, in
order to look for patterns in data and
make better decisions in the future
based on the examples that we
provide. The primary aim is to allow the
computers learn automatically without
human intervention or assistance and
adjust actions accordingly.
Some machine learning methods
Machine learning algorithms are often
categorized as supervised or
unsupervised.
 Supervised machine learning
algorithms can apply what has been
learned in the past to new data
using labeled examples to predict
future events. Starting from the
analysis of a known training dataset,
the learning algorithm produces an
inferred function to make predictions
about the output values. The system
is able to provide targets for any
new input after sufficient training.
The learning algorithm can also
compare its output with the correct,
intended output and find errors in
order to modify the model
accordingly.
 In contrast, unsupervised machine
learning algorithms are used when
the information used to train is
neither classified nor labeled.
Unsupervised learning studies how
systems can infer a function to
describe a hidden structure from
unlabeled data. The system doesn’t
figure out the right output, but it
explores the data and can draw
inferences from datasets to describe
hidden structures from unlabeled
data.
 Semi-supervised machine learning
algorithms fall somewhere in
between supervised and
unsupervised learning, since they use
both labeled and unlabeled data for
training – typically a small amount
of labeled data and a large amount
of unlabeled data. The systems that
use this method are able to
considerably improve learning
accuracy. Usually, semi-supervised
learning is chosen when the acquired
labeled data requires skilled and
relevant resources in order to train it
/ learn from it. Otherwise,
acquiringunlabeled data generally
doesn’t require additional resources.
 Reinforcement machine learning
algorithms is a learning method that
interacts with its environment by
producing actions and discovers
errors or rewards. Trial and error
search and delayed reward are the
most relevant characteristics of
reinforcement learning. This method
allows machines and software
agents to automatically determine
the ideal behavior within a specific
context in order to maximize its
performance. Simple reward
feedback is required for the agent to
learn which action is best; this is
known as the reinforcement signal.
Machine learning enables analysis of
massive quantities of data. While it
generally delivers faster, more accurate
results in order to identify profitable
opportunities or dangerous risks, it may
also require additional time and
resources to train it properly. Combining
machine learning with AI and cognitive
technologies can make it even more
effective in processing large volumes of
information.
Q3. Explain the role of
machine learning in social
media services?
ANS):- Effects of Machine Learning on
Social Media.
What was once seen as a fiction in the
scientific movies, has now become a
reality- and its gaining popularity across
the various sectors. Yes, we are talking
about Artificial intelligence and machine
learning. More and more companies are
leveraging this technology to understand
what the customer demands and engage
for better success. Even the social
marketing giant Twitter has joined the
league. The company has recently
announced that it will now use insightful
machine learning technology to
recommend tweets to its users.
It’s no secret that social media has
become a new way to conduct a
business. Just have a look at these mind-
boggling statistics. 1.65 billion of web-
users that are active on social media,
96% of brands use social media and in
2015 Facebook prompted 52% of
purchases online, 71% of the people who
have good social media experience are
likely refer the same to others. Not to
mention, about the treasured lead
information that is neatly packed in the
profiles.
How machine learning is changing the
social media revolution?
1. To improve the visual experience
As per the statistics, 82% of the twitter
users watch video content and around
90% watch it on a hand held
screen. Hence, to improve the visual
experience further, Twitter has
announced to purchase Magic Pony
Technology, a London based technology
firm that has developed machine
learning techniques for visual
enhancement. This technology will help
Twitter to automatically sharpen the
video and images. As videos and live
streaming are critical for the next
generation social media, so we believe
that this Twitter strategy should work to
its advantage.
2. It helps the social networking giants to
market their products to the targeted
users
Facebook uses deep neural networks to
decide which adverts needs to be shown
to which users. By tasking this work to
the machines, the company can free
itself from labour intensive activities.
These include collecting the data,
clustering it in an insightful way, and
serving the data in a way to maintain
supremacy in their domain.
3. Protects the reputation and keeps the
data safe
Today, even the big conglomerates are
vulnerable to data spam, hence Pinterest
has started using machine learning
technology to its advantage. With it, the
company can detect the spam content
and the users, recommend the content
and predict the likelihood that a person
will pin the content, can monetize ad
performance.

4. It helps to automate the data


Today there are 2.2
billon Google+ users, out of 111 million
are active users and reaching out to so
many users is always a concern. Hence,
Google has followed the suite of
machine learning through which it can
automatically attach tags without
further data input. The web giant
actually wants to recognize abstract
concepts (like sunset, beach) and attach
metadata to it without the further
mouse click.
Definitely, machine learning technology
is stepping up its game and changing the
future of social media trends and with its
deep insights both the customers are
getting benefited. Starting from big
shops to small companies, everyone can
use it to step up their competitive
advantage and customer engagement
objectives.