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BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS

BASIC CONCEPTS AND PRINCIPLES

DEFINITIONS AND USEFUL INFORMATION

 Thermodynamics is that branch of physical sciences that treats of various phenomena of energy and the related
properties of matter, especially of the laws of the transformation of heat into other forms of energy and vice versa
(Faires, 1978).
 Thermodynamics is that branch of science that deals with energy, its conversion from one form to another and the
movement of energy from one location to another (Todd & Ellis, 1981).
 Thermodynamics is the science that deals with heat and work, and properties of substances that bear a relation to
heat and work (Sonntag, 1998).
 The word thermodynamics is derived from the Greek words therme, which means heat, and dynamis, which
means strength or motion.
 There are four thermodynamics laws which are the basis of analysis, namely: the First Law of Thermodynamics,
the Second Law of Thermodynamics, the Third Law of Thermodynamics, and the Zeroth law.
 Examples of related properties of matters are density, specific volume, pressure, temperature, and internal energy.
 Examples of energy conversion systems are steam power plant, Diesel power plant, hydro power plant,
geothermal power plant, nuclear power plant, and solar power plant.
 Working Substance is a fluid that receives, transports, and transfers energy; or it is a fluid in which energy can be
stored and from which energy can be removed.
 Energy is the capacity of the system or substance to do an effect.
 Work is the product of the component of a force in the direction of motion, and the distance through which the
point of application of the force moves during its action (Todd & Ellis, 1981).
 Thermodynamic State refers to the thermodynamic condition and identified through the properties of a substance
or system
 Thermodynamic Datum refers to the thermal reference of a substance or system.

THERMODYNAMIC SYSTEMS

 Thermodynamics system is anything, a certain quantity of matter, a certain volume in space, or a collection of
matter or space of fixed quantity that one has an interest for a particular study and analysis.
 For purposes of analysis, thermodynamic systems are bounded by boundaries. The space outside the boundaries is
called as surroundings and the space inside is called as the system, a control mass, or a control volume.

Kinds of Thermodynamic Systems

1. Closed System is a system in which working substance does not cross its boundaries but energy crosses its
boundaries. A typical example of this system is a piston and cylinder device as shown in Figure 1.1 below.
o Closed system is also called as Controlled Mass System. It has two types, namely: then non-flow closed
system, and the steady-flow closed system.

2. Open System is a thermodynamics system in which both the working substance and energy are crossing its
boundaries. An example of which is a pump or compressor being cut from the suction point to the discharge side,
as shown in figure 1.2 below.
o Open system is also called as Controlled Volume System. It has two types, namely: the steady-flow open
system, and the unsteady flow or transient flow open system.

3. Isolated system is a thermodynamic system in which neither the mass (working substance) nor energy crosses its
boundaries, and completely not affected by the surrounding conditions.
o Example of which is a compartment in a spacecraft, where astronauts are located, which is not affected by the
conditions outside.

THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES

 Thermodynamic Properties are descriptive characteristics of the system used to compute the changes of energy
that have occurred in a system or working substance. These are characteristics or attributes of matter which can
be evaluated quantitatively
 A property is a characteristic quality of the entire system and depends not on how the system changes state but
only on the final system state (Burghardt & Harbach, 1993).

Types of Thermodynamic Properties


1. Intensive Properties are thermodynamic properties that are independent of the mass of the substance in the
system. Example: temperature, pressure, density, and voltage.

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BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
2. Extensive Properties are thermodynamic properties that are dependent upon the mass of the substance in the
system. These properties are total values. Example: total volume, total internal energy, or total enthalpy
3. Specific Properties are properties that are considered for a unit mass, and are intensive by definition. Example:
specific volume, specific internal energy, or specific enthalpy

BASIC LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS

1. First Law of Thermodynamics deals with law of conservation of energy. The law of conservation of energy states
that “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it just transforms into another forms”.
2. Second Law of Thermodynamics deals with the direction of flow of heat energy, that is from the higher
temperature body to lower temperature body, and the property known as “Entropy”.
3. Third Law of Thermodynamics deals with the restriction of all physical systems to the temperature regime that
excludes absolute zero. The law states that, “At absolute zero, the entropy of a pure substance (in equilibrium at 0
o
K or 0 oR) in some ‘perfect’ crystalline form becomes zero”.
4. Zeroth Law is law concerning thermal equilibrium and is the basis for temperature measurement. The law states
that “When two bodies, isolated from other environment, are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, the two are
in thermal equilibrium with each other”.

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW OF MOTION

 The second law of motion of Newton states that, “The acceleration of a particular body is directly proportional to
the resultant force acting on it and inversely proportional to this mass”. Acceleration is also the derivative of
velocity of a body with respect to time.

MASS AND WEIGHT

 Mass is the absolute quantity of matter in substance or body. It is a quantity that does not change with the change
of gravity.
 Weight is the force of gravity on the body and could be determined by a spring scale. This quantity changes with
the change of gravity.
o At the surface of the earth near sea level, mass and weight are numerically equal.
DENSITY

 Density is an intensive thermodynamic property that is usually used to determine the mass of the substance or
system. It is the mass per unit volume of a substance.

SPECIFIC VOLUME

 Specific volume is the volume of a unit mass substance; it is also defined as the reciprocal of density.

SPECIFIC WEIGHT

 Specific Weight is the force of gravity per unit volume of a substance.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

 Specific gravity is the ratio of the specific weight of a certain substance to that of the specific weight of water at
standard condition. It is also defined as the ratio of the density of a certain substance to that of the density of water
at standard condition.

PRESSURE

 Pressure is an intensive thermodynamic property and basically defined as the force per unit area.
 Gauge Pressure is the pressure of a substance or system measured by a pressure gage or a pressure-measuring
instrument.
 Atmospheric pressure is the force exerted by the column atmospheric air per unit area; or it is the pressure of the atmosphere
at a certain location, say, at the surface of the earth near sea level.

Standard atmospheric pressure at the surface of the earth, near sea level
o 1 atmosphere = 29.92” Hg
o 1 atmosphere = 760 mm Hg
o 1 atmosphere = 101.325 kPa
o 1 atmosphere = 14.7 psi
o 1 atmosphere = 34 ft H2O
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BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
o 1 atmosphere = 760 Torr
o 1 atmosphere = 1.0332 kgf/cm2

Special Pressure Conversions:


o 1 bar = 100 kPa = 0.10 MPa
o 1 mm Hg = 1 Torr

Fluid Pressure or Hydrostatic Pressure


o Hydrostatic Pressure or Fluid Gage Pressure is the force exerted by a column of fluid per unit area.

Absolute Pressure
o Absolute pressure is the algebraic sum of the barometric pressure or atmospheric pressure and the gauge pressure.

Pressure Measuring Instruments


o Barometer is a pressure-measuring instrument, used to measure atmospheric pressure.
o Pressure Gauge is a pressure-measuring instrument, used to measure gauge pressure directly by its dial indicator.
A typical example of which is a Bourdon pressure gauge, as shown in the figure 1.6 below.
o Manometer is a pressure-measuring instrument, used to measure gauge pressure of the system using U-tube
wherein water or mercury is the working substance. Illustration of a manometer is shown in the figure 1.7 below.

TEMPERATURE

 As defined by James Clerk Maxwell, “The temperature of a body is its thermal state considered with reference to
its ability to communicate heat to another bodies” (Faires, 1978).
 Temperature is also defined as the measure of coldness and hotness of a body; it is an intensive thermodynamic
property used to indicate the amount of energy within the molecules of the substance.
 Two arbitrary scales are commonly used for measuring temperature, namely: the Fahrenheit scale (after Gabriel
Fahrenheit, 1686-1736), and the Celsius scale (after Anders Celsius, 1701-1744).
 Fahrenheit scale is based on the freezing point of water as 0 oF and the boiling point of water as 212 oF at 1
standard atmospheric pressure. This scale is used for English system of measurement.
 Celsius scale is based on the freezing point of water as 0 oC and the boiling point of water as 100 oC at 1 standard
atmospheric pressure. This scale is used in the Metric and SI system of measurement.
 Absolute temperature is the temperature of a body or system in reference to absolute zero. Degrees Rankine is the
unit used in the English system while Degreed Kelvin is used in the Metric or SI system of units.

Temperature Equations:
o Conversion of oF to oC  t C 
5
t F  32 Eq. 1.12
9
9
o Conversion of oC to oF  t F  t c  32 Eq. 1.13
5

o Absolute temperature in oK  TK  t C  273 Eq. 1.14

o Absolute temperature in oR  TR  t F  460 Eq. 1.15

CYCLE AND PROCESS

 Process is the manner of changing the condition or state of the substance or system.
 Some of the processes of fluids are: Isometric or constant volume process, Isobaric or constant pressure process,
Isothermal or constant temperature process, Adiabatic or isentropic process, and Polytropic process.
 Cycle is the series of two or more processes in which the final condition after the execution of the processes is the
same as the initial condition.
 When a certain mass of fluid in a particular state passes through a series of processes and returns to it initial state,
it undergoes a cycle (Faires, 1978).

CONSERVATION OF MASS

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BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
 The law of conservation of mass states that “Mass can neither be created nor destroyed, it just transforms into
components”.

CONTINUITY EQUATION

 Continuity Equation is the conservation of mass expression for steady flow open system.
 Continuity equation is in the form of mass flow rate and volume flow rate of the fluid into or from the system.

STEADY FLOW OPEN SYSTEM

 Steady flow open system is an open system in which mass entering the system is equal to the mass leaving the
system; there is no change in the stored mass of the system.

IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER

 A thermodynamic system that generally serves as a heat source or heat sink for another system is known as Heat
Reservoir.
 A thermodynamic system that operates continuously with only heat and work are crossing its boundaries and its
boundaries are impervious to the flow of mass is called Heat Engine.
 A thermodynamic system that is impervious to heat because of its perfect insulation on the surface is known as
adiabatic system.
 A substance that is homogeneous and invariable in its chemical composition is called Pure Substance.
 The common units of pressure are kgf/m2, kN/m2, Pa, kPa, MPa, bar in the metric or SI systems; and psi, lb/ft2 in
the English systems.
 Thermodynamic system is also defined as a collection of matter or space of fixed identity.
 Thermodynamic state of the system or substance is its condition that describes how the substance exists.

STUDENT’S SELF-TEST

INSTRUCTION: Select the correct answer for each of the following questions.

1. A substance that is homogeneous in composition and homogeneous and invariable in chemical aggregation.
a. Fluid b. Pure substance
c. Working substance d. Simple substance
2. A substance that exists, or is regarded as existing, as a continuum characterized by low resistance to flow and the
tendency to assume the shape of its container.
a. Pure substance b. Fluid
c. Working substance d. Simple substance
3. A substance whose state is defined by two independently variable intensive thermodynamic properties.
a. Pure substance b. Working substance
c. Fluid d. None of the above
4. That potion of the universe, an atom, a certain quantity of matter, or a certain volume in space that one wishes to
study.
a. Property b. System
c. Fluid d. Property
5. Descriptive characteristics used to express the behavior of the system or substance.
a. Datum b. State
c. Properties d. System
6. Thermodynamics properties that is dependent of the mass.
a. Extensive properties b. Intensive properties
c. Specific properties d. All of the above
7. The measure of microscopic disorder of a substance.
a. Enthalpy b. Entropy
c. Internal energy d. None of the above
8. A fluid that receives, transports, and transfers energy.
a. Fluid b. Pure substance
c. Working substance d. Simple substance
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BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
9. A spherical tank with a diameter of 3.5 ft is filled with water. If the specific gravity of water 1.05, what is the total
mass?
a. 250 kg. b. 157.56 lb.
c. 1 234.6 kg. d. None of the above
10. Thermodynamic properties that is dependent of the mass.
a. Extensive properties b. Intensive properties
c. Specific properties d. None of the above
11. A classification of temperature and total volume as properties.
a. Intensive properties b. Extensive properties
c. Specific properties d. None of the above
12. If the temperature of a substance is 250 oF, determine the temperature in oK.
a. 467 oK b. 356.89 oK
o
c. 289.46 K d. 394.11 oK
13. A thermal state of a body considered with reference to its ability to communicate heat to other bodies or system.
a. Specific heat b. Temperature
c. Pressure d. Internal energy
14. The force of gravity per unit volume of a substance.
a. Density b. Specific gravity
c. Specific weight d. Weight
15. When a certain mass of a fluid in a particular state passes through a series of processes and returns to its initial state.
a. Cycle b. Process
c. State d. Datum
16. A system whose mass does not cross its boundaries.
a. Open system b. Isolated system
c. Closed system d. None of the above
17. When two bodies, isolated from other environment, are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, the two are in
equilibrium with each other.
a. First Law of Thermodynamics b. Second Law of Thermodynamics
c. Zeroth Law d. Amagat’s Law
18. If the mass of a substance is 60 kg, the weight at a condition with g = 9.675 m/s2 is equal to:
a. 59.195 kg b. 59.915 lb
c. 59.915 N d. None of the above
o o
19. The equivalent of 130 F to C.
a. 54.44 oC b. 45.44 oC
o
c. 544.4 C d. None of the above
20. What is the absolute pressure of the system if its gage pressure is 14.7 psi?
a. 101.325 kPaa b. 29.92” Hg abs.
c. 202.65 kPaa d. None of the above
21. A combination of processes taking a system through a succession of states and returning to its initial state.
a. Process b. Cycle
c. State d. Datum
22. When two bodies, isolated from other environment, are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, the two are in
equilibrium with each other.
a. First Law of Thermodynamics b. Second Law of Thermodynamics
c. Zeroth Law d. Amagat’s Law
23. A spherical tank, 75 cm in diameter, is filled with a fluid whose density is 40 lb/ft3. The total mass of the fluid is:
a. 234.50 kg b. 2 2345.67 lb
c. 456.7 kg d. None of the above
24. Referring to the thermal condition of the system or substance.
a. Process b. Datum
c. State d. Temperature
25. It is a branch of science that deals with energy, its conversion from one form to another, and the movement of energy
from one location to another.
a. Physics b. Heat transfer
c. Thermodynamics d. Hydraulics
26. It is the capacity of a system or substance to do an effect.
a. Work b. Torque
c. Energy d. Power
27. It is the product of the component of a force in the direction of motion, and the distance through which the point of
application of the force moves during its action.
a. Heat b. Work
c. Energy d. All of the above
28. Open system is also known as:
a. Controlled mass system b. Controlled volume system
c. Transient system d. Isolated system
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BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
29. It is a thermodynamics law that deals with the direction of flow of heat energy, which is from higher temperature body
to lower temperature body.
a. Second law of thermodynamics b. First law of thermodynamics
c. Third law of thermodynamics d. Zeroth law
30. “The acceleration of a particular body is directly proportional to the resultant force acting on it and inversely
proportional to this mass.” The preceding statement is known as:
a. Newton’s first law of motion b. Newton’s second law of motion
c. Newton’s third law of motion d. Naperian law of motion

ANSWERS
1. b
2. b
3. d
4. b
5. c

6. a
7. b
8. c
9. d
10. a

11. d
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. a

16. c
17. c
18. a
19. b
20. c

21. b
22. c
23. d
24. c
25. c

26. c
27. b
28. b
29. a
30. b

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BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS

ENERGY CONCEPT

ENERGY
 Energy is basically defined as the capacity to do work; or energy is the capacity of the substance or system to do
an effect.
 As stated in the law of conservation of energy, “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it just transforms
into another forms”.
 There are several forms of energy, namely: potential energy, kinetic energy, internal energy, work energy, heat
energy, etc.

POTENTIAL ENERGY

 Potential energy is the energy of a body or substance because of its position or elevation measured with respect to
a certain datum line.
 This energy is also called as gravitational potential energy.

KINETIC ENERGY

 Kinetic Energy is basically defined as the energy of a body because of its velocity.

INTERNAL ENERGY

 Internal Energy is the energy of a body or substance that is the sum of the energies of all its molecules; it is also
the sum of the various forms of energy that a molecule has.

WORK ENERGY

 Work Energy is basically defined as energy in transition; it exists only when a force is moving through a distance.
 Work is that transitional energy (not stored in a moving substance) crossing the boundaries of a system that could
conceivably produce the one and only effect of raising a weight (Faires, 1978).
 Work energy has several forms, some of which are: strain or elastic work, work due to surface tension, electrical
work, non-flow work, and flow energy.
Convention of Sign for Work Energy

o Work is positive (+) when work is done by the system.


o Work is negative (-) when work is done to the system.

Elastic Work

o Elastic Energy or Elastic Work or Strain Work is defined as work that involves a force deforming a solid body.

Work Due to Surface Tension

o Work due to surface tension is the work done on a surface with a thin film of fluid.
o Lubrication of rotating elements in a machine, say the bearing lubrication, is a typical example of surface tension
application.
o Surface Tension – is the force of molecular attraction per unit length of free surface; it is a function of both the liquid and the
surface in contact with the liquid. Surface tension of liquid decreases as the temperature increases. It is always tangent to the
interface.

Electrical Work

 Electrical work is the product of potential difference and the current, which is in volt-ampere

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BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
Non-Flow Work or Work on a Moving Boundary

o Non-flow work is a work done to or by a non-flow closed system during a reversible process without flowing of a
working substance or through a moving boundary.
o A typical example of which is a piston-cylinder arrangement wherein the substance expands (or compressed)
against resistance and does work; the process should be internally reversible or quasi-static or quasi-equilibrium
process, meaning the process must proceed through a series of internal equilibrium states (no temperature or
pressure gradients at any instant).
o A reversible process for a system is defined as a process that once having taken place can be reversed and in so
doing leave no change in either system or surroundings (Sonntag, 1998).
o A quasi-equilibrium is one in which the deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium is infinitesimal, and all the
states the system passes through during a quasi-equilibrium process may be considered equilibrium states
(Sonntag, 1998).

Flow Work or Flow Energy

o Flow work or Flow Energy is work done in pushing a fluid across a boundary, usually into or out of the system
(Faires, 1978).
o This energy or work is applicable only for an open system in which flowing of a working substance is considered.
o Flow work is the product of the fluid pressure at a system boundary and the volume flow rate of the working
substance.

HEAT ENERGY

 Heat Energy is basically defined as the energy in motion; it moves from higher temperature body to lower
temperature body.
 Heat transfer or motion occurs only between bodies or systems mainly because of temperature difference.
 There are three modes of heat transfer, namely: the conduction, the convection, and the radiation.

Modes of Heat transfer

1. Conduction mode of heat transfer


 Heat transfer with the case of gas and liquid is due to the process of the faster moving (hotter) molecules
colliding with slower molecules.
 For a solid, heat is transferred due to the molecular vibration of the hotter molecules to the adjacent
molecules.
2. Convection Mode of Heat Transfer
 Convection heat transfer is simply the transport of more energetic molecules (hotter molecules) from one
place to another.
3. Radiation Mode of Heat Transfer
 This mode of heat transfer is due to electromagnetic emanation.

Convention of Sign for Heat Energy

o Heat is positive (+) when heat is transferred to or supplied to the system.


o Heat is negative (-) when heat is transferred from or rejected by the system

Difference of Heat and Work


o Work can be converted entirely into heat, or ideally entirely into other forms of energy.
o Heat cannot be converted entirely into work, only part of it will be converted into wok energy.

SPECIFIC HEAT

 Specific heat is the amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass substance by one
degree Kelvin.

Constant Volume Specific Heat, cv,

o Constant volume specific heat or specific heat at constant volume is the change of the molecular internal energy
for a unit mass or one mole of a substance per degree change of temperature with the volume remains constant
from the initial state to the final state.
Constant Pressure Specific Heat

o Constant pressure specific heat or specific heat at constant pressure is the change of enthalpy for a unit mass or
one mole substance per degree change of temperature between two states without changing the pressure.
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BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
o Enthalpy is basically defined as the sum of internal energy and the product of pressure and specific volume.

Specific Heat Ratio

 Specific heat ratio is the ratio of constant pressure specific heat to that of constant volume specific heat.
Variable Specific Heat with Temperature
For actual gases specific heat during the process is not constant and can be obtain through actual test. Specific heats vary
with temperature because the energy associated with each vibrational mode becomes greater, particularly at high
temperature conditions

CONSERVATION OF ENERGY

The law of conservation of energy states that “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it just transforms into another
forms”.

IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER

 1 Btu is equal to 778.169 ft-lb


 Work is that transitional energy (not stored in a moving substance) crossing the boundaries of a system that could
conceivably produce the one and only effect of raising a weight (Faires, 1978).
 Work is a path function; that is the reason for the inexactness of the work differential.
 Conduction is heat transfer within a medium; it is due to the drift of free electrons and photon vibration.
 Conduction heat transfer follows Fourier’s law, which states that “the conductive heat flow, q, is a product of the
thermal conductivity of the material, k, the area normal to the heat flow, A, and the temperature gradient, dT/dx,
across the area”.
 Conductive heat transfer is given by the relation:
dT
q  k A
dx
Where, q = conductive heat flow, kW
k = thermal conductivity of material, kW-m/m2-oK
A = surface area, m2.
dT/dx = temperature gradient, oK/m
 Radiated heat is a heat transfer through electromagnetic waves between two bodies separated by a distance.
 Convection mode of heat transfer is the transfer of heat between a solid surface and a moving fluid.
 One British thermal unit is equal to 778.169 ft-lb; and to 1055 Joules.
 Translational kinetic energy is the energy associated with the translational motion of the molecule.
 Vibrational energy is the energy because of the back and forth movement of the atoms in the molecule, toward and
away one another.
 In the convention of sign for work: work is positive (+), when work is done by the system; work is negative (-), when
work is done to the system.
 In the convention of sign for heat: heat is positive (+), when heat is transferred from the surroundings to the system;
and heat is negative (-), when heat is transferred from the system to the surroundings or when heat is rejected by the
system.
 Non-flow work is work done by or to the non-flow closed system because of the moving boundary of the system.
 Flow work or flow energy is the work done to the fluid in the crossing the boundaries of an open system whether
steady flow or transient flow open system.
 The law of conservation of energy states that whenever heat is transferred, energy is conserved.
 When a fluid undergoes a reversible process, both the fluid and its surroundings can always be restored to their
original state.

STUDENT’S SELF-TEST

INSTRUCTION: Select the correct answer from each of the following questions.

1. A substance that is homogeneous in composition and homogeneous and invariable in chemical aggregation.
a. Fluid b. Pure substance
c. Working substance d. Simple substance
2. A substance that exists, or is regarded as existing, as a continuum characterized by low resistance to flow and the
tendency to assume the shape of its container.
a. Pure substance b. Fluid
c. Working substance d. Liquid
3. A substance whose state is defined by two independently variable intensive thermodynamic properties.
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BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
a. Pure substance b. Working substance
c. Fluid d. Simple substance
4. That potion of the universe, an atom, a certain quantity of matter, or a certain volume in space that one wishes to
study.
a. Property b. System
c. Fluid d. State
5. Descriptive characteristics used to express the behavior of the system or substance.
a. Datum b. State
c. Properties d. System
6. Thermodynamics properties that is dependent of the mass.
a. Extensive properties b. Intensive properties
c. Specific properties d. Pressure
7. The measure of microscopic disorder of a substance.
a. Enthalpy b. Entropy
c. Internal energy d. Specific heat
8. A fluid that receives, transports, and transfers energy.
a. Fluid b. Pure substance
c. Working substance d. Simple substance
9. A spherical tank with a diameter of 3.5 ft is filled with water. If the specific gravity of water 1.05, determine the total
mass.
a. 250 kg. b. 157.56 lb.
c. 1 234.6 kg. d. 667.06 kg
10. Energy of a body due to its position or elevation.
a. Internal energy b. Potential energy
c. Kinetic energy d. Work energy
11. The quantity of heat required raising the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree Kelvin.
a. Heat energy b. Internal energy
c. Specific heat d. Specific heat at constant volume
12. The specific heat of a pure substance which the change of enthalpy for a unit mass or 1 mole between two equilibrium
states at the same pressure per degree change of temperature.
a. Specific heat b. Constant volume specific heat
c. Constant pressure specific heat d. Internal energy
13. Thermodynamic properties, which are dependent of the mass.
a. Extensive properties b. Intensive properties
c. Specific properties d. Specific heat
14. A classification of temperature and total volume as properties.
a. Intensive properties b. Extensive properties
c. Specific properties d. None of the above
15. If the temperature of a substance is 350 F, determine the temperature in oK.
o

a. 467 oK b. 356.89 oK
o
c. 289.46 K d. None of the above
16. A thermal state of a body considered with reference to its ability to communicate heat to other bodies or system.
a. Specific heat b. Temperature
c. Pressure d. Internal energy
17. The force of gravity per unit volume of a substance.
a. Density b. Specific gravity
c. Specific weight d. Weight
18. In a piston-cylinder device the working substance is initially at 100 kPaa and 0.025 m3 then expands reversibly until
the volume becomes 0.105 m3. The process is in accordance with pV1.4 = C. The work done during the process is:
a. 1.03 kJ b. 2.56 kW
c. 123.34 ft-lb d. 2.73 kJ
19. When a certain mass of a fluid in a particular state passes through a series of processes and returns to its initial state.
a. Cycle b. Process
c. State d. Datum
20. The change of enthalpy per unit mass of a substance between two equilibrium states at the same pressure per degree
change of temperature.
a. Constant volume specific heat b. Constant pressure specific heat
c. Specific heat d. Enthalpy
21. A form of energy that flows from higher temperature body to lower temperature body.
a. Internal energy b. Heat energy
c. Specific heat d. Work due to surface tension
22. A system whose mass does not cross its boundaries.
a. Open system b. Isolated system
c. Closed system d. Steady flow open system

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BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
23. When two bodies, isolated from other environment, are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, the two are in
equilibrium with each other.
a. First Law of Thermodynamics b. Second Law of Thermodynamics
c. Zeroth Law d. Amagat’s Law
24. If the mass of a substance is 60 kg, the weight at a condition with g = 9.675 m/s2 is equal to:
a. 59.195 kgm b. 59.915 lbf
c. 59.915 N d. 59.915 kgf
o o
25. The equivalent of 230 F to C.
a. 54.44 oC b. 45.44 C
c. 544.4 oC d. None of the above
26. What is the absolute pressure of the system if its gage pressure is 101.325 kPa?
a. 101.325 kPaa b. 29.92” Hg abs.
c. 202.65 kPaa d. 303.325 kPaa
27. An energy done in pushing a fluid across the boundary, usually into or out of the system.
a. Nonflow work b. Flow energy
c. Work energy d. Work due to surface tension
28. A combination of processes taking a system through a succession of states and returning to its initial state.
a. Process b. Cycle
c. State d. Datum
29. When a fluid undergoes a reversible process, both the fluid and its surroundings can always be restored to their
original state.
a. Process b. Cycle
c. State d. Datum
30. A 2500-lbm car moving at 15 kph is accelerated at a constant rate of 15 fps 2 up to a speed of 50 kph. What is the
change in kinetic energy?
a. 245,56 kW b. 3456,78 ft-lb/min
c. 359.08 kJ/min. d. None of the above
31. A work done due to a moving boundary of a system.
a. Nonflow work c. Flow work
c. Work energy d. Kinetic energy
32. In a piston-cylinder device the working substance is initially at 100 kPaa and 0.025 m3 then expands reversibly until
the volume becomes 0.105 m3. The process is in accordance with pV1.25 = C. The work done during the process is:
a. 1.03 kJ c. 2.56 kW
c. 123.34 ft-lb d. 3.015 kJ
33. When two bodies, isolated from other environment, are in thermal equilibrium with a third body, the two are in
equilibrium with each other.
a. First Law of Thermodynamics b. Second Law of Thermodynamics
c. Zeroth Law c. Amagat’s Law
34. In item # 32, what is the final pressure of the system?
a. 900 kPaa b. 1 234.65 kPaa
c. 890.56 kPaa d. 16.63 kPaa
35. A cylindrical tank, 75 cm in diameter and 150 cm high, is filled with a fluid whose density is 40 lb/ft 3. What is the
total mass of the fluid?
a. 234.50 kg b. 2 2345.67 lb
c. 456.7 kg d. 424.41 kg
36. The flow energy of 124 lpm of a fluid passing a boundary to a system is 108.5 kJ/min. Determine the pressure at this
point.
a. 345.67 kPaa b. 900 kPaa
c. 234.50 kPaa d. 875 kPaa
37. Heat is transferred to an elastic sphere containing a gas as 105 kPaa; the diameter of the sphere is 2 m. Because of
heating the sphere increases to 2.2 m and the gas pressure increases in direct proportion to the sphere diameter. Find
the work of the gas during this heating process.
a. 2.35 kJ b. 5.65 kJ
c. 25.60 kJ d. None of the above
38. A 3.05-m diameter by 4.57-m height vertical tank is receiving water (density of 998 kg/m3) at the rate of 1 075 lpm
and is discharging through a 15.24-cm inside diameter line with a constant velocity of 1.53 m/s. At at a given instant,
the tank is half full. What is the mass change in the tank 15 minutes later?
a. 4 567.35 kg b. 867.89 kg
c. 2 345.65 kg. d. None of the above
39. In item # 38, the water level in the tank 15 minutes later is:
a. 1.05 m from the bottom of the tank b. 2.50 m from the bottom of the tank
c. 2.05 m from the bottom of the tank d. None of the above
40. Referring to the thermal condition of the system or substance.
a. Process b. Datum
c. State d. Property
11
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
41. The equivalent of 1 Btu:
a. 0.746 Hp b. 778.169 Ft-lb
c. 33 000 ft-lb d. 1.055 Hp

ANSWERS

1. b
2. b
3. d
4. b
5. c

6. a
7. b
8. c
9. d
10. b

11. c
12. c
13. a
14. d
15. d

16. b
17. c
18. d
19. a
20. b

21. b
22. a
23. c
24. d
25. d

26. c
27. b
28. b
29. b
30. d

31. a
32. d
33. c
34. d
35. d

36. d
37. d
38. d
39. a
40. c

41. b

PURE SUBSTANCE

DEFINITIONS AND USEFULL INFORMATION

 Pure substance is a substance that is homogeneous in composition and homogeneous and invariable in chemical
aggregation (Faires, 1978).

12
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
 A substance is said to be pure substance if its chemical compositions do not change even in solid, liquid, or
gaseous phase. Example of which is water that has two atoms of hydrogen and one atom of oxygen as it is in
solid, liquid or gaseous state.
 State of pure substance or system refers to its condition as quantified or identified through the thermodynamic
properties of the substance.
 Phase is a quantity of substance that is homogeneous throughout.
 Relevant Reversible Work Modes refers only to the important work modes for the system in question and
irreversible work modes are not considered.
 Reversible work mode refers to the amount of energy added in a forward process that can be removed by the
reversed process.

Additional Thermodynamic Properties

1. Enthalpy is a thermodynamic property with the following definitions:

 For a closed system, it means the sum of internal energy and the product of pressure and specific volume.

 For an open system, enthalpy means the sum of internal energy and the flow energy or flow work.

2. Entropy is a thermodynamic property first introduced by Clausius in 1865 and could be defined as follows:
 Entropy is the measure of the microscopic disorder of the molecules of a substance.
 It is a thermodynamic property that remains constant in an adiabatic reversible process.
 The change of entropy in an irreversible process is the measure of the unavailable energy.
 Entropy is also defined as the measure of the irreversibility of the system or substance.

Three Phases of Matter or Pure substance


1. Solid phase
2. Liquid phase
3. Vapor or gaseous phase

Manners of Changing the Phases


o Melting or fusion is the change of phase from solid to liquid.
o Freezing or solidifying is the change of phase from liquid to solid.
o Vaporization is the change of phase from liquid to gaseous phase.
o Condensation is the change of phase from vapor to liquid; during the process it is also called as condensing.
o Sublimation is the change of phase from solid to vapor or vice versa.

o The difference of superheated temperature and the saturation temperature or boiling temperature is called
degrees of superheat (oSH).
o The difference of saturation temperature and the subcooled liquid temperature is called degrees subcooled
(oSC).

OTHER DEFINITIONS
 Existing pressure or applied pressure refers to the pressure of the system in which change of phase at constant
pressure is considered.
 Solid water is a condition of water in which the temperature is below the freezing temperature corresponding to an
existing pressure.
 Subcooled liquid is a liquid condition in which the given temperature is higher than the melting temperature and
lower than the saturation or boiling temperature corresponding to an existing pressure.
 Compressed liquid is a liquid condition in which the pressure is higher than saturation pressure corresponding to
the given temperature.
 Saturated liquid is a liquid condition in which boiling or evaporation is about to begin and with the temperature is
equal to the saturation or boiling temperature corresponding to an existing pressure.
 Wet vapor or wet steam is the mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapor with the temperature equal to the
saturation temperature corresponding to an existing pressure.
 Saturated vapor/steam or dry and saturated vapor/steam is vapor condition in which evaporation is ended and
condensation is about to begin with the temperature equal to the saturation temperature equal to the saturation
temperature corresponding to an existing pressures.
 Superheated vapor or steam is a vapor in which the temperature is higher than the saturation temperature
corresponding to an existing pressure.
 Heat of fusion is the amount of heat required to change the phase from solid to liquid or vice versa.
 Latent heat or enthalpy of evaporation is the amount of heat required to convert saturated liquid to saturated
vapor; it is the amount of heat required to change saturated liquid to saturated vapor at constant temperature
without changing the pressure.

13
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
 Sensible heat is the amount of heat required to change the temperature without changing the pressure.
 Critical point is a point in which liquid and vapor are coexisted in equilibrium.
 Critical pressure is the existing pressure at the critical point. Critical temperature is the temperature at the critical
point corresponding to an existing critical pressure.
o For water, critical pressure, pc = 22.09 MPaa, and critical temperature, tc = 374.14 oC.
 Triple point is a point in which the melting and boiling or saturation temperature are the same corresponding to
the existing pressure.
o For water, at triple point: p = 0.6113 kPaa and t = 0.01 oC
 Sublimation is the process in which solid will directly change from solid to vapor at a temperature corresponding
to an existing pressure.
o For water, sublimation process will occur at p = 0.260 kPaa and t = - 10 oC.
 Super critical condition is a condition above the critical point (p > 22.09 kPaa for water). This is a condition
where there is no liquid or vapor phase of pure substance existing in equilibrium.

IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER

 Saturation temperature is a temperature at which vaporization of liquid or condensation of vapor takes place at a
given or existing pressure.
 Saturation pressure is an existing pressure during the vaporization or condensation of the substance at a temperature
known as saturation temperature.
 Sub-cooled liquid is the liquid that has a temperature lower than the saturation temperature corresponding to the
given or existing pressure.
 Compressed Liquid, synonymous with sub-cooled liquid, is the liquid that has a pressure higher than the saturation
pressure corresponding to the existing temperature.
 Saturated liquid is the liquid that has a temperature equal to the boiling point corresponding to the existing or given
pressure.
 Vapor is a substance existing in the gaseous phase but relatively near its saturation temperature.
 Saturated Vapor is the vapor that has temperature equal to the saturation temperature corresponding to an existing
pressure.
 Degree of superheat, oSH, is the difference between the temperature of superheated vapor and the saturation
temperature for an existing pressure.
 Degrees Sub-cooled, oSC, is the difference between the saturation temperature for the given pressure and the actual
sub-cooled liquid temperature.
 Wet Vapor is the mixture of saturated vapor and the saturated liquid.
 Quality of wet vapor, x, is the percentage by weight of vapor in the mixture of saturated vapor and saturated liquid.
 Percent Moisture, y, is the percentage by weight of liquid in the mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapor.
 Latent Heat of Evaporation is the amount of energy required to convert saturated liquid to saturated vapor or from
saturated vapor to saturated liquid with the temperature remains constant.
 Sensible heat is the amount of heat required to change the temperature of a substance without changing the phase.
 Critical point is a point that represents the highest pressure and highest temperature at which liquid and vapor can
coexist in equilibrium.

SELF-TEST

INSTRUCTION: Select the correct answer from each of the following questions.

1. A substance that is homogeneous in composition and homogeneous and invariable in chemical aggregation.
a) Simple substance b) Pure substance
c) Working substance d) All of the above
2. It a quantity of substance that is homogeneous throughout.
a) State b) Phase
c) Datum d) Property
3. It refers to the amount of energy added in a forward process that can be removed by the reversed process.
a) Reversible work mode b) Relevant reversible work modes
c) Heat energy d) Change in internal energy
4. It refers only to the important work modes for the system in question and irreversible work modes are not considered.
a) Reversible work mode b) Relevant reversible work modes
c) Heat energy d) Change in internal energy
5. A thermodynamic property that first introduced by Clausius in 1865 and could be defined as the measure of the
irreversibility of the system or substance.
a) Enthalpy b) Internal energy
c) Entropy d) Temperature
6. The measure of the unavailable energy in an irreversible process.
a) Enthalpy b) Internal energy
c) Entropy d) Temperature
14
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
7. The change of a pure substance from solid to liquid phase.
a) Fusion b) Freezing
c) Condensation d) none of these
8. The change of phase of a substance at constant pressure means:
a) A pure substance changes its phases from solid to gaseous without changing the existing temperature.
b) A pure substance changes its phases from solid to gaseous without changing the existing pressure.
c) A pure substance changes its phases from solid to gaseous without changing the existing volume.
d) A pure substance changes its phases from solid to gaseous without changing the rate of heat added.
9. It refers to the pressure of the system in which change of phase at constant pressure is considered.
a) Applied pressure b) Saturation pressure
c) Existing temperature d) All of the above
10. A point that represents the highest pressure and highest temperature at which liquid and vapor can coexist in
equilibrium is known as:
a) Critical point b) Triple point
c) Sublimation point d) Saturation point
11. The amount of heat required changing the temperature of a substance without changing the phase.
a) Latent heat b) Specific heat
c) Sensible heat d) Internal energy
12. The amount of energy required to convert saturated liquid to saturated vapor or from saturated vapor to saturated
liquid with the temperature remains constant.
a) Latent heat b) Sensible heat
c) Specific heat d) Internal energy
13. The percentage, by weight, of liquid in the mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapor.
a) Vapor quality b) Moisture content
c) Humidity ratio d) Mixing ratio
14. The percentage, by weight, of vapor in the mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapor.
a) Quality of vapor b) Moisture content
c) Humidity ratio d) Mixing ratio
15. Vapor quality is also known as:
a) Humidity ratio b) Dryness factor
c) Mixing ratio d) Specific humidity
16. The mixture of saturated liquid and saturated vapor is known as:
a) Saturated liquid b) Saturated vapor
c) Dry and saturated vapor d) Wet vapor
17. The difference between the saturation temperature for the given pressure and the actual sub-cooled liquid temperature.
a) Degree of superheat b) Degrees sub-cooled
c) Superheat temperature d) Sub-cooled temperature
18. The difference between the temperature of superheated vapor and the saturation temperature for an existing pressure.
a) Degree of superheat b) Degrees sub-cooled
c) Superheat temperature d) Sub-cooled temperature
19. The vapor that has temperature equal to the saturation temperature corresponding to an existing pressure.
a) Wet vapor b) Saturated vapor
c) Superheated vapor c) All of the above
20. A substance existing in the gaseous phase but relatively near its saturation temperature is known as:
a) Vapor b) Saturated vapor
c) Wet vapor d) Liquid
21. A liquid that has a temperature equal to the boiling temperature corresponding to the existing or given pressure.
a) Sub-cooled liquid b) Compressed liquid
c) Saturated liquid d) Subcooled water
22. The value of specific volume of a wet vapor is:
a) Higher than the value of specific volume of superheated vapor
a) Lower than the value of specific volume of saturated vapor
b) Higher than the value of specific volume of saturated liquid
c) Higher than the value of specific volume of saturated liquid and lower than the value of the specific volume of
saturated vapor.
23. A substance is said to be saturated liquid if:
a) The quality of vapor is equal to 100 %
b) The quality is vapor is equal to zero
c) The quality of vapor is less than zero
d) The quality of vapor is higher than 100 %
24. The work done in pushing a fluid across a boundary, usually into or out of the system is known as:
a) Internal energy b) Flow energy
c) Work due to surface tension d) Kinetic energy
25. It is defined as a process that once having taken place can be reversed and in so doing leave no change in either
system or surroundings.
15
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
a) Irreversible process b) Reversible process
c) Non-flow process d) Steady flow process

ANSWERS
1. b
2. b
3. a
4. b
5. c

6. c
7. a
8. b
9. a
10. a
11. c
12. a
13. b
14. a
15. b

16. d
17. b
18. a
19. b
20. a
21. c
22. d
23. b
24. b
25. b

FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


USEFUL INFORMATION

 The First law of thermodynamics deals with the Law of Conservation of Energy. The law of conservation of
energy states that “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, it just transforms into another form or forms”.

FIRST COROLLARY OF THE FIRST LAW

 The first corollary of the first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of energy to closed
system or control mass (Burghardt & Harbach, 1993).
 Closed system is also known as a fixed or controlled mass system; it could be a non-flow closed system or steady
flow closed system.

First Law Statement for a System Undergoing a Cycle

 The first law of thermodynamics states that, “during any cycle a system undergoes, the cyclic integral of the heat
is proportional to the cyclic integral of the work” (Burghardt & Harbach, 1993), or “ when a system is undergoing
a cyclic change, the net heat added to or rejected from the system is equal to the net work done by or done to the
system” (Faires, 1978).

SECOND COROLLARY OF THE FIRST LAW


 The second corollary of the first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of energy to an
open system (Burghardt & Harbach, 1993).
 There are two type of an open system being considered here, namely: the steady flow open system and the
unsteady flow or transient flow open system.
 Open system is also called as fixed volume in space or control volume.

STEADY FLOW OPEN SYSTEM


 A steady flow open system is a system in which the mass entering the system is equal to the mass leaving the
system; it is also a system in which the energy entering the system is equal to the energy leaving the system.
 For a steady flow open system, the change of stored mass and the change of stored energy are zero.
16
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
Considerations for Steady Flow Open system

To analyse a steady flow open system, the following conditions are being considered:
 The mass rate of flow into the system is equal to that from the system; there is neither accumulation nor
diminution of mass within the system;
 There is neither accumulation nor diminution of energy within the system; it follows that the rate of flow of heat
Q and Work w are constant;
 The state of the working substance at any point in the system remains constant;
 For the determination of properties, one-dimensional flow at inlet and exit boundaries of the system is assumed;
properties are then handled as though uniform across the sections.

APPLICATIONS OF STEADY FLOW OPEN SYSTEM


 Several systems are considered as steady flow open systems some of the applications are presented below.

Adiabatic Turbine
 Adiabatic Turbine is an engine, equipment, or prime mover that convert enthalpic energy into mechanical energy.
 Turbine could be a steam turbine, water turbine, air turbine, or gas turbine.
 Turbine process is adiabatic, means there is no heat transfer from the surroundings to the turbine or from the
turbine to the surroundings.

Compressors and Pumps


 Compressors and Pumps are machines that are utilized to compress, or raise the pressure of, the fluid passing
through them.
 Compressor is a machine that transports gas from one point to another point of higher energy level; it is capable of
compressing the gas to a very high pressure.
 Pump is a machine that at transports liquid; the work is very much like that of the compressor except that it
handles liquids instead of gases.

Boiler or Steam Generator


 Boiler is a vapor generator in which a liquid, say water, is converted into a vapor, say steam, by addition of heat.
 A boiler used to generate steam is also called as steam generator.

Condenser
 Condenser is basically defined as an apparatus that condenses a substance from its vapor phase to its liquid phase
by extracting heat from the substance.
 In steam power plant, condenser is a component used to maintain vacuum conditions on the exhaust of prime
mover by transfer of heat to circulating water or air at the lowest ambient temperature.
 In refrigeration system application, condenser is used to reject heat from the refrigerant at a relatively high
temperature and pressure in order to convert refrigerant vapor into liquid.
 Condenser is generally classified as surface condenser and contact condenser. In a surface condenser, there is no
direct mixing of vapor and the coolant; while in the contact condenser, there is a direct mixing of the vapor and
coolant in the extraction of heat.

Throttling Devices
 A throttling Device is an apparatus in which by an obstruction in its through-flow reduces the pressure of the
flow; it is a device that is used to reduce the pressure of the fluid with the increase of its velocity.
 The process involving this device is called throttling process and is a constant enthalpy process or isenthalpic
process.
 A typical example of this device is a throttling valve or expansion valve in a vapor-compression refrigeration
system; or a capillary tube in a household refrigerator.

Nozzle and Diffuser


 A nozzle is basically defined as device used to increase the flow speed of the substance passing through it.
 It is a device that converts enthalpy into kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is then usually used to drive a
mechanical device such as turbine wheel. It increases the velocity of a fluid at the expense of pressure.
 A diffuser is basically defined as a device that increases the pressure of a fluid by slowing it down. The process of
a diffuser is the reversed process of a nozzle.

17
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
Mixing Chambers
 A Mixing Chamber is basically defined as a section where the mixing process takes place. The mixing chamber
does not have to be a distinct “chamber”. An ordinary T-elbow or Y-elbow as a shower, for example, serves as the
mixing chamber for the cold-and hot-water streams.
 A Mixing Chamber, for example, is a furnace wherein air and fuel are mixed for combustion process.
 Mixing chamber is considered as a steady flow open system because the conservation of mass and conservation of
energy are also applied.

UNSTEADY FLOW OR TRANSIENT FLOW OPEN SYSTEM

 Unsteady flow or transient flow open system is an open system in which mass entering the system is not equal to the
mass leaving the system. Thus, change of stored mass in the system is not zero.
 This system is the one in which energy entering the system is not equal to the energy leaving the system. Thus, change
of stored energy of the system is not zero.

IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER


 The First Law of Thermodynamics is the law of “conservation of energy”, which states that energy can neither be
created nor destroyed.
 The energy of a system undergoing process can be increased or decreased by exchange with surroundings and
converted from one form to another within that system.
 A system is a specified region, not necessarily of constant volume or fixed boundaries, where transfers and
conversions of energy and mass are to be studied.
 An open system is one where energy and mass cross boundaries of that system.
 An open system in the transient state is one in which the mass inflow and outflow are not equal or vary with time
and in which the mass within the system changes with time.
 Steady-state open system or steady state steady-flow (SSSF) is one in which mass and energy flows across the
boundaries do not vary with time and in which the mass within the system remains constant.
 Internal energy is a sole function of temperature for perfect gases and a strong function of temperature and weak
function of pressure for non-perfect gases, vapors, and liquids.
 Flow energy or flow work is the work done by the flowing fluid to push the quantity represented by mass into,
and out of, the system.
 Enthalpies and internal energy are properties of the fluid, which means that each would have a single value at any
given state of the fluid.
 A closed system is the one in which only energy, and not mass, may cross the boundaries.
 Isolated system is the one in which neither mass or energy cross the boundaries but in which energy
transformations may take place within the boundaries.
 A sub-cooled liquid is one at a temperature below the saturation temperature at the given pressure.
 Compressed liquid, synonymous with sub-cooled liquid, is the one in which the pressure is higher than the
saturation pressure at a given temperature.
 Heat transfer in any of its forms, conduction, convection, or radiation, occurs from a higher temperature to a lower
temperature body.
 Heat transfer causes a loss of availability because no work is done between the high- and low-temperature bodies.
It follows that the larger the temperature-difference between two bodies, the larger the low availability, and the
larger the irreversibility.
 Throttling is an uncontrolled expansion process of a fluid from a high-pressure region to a low-pressure region. It
is irreversible because flow cannot be reversed from the low-pressure region to the high-pressure region.
 Throttling process, a form of fluid friction, is one in which the enthalpy is constant. The process is also called a
“Joule-Thomson Expansion”.
 Mixing is an irreversible process that results in the loss of availability of the constituent fluids. Mixing is
unavoidable in many cases, such as when fluids and air are prepared for combustion or when steam and colder
water mix in certain devices, such as open feed-water heaters.
 Vapor is a substance existing in the gaseous phase but relatively near its saturation temperature.
 State properties are the ones defining the physical condition of the fluid.
 Thermodynamic properties are the ones defining the thermal and energy conditions of the fluid.
 Transport properties are the ones that measure the diffusion within the fluid resulting from molecular activity.
 Examples of state properties are pressure, density, and temperature.
 Examples of thermodynamic properties are internal energy, displacement energy, enthalpy, entropy, constant
volume specific heat, and constant pressure specific heat.
 Examples of transport properties are viscosity and thermal conductivity.
 The internal kinetic energy is commonly termed sensible heat because it increases in relation to the absolute
temperature of the body.
 The internal potential energy is commonly termed latent heat, as it is evidenced only during changes of phase and
therefore is unaccompanied by any changes in temperature.

18
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
 The quantity pv represents energy, known as displacement energy or flow work, associated by a unit mass of fluid
by virtue of the displacement of its boundaries from one position to another at constant pressure.
 Enthalpy is an arbitrary composite energy term defined as the sum of the internal energy plus the displacement
energy or flow work.
 The First law of thermodynamics states that heat and mechanical energy are inter-convertible and neither can be
created nor destroyed.
 The second law of thermodynamics, according to Clausius, states that it is impossible for a self-acting machine
unaided by any external agency to transfer heat from one body to another at higher temperature.
 The Nerst Heat Theory, referred to as the third law of thermodynamics, states that it is impossible by any
procedure, no matter how idealized, to reduce any system to absolute zero of temperature in finite number of
operations.
 When there is no transfer of the working substance during the process, it is termed non-flow.
 When there is continuous and steady flow of the working medium, it is termed steady flow.
 Steady-flow or general energy equation is a mathematical statement of the energy conservation law including all
flow process terms normally encountered in heat engineering.
 Non-flow or general energy equation is a simplified mathematical statement of the general energy equation
eliminating all terms not involved in a non-flow process as well as those that are usually negligible.

SELF-TEST

1. The application of the conservation of energy to closed systems is known as:


a) The first corollary of the second law of thermodynamics
b) The first corollary of the first law of thermodynamics
c) The second corollary of the second law of thermodynamics
d) The second corollary of the first law of thermodynamics
2. The application of the conservation of energy to open systems is known as:
a) The first corollary of the second law of thermodynamics
b) The first corollary of the first law of thermodynamics
c) The second corollary of the second law of thermodynamics
d) The second corollary of the first law of thermodynamics
3. The law of thermodynamics that deals with the law of conservation of energy, which states that energy can neither be
created nor destroyed.
a) First law of thermodynamics b) Zeroth law of thermodynamics
c) Second law of thermodynamics d) Third law of thermodynamics
4. The energy of a system undergoing process can be increased or decreased by exchange with surroundings and
converted from one form to another within that system.
a) The above statement is incorrect b) The above statement is correct
c) The above statement is incomplete d) There is no such condition for a system
5. It is a system where energy and mass cross its boundaries.
a) Transient flow system b) Closed system
c) Open system d) Isolated system
6. It is a system in which the mass inflow and outflow are not equal or vary with time and in which the mass within the
system changes with time.
a) Stagnant system c) Steady flow open system
c) Transient flow open system d) Closed system
7. It is a system in which mass and energy flow across the boundaries and do not vary with time and in which the mass
within the system remains constant.
a) Steady-state open system or steady state steady-flow
b) Unsteady flow open system
c) Transient flow open system
d) Non-flow closed system
8. An energy that is a sole function of temperature for perfect gases and a strong function of temperature and weak
function of pressure for non-perfect gases, vapors, and liquids.
a) Internal energy b) Enthalpic energy
c) Heat energy d) Work energy
9. The work done by the flowing fluid to push the quantity represented by mass into, and out of, the system is known as:
a) Stain energy b) Flow energy or flow work
c) Work due to surface tension d) Elastic work
10. Enthalpies and internal energy are properties of the fluid, which means that each would have a single value at any
given state of the fluid.
a) This statement is not true b) This statement is true
c) This statement is either true or false d) There is no such statement
11. The one in which neither mass or energy cross the boundaries but in which energy transformations may take place
within the boundaries is a system known as:
a) Open system b) Closed system
19
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
c) Isolated system d) Steady flow open system
12. Heat transfer in any of its forms, conduction, convection, or radiation, occurs:
a) From a higher temperature to a lower temperature body
b) From a lower temperature to a higher temperature body
c) When the body is at normal temperature
d) When the body is at higher temperature
13. This is an uncontrolled expansion process of a fluid from a high-pressure region to a low-pressure region. It is
irreversible because flow cannot be reversed from the low-pressure region to the high-pressure region.
a) Adiabatic process b) Throttling process
c) Expansion process d) Compression process
14. Throttling process, a form of fluid friction, is one in which the enthalpy is constant. This process is also known as:
a) Gay-Lusac Expansion process b) Joule-Thomson Expansion process
c) Joule-Thomson Compression process d) Gay-Lusac Expansion process
15. A substance existing in the gaseous phase but relatively near its saturation temperature is known as:
a) Gas b) Water
c) Steam d) Vapor
16. The ones defining the physical condition of the fluid are called:
a) Thermodynamics properties b) State properties
c) Cycle properties d) Substance properties
17. The ones defining the thermal and energy conditions of the fluid are known as:
a) Thermodynamics properties b) State properties
c) Cycle properties d) Transport properties
18. The ones that measure the diffusion within the fluid resulting from molecular activity are called:
a) Thermodynamics properties b) State properties
c) Cycle properties d) Transport properties
19. Pressure, density, and temperature are examples of:
a) Thermodynamics properties b) State properties
c) Cycle properties d) Transport properties
20. Internal energy, displacement energy, enthalpy, entropy, constant volume specific heat, and constant pressure specific
heat are examples of:
a) Thermodynamics properties b) State properties
c) Cycle properties d) Transport properties
21. Viscosity and thermal conductivity are examples of:
a) Thermodynamics properties b) State properties
c) Cycle properties d) Transport properties
22. Energy commonly termed sensible heat because it increases in relation to the absolute temperature of the body.
a) Internal kinetic energy b) Internal potential energy
c) Molecular energy d) None of the above
23. It is commonly termed latent heat, as it is evidenced only during changes of phase and therefore is unaccompanied by
any changes in temperature.
a) Internal kinetic energy b) Internal potential energy
c) Molecular energy d) None of the above
24. An arbitrary composite energy term defined as the sum of the internal energy plus the displacement energy or flow
work.
a) Internal energy b) Entropy
c) Enthalpy d) Heat energy
25. A thermodynamics law stating that heat and mechanical energy are inter-convertible and neither can be created nor
destroyed.
a) Zeroth law of thermodynamics b) First law of thermodynamics
c) Second law of thermodynamics d) Third law of thermodynamics
26. The second law of thermodynamics states that it is impossible for a self-acting machine unaided by any external
agency to transfer heat from one body to another at higher temperature. This statement is known as:
a) Kelvin-Plank Statement b) Plank statement
c) Kelvin statement d) Clausius statement
27. A theory stating that it is impossible by any procedure, no matter how idealized, to reduce any system to absolute zero
of temperature in finite number of operations.
a) Nerst heat theory b) Kinetic heat theory
c) Kelvin-Plank theory d) Clausius theory
28. When there is no transfer of the working substance during the process, it is termed as:
a) Transient flow b) Steady flow
c) Non-flow d) Continuous flow
29. When there is continuous and steady flow of the working medium, it is termed as:
a) Transient flow b) Steady flow
c) Non-flow d) Continuous flow

20
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
30. A mathematical statement of the energy conservation law including all flow process terms normally encountered in
heat engineering.
a) Steady flow general equation b) Non-flow general energy equation
c) Flow energy equation d) None of the above
31. A simplified mathematical statement of the general energy equation eliminating all terms not involved in a non-flow
process as well as those that are usually negligible
a) Steady flow general equation b) Non-flow general energy equation
c) Flow energy equation d) None of the above
32. An apparatus in which by an obstruction in its through-flow reduces the pressure of the flow; or it is a device that is
used to reduce the pressure of the fluid with the increase of its velocity.
a) Condenser b) Throttling device
c) Nozzle d) Diffuser
33. An apparatus that condenses a substance from its vapor phase to its liquid phase by extracting heat from the
substance.
a) Condenser b) Boiler
c) Nozzle d) Diffuser
34. A boiler is also called as:
a) Pressure vessel b) Hot water vessel
c) Steam generator
35. An engine, equipment, or prime mover that convert enthalpic energy into mechanical energy.
a) Fan b) Pump
c) Adiabatic turbine d) Boiler

ANSWERS

1. b
2. d
3. a
4. b
5. c

6. c
7. a
8. a
9. b
10. b

11. c
12. a
13. b
14. b
15. d

16. b
17. a
18. d
19. b
20. a

21. d
22. a
23. b
24. c
25. b

26. d
27. a
28. c
29. b
30. a

31. b
32. b
33. a
34. c
21
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
35. b

SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

STATEMENTS OF THE SECOND LAW

1. Whenever energy is transferred, the level of energy cannot be conserved and some energy must be permanently
reduced to a lower level (Burghardt & Harbach, 1993).
2. Whenever energy is transferred, energy must be conserved, but the level of energy cannot be conserved and some
energy must be permanently reduced to a lower level (Burghardt & Harbach, 1993).
 The energy level is a function of all the thermodynamic forces in a system that will cause energy transfer from the
system. The energy level of the system is lowered when the values of these thermodynamic forces within the
system decrease. The direction of energy transport is from a high energy level to a low energy level.

SECOND LAW FOR A CYCLE

 The first law gives techniques for energy analysis, but it does not describe how the energy will flow. The second
law of thermodynamics gives direction to the energy flow.

Kelvin-Planck Statement:

 “No cyclic process is possible whose sole result is the flow of heat from a single heat reservoir and the
performance of an equivalent amount of work.”

DEFINITIONS
 Thermal Reservoir is a body with large heat capacity such that when heat is removed or added to the reservoir, the
temperature of the reservoir does not change (Faires, 1978).
 Heat Engine is a device that operates in a cycle in which the main function is to convert heat input into positive
network output.
 Power Cycles are cycles used to produce work output.
 Refrigeration Cycles are cycles used to pump heat from low to high-temperature regions.
 Heat Pump and Refrigerator are devices that operate in a cycle and transfer heat from a low-temperature region to
a high-temperature region with work input to the system.

CARNOT CYCLE/ENGINE
 Carnot Engine/cycle is the most efficient engine/cycle that operates between two temperature levels.

CLAUSIUS STATEMENT
 It is impossible to construct a cyclic device that will cause heat to be transferred from a low-temperature reservoir
to a high-temperature reservoir without the input of work.
 Carnot Heat Pump or Refrigerator is the only ideal machine with a highest coefficient of performance, COP.
 Coefficient of Performance, COP, is a parameter that measures the performance of the reversed engine or Carnot
engine. For Carnot heat pump, Coefficient of Performance is the ratio of the heat rejected to the high-temperature
heat reservoir tot that of the work input. For Carnot Refrigerator, Coefficient of performance is the ratio of the
heat input from the low-temperature heat reservoir to that of the work input to the engine.

THIRD LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS


 The third law allows the calculation of absolute entropy. The law states that, “The absolute entropy of a pure
crystalline substance in complete internal equilibrium is zero at zero degree absolute” (Faires, 1978).

EQUILIBRIUM STATE

 Two methods by which dS will be non-zero (dS  0):


o Exchange of heat, Q, between the system and the surroundings. For an isolated system, there can be no
energy transfer between the system and surroundings.
o Temperature differential within the system. An irreversible flow within the system is experienced due to the
change of temperature. It is only by an irreversible process that the entropy of the system will increase.

Conclusion (About S and System Equilibrium)


1. When the entropy of an isolated system is at its maximum value, the change in state can occur.
2. When it is possible for the entropy of an isolated system to increase, the system cannot be in a state of equilibrium
and it is possible for a change of system state to occur.
22
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
ENTROPY CHANGE (S) OF A CLOSED SYSTEM
1. The entropy will decrease when heat is removed from the system, all processes being reversible ones.
2. Entropy will remain constant when reversible adiabatic processes occur within the system
3. The entropy will increase when heat is added to the system, reversibly or irreversibly.
4. The entropy of an isolated system will increase when irreversible processes occur within it.

AVAILABLE ENERGY AND AVAILABILITY

 Available energy is that portion of the thermal energy that can be used for work

AVAILABILITY, CLOSED SYSTEM

 The availability of a closed system in a particular state is the maximum work that the system could conceivably
deliver to some thing other than the surroundings as its state changes to the dead state (a stable thermodynamics
equilibrium with the environment), exchanging heat only with the environment (Faires, 1978).

AVIALABILITY, STEADY-FLOW SYSTEM

 The availability of steady-flow system is the maximum work that conceivably be delivered, say, a unit mass of the
system to something other than the surroundings as this unit mass changes from its state at the entrance to the
control volume to dead state at the exit boundary, meanwhile exchanging heat only with the surroundings (Faires,
1978).

IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER

 Reversible process is a process that can be reversed and leave no resultant change in either the system or the
surroundings.
 When a fluid undergoes a reversible process, both the fluid and its surroundings can always be restored to their
original states.
 Irreversible process is a process that cannot be reversed because of friction, heat transfer across a finite
temperature difference, non-equilibrium expansion of gases, etc.
 Some examples of irreversibility
 Process with friction, reversal in this process is impossible because the energy loss during the process
because of friction cannot be recovered in the reversed process.
 Heat transfer through finite temperature difference, reversal for this process is impossible without external
machinery.
 Non-equilibrium expansion of gases (in a piston-cylinder device), to reverse the process an external force
must push down on the piston and compress back to its initial pressure but more work must be done
during the reverse process than was done originally.
 Cycle is a series of processes in which a system starts at a given thermodynamic state and is returned to that exact
the same state.
 Power cycles are cycles that function to produce work output.
 Refrigeration cycles are cycles that function from low- to high-temperature regions.
 Heat engine is a device that operates in a cycle in order to convert heat inti positive network output.
 Kelvin-Plank statement of the Second Law: ”It is impossible to construct a cyclic engine that will take heat from a
single reservoir and produce an equal amount of work”.
 Clausius Statement of the Second Law: “It is impossible to construct a cyclic device that will cause heat to be
transferred from a low-temperature reservoir to a high-temperature reservoir without the input of work.”
 First Corollary of the Second Law: It is impossible to construct a system that will operate in a cycle and transfer
heat from a cooler to a hotter body without work being done on the system by the surroundings.
 Second Corollary of the Second Law: It is impossible to construct an engine operating between only two heat
reservoirs, that will have a higher efficiency than a reversible engine operating between the same two reservoirs.
 The Consequences of the of the Second Law
 If a system is taken through a cycle and produces work, it must be exchanging heat with at least two
reservoirs and different temperatures.
 If a system is taken through a cycle while exchanging heat with only one reservoir, the work must be
either zero or negative.
 Since heat can neither be converted continuously and completely into work whereas work can always be
converted continuously and completely into heat, work uis more valuable form of energy transfer that
heat.
 The availability of a closed system in a particular state is the maximum work that the system could conceivable
deliver to something other than the surroundings as its state changes to the dead state (a stable thermodynamic
equilibrium with the environment), exchanging heat only with the environment (Faires, 1978).

23
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
 The availability of a steady-flow system is the maximum work that can conceivably be delivered by, say, a unit
mass of the system to something other than the surroundings as this unit mass changes from its state at the
entrance to the control volume to the dead state at the exit boundary, meanwhile exchanging heat only with the
surroundings (Faires, 1978).
 Irreversibility is the maximum possible work that a system can do in passing from one state to another minus the
delivered work that can be used to do something other than displace the environment (Faires, 1978).
 Entropy is the property of a substance that remains constant in an adiabatic reversible process.
 The greater the irreversibility, the greater the increase in entropy in an adiabatic process.
 The entropy of the universe is continually on the increase and the end of the universe would occur when entropy
is at maximum, say, when all energy has been dissipated to a bottom state, when all availability is lost, when all
matter is at the same temperature, and no life, as we know it, is possible (El-Wakil, 1984).
 “Speak little of what you know and not at all of what you do not know.” By: Nicolas Leonard Sadi Carnot (1796-
1832)

SELF-TEST

Direction: Select the correct answer from each of the following questions.

1. What is the kinetic energy of a jet of steam whose mass is 1.5 kg traveling at a speed of 1200 m/s?
a) 1 080 kJ b) 1023.7 Btu
c) 796 438.6 ft-lb d) All of these
2. What is the potential energy of 2 kg of steam at an elevation of 5 m above a datum line or reference plane?
a) 98.066 kN-m b) 98.066 Joules
c) 98.066 kJ/s d) 98 066 ft-lb
3. During the compression stroke of a Diesel engine, the heat rejected is 100 kJ/kg and the work input is 200 kJ/kg. What
is the change in potential energy of the working fluid?
a) + 100 kJ/kg b) – 100 kJ/kg
c) – 300 kJ/kg d) + 200 kJ/kg
4. Air is compressed adiabatically in a Diesel engine by a piston moving in a closed cylinder. To effect the compression
stroke, an input of 300 J of energy is required. Determine the change in the internal energy of the air between the start
and completion of the compression stroke.
a) + 300 J b) + 300 kJ
c) – 300 J d) – 300 kJ
5. A tank 0.5 m volume is filled with steam at a pressure of 1000 kPaa and a temperature of 300 oC. If 632 kJ of heat is
3

added, determine the change in internal energy.


a) + 632 kJ b) – 632 kJ
c) + 632 kJ/s d) – 632 kJ/s
6. In problem  5, determine the mass of steam.
a) 4.91 kg b) 1.49 kg
c) 4.19 kg d) 1.94 kg
7. Gas is flowing in a pipe with a velocity of 60 m/s. Determine the kinetic energy.
a) 1 800 J/gm b) 1.8 kJ/kg
c) 1.8 J/kg d) 1 800 kJ/kg
8. What is the thermal efficiency of a heat engine that has 200 kJ of heat supplied from a high temperature source and
150 kJ of heat rejected to a low temperature sink.
a) 75 % b) 52 %
c) 25 % d) 57 %
9. Determine the thermal efficiency of a heat engine that rejects 190 Btu of heat to a low temperature sink and has a
work output of 76 Btu.
a) 28.57 % b) 27.58 %
c) 25.87 % d) 27.85 %
10. Determine the amount of heat required from a high temperature source to obtain a thermal efficiency of 25 % for a
heat engine that has an output of 1.755 kJ.
a) 7.20 kJ b) 7.02 kJ
c) 2.07 kJ d) 2.70 kJ
11. What is the COP for a heat pump that requires 125 kJ work input in order to provide 350 kJ heat rejected?
a) 2 .8 b) 3.8
c) 4.8 d) 1.8
12. A heat pump draws 15 kW of electrical power and supplies 4.5 kJ/s of heat to a system. Determine the COP of the
heat pump.
a) 2 b) 4
c) 3 d) 5
13. Determine the COP for a refrigerator that requires an input of 0.35 kW to the compressor while removing 0.775 kW
from refrigerated space.
a) 2.12 b) 2.21
24
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
c) 3.12 d) 3.21
14. A refrigerator with COP of 2.5 removes 5 kJ/s of heat from a refrigerated space. Determine the electrical power
required to operate the refrigerator compressor.
a) 1 kW b) 3 kW
c) 2.5 kW d) 2 kW
15. What is the capacity of refrigeration system when the refrigerant flow rate is 5 kg/s and the heat removed is 155 kJ/kg
of refrigerant flow?
a) 775 kW b) 577 kW
c) 757 kW d) 875 kW
16. The most efficient engine/cycle that operates between two temperature levels.
a) Rankine engine/cycle b) Brayton engine/cycle
c) Carnot engine/cycle d) Otto engine/cycle
17. “No cyclic process is possible whose sole result is the flow of heat from a single heat reservoir and the performance of
an equivalent amount f work.” The said statement is known as:
a) Kelvin-Palnck Statement b) Carnot Statement
c) Clausius Statement d) Joule Statement
18. “It is impossible to construct an engine to operate between two heat reservoirs, each having a fixed and uniform
temperature, which will exceed the efficiency of a reversible engine operating between the same reservoirs.” The said
statement is known as the:
a) First corollary of the first law b) First corollary of the second law
c) Second corollary of the first law d) Second corollary of the second law
19. “All reversible engines have the same efficiency when working between the same two constant temperature heat
reservoirs.” The said statement is known as the:
a) Second corollary of the second law b) First corollary of the second law
c) First corollary of the first law d) Second corollary of the first law
20. A Carnot engine produces 30 kW while operating between temperature limits of 1200 oK and 300 oK. Determine the
heat supplied to the engine.
a) 40 kW b) 35 kW
c) 30 kW d) 45 kW
21. In problem  20, determine the heat rejected.
a) 20 kW b) 30 kW
c) 10 kW d) 25 KW

ANSWERS

1. d
2. b
3. a
4. c
5. a

6. d
7. c
8. c
9. a
10. b

11. a
12. c
13. b
14. d
15. a

16. c
17. a
18. b
19. a
20. c

IDEAL GASES AND REAL GASES

DEFINITIONS AND USEFUL INFORMATION

25
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
 Ideal gas or perfect gas is a substance in a gaseous phase whose molecules are linked only by collision forces and
not distorted by collision.
 Ideal gas is a gas that remains gas with its existence at any given pressure and temperature conditions.
 Ideal gas is a perfect or theoretical gas that follows Boyle’s and Charles’s laws of ideal gas.
 If the ideal-gas laws yield sufficiently accurate results for the purpose, the substance is considered as an ideal or
perfect gas; otherwise it is an imperfect gas (Faires, 1978).
 The kinetic theory of gases explains the properties of temperature and pressure, and develops the gas constant.

IDEAL GAS LAWS

 Boyle’s Law

 “If the temperature of a given quantity of gas is held constant, the volume of gas varies inversely with the absolute
pressure during a quasi-static or reversible change of state.”

 Charles’ Law or Gay-Lussac’s Law

 If the pressure of a given quantity of gas is held constant, the volume of gas varies proportionately with the
absolute temperature during the change of state.
 Avogadro’s Law

 Avogadro’s law states that in an “equal volumes of all ideal gases at a particular pressure and temperature contain
the same number of molecules”. The number of molecules is known as the Avogadro’s number.
 Joule’s Law

 Joule’s Law of an ideal gas states that “the change of internal energy of an ideal gas is a function of only the
change of temperature, ΔU = Δ(T)”.
 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure

 The total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the pressure that each gas would exert where it to occupy the
vessel alone at the volume, Vm, and the temperature, Tm, of the mixture (Faires, 1978).

Specific Heat Ratio

 Specific heat ratio is the ratio of constant pressure specific heat to that of constant volume specific heat.

COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR

 Compressibility Factor is a factor used to determine whether a gas is real or ideal.


 The value of compressibility factor for ideal gas is one and a value of other than one for real gas.
 Compressibility factor is given by the following equation:

pv
Z
RT
Where, p = absolute pressure, kPaa, psia
v = specific volume, m3/kg, ft3/lb
T = absolute temperature, oK, oR
R = gas constant, kJ/kg-oK, Btu/lb-oR
Z = compressibility factor
Z = 1 (for ideal gas)
Z  1 or  1 (for actual gas)

IMPERFECT OR REAL GAS EQUATIONS OF STATE

 In actual gasses the molecular collisions are inelastic and there are intermolecular forces that cannot be considered or
determined by the equation of state for ideal gases.
 The following equations are some of the proposed equations that are used to approximate the behavior of real gases.

Van der Waals Equation of State


 This equation is one of the earliest equations of state for real gasses, which was developed in 1873 by a Dutch
physicist van der Waals. It is still in used today because of its relative simplicity.
26
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER
 Specific heat is the amount of energy or heat required to raise the temperature of a unit mass or a mole substance by
one degree Kelvin.
 The entropy will increase when heat is added to the system, reversibly or irreversibly.
 Irreversible process is process that cannot be reversed because of friction, heat transfer across a finite temperature
difference, non-equilibrium expansion of gases, etc.
 All gases approach the ideal gas behavior as pressure decreases, because the molecules are getting farther apart.
 If the ideal-gas laws yield sufficiently accurate results for the purpose, the substance is considered as an ideal or
perfect gas; otherwise it is an imperfect gas (Faires, 1978).
 The kind of process, as the opening of water faucet and letting the water flow, is known as a throttling process.
 According from the Joule-Thomson discovery, for actual gases, enthalpy and internal energy are function of
pressure.
 Joule-Thomson coefficient is the change of temperature with respect to pressure while the enthalpy is constant.
 The temperature of the gas is a measure of the molecular velocity (internal energy); the molecular velocity
increases as the temperature increases.
 Ideal gas equation of state is an equation that relates the dependence of pressure, volume, temperature, and mass at
a state.
pv pv
 The ratio  1 is for an ideal gas, while the ratio  Z is for imperfect gases and the factor Z is known as the
RT RT
compressibility factor.

PRACTICE PROBLEMS

Instruction: Solve the following problems and determine the correct answer for each question.

Prob. # 1] The temperature of an ideal gas remains constant at 320 oK while the absolute pressure changes from 101 kPaa
to 825 kPaa and the initial volume is 0.10 m3.
A. Find the final volume of the gas.
a) 0.012 m3 b) 0.120 m3
3
c) 0.021 m d) 0.210 m3
B. Determine the mass of the gas if the molecular mass is 29 kg/kgmol.
a) 1.070 kg b) 0.107 kg
c) 0.017 kg d) 0.701 kg
Prob. # 2] A car tire contains a certain volume of air at 210 kPag and 25 oC. If, due to running conditions, the temperature
of the air in the tire rises to 70 oC, determine the tire gage pressure. Assume that the air is an ideal gas and the tire does not
stretch and the barometric pressure is 29.6” Hg.
a) 272.52 kPag b) 257.22 kPag
c) 572.22 kPag d) 752.22 kPag
Prob. # 3] A glass tube 150 cm long and 2.5 cm in diameter with one end closed is inserted vertically, with the open end
down, into a tank of water until the open end is submerged to a depth of 125 cm. How high will the water rise inside the
tube? Thermal equilibrium maintains at all times; the temperature remains constant; neglect any vapor pressure.
a) 14.5 cm b) 15.4 cm
c) 12.5 cm d) 13.5 cm
Prob. # 4] A 0.0025 m3/s air is compressed from an initial pressure of 103 kPaa to a final pressure of 4200 kPaa while the
temperature remains constant at 27 oC.
A. Find the value of pdV.
a) + 0.955 kW b) – 0.955 kW
c) + 0.595 kW d) – 0.595 kW
B. Determine the value of  Vdp
a) + 0.955 kW b) – 0.955 kW
c) + 0.595 kW d) – 0.595 kW
C. Determine the work done during the process for non-flow.
a) + 0.955 kW b) – 0.955 kW
c) + 0.595 kW d) – 0.595 kW
D. Determine the heat transfer during the process for non-flow
a) - 0.955 kW b) + 0.955 kW
c) + 0.595 kW d) – 0.595 kW
E. Determine the change of enthalpy for both non-flow and steady flow.
a) + 0.955 kW b) – 0.955 kW
c) + 0.595 kW d) 0.00 kW
F. Find the change of entropy for both non-flow and steady flow.
a) + 0.0032 kW/oK b) – 0.0032 kW/oK
c) + 0.0023 kW/oK d) – 0.0023 kW/oK
G. Determine the work done for steady flow if K = 0.075 kW.
27
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
a) – 1.03 kW b) + 1.03 kW
c) + 0.955 kW d) – 0.955 kW
H. For steady flow where K = 0.075 kW, determine the Ef.
a) 0.00 kW b) + 1.03 kW
c) + 0.955 kW d) – 0.955 kW
I. For steady flow where K = 0.075 kW, determine the heat transfer.
a) + 0.955 kW b) – 0.955 kW
c) + 0.595 kW d) 0.00 kW

Prob. # 5] Air is compressed into a 0.5-m3 rigid tank until the pressure is 928.675 kPag and the temperature becomes 100
o
C. Rair = 0.287kJ/kgK
A. Determine the mass of the compressed air
a) 4.81 kg b) 4.18 kg
c) 8.14 kg d) 1.48 kg
B. If the air is allowed to cool to 27 oC, what is at gage pressure of the cooled air?
a) 772.09 kPag b) 727.09 kPag
c) 277.09 kPag d) 709.27 kPag
Prob. # 6] A 1.5-m3 tank is being filled with nitrogen. At a particular instant the temperature is 120 oC, the pressure is
1380 kPaa and each is increasing at rates of 28 oC/s and 138 kPa/s, respectively. Determine the mass flow rate of nitrogen
into the tank at this instant.
a) 0.51 kg/s b) 0.15 kg/s
c) 0.41 kg/s d) 0.14 kg/s
Prob. # 7] A cylindrical tank contains 5 kg of air at a pressure of 482.5 kPaa and 50 oC. If the diameter of the tank is one-
fourth of the height, determine the diameter and the height of the tank.
a) H = 2.696 m, D = 0.764 m b) H = 1.696 m, D = 0.476 m
c) H = 0.674 m, D = 2.696 m d) H = 2.966 m, D = 0.764 m
Prob. # 8] The temperature of a 2-kg oxygen occupying 0.25 m3 is changed from 40 oC to 100 oC while the pressure
remains constant at 800 kPaa.
A. Determine the final volume
a) 0.892 m3 b) 0.298 m3
3
c) 0.829 m d) 0.928 m3
B. Determine the change in density expressed as the percentage of the initial density.
a) 16.125 % b) 15.166 %
c) 12.165 % d) 15.661 %
C. If the pressure varies while the volume remains constant, and the final temperature becomes four times the initial
temperature, what is the final pressure?
a) 3020 kPaa b) 2300 kPaa
c) 3200 kPaa d) 2030 kPaa
Prob. # 9] The decrease in internal energy of a 1.25-kg ideal gas is 345 kJ when the pressure decreases from 690 kPaa to
138 kPaa and the volume decreases from 0.05 m3 to 0.14 m3. The cv = 0.6188 kJ/kg-oK.
A. Determine the change in enthalpy
a) – 360.2 kJ b) + 360.2 kJ
c) – 360.2 kJ/kg d) + 360.2 kJ/kg
B. Find the initial temperature
a) 1013.6 oC b) 740.6 oC
o
c) 740.6 F d) 740.6 oK
C. What is the final temperature?
a) 429.6 oC b) 694.2 oC
o
c) 567.6 C d) 294.6 oC
D. Determine the value of cp.
a) 0.64603 kJ/kg-oK b) 0.64603 Btu/lb-oR
o
c) 0.64603 kJ/kgmol- K d) 0.64603 Btu/pmol-oR
Prob. # 10] 2 kg of certain gas with R = 0.218 kJ/kg- K undergoes a process and results the following changes: H = 2190
o

kJ, U = 1460 kJ.


A. Determine the specific heat ratio
a) 1.2 b) 1.3
c) 1.5 1.6
B. Find the value of specific heat at constant volume
a) 0.436 kJ/kg-oK b) 0.287 kJ/kg-oK
o
c) 0.218 kJ/kg- K d) 0.346 kJ/kg-oK
C. Find the value of cp
a) 0.218 kJ/kg-oK b) 0.654 kJ/kg-oK
o
c) 0.564 kJ/kg- R d) 0.465 kJ/kg-oK
D. Determine the change in temperature
a) 1764.31 oK b) 1476.31 oK
28
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
c) 1674.31 oK d) 1631.76 oK
E. If the process is internally reversible nonflow at constant pressure, determine the heat transferred during the
process.
a) 2190 kJ b) 2091 kJ
c) 1460 kJ d) 1640 kJ
F. If the process is internally reversible nonflow at constant pressure, what is the work done?
a) + 730.2 kJ b) + 720.3 kJ
c) – 730.2 kJ d) – 720.3 kJ
G. What is the work done if the process is at constant pressure, steady flow?
a) –730.2 kJ b) 0.00 kJ
c) + 720.3 kJ d) + 730.2 kJ
Prob. # 11] A certain gas initially at 103 kPaa and 58 liters undergoes a change of state to 620 kPaa and 18 liters, during
which the enthalpy increases by 16.5 kJ. The specific heat at constant volume is 0.216 kj/kg-oK.
A. Determine the specific heat at constant pressure
a) 0.31493 kJ/kg-oK b) 0.09893 kJ/kg-oK
o
c) 0.216 kJ/kg- K d) 0.41393 kJ/kg-oK
B. Find the value of gas constant
a) 0.216 kJ/kg-oK b) 0.41393 kJ/kg-oK
o
c) 0.09893 kJ/kg- K d) 0.31493 kJ/kg-oK
C. Determine the change of internal energy during the process
a) 11.314 kJ b) – 11.314 kJ
c) 16.5 kJ d) – 16.5 kJ
Prob. # 12] Helium is at 500 oK and with a specific volume of 5.2 m3/kg and M = 4 kg/kgmol.
A. Determine the pressure using ideal gas equation
a) 199.86 kPaa b) 200 kPaa
c) 189.96 kPaa d) 186.99 kPaa
B. Determine the pressure using van der Waals equation of state
a) 199 kPaa b) 150.55 kPaa
c) 200.08 kPaa d) 225.65 kPaa
C. Determine the pressure using the Redlich-Kwong equation of state
a) 200.08 kPaa b) 200.01 kPaa
c) 190 kPaa d) 201 kPaa
Prob. # 13] A nitrogen cylinder of 0.10 m originally has a pressure of 17.25 MPaa and a temperature of 27 oC. The
3

nitrogen is gradually used until the pressure is 2.75 MPaa and the temperature is 20 oC. For nitrogen: Tc = 126.2 oK, pc =
3.39 Mpaa, M = 28 kg/kgmol.
A. Determine the mass of nitrogen removed from the cylinder, using the ideal gas equation of state.
a) 19.36 kg b) 16.2 kg
c) 13.96 kg d) 3.16 kg
B. Determine the mass of nitrogen removed from the cylinder using the van der Waals equation of state.
a) 3.155 kg b) 15.856 kg
c) 13.96 kg d) 19.011 kg
Prob.  14] A 2-kg nitrogen gaseous in a piston-cylinder receives heat at a constant pressure of 350 kPaa. The gas
temperature increases from 320 oK to 1420 oK and the specific heat during the process is not constant. For nitrogen:
287.9 5.35 x 104
cp  1.415   , R = 0.2968 kJ/kg-oK.
T T2
A. Determine the change in internal energy
a) 1861.07 kJ b) 2514.03 kJ
c) 652.96 kJ d) 1681.07 kJ
B. Find the heat transferred
a) 652.96 kJ b) 2514.03 kJ
c) 1681.07 kJ d) 1861.07 kJ
C. Determine the change of volume during the process
a) 1.8656 m3 b) 1.6865 m3
3
c) 1.5866 m d) 1.6685 m3
Prob.  15] 12 kg/min of air are isothermally compressed from 99 kPaa and specific volume of 0.81 m3/kg to a final
pressure of 600 kPaa.
A. Determine the work done to the air
a) + 28.9 kW b) – 28.9 kW
c) + 29.8 kW d) – 29.8 kW
B. What is the heat loss during compression
a) – 28.9 kW b) + 28.9 kW
c) + 29.8 kW d) – 29.8 kW

ANSWERS TO THE PRACTICE PROBLEMS

29
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
1. A.a, B.b
2. a
3. a
4. A.b, B.b, C.b, D.a, E.d, F.b, G.a, H.a, I.b
5. A.a, B.b

6. a
7. a
8. A.b, B.a, C.c
9. A.a, B.b, C.d, D.a
10. A.c, B.a, C.b, D.c, E.a, F.a, G.b

11. A.a, B.c, C.a


12. A.a, B.c, C.b
13. A.b, B.b
14. A.a, B.b, C.a
15. A.b, B.a

PROCESSES OF FLUIDS

DEFINITION

 Process is the manner of changing the state of a fluid or changing the thermal condition of a fluid or system.

ISOMETRIC PROCESS (ISOCHORIC PROCESS)


 Isometric process is the manner of changing that state or thermal condition of fluid at constant volume. It could be
internally reversible or internally irreversible process.

ISOBARIC PROCESS
 Isobaric process is an internally reversible change of state without changing the pressure during the process.

ISOTHERMAL PROCESS
 Isothermal Process is an internally reversible change of state of the system or substance without changing the
temperature.

ISENTROPIC PROCESS
 Isentropic Process is an adiabatic and internally reversible process or a constant entropy change of state.

POLYTROPIC PROCESS
 Polytropic Process is an internally reversible process in accordance with pV n = C, where n is any constant other
than 1, 0, , and k.

SUMMARY OF CURVES

 Consider the polytrophic equation

pVn  C ,

 Let n = 0, pVn  pV0  p  C .  The process is isobaric.

 Let n =1, pV1  pV  C .  That is T = C or isothermal process.

 Let n = , pVn  pV  C


C C
V 1
  C .  That is an isometric process.
p  p0

 Let n = k, pVn  pVk  C .  That is an isentropic process.

IMPORTANT POINT TO REMEMBER

30
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
 Whenever a system undergoes any change, the system undergoes a process.
 Reversible process – is a process in which both the system and the surroundings returned to their original states,
otherwise it is an irreversible process.
 Cyclic process – is a process in which the final state is the same as the initial state after the system executes a series
of processes.
 Quasi-static process – is a process in which the system departs from equilibrium state only infinitesimally at every
instant.
 Isometric process is an internally reversible constant volume process, which is also known as Isochoric or
isovolumic process.
 Isobaric process is an internally reversible constant pressure process or change of state of a substance or system.
 Isothermal process is an internally reversible constant temperature process or change of state of a substance or
system.
 Isentropic process is a reversible adiabatic process or an internally reversible constant entropy process or change of
state of a substance or system.
 Adiabatic process is a process in which no heat transfer occurs from the system to the surroundings or from the
surroundings to the system.
 Polytropic process is an internally reversible process in which pV n = C, where n is any constant other than 0, 1, k,
or .
 The pVk = C curve is steeper than pV = C curve.
 In the general equation pVn = C, the following values of n interpreted as:
 If n = 0, the process is isobaric (p = C)
 If n = 1, the process is isothermal (pV = 0)
 If n = k, the process is isentropic (pVk = 0)
 If n = , the process is isometric (V = C)

PRACTICE PROBLEMS

Prob. # 1] Assume 2 kg of a certain gas with R = 0.4305 kJ/kg-K undergo a process that results in these changes: U =
1458.01 kJ, H = 2189.13 kJ.
A. Find the value of specific heat ratio, k.
a) 1.501 b) 1.401
c) 1.105 d) 1.104
B. What is the value of cp
a) 2.1898 kJ/kg-oK b) 1.2898 kJ/kg-oK
c) 2.9818 kJ/kg-oK d) 1.8928 kJ/kg-oK
C. Find the value of cv
a) 0.8593 kJ/kg-oK b) 0.8953 kJ/kg-oK
c) 0.5893 kJ/kg-oK d) 0.9583 kJ/kg-oK
D. Find the temperature change
a) 864.83 oK b) 648.83 oK
c) 884.63 oK d) 848.63 oK
E. If the process had been internally reversible with p = C, determine the work done
a) + 730.67 kJ b) – 730.67 kJ
c) – 630.77 kJ d) + 630.77 kJ
F. For steady flow (P = 0, K = 0), isobaric process, determine the work done
a) – 730.67 kJ b) 0.00 kJ
c) + 630.77 kJ d) + 730.67 kJ
Prob. # 2] Assume 0.9 kg of hydrogen simultaneously reject heat and receive paddle-work input in a non-flow change of
state at constant pressure from an initial temperature of 121 oC to a final temperature of 32.2 oC. The heat rejected is thrice
the paddle work. R = 4.125 kJ/kg-K and k = 1.4
A. Determine the U
a) – 824.175 kJ b) + 824.175 kJ
c) – 857.241 kJ d) + 857.241 kJ
B. What is the change in enthalpy?
a) + 1153.845 kJ b) + 1135.845 kJ
c) – 1153.845 kJ d) – 1135.845 kJ

31
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
C. Determine the change of entropy during the process
a) – 3.3184 kJ/kg-oK b) + 3.8184 kJ/kg-oK
c) – 3.3184 kJ/kg-oK d) + 3.3184 kJ/kg-oK
D. What is the heat transfer during the process?
a) + 1730.8 kJ b) – 1830.7 kJ
c) – 1730.8 kJ d) + 1830.7 kJ
E. Determine the network of the system.
a) – 906.6 kJ b) + 906.6 kJ
c) – 576.93 kJ d) – 329.67 kJ
Prob. # 3] There are compressed isothermally 378 lps of air measured at 27 C and 1379 kPaa; p = 4136 kPaa.
A. Compute for the value pdV
a) – 572.5 kW b) + 572.5 kW
c) – 575.2 kW d) + 575.2 kW
B. Compute for the value of Vdp
a) –575.2 kW b) – 572.5 kW
c) + 575.2 kW d) + 572.5 kW
C. Determine the work done for nonflow
a) – 572.5 kW b) – 575.2 kW
c) + 572.5 kW d) + 575.2 kW
D. Determine the work done for steady flow where V1 = 23 m/s, V2 = 46 m/s, P = 0
a) + 4.8 kW b) – 4.8 kW
c) + 572.5 kW d) – 572.5 kW
E. What is the change in entropy?
a) – 1.9085 kW/oK b) – 1.9085 kW/oK
c) + 1.9085 kW/oK d) + 1.9085 kW/oK
Prob. # 4] During a nonflow isentropic process of 1.36 kg/s of air, the temperature increases from 5 C to 116 C.
A. Find the value of U
a) 108.33 kJ/kg b) 108.33 kJ/s
b) 108.33 kJ d) – 108.33 kJ/s
B. Determine the value of H
a) 151.67 kJ/s b) 151.67 kJ/kg
c) 151.67 kJ d) 161.57 kJ/s
C. Fins the change of entropy, S
a) 1.9085 kJ/kg-oK b) 1.5098 kJ/kg-oK
o
c) 1.8095 kJ/kg- K d) 0.00 kJ/kg-oK
D. Determine the work done during the process
a) – 108.3 kW b) – 108.3 kJ
c) + 108.3 kW d) + 108.3 kJ
E. For steady flow process, determine the work done
a) – 108.3 kW b) + 108.3 kW
c) – 151.67 kW d) + 151.67 kW
Prob. # 5] Five kg of air are compressed isentropically from 100 kPaa, 40 C to 200 kPaa. The air is then expanded
polytropically with n = 1.2 to the original pressure.
A. Determine the temperature after isentropic compression
a) 381.55 oK b) 581.35 oK
o
c) 339.92 K d) 393.29 oK
B. What is the temperature after the polytropic expansion process?
a) 381.55 oK b) 581.35 oK
o
c) 339.92 K d) 393.29 oK
C. Determine the heat transferred
a) + 149.37 kJ b) + 139.47 kJ
c) – 149.37 kJ d) – 139.47 kJ
Prob. # 6] 1.25 kg/s of air initially at 101.325 kPaa and 27 oC are compressed polytropically according to the process pV1.3
= C. Calculate the power necessary to compress the air to 1380 kPaa.. R for air is 0.287 kJ/kg-oK.
a) + 196.9 kW b) – 196.9 kW
c) – 196.9 kJ d) + 196.9 kJ
Prob. # 7] An ideal gas having mass of 1.5 kg at 192 oC and 415 kPaa expands in a reversible adiabatic process to 138
kPaa. The ideal gas constant is 242 J/kg-oK and k = 1.40.
A. Determine the final temperature
a) 339.5 oK b) 393.5 oK
o
c) 359.3 K d) 335.9 oK
B. What is the change in internal energy?
32
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
a) + 113.89 kJ b) – 131.98 kJ
c) – 113.89 kJ d) – 181.39 kJ
C. Determine the work done for nonflow process
a) – 113.89 kJ b) – 131.98 kJ
c) + 113.89 kJ d) + 131.98 kJ
D. Determine the cp
a) 0.847 kJ/kg-oK b) 0.874 kJ/kg-oK
c) 0.784 kJ/kg-oK d) 0.748 kJ/kg-oK
E. Determine the value of constant volume specific heat, cv.
a) 0.847 kJ/kg-oK b) 0.784 kJ/kg-oK
o
c) 0.605 kJ/kg- K d) 0.650 kJ/kg-oK
Prob. # 8] Air is compressed polytropically from 101 kPaa and 25 oC and delivered to a tank at 1600 kPaa and 180 oC.
The mass flow rate of air is 0.5 kg/s.
A. What is the polytropic exponent?
a) 1.187 b) 1.312
c) 1.817 d) 1.718
B. Determine the heat removed during the compression
a) + 65.4 kW b) – 64.5 kW
c) – 65.4 kW d) + 64.5 kW

C. Find the work done during the process


a) – 147.5 kW b) – 145.7 kW
c) + 147.5 kW d) + 145.7 kW
Prob. # 9] Three mole of oxygen is compressed in a piston-cylinder in a reversible adiabatic process from a temperature of
27 oC and a pressure of 101 kPaa until the final volume is one-tenth the initial volume. For oxygen: M = 32 kg/kgmol; k =
1.395.
A. Determine the final temperature
a) 744.9 oK b) 944.7 oK
o
c) 474.9 K d) 749.4 oK
B. What is the final pressure?
a) 2805 kPaa b) 2085 kPaa
c) 2508 kPaa d) 2058 kPaa
C. Calculate the system work.
a) – 28.1 kJ b) – 21.8 kJ
c) + 28.1 kJ d) + 21.8 kJ
Prob. # 10] Oxygen expands in a reversible adiabatic manner through a nozzle from an initial pressure and temperature
and with an initial velocity of 50 m/s. There is a decrease of 40 C in temperature across the nozzle. For oxygen: M = 32
kg/kgmol; k = 1.395.
A. Determine the exit velocity
a) 275.5 m/s b) 255.7 m/s
c) 257.5 m/s d) 375.5 m/s
B. Calculate the exit pressure for the inlet conditions of 450 kPaa and 47 oC
a) 808.2 kPaa b) 288.0 kPaa
c) 208.8 kPaa d) 280.8 kPaa
Prob. # 11] One kg of carbon dioxide is contained in a constant-pressure piston-cylinder system. The CO2 receives paddle
work and rejects heat while changing from an initial temperature of 144 C to a final temperature of 277 K. The heat
rejected is found to be three times the work input. For C02: M = 44 kg/kgmol and k = 1.288.
A. Determine the heat transferred
a) – 177.5 kJ b) – 175.7 kJ
c) + 177.5 kJ d) + 175.7 kJ
B. Calculate the paddle work
a) – 59.2 kJ b) 52.9 kJ
c) + 59.2 kJ d) 95.2 kJ
C. What is the change of enthalpy?
a) – 118.31 kJ b) – 181.31 kJ
c) + 118.31 kJ d) + 181.31 kJ
D. Determine the network of the system
a) – 65.85 kJ b) – 85.65 kJ
c) + 65.85 kJ d) + 85.65 kJ
Prob. # 12] Helium expands polytropically through a turbine according to the process pV 1.5 = C. The inlet temperature is
727 oC, the inlet pressure is 1 MPaa, and the exit pressure is 150 kPaa. The turbine produces 100 MW. For helium: R =
2.077 kJ/kg-oK, k = 1.666, cp = 5.2028 kJ/kg-oK, cv = 3.1233 kJ/kg-oK.
A. Determine the exit temperature
a) 533.1 oK b) 531.3 oK
o
c) 541.1 K d) 513.3 oK
33
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
B. Determine the mass flow rate of the helium
a) 43.24 kg/s b) 24.34 kg/s
c) 34.24 kg/s d) 32.44 kg/s
C. Calculate the heat transferred
a) 16600 kW b) 17600 kW
c) 15600 kW d) 18700 kW
Prob. # 13] An ideal gas with a molecular weight of 6.5 kg/kgmol is compressed is a reversible manner from 690 kPaa and
277 oK to a final specific volume of 0.47 m3/kg according to p  561  200 v  100 v 2 , where p is the pressure in kPaa and
v is the specific volume in m3/kg; cv = 0.837 kJ/kg-oK.
A. Determine the initial specific volume
a) 0.513 m3/kg b) 0.135 m3/kg
3
c) 0.351 m /kg d) 0.315 m3/kg
B. Calculate the work done during the process
a) – 24.9 kJ/kg b) + 29.4 kJ/kg
c) + 24.9 kJ/kg d) – 29.4 kJ/kg
C. Determine the final temperature
a) 248.8 oK b) 428.8 oK
o
c) 284.8 K d) 288.4 oK
D. Calculate the heat transfer during the process
a) – 53 kJ/kg b) – 53 kJ
c) + 53 kJ/kg d) + 53 kJ
Prob. # 14] A 1-m insulated, rigid tank contains air at 800 kPaa, 25 oC. A valve on the tank is opened, and the pressure
3

inside quickly drops to 150 kPaa, at which point the valve is closed. Assuming that the air remaining inside has undergone
a reversible adiabatic expansion, calculate the mass withdrawn during the process.
a) 6.524 kg b) 5.624 kg
c) 6.254 kg d) 4.562 kg
Prob. # 15] Two spheres, each 1.5 m in diameter, are connected by a pipe in which there is a valve. Each sphere contains
helium at a temperature of 27 C. With the valve closed, one sphere contains 1.7 kg and the other 0.6 kg of helium. After
the valve has been open long enough for equilibrium to obtain, what is the common pressure in the spheres if there is no
loss or gain of energy? The R of helium is 2077.67 J/kg-K.
a) 406 kPaa b) 460 kPaa
c) 604 kPaa d) 640 kPaa
Prob. # 16] An ideal compressor compresses 12 kg/min of air isothermally from 99 kPaa and specific volume of 0.81
m3/kg to a final pressure of 600 kPaa. Determine the compressor power.
a) – 28.9 kW b) + 28.9 kW
b) – 28.9 kJ d) + 28.9 kJ

MULITPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

INSTRUCTION: Select the correct answer from each of the following questions.

1. Whenever a system undergoes any change, the system undergoes a:


a) Cycle b) Process
b) Cyclic change d) None of these
2. It is a process in which both the system and the surroundings returned to their original states, otherwise it is an
irreversible process.
a) Cyclic process b) Irreversible process
c) Reversible process d) Adiabatic process
3. It is a process in which the final state is the same as the initial state after the system executes a series of processes.
a) Quasi-static process b) Cyclic process
c) Reversible process d) Irreversible process
4. It is a process in which the system departs from equilibrium state only infinitesimally at every instant.
a) Quasi-static process b) Cyclic process
c) Reversible process d) Irreversible process
5. An internally reversible constant volume process is known as:
a) Isobaric process b) Isometric process
c) Isothermal process d) Adiabatic process
6. Isometric process is also known as:
a) Quasi-static process b) Adiabatic process
c) Isochoric process d) Constant volume cyclic process
7. It is an internally reversible constant pressure process or change of state of a substance or system.
a) Isometric process b) Isochoric process
c) Isovolumic process d) Isobaric process
8. A constant volume change of state is also known as:
a) Isometric process b) Isochoric process
34
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
d) Isovolumic process d) All of these
9. It is an internally reversible constant temperature process or change of state of a substance or system.
a) Isothermal process b) Isometric process
c) Isentropic process d) Adiabatic process
10. It is a reversible adiabatic process or an internally reversible constant entropy process or change of state of a substance
or system.
a) Isochoric process b) Isentropic process
c) Polytropic process d) Isothermal process
11. It is a process in which no heat transfer occurs from the system to the surroundings or from the surroundings to the
system
a) Reversible process b) Quasi-static process
c) Adiabatic process d) Isochoric process
12. It is an internally reversible process in which pVn = C, where n is any constant other than 0, 1, k, or .
a) Polytropic process b) Isentropic process
c) Adiabatic process d) Isochoric process
13. In the relation pVn = C, if the value of n = 0 the process is known said to be:
a) Isometric process b) Isobaric process
c) Isothermal process d) Adiabatic process
14. The relation pV = C represents a process or change of states, which is known as:
a) Isochoric process b) Isothermal process
c) Isobaric process d) Isentropic process
15. In a nonflow isometric process, the work done is:
a) Less than zero b) Equal to zero
c) Greater than zero d) Not equal to zero
16. In a reversible nonflow process, the H = 0 represents that the process is:
a) Adiabatic process b) Isentropic process
c) Isothermal process d) Isobaric process
17. In the expression pVn = C, if n = 1 the process is said to be:
a) Adiabatic process b) Isobaric process
c) Isothermal process d) Isochoric process
18. The compressibility factor of an ideal gas is:
a) Equal to zero b) Equal to one
c) Less than one d) Greater than one
19. The value of n in the expression pVn = C for an isochoric process is:
a) Equal to one b) Equal to zero
c) Equal to the specific heat ratio d) Equal to infinity
20. The molecular collisions of a real gas is:
a) Elastic b) Inelastic
c) Random d) Reversible
21. Isentropic process is an internally reversible process during which:
a) The pressure is constant b) The volume is constant
c) The temperature does not change d) The entropy is constant
22. If n =  in the expression pV = C, the process is known as:
n

a) Isochoric process b) Isobaric process


c) Isothermal process d) Isentropic process

ANSWERS TO THE 13. A.a, B.d, C.a, D.a 10. b


PRACTICE PROBLEMS 14. a
15. a 11. c
1. A.a, B.b, C.a, D.d, E.a, F.b 16. a 12. a
2. A.a, B.c, C.a, D.c, E.a 13. b
3. A.a, B.b, C.a, D.b, E.a ANSWERS TO MULTIPLE 14. b
4. A.b, B.a, C.d, D.a, E.c CHOICE QUESTIONS 15. b
5. A.a, B.c, C.a
1. b 16. c
6. b 2. c 17. c
7. A.a, B.c, C.c, D.a, E.c 3. b 18. b
8. A.a, B.c, C.b 4. a 19. d
9. A.a, B.c, C.a 5. b 20. b
10. A.a, B.d
6. c 21. d
11. A.a, B.a, C.a, D.b 7. d 22. a
12. A.b, B.c, C.a 8. d
9. a

35
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
GAS CYCLES

DEFINITION
 Power cycle is a cycle that operates for the purpose of producing work or power.
 Gas cycles are power cycles in which the working substance is a gas.

CONSIDERATIONS IN THE GAS CYCLE ANALYSIS

 The following items are important parameters in the analysis of power cycles:
 The heat supplied to the cycle
 The heat rejected
 The net work
 The efficiency
 The mean effective pressure

ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF THERMODYNAMIC ENGINE

 Working Substance is a substance that receives heat, rejects heat, and does work.
 Source of Heat (also called a hot body, a heat reservoir, or just source) – is a body from which the working
substance receives heat.
 Heat Sink (also called receiver, a cold body, or just sink) – is a body to which the working substance can reject
heat.
 Engine – is a component wherein the working substance may do work or have work done on it; it converts heat
energy into useful work.

o In steady-state operation, the energy and mass content of the closed system remains constant and
properties of the system at any stage of the cycle are always the same a the system passes through this
stage.

CARNOT POWER CYCLE

 Carnot Cycle/engine is the most efficient cycle/engine that operates between two temperature levels.

INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE CYCLES


 Internal combustion engines are engines that convert heat energy into useful work through the combustion of fuel inside the
cylinders.
 Typical applications of internal combustion engines are gasoline and Diesel engines.
 Thermodynamics cycles that are commonly used for internal combustion engines are Otto cycle and Diesel cycle.

DEFINITIONS AND USEFUL INFORMATION

 Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) is a heat engine that is used to convert the chemical energy of the fuel into
mechanical energy as useful work by burning the fuel inside the engine itself.
 It is a heat engine deriving its power from the energy liberated by the explosion of a mixture of some
hydrocarbon, in gaseous or vaporized form, with atmospheric air.
 Applications of ICE: Transportation, power generation and other applications, say, agriculture.

ENGINE CLASSIFICATIONS

1. According to the Application


 Automobile, truck, locomotive, light aircraft, marine, portable power system, power generation
2. According to the Basic Engine Design
a. Reciprocating engine (in turn subdivided by arrangement of cylinders: Ex. In-line, V, radial, opposed)
b. Rotary Engines (Wankel and other geometries)
3. According to the Working Cycle
a. Four-stroke Cycle
 Naturally aspirated (admitting atmospheric air)
 Supercharged (admitting pre-compressed fresh mixture)
 Turbo-charged (admitting fresh mixture compressed in a compressor driven by an exhaust turbine)
b. Two-stroke Cycle
 Crankcase scavenged
 Supercharged

36
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
 Turbocharged
4. According to the Valve or Port Design and Location
a. Overhead (or I-head) Valves
b. Underhead (or L-head) Valves
c. Rotary Valves
d. Cross-scavenged porting (inlet and exhaust ports on opposite sides of cylinder at one end)
e. Loop scavenged porting (inlet and exhaust ports on same side of cylinder at one end)
f. Through or uniform scavenged (inlet and exhaust ports or valves at different ends of cylinder)
5. According to the Fuel Used
a. Gasoline Engine (or pentrol)
b. Diesel Engine (Diesel or fuel oil)
c. Natural Gas Engine
d. Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) Engine
e. Alcohol (methanol, ethanol) Engine
f. Hydrogen Engine
g. Dual fuel Engine
6. According to the Method of Mixture Preparation
a. Carburation
b. Fuel injection into the intake ports or intake manifold
c. Fuel injection into the engine cylinder
7. According to the Method of Ignition
a. Spark Ignition (SI) Engine (in conventional engines where the mixture is uniform and in stratified-charge
engines where the mixture is non-uniform)
b. Compression Ignition (CI) Engine (in convention Diesels, as well as ignition in gas engines by pilot ignition of
fuel oil)
8. According to the Combustion Chamber Design
a. Open Chamber (many designs: Ex. Disk, wedge, hemisphere, bowl-in piston)
b. Divided Chamber (small and large auxiliary chambers; many designs: Ex. Swirl chambers, pre-chambers)
9. According to the Method of Load Control
 Throttling of fuel and airflow together so mixture composition is essentially unchanged, control of fuel
flow alone, a combination of these.
10. According to the Method of Cooling
 Water cooled
 Air cooled
 Uncooled (other than by natural convention and radiation)

Classifications of Reciprocating Engine by Application


1. Road vehicles
2. Off-road vehicles
3. Rail road
4. Marine
5. Airborne vehicles
6. Home use
7. Stationary

SPARK-IGNITION (SI) ENGINES


 Use volatile liquids or gases fuel
 Compression ratios between 6:1 and 12:1 (limited by combustion knock or the air/fuel mixture)
 Compression pressure from below 150 psi (1030 kPa) to 300 psi (2060 kPa)
 Use carburetors, gas mixing valves, or fuel injection systems
 Operate on Otto cycle
 Combustion pressures are usually 3.5 to 5 times the compression pressures
 Load and speed are usually controlled by throttling the charge
 Piston speeds above 3000 fpm (15 m/s) are permissible
 Mixture of fuel and air is introduced into the engine cynlinder either before the compression stroke begins or
shortly after the compression stroke begins.
 Low compression ratio must be used to prevent the temperature at the end of the compression from rising to the
ignition temperature of the charge.
 Ignition is started by an electrical spark
 Gasoline is the fuel commonly used in airplane, automobile, small marine, small stationary, and tractor
engines
 Commercial gases as blast furnace gas, coal gas, coke oven gas, carbureted water gas, producer gas, and
natural gas are used in stationary engines.

37
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
Advantages of SI Engines
 Low first cost
 Low specific weight
 Low cranking effort required
 Wide variation obtainable in speed and load
 High mechanical efficiency
 Fairly low specific fuel consumption at high compression ratios and wide open throttle

COMPRESSION-IGNITION (CI) ENGINES

 Use liquids of low volatility varying from fuel oil and distillates to crude oil
 Have compression ratios between 11.5:1 and 22:1
 Have compression pressures from 400 psi (2760 kPa) to 700 psi (4830 kPa)
 Operate on the Diesel or mixed cycle
 Load and speed are controlled by varying the fuel quantity injected
 Dual-Fuel Engine is a Diesel engine with a compression ratio which is too low to result in ignition, at the
desired time, of the gas/air mixture inducted into the cylinder. A pilot (small) injection of liquid fuel with
good ignition quality is used to initiate the combustion process.

Advantages of CI Engines
 Low specific fuel consumption
 High thermal efficiency at partial loads
 Possibly lower cost
 No preignition
 Low CO and hydrocarbon emission at low and moderate loads
 Suitability for two-stroke
 Excellent durability
 Only air is compressed
 Fuel, as a finely atomized liquid, is injected shortly before the piston reaches the dead center
 The temperature of the compressed air is higher than the ignition temperature of the fuel
 Fuel begins to burn without any outside means of igniting it.
 The lower-compression engines are of simple construction (usually valveless two-stroke cycle), are more
lightweight, and have lower first cost, lower operating expense, and higher mechanical efficiency than the
higher-compression engines.

FOUR-STROKE CYCLE ENGINE

 Four-Stroke Cycle is one wherein four strokes of the piston, two revolutions, are required to complete one cycle.
 Four-Stroke Cycle is an engine in which two revolution of the crankshaft are required to complete the sequence of
events which produces one power stroke.

AIR-STANDARD OTTO CYCLE

 Air-standard Otto cycle is a theoretical prototype of a spark-ignition engine and was developed by Nicholas A.
Otto (1832-1891).
 Otto cycle is an ideal cycle, which is the basis of an actual gasoline engine.
 The cycle is composed two constant volume and two isentropic processes.

DIESEL ENGINES

 Diesel engine is a prime mover actuated by the gases resulted from the combustion of liquid or pulverized fuel,
injected in a fine state of subdivision into the engine cylinder at or about the conclusion of the compression stroke.
 Diesel Engine is a heat engine whose purpose is to convert the combustion energy of its fuel into mechanical
energy.
 Diesel is the generic name applied to all internal combustion engines in which the fuel is ignited entirely by the
heat resulting from combustion of air supplied for combustion.
 Hornsby-Akroyd (in Germany) was the most successful engine to use liquid petroleum fuel.
 In 1892 Rudolf Diesel (in Germany) patented his engine to operate on the Carnot cycle. The original patent
showed the use of powdered coal for fuel. The use of liquid fuel was in the second patent.

38
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
 In 1898 the first commercial engines were built in Germany and United States. These were the four-cycle type
and used compressed air for injection and atomization of the fuel oil.
 At the time of its invention, Diesel was the most efficient prime mover known, and still today.
 Brake thermal efficiency in smaller engine is about 30 %, in the medium sizes is about 35 %, and as high as 41
% for large slow-speed engines.
 Rudolf Diesel developed the idea for the diesel engine and obtained the German patent for it in 1892. His goal was to create
an engine with high efficiency. Gasoline engines had been invented in 1876 and, especially at that time, were not very
efficient.

Difference Between the Gasoline Engine and the Diesel Engine


 A gasoline engine intakes a mixture of gas and air, compresses it and ignites the mixture with a spark. A diesel
engine takes in just air, compresses it and then injects fuel into the compressed air. The heat of the compressed air
lights the fuel spontaneously.
 A gasoline engine compresses at a ratio of 8:1 to 12:1, while a diesel engine compresses at a ratio of 14:1 to as
high as 25:1. The higher compression ratio of the diesel engine leads to better efficiency.
 Gasoline engines generally use either carburetion, in which the air and fuel is mixed long before the air enters the
cylinder, or port fuel injection, in which the fuel is injected just prior to the intake stroke (outside the cylinder).
Diesel engines use direct fuel injection-- the diesel fuel is injected directly into the cylinder.
 Note that the diesel engine has no spark plug, that it intakes air and compresses it, and that it then injects the
fuel directly into the combustion chamber (direct injection). It is the heat of the compressed air that lights the
fuel in a diesel engine.
 The injector on a diesel engine is its most complex component and has been the subject of a great deal of
experimentation -- in any particular engine it may be located in a variety of places. The injector has to be able
to withstand the temperature and pressure inside the cylinder and still deliver the fuel in a fine mist. Getting
the mist circulated in the cylinder so that it is evenly distributed is also a problem, so some diesel engines
employ special induction valves, pre-combustion chambers or other devices to swirl the air in the combustion
chamber or otherwise improve the ignition and combustion process.

STANDARD DIESEL CYCLE

 Developed by Rudolf Diesel


 Characterized by constant-pressure heat addition, constant-volume heat rejection, and isentropic compression and
expansion.
 Engine is a compression-ignition type
 Air is compressed to a high temperature
 Fuel is injected to compressed air
 Ignition is due to the high air temperature
 Combustion occurs at constant pressure
 Piston expands isentropically to bottom dead center, where heat is rejected at constant volume.
AIR-STANDARD DUAL CYCLE OR LIMITED-PRESSURE CYCLE

 Actual indicator cards from both Otto and Diesel engines show a rounded top, with a shape that suggests that some
combustion at constant volume and some at constant pressure would give an ideal cycle more closely resembling
the actual events (Faires, 1978).
 Heat addition occurs during constant pressure and constant volume processes.
 Dual cycle is a constant volume and constant pressure combustion (heat addition) cycle.
 This cycle is also called as limited-pressure cycle.
 This cycle has no particular standard application.

IMPORTANT POINTS TO REMEMBER

 Carnot Cycle is reversible cycle defined by two isothermal processes and two isentropic processes, in which the
heat addition is at the constant high temperature process and heat rejection is at constant low temperature process.
 Otto Cycle is the model cycle for reciprocating spark-ignition engines.
 In a compression-ignition engine, one of the methods to avoid detonation during compression, with its limitation on
the compression ratio, is to inject the fuel after the compression process.
 Diesel Cycle is the model cycle for reciprocating compression-ignition engines.
 Supercharger is a common modification used with spark-ignition engines for aircraft operation, which a steady-
flow compressor used to compress the air before it enters the reciprocating engine.
 Heat Engine and thermal engine is a closed system that operates in cycles and exchanges only heat and work with
its surroundings.
 Working substance is a substance that receives and rejects heat, and does work.
 Heat source or hot body is a source of heat from which the working substance receives heat.
 Heat sink or cold body is a heat receiver to which the working substance rejects heat.
39
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
 Heat rate is the amount of heat added to the engine required to produce 1 kW or Hp within one hour.
 Regeneration is an important feature in Stirling cycle.
 Ideal gas or perfect gas is a gas that obeys the relationship pv = RT and the other gas laws exactly and has constants
specific heat.
 Vapor is a substance existing in the gaseous phase but relatively near its saturation (evaporation or condensation)
temperature.
 State properties are properties that define the physical condition of the fluid.
 Examples: pressure, density, temperature
 Thermodynamic properties are properties that define the thermal and energy conditions of the fluid.
 Examples: Internal energy, displacement energy, enthalpy, entropy, constant volume specific heat, constant
pressure specific heat
 Transport properties are properties that measure the diffusion within the fluid resulting from molecular activities.
 Examples: viscosity, thermal conductivity
 The two regions of gaseous phase are: the region of vapors; and the region of true gases.
 Internal kinetic energy is commonly termed as sensible heat for it increases in relation to the absolute temperature
of the body.
 Internal potential energy is commonly termed as latent heat for it changes only during changes of phase without any
change in temperature.
 Internal energy of an ideal gas is equal to the sensible heat alone because gas does not change phase.
 Enthalpy for an open system is the sum of internal energy plus the displacement energy or flow work.
 Entropy is a mathematical function of the observable properties of a substance and its changes are not evident to the
human senses.
 Increase in entropy indicates an increase in the degradation of energy or a decrease in the availability of energy.
 Reversible process is a process that is completely controlled and yields a maximum amount of useful work.
 First Law of Thermodynamics states that heat and mechanical energy are inter-convertible and can neither be
created nor destroyed.
 According to Clausius, the second law of thermodynamics states that it is impossible for a self-acting machine
unaided by any external agency to transfer heat from one body to another at higher temperature.
 Third law of thermodynamics, known as the Nernst heat theorem, states that it is impossible by any procedure, no
matter how idealized, to reduce any system to absolute zero of temperature in a finite number of operation.
 Nernst Heat Theorem indicates that the coefficient of volume expansion and the specific heat of a fluid approach
zero as the temperature approaches zero.
 Non-flow process is a process in which there is no transfer of the working substance during the process.
 Continuous or steady-flow process is a process in which there is a continuous and steady flow of a working
substance.

40
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
PRACTICE PROBLEMS

Prob. # 1] A Carnot power cycle operates on 0.5 kg of air between the limits of 27 oC and 270 oC. The pressure at the
beginning of isothermal expansion is 2 860 kPaa and at the end of isothermal expansion is 1 400 kPaa.
A. Determine the volume at the end of the isothermal compression
a) 0.12 m3 b) 0.21 m3
3
c) 0.12 m /kg d) 0.21 m3/kg
B. Find the S during an isothermal process
a) 0.301 kJ/oK b) 0.103 kJ/oK
c) 0.301 kJ/kg-oK d) 0.103 kJ/oK
C. Calculate the heat added, QA
a) 55.66 kJ b) 55.66 kW
c) – 55.66 kJ d) – 55.66 kW
D. What is the heat rejected?
a) – 30.75 kW b) + 30.75 kJ
c) – 30.75 kJ d) + 30.75 kW
E. Determine the network of the cycle
a) 24.91 kJ b) 21.94 kJ
c) 24.91 kW d) 21.94 kW
F. Compute for the thermal efficiency of the cycle
a) 44.57 % b) 44.75 %
c) 45.74 % d) 45.47 %
G. What is the mean effective pressure?
a) 114.3 kPa b) 143.1 kPa
c) 141.3 kPa d) 134.1 kPa
Prob. # 2] A three-process cycle of an ideal gas (for which cp = 1.0854 kJ/kg-oK, cv = 0.804 kJ/kg-oK) is initiated by an
isentropic compression 1 to 2 from 103 kPaa, 27 oC to 618 kPaa. A constant volume process 2 to 3 and a polytropic
process 3 to 1 with n = 1.2 completes the cycle. The mass of ideal gas is 0.45 kg/s.
A. Determine the temperature at the end of isentropic compression
a) 477.4 oK b) 474.7 oK
o
c) 447.7 K d) 475.8 oK
B. Compute for the volume at the beginning of polytropic expansion
a) 0.0978 m3/kg b) 0.0978 m3/s
3
c) 0.2174 m /kg d) 0.0978 m3
C. Determine the temperature at the beginning of polytropic expansion
a) 391.2 oK b) 392.1 oK
o
c) 477.4 K d) 474.7 oK
D. Compute for the heat added, QA
a) 24.75 kW b) 54.99 kJ/kg
c) 24.75 kJ d) 25.74 kW
E. Determine the heat rejected, QR
a) – 31.2 kJ b) – 31.2 kW
c) + 31.2 kJ/kg d) + 31.2 kW
F. Compute the network of the cycle
a) – 6.45 kW b) + 6.45 kW
c) – 5.64 kW d) + 5.64 kW
G. The given three-process cycle could be considered as:
a) Power cycle b) Reversed cycle
d) Application of Carnot cycle d) Similar to Otto cycle
Prob. # 3] An Otto engine with 17 % clearance and an initial pressure of 97 kPaa is operating with hot air (k = 1.3) as a
working substance.
A. Determine the pressure at the end of compression
a) 1190.2 kPaa b) 1091.2 kPaa
c) 1901.2 kPaa d) 1910.2 kPaa
B. If the pressure at the end of constant volume heating is 3.45 Mpaa, what is the mean effective pressure in kPa?
a) 652.4 kPa b) 562.4 kPa
c) 625.4 kPa d) 526.4 kPa
Prob. # 4] The charge in a Diesel engine consists of 0.02 kg of fuel, with a heating value of 42600 kJ/kg, and 0.50 kg of
air and products of combustion. At the beginning of compression, the temperature is 60 oC. Let the compression ratio is
equal to 13. For constant cp = 1.110 kJ/kg-oK, what should be the cutoff ratio in the corresponding ideal cycle?
a) 2.65 b) 2.12
c) 2.56 d) 2.25
Prob. # 5] A Carnot engine operates between temperature limits of 1200 oK and 400 oK and using 0.4 kg of air. The
pressure at the beginning of heat addition is 1500 kPaa and at the end of heat addition is 750 kPaa.
A. Determine the heat added
41
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
a) 95.5 kJ b) 95.5 kJ/kg
c) 55.9 kJ/kg d) 55.9 kJ
B. What is the heat rejected?
a) 31.83 kJ b) – 31.83 kJ
c) 33.18 kJ d) – 33.81 kJ
C. Calculate the net work of the cycle
a) – 63.66 kJ b) 63.66 kJ
c) 63.66 kW d) – 63.66 kW
D. Determine the volume at end of heat addition
a) 0.184 m3 b) 0.184 m3/kg
3
c) 0.148 m /kg d) 0.148 m3
E. Compute the mean effective pressure
a) 29.2 kPa b) 22.9 kPa
c) 92.2 kPa d) 19.2 kPa
F. What is the thermal efficiency of the cycle?
a) 76.66 % b) 46.67 %
c) 66.67 % d) 56.67 %
Prob. # 6] Two kg helium operates on a three-process cycle where the processes are constant volume for process 1 to 2;
constant pressure for process 2 to 3; and constant temperature to complete the cycle. Given that p 1 = 100 kPaa, T1 = 300
v1
o
K, and  5 . For helium: cp = 5.1954 kJ/kg-oK, cv = 3.1189 kJ/kg-oK, R = 2.077 kJ/kg-oK, & k = 1.666.
v3
A. Determine the work done during process 1 to 2
a) 0.00 kJ b) – 2492.4 kJ/kg
c) – 4984.8 kJ d) + 2005.68 kJ
B. What is the work done during process 2 to 3?
a) 0.00 kJ b) – 2492.4 kJ/kg
c) – 4984.8 kJ d) + 2005.68 kJ
C. Determine the work done during process 3 to 1
a) 0.00 kJ b) – 2492.4 kJ/kg
c) – 4984.8 kJ d) + 2005.68 kJ
D. Compute the heat added
a) 9491.0 kJ b) 6234.5 kJ
c) 3442.7 kJ d) 1002.8 kJ
E. What is the heat rejected?
a) – 9491 kJ b) – 6234.5 kJ
c) – 3442.7 kJ d) – 1002.8 kJ

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

Instruction: Select the correct answer from each of the following questions.

1. Carnot Cycle is reversible cycle defined by:


a) Two isentropic and two isometric processes
b) Two isentropic, one isobaric and one isometric processes
c) Two isothermal and two isentropic process
d) Two isentropic, two isometric, and one isobaric processes
2. In a Carnot cycle, the heat addition is at:
a) Isothermal expansion process b) Isentropic expansion process
c) Isothermal compression process d) Isentropic compression process
3. A body to which the working substance of a cycle can reject heat is said to be:
a) Heat source b) heat sink
c) Condenser d) Cooler
4. A body from which the working substance of a cycle receives heat is called:
a) Heat source b) heat sink
c) Condenser d) Cooler
5. It is a regenerative thermodynamic power cycle using two isothermal and two constant volume processes.
a) Ericson cycle b) Stirling cycle
b) Brayton cycle d) Carnot cycle
6. Stirling cycle is a regenerative thermodynamic power cycle, also known as:
a) Limited-pressure cycle b) Constant pressure regenerative cycle
c) Constant volume regenerative cycle d) Dual cycle
7. A constant-pressure regenerative power cycle is called:
a) Dual cycle b) Stirling cycle
c) Ericson cycle d) Otto cycle
8. It is the model cycle or the theoretical prototype cycle for reciprocating spark-ignition engines.
42
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
a) Carnot cycle b) Otto cycle
c) Diesel cycle d) Dual cycle
9. In a compression-ignition engine, one of the methods to avoid detonation during compression, with its limitation on
the compression ratio, is:
a) To inject the fuel after the compression process or stroke
b) To inject the fuel before the end of compression process or stroke
c) To lower the compression ratio
d) To increase the cut off ratio
10. It is the model cycle or the theoretical prototype cycle for reciprocating compression-ignition engines.
a) Carnot cycle b) Otto cycle
c) Diesel cycle d) Dual cycle
11. A common modification used with spark-ignition engines for aircraft operation, which a steady-flow compressor used
to compress the air before it enters the reciprocating engine.
a) Scavenger b) Supercharger
c) Radiator d) Spark plug
12. A closed system that operates in cycles and exchanges only heat and work with its surroundings is known as:
a) Carnot engine b) Heat engine or thermal engine
c) Stirling engine d) Heat pump
13. A substance that receives and rejects heat, and does work is called as:
a) Working substance b) Gas
c) Steam d) Air
14. The amount of heat added to the engine required to produce 1 kW or Hp within one hour is said to be:
a) Heat added b) Heat rate
c) Power output d) Heat rejected
15. It is an important feature in Stirling cycle.
a) Heat rejection b) Heat addition
c) Regeneration d) Heat recovery
16. A gas that obeys the relationship pv = RT and the other gas laws exactly and has constants specific heat is known as:
a) Real gas b) Perfect gas
c) Air d) Argon
17. A substance existing in the gaseous phase but relatively near its saturation (evaporation or condensation) temperature
is called:
a) Steam b) Air
c) Vapor d) Oxygen
18. Properties that define the thermal and energy conditions of the fluid.
a) Specific properties b) State properties
c) Transport properties d) Thermodynamic properties
19. Properties that measure the diffusion within the fluid resulting from molecular activities.
a) State properties b) Transport properties
c) Thermodynamic properties d) Specific properties
20. Properties that define the physical conditions of the fluid.
a) State properties b) Transport properties
c) Thermodynamic properties d) Specific properties
21. Which of the following properties defines as transport property?
a) Pressure b) Density
c) Enthalpy d) Thermal conductivity
22. A mathematical function of the observable properties of a substance and its changes are not evident to the human
senses.
a) Entropy b) Density
c) Enthalpy d) Thermal conductivity
23. The sum of internal energy and the displacement energy or flow work of an open system is said to be:
a) Entropy b) Internal energy
c) Enthalpy d) Thermal conductivity
24. A process that is completely controlled and yields a maximum amount of useful work.
a) Irreversible process b) Adiabatic process
c) Quasi-static process d) Reversible process
25. Heat and mechanical energy are inter-convertible and can neither be created nor destroyed. This statement is called:
a) First law of thermodynamics b) Second law of thermodynamics
c) Zeroth law d) Clausius law
26. It is impossible by any procedure, no matter how idealized, to reduce any system to absolute zero of temperature in a
finite number of operation. The said statement is known as:
a) The first law of thermodynamics b) The second law of thermodynamics
c) The third law of thermodynamics d) The Zeroth law of thermodynamics
27. The second law of thermodynamics states that it is impossible for a self-acting machine unaided by any external
agency to transfer heat from one body to another at higher temperature. This second law statement is known as:
43
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
a) Kelvin Statement b) Kelvin-Planck statement
c) Clausius statement d) Nernst heat theorem
28. The third law of thermodynamics is also known as:
a) Clausius heat theorem b) Joule’s theorem
c) Kinetic theory of energy d) Nernst heat theorem
29. A heat theorem indicating that the coefficient of volume expansion and the specific heat of a fluid approach zero as
the temperature approaches zero.
a) Clausius heat theorem b) Joule’s theorem
c) Kinetic theory of energy d) Nernst heat theorem
30. It is a process in which there is no transfer of the working substance during the process.
a) Non-flow process b) Continuous flow process
c) Steady-flow process d) Reversible process
31. It is a process in which there is a continuous and steady flow of a working substance.
a) Non-flow process b) Quasi-static process
c) Steady-flow process d) Reversible process

ANSWERS

Practice Problems

# 1] A.a
B.b
C.a
D.c
E.a
F.b
G.a
# 2] A.a
B.b
C.a
D.a
E.b
F.a
G.b
# 3] A.a
B.b
# 4] a
# 5] A.a
B.b
C.b
D.a
E.b
F.c
# 6] A.a
B.c
C.d
D.a
E.b

Multiple Choice Questions

1. c
2. a
3. b
4. a
5. b

6. c
7. c
8. b
9. a
10. c

11. b
12. b
44
BASIC PRINCIPLES & CONCEPTS
13. a
14. b
15. c

16. b
17. c
18. d
19. b
20. a

21. d
22. a
23. c
24. d
25. a

26. c
27. c
28. d
29. d
30. a

31. b

45

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