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Deodorization

The Author: Wim De Greyt, R&D Manager, Desmet Ballestra, Zaventem, Belgium.

1. Introduction
In the early days of the edible oil processing industry, in the rst half of the 19th century, there was
little or no need for re ning. Food fats (e.g. lard, olive oil, milk fat, etc.) were mostly consumed
unre ned and their typical avour was even an attractive characteristic [1]. It was the growth of the
margarine industry in Europe at the end of the 19th century that resulted in the development of the
edible oil deodorization process (Table 1). At rst, industrial deodorizers were mostly batch-type with
the ‘Bataille’ and ‘Lurgi’ deodorizers being the most widely used in Europe [1,2] (Fig. 1). These
deodorizers operated under vacuum (to facilitate stripping and protect the oil against oxidation) and
also used superheated steam as a stripping agent (to avoid hydrolysis).

Table 1. First developments of the edible oil deodorization process (Europe and USA) [1]
Inventor Country Year Development
Rocca France 1900Continuous deodorizer at atmospheric pressure
Bataille France 1914 Batch deodorizer under vacuum and with superheating of the stripping
steam
Gensecke Germany1916 First ‘Lurgi’ deodorizer, similar to the Bataille deodorizer but consisting of
and Brucke two vessels and also with internal ba e construction for better oil/steam
contact
De Bruyn Belgium 1900Continuous countercurrent column deodorizer at atmospheric pressure.
Column lled with screen-plates
Eckstein USA 1891 Large volume batch deodorizer (5-15 metric tonnes) running at atmospheric
pressure but without steam superheating
Wesson USA 1900First deodorizer in US running under vacuum (never patented)
Figure 1. Bataille High Vacuum Batch Deodorizer (source: [1]).

In the USA, it was Eckstein who developed the rst industrial deodorizer. In 1891, he demonstrated that
the avour of alkali-re ned cottonseed oil could be greatly improved by blowing live steam through
the oil at high temperature (160-175°C). The most successful American deodorizing process was that
of Wesson, which was introduced in 1900 by the Southern Cotton Oil Company. The process was not
patented and kept secret for a time but it was probably the rst vacuum deodorizing process in the
US. The quality of Wesson’s deodorized oil was for many decades a standard for edible oils
throughout the world [1].

Over the years, deodorization gradually evolved from a ‘simple’ process to remove o - avors to a
crucial unit operation with a big impact on the re ned oil quality. In current edible oil re ning,
deodorization is also the process in which free (nonesterifed) fatty acids (in the case of physical
re ning) and volatile contaminants are stripped and unwanted color pigments are degraded (heat
bleaching).

Although the principle of the process has not changed much since its rst application, the deodorizing
technology itself has changed signi cantly. It has been steadily improved to meet the need for ever
more e cient processing (lower operating cost, higher re ned oil yield and better valorization of side
streams). More recently, increasing attention to the (nutritional) quality of food oils and fats has had an
impact on the deodorizing process conditions.

2.  Deodorization principle
Deodorization is actually a stripping process in which a given amount of a stripping agent (usually
steam) is passed for a given period of time through hot oil at a low pressure. Hence, it is mainly a
physical process in which various volatile components are removed. However, since it is usually
carried out at high temperature (>200°C), some chemical and thermal e ects may take place as well.

Vacuum stripping of volatile components

Theoretical aspects of vacuum stripping have been described extensively by many authors [3-5].
Stripping of a given volatile component from the oil is determined by its intrinsic volatility (vapor
pressure curve) and the deodorizing conditions applied (temperature, pressure and amount of sparge
steam). For a batch and cross- ow deodorization process, the stripping e ect is described by the
following mathematical equation:

[1]
 - with S = total moles of steam or any other stripping agent per mole of oil (to express the amount of
steam as a percentage of the oil, the factor S has to be multiplied by a factor of 2.); Pt = total pressure
of the gas phase = system pressure; Pi0 = Vapor pressure of a given fatty acid i; E = vaporization
e ciency; Va = initial amount of the volatile component in the oil (moles), V0 = nal amount of the
volatile component in the oil (moles).

Other, similar equations have been derived for counter- and co-current deodorization [4].

From equation (1), it can be concluded that the amount of sparge steam required for the stripping of a
given volatile component (e.g. free fatty acids) is :

Directly proportional to the absolute pressure in the deodorizer;


Inversely proportional to the vapour pressure of the volatile component;
Inversely proportional to the overall vaporization e ciency E
From the factor (ln Va/V0), it can also be derived that :

It is impossible to eliminate all volatile components during deodorization;


Halving the concentration of a given volatile component requires the same amount of stripping
steam, irrespective of its absolute concentration

Edible oils contain various components, each with its speci c volatility (Fig. 2). In physical re ning, it is
mainly free fatty acids (FFA) that need to be stripped. Apart from FFA, other volatile components,
either valuable (tocopherols, sterols, etc.) or unwanted (o - avors, pesticide residues, light polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons, dioxins, etc.), are also removed during deodorization.

Figure 2. Vapor pressure-temperature relationship for di erent components in edible


oils (♦ : curve for monoolein).

The vaporization e ciency E in equation (1) is a deodorizer design-speci c factor. It should be seen as
a measure of how saturated with volatile components the stripping agent (steam) becomes during its
contact with the oil. In an ideal (theoretical) case, E = 1, but industrial deodorizers usually have a
vaporization e ciency of 0.3-0.7, depending on their design (steam injection geometry, depth of oil
layer, elimination of re ux, etc.).

Thermal e ects

Another objective of deodorization is the thermal destruction of avor precursors and heat-sensitive
color pigments. The latter e ect is called ‘heat bleaching’ and it is most pronounced during
deodorization/steam re ning of palm oil, where the thermal breakdown of carotenes is targeted. Heat
degradation of carotene is very slow at 210°C, but takes only a few minutes at T > 260°C. This is one
reason why palm oil is typically deodorized at 260°C.

However, there is a general trend to lower the ‘heat load’ (residence time at high temperature) used
during deodorization. This evolution towards milder process conditions is caused by the increasing
awareness of the potentially harmful health e ects of thermal degradation products (trans fatty acids,
polymeric triglycerides and glycidyl esters) that can be formed during deodorization. In addition, there
is the desire for maximum retention of the natural oil characteristics.

E ective deodorization: combination of stripping and thermal e ect

Perfect deodorization is a complex process which includes the removal of volatile o - avors already
present in the bleached oil as well as the o - avors that are formed during thermal degradation of
higher molecular weight avor precursors. Removal of the rst group is similar to FFA stripping and
can be achieved in a short time. Longer deodorization time is required to convert non-volatile avor
precursors into volatile o - avors that can be stripped from the oil.

In practice, this means that time is an important process parameter in obtaining a re ned oil with a
bland and stable taste. If the deodorization time is too short, some avor precursors will stay in the
deodorized oil, resulting in the development of o - avors during storage or usage. This phenomenon,
which is known as ‘ avor reversion’, is well known but at the same time still poorly understood.

3.  Deodorized oil quality


Deodorized oil quality is evaluated primarily by traditional quality parameters such as a low residual
FFA content, a high oxidative stability, a light color and a bland odor and taste. In addition, high-quality
food oils need to contain low trans fatty acid (TFA) levels, high amounts of natural antioxidants
(tocopherols), low levels of polymeric and oxidized triglycerides and no contaminants or degradation
products. Re ning targets for these minor components are given in Table 2.

Table 2. Re ning targets for various minor components in


edible oils
Minor Re ning target (concentration in fully
component re ned oil)
trans Fatty acids <1.5% for oils rich in linolenic acid (soybean
oil, rapeseed oil, canola, etc.)
<1.0% for other vegetable oils (corn oil,
sun ower oil, etc.)
Tocopherols min. 500 ppm (to guarantee good oxidative
stability)
Polycyclic New EU regulation 835/2011 in force since
aromatic September 1, 2012
hydrocarbons <2 ppb BaP and <10 ppb PAH4 for most
(PAH) food oils;
<2 ppb BaP and <20 ppb PAH4 for re ned
coconut oil;
<5 ppb BaP and <30 ppb PAH4 for cocoa
butter
BaP = benzo(a)pyrene
PAH4 = sum of BaP, benz(a)anthracene,
benzo(b) uoranthene and chrysene
Dioxins and PCB New EU regulation 1259/2011 in force
since January 1, 2012
For re ned vegetable oils:
<0.75 ppt WHO-TEQ (dioxins) and
<1.25 WHO-TEQ (dioxins + dioxin-like PCB)
For marine oils :
< 1.75 ppt WHO-TEQ (dioxins) and
< 6 WHO-TEQ (dioxins + dioxin-like PCB)
WHO-TEQ = World Health Organization
toxic equivalent
PCB = polychlorinated biphenyls
ppt = parts per trillion
3-MCPD + GE1 No legal speci cations yet; only trade
speci cations which are especially
challenging for palm oil
<2 ppm for re ned oils for use in standard
food applications;
<0.5 ppm for re ned (palm) oil for use in
infant food.

1
3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol and glycidyl esters
 
 

4.   Deodorizing process conditions


The deodorization process is fully determined by four process parameters : (1) temperature, (2) time,
(3) pressure and (4) amount of stripping steam. The e ects of process conditions on the standard
quality parameters and the nutritional quality of the re ned oil are well understood and are described
in the literature (Table 3) [4,5].

Table 3. E ect of process variables on deodorized


oil quality
Quality parameterTemperatureTimePressureSteam
Taste + ++ + ++
Color (heat ++ + - -
bleach)
FFA stripping ++ - ++ +
trans Fatty acid ++ ++ - -
formation
Tocopherol/sterol ++ - ++ +
stripping
Contaminant + - ++ +
1
removal
Glycidyl ester ++ ++ - -
formation

1
Pesticides, PAH, dioxins; - : little or no e ect, + :
signi cant e ect, ++ : large e ect
 
 

Optimal process parameters depend on the type of oil (bleached and re ned oil speci cations) and
the re ning process applied (chemical or physical), but the limitations of available deodorizing
equipment and the need to minimize operating costs are also determining factors. The typical range
of the di erent deodorizing process parameters is given in Table 4.

Table 4. Typical process conditions for edible oil


deodorization
Parameter RangeComment
Temperature160- Lower temperature (<200°C)
260°C for heat- sensitive oils (e.g.
cocoa butter, sh oil) to avoid
too much degradation of
omega-3 fatty acids ( sh oil)
and negative e ects on
crystallisation characteristics
(cocoa butter)
-Higher temperature (260°C)
for FFA stripping/heat
bleaching (e.g. physical
re ning of palm oil)
Trend towards lower
deodorizing temperature (230-
240°C)
Time 5 min FFA stripping (with packed
– 4 hr column): 5 min (no
deodorization)
Deodorization of
soybean/canola oil: 20-90 min
Full deodorization of sh oil: 2-
4 hr
Pressure 1.5 – 5 Most common range : 2-4
mbar mbar
Low pressure required for
stripping of FFA and volatile
contaminants (pesticides, light
PAH, etc.)
Trend towards lower
deodorizing pressure. This
allows same stripping
e ciency at lower
temperature or with less
stripping agent
Higher cost to create lower
deodorizing pressure
Stripping 0.5 – Depending on type of oil and
steam 3% re ning mode
Steam is the most commonly
used stripping agent (e cient
– lowest cost)
Stripping with nitrogen is not
applied industrially
 
 

5.  Deodorizing process and deodorizer technology


Deodorization is a multistep process comprising deaeration, multistage heating, deodorization-
deacidi cation, and multistage cooling of the oil (Fig. 3).
Figure 3. Schematic presentation of the di erent stages of the deodorizing process.

Oil deaeration

Degummed, bleached oil is deaerated prior to heating to deodorizing temperature to avoid oxidation
and polymerization. It is accomplished in a separate external vessel connected to the vacuum system
of the bleacher (50 mbar) or, at even lower pressure, in an integrated compartment of the deodorizer
(Fig. 3). Some re ners add a bit of sparge steam to improve deaeration.

Heating and cooling

Heating of the oil is usually accomplished in two or more stages. To minimize the net energy cost,
bleached oil is rst pre-heated in one or two stages in a heat exchange device with either hot
deodorized oil or steam.

The highest energy recovery (up to 85%) can be achieved in continuous deodorizers in which
bleached oil is pre-heated indirectly with hot deodorized oil. This heat recovery usually takes place in
a heat recovery compartment of the deodorizer, but it can also be realized in a separate, external heat
exchanger. Both options have their pros and cons. External heat exchangers result in a high heat
recovery and provide easier access for cleaning. On the other hand, heat exchange in the deodorizer
ensures less product intermixing and less risk of fouling and it also takes place under vacuum.

The thermosiphon system is a special method of heat recovery that is used in semicontinuous
deodorizers (Fig. 4). Steam produced in the oil cooling section ows in a closed loop to the oil pre-
heating section. It will condense there and the water ows back to the cooling section. In this way, a
heat recovery of 45-75% can be achieved, depending on the design of the thermosiphon system
(single or double loop, with or without generation of low-pressure steam).
Figure 4. Thermosiphon heat recovery options in a semicontinuous deodorizer.

Final cooling of the oil can be done under vacuum or under pressure. Which practice is the best has
always been a matter of discussion.

Deodorization-deacidi cation

Since the concentration of most volatile components in edible oils is quite low, a stripping agent must
be injected during deodorization. For economic reasons, steam is the most commonly used stripping
agent, but the use of nitrogen has also been studied extensively. Nitrogen is an inert gas and
theoretically, its use will result in lower losses (no hydrolysis) and also a higher quality of the
deodorizer distillate. However, in industrial practice, nitrogen is not used primarily because it is a
noncondensable gas. This makes the required vacuum system much more expensive than the use of
steam, which is condensable.

Most semi- and continuous deodorizers are so-called tray deodorizers which operate according to the
cross- ow principle. Deodorization-deacidi cation is accomplished in a number of compartments
(trays) where stripping steam is introduced into the oil through special sparge coils with very ne holes
or by steam lift pumps. The latter give good agitation with continuous refreshing of the oil in the top
layer (where deodorization e ectively takes place), thereby ensuring a high overall deodorization
e ciency (Fig. 5). A minimal oil layer depth (more than 0.8 m) is required to allow good operation of
the steam lift pump.
Figure 5. Principle of a steam lift pump for the introduction of sparge steam.

The stripping e ciency of a deodorizer can be further improved by incorporating a packed column
stripper. Such a stripper is lled with a structured packing with a high surface area (250-350 m 2/m3)
(Fig. 6). The countercurrent contact of oil and stripping steam over the structured packing results in
very e cient stripping in a short contact time.

Figure 6. Principle of countercurrent and cross ow stripping.

Packed column strippers have been applied in edible oil deodorization for many decades. They are
often installed to increase the capacity of existing deodorizers. It is a very e cient device for the
stripping of FFA or volatile contaminants (pesticides, PCB, light PAH, etc.). The short residence time
makes it especially suitable for the stripping of heat-sensitive oils (e.g. algae oil, sh oil, cocoa butter,
etc.). At the same time, this short residence time will not give much heat bleaching nor complete
deodorization. For this purpose, an additional retention vessel has to be provided before or after the
packed column.

Vapour scrubbing systems

The vapors leaving the deodorizer consist of steam, volatile components (fatty acids, sterols,
tocopherols, contaminants, etc.), minor amounts of mechanically entrained neutral oil (mono-, di- and
triacylglycerols) and some noncondensables (e.g. air, etc.). Condensation of the volatile components is
achieved in a scrubber and results in a by-product called deodorizer distillate.

Condensation is achieved by creating a very good contact between the hot vapour phase and the
cold deodorizer distillate that is partially recirculating over the scrubber. In practice, this is done by a
series of sprayers built in the duct or on a packed bed of limited height in the scrubber vessel itself. An
additional demister is usually installed ahead of the vacuum unit to minimize carryover of fatty matter
to the barometric condenser water (Fig. 7).
Figure 7. Double scrubber for selective condensation of FFA and tocopherols (courtesy
of Desmet Ballestra - Source: [6]).

A well-designed scrubber should combine maximum condensation and recovery of fatty matter from
the vapor phase with a minimum pressure drop (<1 mbar, preferably <0.5 mbar).

Most deodorizers have a single scrubber from which a single deodorizer distillate is collected. The
amount and composition and, hence, also the value of this side-stream are determined by a number
of factors, including the processed oil composition, the re ning mode employed (chemical or
physical) and also the deodorizing conditions (Table 5). Deodorizer distillate from physical re ning has
a very high FFA content (>85%) and is mostly used for technical applications (soap production,
oleochemistry). Recently, deodorizer distillate from palm oil re ning (PFAD) is also used as feedstock
for biodiesel production. Deodorizer distillate from chemical re ning may have a higher value because
of the higher concentration of valuable minor components (tocopherols, sterols, etc.). The value of
deodorizer distillate from chemical re ning of soybean oil is especially high. Depending on the price of
‘natural’ tocopherols, it can vary between $15-25 US/tonne of deodorized oil [6].

Soya oil

Table 5. Typical composition of deodorizer


distillates from vegetable oil re ning
  Chemical re ning Physical
re ning
  Soya Canola Sun ower Palm oil
oil oil oil
FFA (%) 25-40 85-90
Tocopherols 5-20 8 5-10 0.15-0.30
(%)
Sterols (%) 6-23 7 12-14 0.2-0.4
Squalene (%) 0.1- - 0.5 0.5-1.0
3.0
Neutral oil 10-50 6-9
1
(%)
Distillate ow 0.3-1.0  
(%)2

1
Neutral oil = mono- + di- + triglycerides;
2expressed on bleached oil.

 
 

In the case of physical re ning, a deodorizer distillate fraction rich in tocopherols/sterols can only be
obtained with a double scrubber (Fig. 7). The vapor phase is rst partially condensed at a higher
temperature. This gives a so-called ‘hot distillate’ in which the least volatile components (e.g.
tocopherols/sterols) are concentrated. Complete condensation of the remaining more volatile
components (mainly FFA) is then achieved in the second, cold scrubber. Provided that the
condensation temperatures of the hot and cold scrubber are properly set, this procedure gives a very
good separation between FFA and tocopherols.

Vacuum systems

The vacuum in the deodorizer is usually created by a combination of steam ejectors (boosters), vapor
condensers and mechanical (liquid-ring) vacuum pumps. These quite robust systems typically reach
pressures in the deodorizer between 2.5 and 5 mbar but motive steam consumption is high (up to 85%
of the total steam consumption). Motive steam consumption can be signi cantly reduced (by a factor
of 2.5-3) by cooling the barometric condenser water. However, the bene t of a lower motive steam
consumption must be weighed against the extra chilling capacity required (higher electricity
consumption). Another bene t from using a chilled water barometric vacuum system is a better
condensation of the volatile matter, which also gives a lower pressure in the deodorizer (e.g. 1.5 mbar).

These classical vacuum systems are increasingly being replaced by dry (ice) condensing systems.
With such systems, the stripping steam is condensed on surface condensers operating alternately at
very low temperature (-30°C). The e cient solidi cation of steam and other volatile matter will give a
very low pressure in the deodorizer (<1.5 mbar) and will also strongly reduce odor emission. As with
the chilled water barometric vacuum system, dry ice condensers require extra electrical energy.
Commercially available systems consist of two or more freeze condensers with horizontally or
vertically orientated straight tubes, a refrigeration plant for the generation of the cold refrigerant
which is evaporated in the tubes and a vessel for defrosting and cleaning of the tubes after a certain
period of freezing (Fig. 8).
Figure 8. Typical process ow diagram of an ice condensing system (courtesy of
Desmet Ballestra – source [6]).

6.  Industrial deodorizers
Edible oil deodorization is performed industrially in di erent ways (continuous, semicontinuous or
batchwise) with various con gurations of deodorizers (horizontal or vertical vessels, tray-type or
packed columns). Selection of the most appropriate process technology is mainly determined by the
total plant capacity and the number of feedstock changes.

Batch deodorizers

Overall, batch deodorization has become less attractive because of its higher operating cost (higher
steam consumption, low heat recovery) and longer processing time. However, for small-capacity
plants (<50 tons/day) or plants that process smaller batches of varying quality (e.g. sh oil re ners), a
batch deodorizer is still the best option. Apart from the lower capital cost, the main advantages of a
batch deodorizer are the higher exibility (process parameters can easily be adjusted according to the
incoming oil quality) and the minimal intermixing between two consecutive batches.

Semicontinuous deodorizers

Semicontinuous deodorizers are basically batch systems designed for larger capacities. Their main
application is in plants with frequent feedstock changes of oils sensitive to intermixing (e.g. plants
producing margarine fats and shortenings). Heat recovery is e ected by means of indirect
economizers (e.g. thermosiphon systems, Fig. 4) which  recover more heat than can be achieved in a
batch deodorizer. The lower intermixing and the shorter time for feedstock changes are the main
advantages of semicontinuous deodorizers over continuous deodorizers.

Continuous deodorizers
Continuous deodorizers are the best option for high-capacity plants running on a single feedstock
(which is how most re ning plants operate nowadays). The main advantages are the moderate
investment costs, potentially high heat recovery and easy maintenance. An overview of the various
con gurations can be found in the literature [5,6].

Vertical tray-type deodorizers are the most commonly used type of continuous deodorizers. Their
design is based on a series of trays (compartments) stacked vertically in a cylindrical shell with each
tray designed for a speci c task. All processes (heat recovery, nal heating and cooling, deodorization)
are combined in one single vessel. This single vessel concept allows an easier and less costly
installation and maintenance and also gives a lower risk of unwanted air leakages.

Most edible oils are deodorized at high temperature (230-260°C), but there is a growing demand from
oil processors to lower the heat load (residence time at higher temperature) during deodorization. This
is especially required to minimize thermal degradation reactions (e.g. formation of trans fatty acids in
soybean and canola oil, formation of glycidyl esters in palm oil). These negative thermal e ects can be
minimized by using packed columns or dual-temperature deodorizers (Fig. 9). These deodorizers
operate at two di erent temperatures in order to reach the best compromise between required
residence time for actual deodorization (longer time at lower temperature) and heat bleaching and
stripping of volatile components (shorter time at higher temperature). The dual temperature concept
has been successfully introduced on an industrial scale. Both the low/high temperature and the
high/lower temperature concept can be applied.
Figure 9. Dual temperature with packed column.

7.  Future trends
In their ‘historical sketch’ of edible oil deodorization, Lee and King stated in 1937 that the ‘current trend
(in edible oil deodorization) is toward continuous processes with automatic control’ [1]. Nowadays, new
developments in deodorizing technology are driven by the continuous need for more e cient
processing (lower operating cost, higher re ned oil yield and better valorization of side streams) and
the increased attention to the (nutritional) quality of food oils (Table 6).

Table 6. Trends and developments in edible oil deodorization.


Trend Development
Higher capacities 1500 metric tons per day deodorizers become
standard
Higher energy Improved heat recovery
e ciency
Higher stripping Improved tray design and introduction of packed
e ciency columns
Lower neutral oil Improved scrubber design
losses
Lower heat load Application of dual temperature deodorization and
use of a packed column
Lower pressure Ice condensing vacuum systems: closed loop with
chilled water
Higher distillate Application of double scrubber
value
 

Fixed costs are primarily reduced by installing higher-capacity (continuous) deodorizers. Today,
deodorizers with a capacity of more than 1500 tonnes per day have become more or less standard,
especially for the deodorization of commodity oils (e.g. palm oil, soybean oil, etc.). Variable processing
costs are determined by the energy consumption for the heating of the oil, generation of the vacuum
and production of stripping steam.

Process conditions are optimized to guarantee a good nutritional quality, meaning minimum thermal
degradation and maximum stripping of contaminants. This can be achieved by applying dual
temperature deodorization and/or including a packed column stripper. A further reduction of the heat
load can be achieved by the implementation of more powerful vacuum systems (chilled barometric
vacuum system or dry ice condensing).

References

1. Lee, A.P. and King, W.G. Edible oil deodorizing equipment and methods: A short historical sketch.
Oil & Soap, 14, 263-269 (1937).
2. Fritsch, J. Ra nage des huiles. In: Fabrication et Ra nage des Huiles Végétales, pp.686 (Amédée
Legrans, Paris) (1931).
3. Norris, F.A. Deodorization. In: Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, 4th edition, Vol. 3, pp. 127-156
(T.H. Applewhite (ed.), John Wiley & Sons, (Hoboken, NJ) (1985).
4. Dijkstra, A.J. Vacuum stripping of oils and fats. In: The Lipid Handbook, 3rd Edition, pp. 235-253
(F.D. Gunstone, J.L. Harwood and A.J. Dijkstra (eds.), Taylor & Francis Group LLC, Boca Raton, FL)
(2007).
5. De Greyt, W.F.J. and Kellens, M.J. Deodorization. In: Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products, 6th
edition, Vol. 5, pp. 341-338 (F. Shahidi (ed.), John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ) (2005).
6. De Greyt, W.F.J. Edible oil re ning: Current and future technologies. In: Edible Oil Processing,
pp.127-151 (W. Hamm, R.J. Hamilton and G.H. Calliauw (eds.), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester) (2013).

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