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Mr. Vishal Thakur 12/11/2010 AADITYA PANDEY

“SIR” FRIDAY B6001 & B38
WATER POLLUTION :-Over the total of the part of earth is
constituted the 70% is made of water and it has become an integral part of
our life as a many part of total lifestyle is dependent on it and it’s a part of
the solution. As far as the total term paper is the considered I have
discussed the major sources of water pollution can be classified as
municipal, industrial, and agricultural. Municipal water pollution consists of
waste water from homes and commercial establishments. For many years,
the main goal of treating municipal
wastewater was simply to reduce its content of suspended solids.

Domestic households, industrial and agricultural practices produce
wastewater that can cause pollution of many lakes and rivers. Sewage is
the term used for wastewater that often contains faeces, urine and laundry
waste.There are billions of people on Earth, so treating sewage is a big
priority.Sewage disposal is a major problem in developing countries as
many people in these areas don’t have access to sanitary conditions and
clean water. Untreated sewage water in such areas can contaminate the
environment and cause diseases such as diarrhea. Sewage in developed
countries is carried away from the home quickly and hygienically through
sewage pipes.Sewage is treated in water treatment plants and the waste is
often disposed into the sea.In developed countries, sewage often disposed
into the sea.In developed countries, sewage often causes problems when
people flush chemical and pharmaceutical substances down the toilet.
When people are ill, sewage often carries harmful viruses and bacteria into
the environment causing health problems.
Industry is a huge source of water pollution, it produces pollutants that are
extremely harmful to people and the environment.

Many industrial facilities use freshwater to carry away waste from the plant
and into rivers, lakes and oceans.

Pollutants from industrial sources include:

Asbestos – This pollutant is a serious health hazard and carcinogenic.

Asbestos fibres can be inhaled and cause illnesses such as asbestosis,
mesothelioma, lung cancer, intestinal cancer and liver cancer.

Lead – This is a metallic element and can cause health and environmental
problems. It is a non-biodegradable substance so is hard to clean up once
the environment is contaminated. Lead is harmful to the health of many
animals, including humans, as it can inhibit the action of bodily enzymes.
Mercury - This is a metallic element and can cause health and
environmental problems. It is a non-biodegradable substance so is hard to
clean up once the environment.

Nuclear waste is produced from industrial, medical and scientific processes

that use radioactive.

A tank or piping network that has at least 10 percent of its volume

underground is known as an underground storage tank (UST). They often
store substances such as petroleum, that are harmful to the surrounding
environment should it become contaminated. Many UST’s constructed
before 1980 are made from steel pipes that are directly exposed to the
environment. Over time the steel corrodes and causes leakages, affecting
surrounding soil and groundwater.

Atmospheric deposition is the pollution of water caused by air pollution.

In the atmosphere, water particles mix with carbon dioxide sulphur dioxide
and nitrogen oxides, this forms a weak acid.

Air pollution means that water vapour absorbs more of these gases and
becomes even more acidic.
When it rains the water is polluted with these gases, this is called acid

When acid rain pollutes marine habitats such as rivers and lakes, aquatic
life is harmed. material. Nuclear waste can have detrimental effects on
marine habitats. Nuclear waste comes from a number of sources:
Operations conducted by nuclear power stations produce radioactive
waste. Nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants in northern Europe are the biggest
sources of man-made nuclear waste in the surrounding ocean. Radioactive
traces from these plants have been found as far away as Greenland.
Mining and refining of uranium and thorium are also causes of marine
nuclear waste. Waste is also produced in the nuclear fuel cycle which is
used in many industrial, medical and scientific processes.

An increase in water temperature can result in the death of many aquatic

organisms and disrupt many marine habitats.

For example, a rise in water temperatures causes coral bleaching of reefs

around the world. This is when the coral expels the microorganisms of
which it is dependent on. This can result in great damage to coral reefs
and subsequently, all the marine life that depends on it.

Eutrophication is when the environment becomes enriched with nutrients.

This can be a problem in marine habitats such as lakes as it can cause
algal blooms.

Fertilisers are often used in farming, sometimes these fertilisers run-off

into nearby water causing an increase in nutrient levels.

This causes phytoplankton to grow and reproduce more rapidly, resulting

in algal blooms.

This bloom of algae disrupts normal ecosystem functioning and causes

many problems.
The algae may use up all the oxygen in the water, leaving none for other
marine life. This results in the death of many aquatic organisms such as
fish, which need the oxygen in the water to live.

The bloom of algae may also block sunlight from photosynthetic marine
plants under the water surface.

Some algae even produce toxins that are harmful to higher forms of life.
This can cause problems along the food chain and affect any animal that
feeds on them.

Global warming is a process where the average global temperature

increases due to the greenhouse effect.

The burning of fossil fuel releases greenhouse gasses, such as carbon

dioxide, into the atmosphere.

This causes heat from the sun to get ‘trapped’ in the Earths atmosphere
and consequently the global temperature rises. The rise in the Earth's
water temperature is caused by global warming.


Virtually all types of water pollution are harmful to the health of humans
and animals. Water pollution may not damage our health immediately but
can be harmful after long term exposure. Different forms of pollutants
affect the health of animals in different ways:

Heavy metals from industrial processes can accumulate in nearby lakes

and rivers. These are toxic to marine life such as fish and shellfish, and
subsequently to the humans who eat them. Heavy metals can slow
development; result in birth defects and some are carcinogenic.

Industrial waste often contains many toxic compounds that damage the
health of aquatic animals and those who eat them. Some of the toxins in
industrial waste may only have a mild effect whereas other can be fatal.
They can cause immune suppression, reproductive failure or acute
poisoning. Microbial water pollution is a major problem in the developing
world, with diseases such as cholera and typhoid fever being the primary
cause of infant mortality.Organic matter and nutrients causes an increase
in aerobic algae and depletes oxygen from the water column. This causes
the suffocation of fish & other aquatic organisms.

By having more plants in your garden you are preventing fertiliser,

pesticides and contaminated water from running off into nearby water

Don't throw litter into rivers, lakes or oceans. Help clean up any litter you
see on beaches or in rivers and lakes, make sure it is safe to collect the
litter and put it in a nearby dustbin.

LEGISLATIONAL APPROACH TO PREVENT: Several forms of legislation

have been passed in recent decades to try to control water pollution. In
1970, the Clean Water Act provided 50 billion dollars to cities and states
to build wastewater facilities. This has helped control surface water
pollution from industrial and municipal sources throughout the United
States. When congress passed the Clean Water Act in 1972, states were
given primary authority to set their own standards for their water. In
addition to these standards, the act required that all state beneficial uses
and their criteria must comply with the fishable and swimmable goals of
the act. This essentially means that state beneficial uses must be able to
support aquatic life and recreational use. Because it is impossible to test
water for every type of disease-causing organism, states usually look to
identify indicator bacteria. One for a example is a bacteria known as fecal
coliforms.(Figure 1 shows the quality of water for each every state in the
United States, click on the US link). These indicator bacteria

World. Acidification of surface waters by air pollution is a recent

phenomenon and threatens aquatic life in many area of the world. In
developed countries, these general types of pollution have occurred
sequentially with the result that most developed countries have
successfully dealt with major surface water pollution. In contrast,
however, newly industrialized countries such as China, India, Thailand,
Brazil, and Mexico are now facing all these issues simultaneously.


If you want to help keep our waters clean, there are many things you can
do to help. You can prevent water pollution of nearby rivers and lakes as
well as groundwater and drinking water by following some simple
guidelines in your everyday life.

Conserve water by turning off the tap when running water is not
necessary. This helps prevent water shortages and reduces the amount of
contaminated water that needs treatment.

Be careful about what you throw down your sink or toilet. Don't throw
paints, oils or other forms of litter down the drain.

Use environmentally household products, such as washing powder,

household cleaning agents and toiletries.

Take great care not to overuse pesticides and fertilisers. This will prevent
runoffs of the material into nearby water sources.
suggest that a certain selection of water may be contaminated with
untreated sewage and that other, more dangerous, organisms are
present. These legislations are an important part in the fight against water
pollution. They are useful in preventing Envioronmental catastrophes.
The graph shows reported pollution incidents since 1989-1994. If stronger
legislations existed, perhaps these events would never have occurred.

Water quality is closely linked to water use and to the state of economic
development. In industrialized countries, bacterial contamination of surface
water caused serious health problems in major cities throughout the mid
1800s. By the turn of the century, cities in Europe and North America
began building sewer networks to route domestic wastes downstream of
water intakes. Development of these sewage networks and waste
treatment facilities in urban areas has expanded tremendously in the past
two decades. However, the rapid growth of the urban population
(especially in Latin America and Asia) has outpaced the ability of
governments to expand sewage and water infrastructure. While
waterborne diseases have been eliminated in the developed world,
outbreaks of cholera and other similar diseases still occur with alarming
frequency in the developing countries. Since World War II and the birth of
the chemical age, water quality has been heavily impacted worldwide by
industrial and agricultural chemicals. Eutrophication of surface waters from
human and agricultural wastes and nitrification of groundwater from
agricultural practices has greatly affected large parts of the

Water can be reused. Almost all solid particles are removed from the water
and chemical additives are supplied to get rid of any left-over impurities.
Bibliography :-

1.) Chemistry – Xith (NCERT)

2.) Ground water Pollution – Larry w canter
3.) Water Pollution – Bert allerd
4.) Water Pollution – P.D. Abel
5.) Water Pollution – Rhonda Lucas Donald.

References :-

1.) www.google.com
2.) www.wikipedia.com
3.) www.epa.gov/ebtpages/waterpollution.html
4.) www.mbgnet.net/fresh/pollute.html