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Equipment for Engineering Education

Instructions Manual
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends
and Fittings

G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH


P.O. Box 1125
D-22881 Barsbüttel • Germany
Phone (040) 670854-0
Fax (040) 670854-42
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings
06/98
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

Instructions Manual

Please read and follow the instructions before the first installation!

Publication-No.: 917.000 29 A 150 12 06/98


HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

Table of Contents
1 Unit Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

2 Performing the Experiments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2.1 6-fold pressure gauge panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


2.2 Differential pressure measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
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2.3 Absolut pressure measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5


2.4 Connecting and handling manometers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
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2.4.1 Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.4.2 Setting the zero position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3 Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3.1 Calibration Curve Using Area Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8


3.2 Exercise Stand Characteristic Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3 Pipe flow with friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.3.1 Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4 Resistance coefficients of special pipeline elements. . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4.1 Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3.4.2 Pipe bend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.4.3 Performing the Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.5 Changes in Cross-Sectional Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
3.5.1 Performing the Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

4 Technical Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

4.1 Primary Dimensions of the Exercise Unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20


4.2 Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.3 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.4 Tables and Diagrams. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

1 Unit Description

The HM 150.29 unit is used to investigate pressure


losses in elbows and fittings, as well as in valves
and reductions and enlargements in the cross-sec-
tional area.
The measuring circuit comprises a pipe system
with various fittings, a spherical valve, an area
enlarger and a reducer. The flow rate can be varied
using the spherical valve.
The unit has a 6 channel manometer and a spring-
06/98

tube manometer for measuring individual relative


pressures. Circular measuring chambers are built
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

into the pipework such that the pressure difference


across all relevant objects can be measured.

Water is supplied either from the HM 150 Basic


Hydraulics Bench or from the laboratory mains.
Using the HM 150 Basic Hydraulics Bench a
closed water circuit can be constructed.

Experiments that can be performed:


- Investigation of the pressure loss in elbows and
fittings
- Comparison of different elbows and fittings
- Influence of the radius of fittings
- Valve characteristics

1 Unit Description 1
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

1.1 Unit Construction:

11 12 5

13

9
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14
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3
7

Fig. 1.1 Unit Construction 10 4 1

1 Base Frame with Rear Wall 8 Reducer


2 Hose Connection, Water Inlet 9 Enlarger
3 Hose Connection, Water Outlet 10 Spherical Valve
4 Pipe Elbow 11 6 Channel Manometer
5 Rounded Pipe Elbow 12 Spring-Tube Manometer
6 Tight Radius Pipe Bend 13 Circular Chamber with Measuring Gland
7 Large Radius Pipe Bend 14 PVC Hose with Plug-In Connector

1 Unit Description 2
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

2 Performing the Experiments

The following descriptions of the performance of


experiments and the experiments in Section 3 are
based on the HM 150 Basic Hydraulics Bench.

- Place the test set up on the HM 150 Fluid


Mechanics Basic Module.
- Make the hose connections between the HM 150
and the unit, feed and return.
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- Close all spherical valves, basic module and


experimental set up.
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- Connect the manometer to the required points.


- Switch on the pump on the basic module and
slowly open the spherical valve on the HM 150.
- Slowly open the spherical valve on the HM 150.29
and bleed the manometer, see Section 2.4.
- By simultaneously adjusting the bleed and
drain valves on the 6 channel manometer, re-
gulate the water level such the columns of
water are within the measuring range.
- Determine the flow rate. To do this measure the
time t that is required to fill the volumetric tank
on the HM 150 from 10 to 20 or 30 litres. For
this purpose close the drain underneath the
tank.

2 Performing the Experiments 3


HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

2.1 6-fold pressure gauge panel

vent valve The 6-fold pressure gauge panel is a 6-level tube


made of glass with a millimeter scale behind.
- The measuring range is 300 mm H2O.
- All levels tubes are connected to each other at
Level the top end and have a joint vent valve.
tubes
- When the vent valve is closed, the differential
pressure is measured with the vent valve of the
overpressure open.
- The measuring points are connected to the
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bottom end of the level tubes with quick-relea-


se hose couplings.
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

- the first level tube has a drainage valve at the


drain valve Connection to
measuring lines bottom end.

Fig. 2.1 6-fold manometer

2.2 Differential pressure measurement

The vent valve is closed in this case. An air cushion


air cushion with the pressure pL forms via the two water co-
pL lumns. For the measured pressures p1 and p2, this
results in

p1 = pL + h1 ρ g

∆h
p2 = pL + h2 ρ g .
h1

The differential pressure is then


h2
∆p = p1 − p2 = pL + h1 ρ g − pL − h2 ρ g.
p1 p2

The pressure pL stands out and the following is


obtained
Fig. 2.2 Differential pressure
measurement ∆p = ∆h ρ g mit ∆h = h1 − h2 .

2 Performing the Experiments 4


HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

The zero point for the differential pressure meas-


urement can be adjusted via the pressure pL.
For a maximum measuring span, it is advantageous
h1 + h2
to place the zero point and the mean value 2
on
hmax.
the center of the measuring scale 2
.

h1 + h2 hmax. p1 − pL + p2 − pL
= 2 = .
2 2ρg

This results in, for the pressure of the air cushion


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p1 + p2 − hmax ρ g
pL = .
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

The pressure is adjusted via the vent valve, also


see section 2.4.2

2.3 Absolut pressure measurement

To measure the absolute pressure, the vent valve


is open and the overpressure is measured. The
pressure pL corresponds to the atmospheric air
Air pressure pressure p0.
p0 Here, it is also necessary to take into account
the level hm between the measuring point and
the zero point of the pressure gauge.
h
pabs = p0 + ( h + hm ) ρ g .

hm
pabs

Fig. 2.3 Absolut pressure


measurement

2 Performing the Experiments 5


HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

2.4 Connecting and handling manometers

Handling the 6-fold manometer requires some ex-


periences with the HM 150.29. Please take care to
connect only measuring objects with the same
measuring range to the manometer.

2.4.1 Ventilation

Since air bubbles in the connecting hoses cause


incorrect measurements due to the low air density,
these must be bled.
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- Connect manometer with hoses to the fittings


All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

be measured
- Open the drainage valve at the bottom
- Slowly open the ball valve in the HM 150 inflow
section
The pipe section and the connecting hoses are
bled by the strong water current.

When there are no more air bubbles in the connec-


ting hoses, then:
- Close the pipe section drain
- Close drainage valve at the bottom
- Close ball valve of the HM 150
- Switch off the pump

2 Performing the Experiments 6


HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

2.4.2 Setting the zero position

In order to guarantee the greatest possible mea-


suring span, the zero position of the pressure
gauge should be in the center of the scale.
- Close the pipe section drain. The flow rate is
equal to zero.
- Slowly open the ball valve in the inflow section of
the HM 150
- Adjust the maximum span with the valves and
cocks of the HM 150.29
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- Close vent valve and ball valves.


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- Switch pump on and start measuring by care-


fully opening the ball valves

IMPORTANT: The level can only be adjusted up-


wards with the vent valve. If the level is too high,
the pipe network must be emptied. Renewed ven-
tilation is then necessary before a lower zero po-
sition can be set.

2 Performing the Experiments 7


HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

3 Experiments

In the following sections some experiments that


can be performed using this unit are described as
examples. The experiments selected are not inten-
ded to form a complete list of those possible, but
are instead intended to be a stimulant for your own
series of experiments.
The descriptions of the experiments are divided into
a principles section with the most important formulae
and the actual performance of the experiment
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with the recording of measured values and analy-


sis.
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

The measured results provided are not to be seen


as reference or calibration values applicable in all
circumstances. Depending on the design of the indi-
vidual components and the way in the which the
experiment is performed, large variations may,
to a greater or lesser extent, occur in your expe-
riment.

3.1 Calibration Curve Using Area Reduction

Since the severe reduction in area at the reducer


has the effect of a metering orifice, a calibration
curve can be generated using this fitting.
To generate the calibration curve, the pressure
loss ∆ p in mmWs is plotted against the flow rate
.
V in l/min.
However, the volumetric flow rate must be deter-
mined via the volumetric tank on the HM 150 for
the once-only measurement of the flow rate.

3 Experiments 8
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

The volumetric flow rate is reduced in steps using


the spherical valve on the HM 150.29 Exercise Unit
and the associated pressure loss read off, both
values are noted.
Example Measurement Result:

Calibration Curve: Reducer


.
Pressure Loss ∆ p Volumetric Flow Rate V
in in
mmWs l / min
265 9.81
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215 8.33
185 7.34
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

150 6.35
90 4.84
80 4.44
70 4.19
65 4
45 3.33
300 25 2.61

250

200
Druckverlust mmWs
pressure losses in mmWC

150

100

50

0
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
Volumenstrom l/min Volume flow
in l/min

3 Experiments 9
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

3.2 Exercise Stand Characteristic Curve

A characteristic curve for the exercise stand can


be recorded using the spring-tube manometer. If
pressure is plotted against position along the pipe
run to form the characteristic curve, then the pres-
sure losses for the individual objects can be read
off.

Example Measurement Result:


.
Characteristic Curve V =10.3 l/min
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Measurement Measurement Pressure p


Point Object in
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bar
1 Pipe Elbow 0.5
2 0.49
3 Reducer 0.49
4 0.44
Enlarger
5 0.44
Rounded Elbow
6 90° 0.425

7 Bend 90° tight 0.425


8 0.42
9 Bend 90° large 0.42
10 0.415
Spherical Valve
11 0

pressure in bar
0,5
Rounded Elbow 90°

0,49
0,48
Bend 90° tight
Enlarger

0,47
Spherical Valve
Bend 90° large
Druck in bar

0,46
0,45
Pipe Elbow

0,44
Reducer

0,43
0,42
0,41
0,4
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Meßstelle measuring point

3 Experiments 10
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

3.3 Pipe flow with friction

3.3.1 Fundamentals

The following experiments are intended to deter-


mine the pressure loss pv and the loss level hv
under conditions of pipe flow with friction.
In the case of turbulant pipe flow, which is said
to exist at a Reynolds’ number of Re>2320, the
pressure loss is proportional to the
- length l of the pipe
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- pipe friction coefficient λ


density ρ of the flow medium
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-
- square of the flow velocity v.
The pressure loss also increases as the pipe dia-
meter decreases. It is calculated as follows

λl
pv = 2 d ρ v 2 .

The associated loss level hv is calculated as follows

λl v2
hv = d 2g.

In the case of turbulent pipe flow ( Re>2320) ,


the pipe friction coefficientλ depends on the pipe
roughness k and the Reynolds’ number Re. The
pipe roughness k states the height of the wall ele-
vations in mm. The roughness of the test pipes is
listed in a table in the appendix. The relationship
between Re λ and k is shown in the diagram accor-
ding to Colebrook and Nikuradse. Here, the wall
roughness k is referred to the pipe diameter d.

3 Experiments 11
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings
06/98
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

Coefficient of pipe friction λ according to Colebrook and (dotted) according to Nikuradse (from Dubbel: Ta-

The Reynolds’number Re is calculated from


the pipe diameter d, the flow velocity v and the
kinematic viscosity ν.

vd
Re = .
ν

The kinematic viscosity can be found in Table 6.3


for water as a function of temperature.
The flow velocity v is calculated from the volume-
.
tric flow V and the pipe cross section
.
4V
v= .
π d2

3 Experiments 12
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

For hydraulically smooth pipes(Re < 65 d/k) and


a Reynolds’ number in the range of 2320< Re <
105 , the pipe friction coefficient is calculated in
accordance with the formula of Blasius
0.3164
λ= 4 .

√ Re

For pipes in the transitional range to rough


pipes ( 65 d/k < Re < 1300 d/k, range in the
diagram below the limit curve), the pipe friction
coefficient is calculated according to Colebrook
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−2
λ = 2 lg  + d  
2.51 0.27
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.
 Re √λ ⁄k 

It is an implicit formula which must be solved


iteratively. First, estimate λ, apply the formula and
calculate an initial approximation. This approxima-
tion is again added again to the equation and the
second approximation is calculated.
If the estimated value is taken from the Colebrook
and Nikuradse diagram, the first approximation
generally already is sufficiently accurate and the
values differ only in the third decimal.

3 Experiments 13
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

3.4 Resistance coefficients of special pipeline elements

3.4.1 Fundamentals

Special pipeline elements and fittings such as pipe


bends or curves, pipe branches, cross section
changes or also valves and flaps cause pressure
losses in addition to the wall friction losses.
In the case of cross section changes and there-
fore associated velocity changes, components
from the Bernoulli pressure loss(dynamic pressure)
must be taken into account in the overall pressure-
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loss. The Bernoulli equation with loss element is


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ρ v12 ρ v22
2 + p 1 + ρ g z 1 = 2 + p2 + ρ g z2 +∆pv .

This results in, assuming the same levels z1 and


z2 of the measurable total pressure loss

ρ
∆pges = p1 − p2 = 2 (v22−v12) +∆pv .

The following is obtained accordingly for the loss


level
1
hvges = 2 g (v22−v12) +hv .

Apart from a few special cases, the additional flow


resistances cannot be calculated closed, in con-
trast to the wall friction losses investigated in
the previous section.
Here, empirically determined resistance coeffi-
cients ζ are stated in the literature for the various
elements. These enable the additional pressure
losses to be calculated easily

3 Experiments 14
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

v2
pvz = ζ ρ 2

or for the loss level

v2
hvz = ζ 2 g .

This enables the following to be written for the total


loss level

1 λ1 l 1 v12 λ2 l 2 v22 v22


hvges = 2 g (v22−v12) + 2 + + ζ
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g d1 2 g d2 2g
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The pipe friction resistances must be determined


separately for the part before and after the cross
section change. The resistance coefficient on the
other hand is only referred to the velocity v2 after
the cross section change.
Of course, if the speeds are equal, the dynamic
pressure component drops out and a common
pipe friction component is used.
The resistance coefficient ζ can be determined
from the measured total loss level and the known
pipe friction
4 4
2 hvges g  d2   − λ l1  d2  + λ l2 .
ζ= − 1 −  d1    1 d1  d1 
v22     
2 d
2

Without a cross section change ( d1/d2 = 1), the


expression is simplified
2 hvges g l
R<d
ζ= 2 −λd .
v
R>d Pipe bend
3.4.2

For the pipe bend, there exists a dependence on


Pipe bend Pipe angle Pipe knee
the resistance coefficient ζ on the deflection angle
of the flow and on the ratio of the bend radius to
the pipe diameter. The resistance coefficient is

3 Experiments 15
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

also influenced by the shape of the bend. The


following diagram applies to smooth and rough

ζ 90°

0.6

Resistance coefficient 0.4

rough
0.2
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smooth
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Ratio of bend radius to pipe diameter R/d
pipes for the special pipe bend case which exists
here with 90°deflection.

Approximately the resistance coefficient of knee


pieces applies to pipe angles, i.e. bend radii of less
than the pipe diameter (R/d<1). For example, with
a smooth pipe a ζ of 1.3 applies to a 90° knee and
a ζ of 1.27 applies to rough pipes.

3 Experiments 16
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

3.4.3 Performing the Experiment

In the following experiment the pipe elbows in the


measurement circuit are investigated. The height
of the loss hv in mm across one element is always
measured.
The manometer is connected and the measure-
ments performed as given in Section 2.
The maximum volumetric flow rate was set for
the following measured values.
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Example Measurement Result:


All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

.
Pipe Fitting Volumetric Flow Rate V Loss Height hv
in l/min in mm
Pipe Elbow 90°, 18.75 245
PVC, d = 17mm
Rounded Elbow 90°, 18.75 175
PVC , d = 17mm
Bend 90°, R = 40mm 18.75 135
PVC , d = 17mm
Bend 90°, R = 100mm 18.75 130
PVC , d = 17mm

Based on the pressure loss or height of the loss


hv, the dependence of the resistance on deflection
angle and the relationship of the radius of curvatu-
re to the pipe diameter described in the theory can
be clearly seen. The greatest resistance is shown
by the pipe elbow with its sharp edged change in
direction. Also clearly visible is that the resistance
reduces, the larger the ratio R/d becomes.

3 Experiments 17
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

3.5 Changes in Cross-Sectional Area

The change in cross-sectionalarea on the Exercise


Unit is a discontinuous enlargement or reduction.
The coefficient of resistance for a discontinuous
change in cross-sectional area can be derived from
the Bernoulli equation and the principle of linear
momentum.

For the enlargement the following applies


d1 d2 2 2
2
d 
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A
ζ =  A2 − 1 =  22 − 1 .
 1   d1 
All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

For the reduction the following applies


2 2 2
 A1   d1 
ζ =  A − 1 =  2 − 1 .
d1 d0  0   d0 

Here A0 and d0 represent the constricted cross-


Constriction of the sectional area. Since this is generally unknown,
Cross-Sectional Area of
the coefficient of resistance for reductions is taken
from the following diagram.
0.6

0.4
ζ
0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Area Ratio A2/A1
Coefficient of Resistance for Discontinuous Area
Reduction

In the case of continuous changes in cross-sectio-


nal area, the coefficients of resistance can be
taken from special diagrams (Appendix 4.4 ).

3 Experiments 18
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

3.5.1 Performing the Experiment

In the following experiment the area enlarger and


reducer in the measurement circuit are investiga-
ted. The height of the loss hv in mm across one
element is always read off.
The manometer is connected and the measure-
ments performed as given in Section 2.
A constant volumetric flow rate was set for the
following measured values.
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Example Measurement Result:


All rights reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel, Germany

.
Pipe Fitting Volumetric Flow Rate V Loss Height hv
in l/min in mm
Reducer, 8 255
PVC, d = 17mm to d = 9.6mm
Enlarger, 8 5
PVC, d = 9.6mm to d = 17mm

It is interesting that scarcely any pressure loss


occurred on the area enlarger. It is even possible
for a pressure gain to occur here, if the increase in
pressure from the loss in speed exceeds the pres-
sure loss due to pipe friction.

3 Experiments 19
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

4 Technical Data

4.1 Primary Dimensions of the Exercise Unit

Length 875mm
Width 640mm
Height 900mm
Weight 25kg
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4.2 Components

- 6 Channel Manometer for Differential Pressure


All Rights Reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel

Measurement
Measuring Range:0 to 0.03 bar / 0 to 300 mm
Ws
- Spring-Tube Manometer
Measuring Range:0 to 0.6 bar / 0 to 6000 mm
Ws
- 11 Circular Chambers with Measuring Glands

- Discontinuous Area Reduction Fitting


PVC, d = 17mm to d = 9.6mm
- Discontinuous Area Enlargement Fitting
PVC, d = 9.6mm to d = 17mm
- Pipe Elbow 90°, d = 17mm
- Rounded Elbow 90°, d = 17mm
- Bend 90°, d = 17mm, R = 40mm
- Bend 90°, d = 17mm, R = 100mm
- Spherical Valve, d = 17mm

4 Technical Data 20
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

4.3 Bibliography

Prof. Dipl.-Ing. Wolfgang Kalide,


Einführung in die technische Strömungslehre,
Carl Hanser Verlag,
6th, revised edition, Munich Vienna 1984

Dubbel
06/98

Taschenbuch für den Maschinenbau


Springer Verlag,
16th Edition
All Rights Reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel

4.4 Tables and Diagrams

Wall Roughness
Wall Roughness

Material Surface Wall Roughness k


in mm
Copper Pipe, Cu technically 0.001
smooth
PVC pipe technically 0.001
smooth

Kinematic Viscosity Kinematic Viscosity of Water as a


Function of Temperature (after Kalide:
of Water Technische Strömungslehre )
Temperature Kinem. Viscosity ν
in °C in 10 -6 m2/s
15 1.134
16 1.106
17 1.079
18 1.055
19 1.028
20 1.004
21 0.980
22 0.957
23 0.935
24 0.914
25 0.894
26 0.875
27 0.856

4 Technical Data 21
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings
06/98
All Rights Reserved G.U.N.T. Gerätebau GmbH, Barsbüttel

Pipe Coefficient of Friction λ after Colebrook and (dotted) after Nikuradse (from Dubbel: Ta-
schenbuch für den Maschinenbau)
0.8

0.6

ζ 90°
0.4

rough
0.2

smooth
0
0 2 4 6 8 10
Relationship Bend Radius to Pipe Diameter R/d

Coefficient of Resistance ζ for 90° Pipe Elbows

0.6

0.4

ζ
0.2

0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Area Ratio A2/A1

Coefficient of Resistance ζ for Discontinuous Area Re-


duction
4 Technical Data 22
HM 150.29 Losses in Bends and Fittings

α
06/98
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Diameter Ratio d1/d2

Wall Friction Factor α for Continuous Area Reduction


(Nozzle)
as a Function of the Reduction Angle δ
λ1 + λ2
ζ=α
2
(from Kalide: Einführung in die technische Strömungslehre)

Diameter Ratio d2/d1

Resistance Factors for Continuous Area Enlar-


gement
(Diffuser) as a Function of the Diffuser Angle δ
(from Kalide: Einführung in die technische Strömungslehre)

4 Technical Data 23