Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 18

On Baking 3rd edition

Sarah R. Labensky, Priscilla Martel and Eddy Van Damme

Principles of Baking

Chapter 3
Chapter Objectives
• After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
– understand measurement systems and how to
measure ingredients
– organize and plan your work more efficiently
– understand basic flavoring techniques
– prepare items needed prior to actual cooking

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Principles of Baking
• This chapter introduces the student to the
scientific basis for what takes place in the
bakeshop.
• Concepts and vocabulary presented here are
used and expanded upon throughout the text.
• Understanding the science of mixing fat, flour
and water to make a finished product makes for
a well-rounded professional.

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Mixing
Once ingredients are measured, they must be
MIXED
Mixing accomplishes:
• Even distribution of ingredients
• Breakdown of fats and liquids, causing them to
emulsify
• Activation of the proteins in wheat flour causing
formation of gluten
• Incorporation of air (aeration) into dough.

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Mixing Methods

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Importance of Gluten
• Gluten is the tough rubbery substance formed
when the proteinsglutenin andgliadin in wheat
flour is moistened.
– Makes bread chewy
– Makes cakes light and tender
• Gluten development affected by
– Mixing technique
– Presence of fat and moisture

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Importance of Moisture
• Moisture dissolves ingredients, helps hydrate
and activates compounds in dough
• Doughs have low water content. Dough has a
firm consistency
– Yeast bread dough, cookie dough, pie dough.
• Batters generally contain more liquids, fat and
sugar than doughs.
– Cake batter, muffin batter and pancake batter.

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Heat Transfer
• Conduction - movement of heat from one item
to another through direct contact.
– Pan placed over burner
• Convection - transfer of heat through a fluid,
which may be liquid or gas.
– Hot air circulating in oven

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Heat Transfer (cont.)
• Radiation - transfer of heat through waves that
move from the heat source to the food.
– Infrared cooking
– Microwave ovens

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Heat Energy in an Oven

Conduction (orange waves), Convection (yellow waves) and Radiation (red


arrows)

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Baking and Cooking Methods
• Dry-heat cooking uses air or fat and is the
principal method to cook:
– batter
– dough
• Moist heat uses water or steam for cooking:
– fruits
– tenderizing foods
– reducing liquids

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Cooking Methods

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
The Baking Process
• Batters and dough pass through 10 stages
during the baking process:
1. Fats melt
2. Gasses form
3. Gasses are trapped
4. Microorganisms are killed
5. Starches gelatinize
6. Proteins coagulate
7. Water evaporates
8. Sugars caramelize
9. Carryover baking occurs
10. Staling begins

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
What is Flavor and Taste?
• Flavor - combination of the aromas, texture
(mouthfeel) aromas, tastes, and other
sensations in the mouth.
• The five primary Tastes are:
– Sweet
– Sour
– Salty
– Bitter
– Umami

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Science of Taste
• Chewing releases flavor compounds in food
• Taste buds on the tongue detect taste and flavor
compounds
• Aromas and odor compounds reach olfactory
bulb through internal and external nostrils

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Effects on Flavor Perception
• Temperature - Foods at warm temperatures offer
the strongest tastes.
• Consistency of the product
• Presence of contrasting tastes
• Presence of fats
• Color

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Compromises to Taste Perception
• Sense of taste can be challenged by factor’s
beyond one’s control.
– Age
– Health
– Smoking

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved
Describing Foods

Book
On Title 3e
Baking, © 2012
2013 by Pearson Higher Education, Inc
AuthorR.name
Sarah Labensky, Priscilla R. Martel, Eddy Van Damme Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458 • All Rights Reserved

Оценить