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Power Amplifiers.

Class B
and Class AB

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Class B

The circuit each transistor


conducts for a half of
every period

complementary pair
push-pull arrangement

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Operation

v I ∈ (−0,6V; 0,6V ) T1 – (off), T2 – (off)


v I > 0,6V T1 – (on), T2 – (off) v I < −0,6V T1 –(off), T2 –(on)
vO = v I − v BE1 = v I − 0,6V vO = v I − v BE 2 = v I + 0,6V
iO > 0 iC1 = iO iC 2 = 0 iO < 0 iC 2 = iO iC1 = 0
vo max = VCC − VCEsat ≈ VCC vo min = −VCC + VCE1sat ≈ −VCC
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Voltage
transfer
characteristic

crossover
distortions

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Waveforms. Powers. Efficiency
Assume the signal magnitude sufficiently high to
neglect the crossover distortions.
vo (t ) = Vˆo sin ωt Vˆo = VCC

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T 2
PO 1
T
1 Vˆo sin ωt
η= PPS = ∫ VCC iPS (t )dt = ∫ VCC
+
dt
PPS T0 T 0 RL
T 2
ˆ
1 VCCVo 2π + 1 VCCVˆo

+
PPS = sin tdt PPS =
T RL 0 T π RL

2 VCCVˆo 2 VˆCC
2
+ −
PPS = PPS + PPS = If Vˆo = VCC PPS max =
π RL π RL

VˆO2 VCC
2
PO = VOrms I Orms = If VˆO = VCC PO max =
2 RL 2 RL
PO VˆO2 π R L π VˆO
η = = =
PPS 2 R L 2 V CC V O
ˆ 4 V CC

π
If VˆO = VCC η max = = 78,5%
4 6 / 15
The amplifying transistor
1 VCCVˆo Vˆo2
PT = (PPS − PO ) =
1
PT = (PPS − PO )
1

2 2 π RL 4 RL

If VˆO = VCC 1 VCC


2
VˆCC
2
VˆCC
2
PT = − = 0.068
π RL 4 RL RL
What is the maximum average power dissipated by a
transistor depending on the output voltage magnitude?
dPT 2
dVˆ
=0 ⇒ Vo = VCC = 0,64VCC
ˆ
π
O

1 VCC
2
VCC
2
PT max = 2 ≈ 0,1 maximum average power Vˆo = 0,64VCC
π RL RL
1 VCC
2
VCC
2
Vˆo = VCC
pT max = = 0,25 maximum instantaneous power
4 RL RL
VCC vCE max = 2VCC
iC max =
RL 7 / 15
Class AB

- Crossover distortion, specific to class B amplifier can be


virtually eliminated

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Class AB Amplifier. Basic Circuit

• biasing the complementary output


transistors at a small output current

VBias≈ 0,6V
VBias
VT
I = ISe

vI - positive vO (t ) = v I (t ) + VBias − VBEn ≈ v I (t )

vI - negative vO (t ) = v I (t ) − VBias − VBEp ≈ v I (t )

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Voltage Transfer
Characteristic

Solutions to
generate VBias
???

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Biasing Using Diodes

R should allow all the current in the


diodes in the bases of the transistors, T is the driver transistor
from previous amplifier
even for maximum output current stage
VCC= +15V VˆO = 8V β=50
R=? 11 / 15
Biasing Using VBE Multiplier

⎛ R1 ⎞
VBB = ⎜⎜1 + ⎟⎟VBE1
⎝ R2 ⎠
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Short-Circuit Protection
Protection against the effect of
short-circuiting the output
•Effective in ensuring device
safety
•Disadvantage: under normal
operation about 0.5V might
appear across each protection
resistor. The voltage swing will
be reduced by that much, in each
direction
•Negative feedback, protection of
the output transistor against
thermal runaway

VBE 2 0,6V
iolim = ≈
REn REn
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Illustration
0,6 + 0,6 − 0,6
I Bias = = 6mA
0,1

P adjusts the biasing


voltage between
VBE and 3.5VBE

C - în the bases of Tn
and Tp it is the same
variable input voltage

iOlim=0,6A

14 / 15
Use of Compound Transistors with
Higher Current Gain
•Necessary for high output currents

The Darlington npn configuration

The compound pnp configuration preferred in IC 15 / 15