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A company ordered 12 ergonometric keyboards.

If
this would be proven to increase productivity of
employees, all of the firm’s current model will be Person Old New
replaced by the new models. Prior to delivery of 1 25 43
the keyboards, each of the 12 sample members
types a standard document on his or her old 2 59 69
keyboard, and the number of words per minute is 3 38 39
measured. After receiving the new keyboards and
spending a few weeks becoming familiar with their 4 66 73
operation, each employee then types the same 5 44 50
document using the ergonomic model. Test the 6 47 53
hypothesis that productivity of employees is lesser
when using the old keyboard than the new 7 41 40
keyboard. Assume that level of significance is at 8 48 58
0.05. The following data shows the number of 9 60 66
words per minute each of the 12 persons typed in
each test. 10 41 66
11 36 27
12 34 33

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means

Old New
Mean 44.917 51.41667
Variance 141.72 230.8106
Observations 12 12
Pearson Correlation 0.808
Hypothesized Mean D 0
df 11
t Stat -2.5132
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.0144
t Critical one-tail 1.7959
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.0288
t Critical two-tail 2.201
Step 1. Formulate the null and alternative hypothesis
H0: μold = μnew
Ha: μold < μnew
Step 2. Set the level of Significance
0.05 one tailed
Step 3. Select the test statistic and compute its value t-test
Step 4. Determine the critical value of the test df=12-1=11
Step 5 Compare the value with corresponding tabular value, then
state your conclusion based on the following guidelines
Accept Ho Absolute Calculated Value < Tabular Value
Reject Ho Absolute Absolute Calculated Value ≥ Tabular Value
2.51 1.796

P ValueApproach

Accept Ho p value > α


Reject Ho p value ≤ α

0.014412 0.05
Entrepreneurs developing an accounting review program for
persons preparing to take the Certified Public Accountant (CPA)
examination are considering two possible formats for conducting Fomat 1 Format 2
the review sessions. Random sample of 10 students are trained 11 10
using format 1, and then their number of errors is recorded for a
prototype examination. Another random sample of 12 individuals 8 11
are trained according to format 2, and their errors are similarly 8 9
recorded for the same examination. For the 10 students trained
with format 1, the individual performances are 11, 8, 8, 3, 7, 5, 9, 3 7
5, 1, and 3 errors. For the 12 students trained with format 2, the 7 2
individual performances are 10, 11, 9, 7, 2, 11, 12, 3, 6, 7, 8, and 5 11
12 errors. Assume that the sample groups have equal variance.
Test the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between 9 12
the format 1 and format 2 preparation at 0.10 level of significance. 5 3
1 6
3 7
8
12
Step 1. Formulate the null and alternative hypothesis
H0: μformat1 = μformat2
Ha: μformat1 ≠ μformat2
Step 2. Set the level of Significance
0.1 2 tailed
Step 3. Select the test statistic and compute its value
Step 4. Determine
Compare the thevalue
critical value
with of the test tabular value, then
corresponding
Step 5 state your conclusion based on the following guidelines
Accept Ho Absolute Calculated Value < Tab
Reject Ho Absolute Calculated Value ≥ Tabular Value
1.56

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Equal Variances

Fomat 1 Format 2
Mean 6 8.1666666667
Variance 9.7777777778 11.0606060606
Observations 10 12
Pooled Variance 10.4833333333
Hypothesized Mean D 0
df 20
t Stat -1.5628657976
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.0668847478
t Critical one-tail 1.325340707
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.1337694956
t Critical two-tail 1.7247182429
t-test: Equal Variances

t-test
Value ≥ Tabular Value
1.72

P ValueApproach

Accept Ho p value > α


Reject Ho p value ≤ α

0.13 0.1
A study was made to estimate the difference in salaries of College Professors in private and state colleges. The researcher
chose a random sample of 6 professors in private colleges and 5 professors in state colleges. Let us assume that variances
are not equal. Test the hypothesis that the average salary of professors teaching in private colleges is lower than the
average salary of professors teaching in state colleges or universities. The data gathered are as follows

Professorial Salary in Private Professorial Salary in State


Colleges Colleges
PHP 10,000.00 PHP 15,500.75
PHP 7,000.25 PHP 14,000.00
PHP 8,560.50 PHP 11,555.50
PHP 8,000.75 PHP 8,000.00
PHP 6,000.00 PHP 10,000.00
PHP 5,900.25
nd state colleges. The researcher
es. Let us assume that variances
e colleges is lower than the
are as follows

Step 1. Formulate the null and alternative hypothesis


H0: μProf.private = μProf.public
Ha: μProf.private < μProf.public
Step 2. Set the level of Significance
0.05 1 tailed
Step 3. Select the test statistic and compute its value t-test; Unequal Variances
Step 4. Determine
Compare the thevalue
critical value
with of the test tabular value, then
corresponding
Step 5 state your conclusion based on the following guidelines
Accept Ho Absolute Calculated Value < Tabular Value
Reject Ho AbsAbsolute Calculated Value ≥ Tabular Value
2.83 1.94

t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances


0.014938 0.05
ProfessorialProfessorial
Salary in Private
SalaryColleges
in State Colleges
Mean 7576.958 11811.25
Variance 2529765 9068675
Observations 6 5
Hypothesized Mean Diff 0
df 6
t Stat -2.83209
P(T<=t) one-tail 0.014938
t Critical one-tail 1.94318
P(T<=t) two-tail 0.029876
t Critical two-tail 2.446912
equal Variances
An electrical firm manufactures 2 types of light bulbs, Bulb A
and Bulb B. Random samples of 35 bulbs were tested for
their length of life (in days). Bulb A normally has a
population standard deviation of 56.5685 while Bulb B has
67.2191. Test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance.
The following are the detailed data gathered

Bulb A Bulb B Step 1. Formulate the null and alternative hypothesis


800 800 H0: μA = μB
720 830 Ha: μA ≠ μB
840 870 Step 2. Set the level of Significance
760 760 0.05 1 tailed
880 880 Step 3. Select the test statistic and compute its value
800 700 Step 4. Determine the critical value of the test
800 800 Step 5 Compare the value with corresponding tabular value, then
state your conclusion based on the following guidelines
720 720
800 800 Accept Ho Absolute Calculated Value
880 880 Reject Ho Absolute Calculated Value
720 745
880 880
800 866
720 720
840 830
760 760 z-Test: Two Sample for Means
880 700
800 840 Bulb A Bulb B
800 900 Mean 800 802.6
720 690 Known Variance 56.5685 67.2191
800 750 Observations 35 35
880 880 Hypothesized Mean D 0
720 720 z -1.3825116469
880 700 P(Z<=z) one-tail 0.0834073284
800 800 z Critical one-tail 1.644853627
720 880 P(Z<=z) two-tail 0.1668146568
840 840 z Critical two-tail 1.9599639845
760 760
880 880
800 800
800 760
720 800
800 800
880 950
800 800
z-test

g tabular value, then


ollowing guidelines
Absolute Calculated Value < Tabular Value
Absolute Calculated Value ≥ Tabular Value

1.38 1.64

0.08 0.05
Observed values Based on the data, prove that effectiveness is indepe
the educational attainment. Use 0.05 as the level of s
Bachelor’s Master’s
Degree Degree Total
Effective 15 9 24
Not Effective 18 8 26
Total 23 17 50 Step 1. Formulate the null and alternative hypothe
H0: The effectiveness of faculty members is
Ha: The effectiveness of faculty members is
Compute the expected values Step 2. Set the level of Significance
Bachelor’s Master’s
Degree Degree Total 0.05
Effective 11.04 8.16 24 Step 3. Select the test statistic and compute its val
Not Effective 11.96 8.84 26
Total 23 17 50

1.420434783
3.050301003

4.637025

Step 4. Determine the critical value of the test usin


df=(number of rows-1)*(numbe
df
Compare the value with corresponding tab
Step 5 state your conclusion based on the followi
Accept Ho
Reject Ho

p value =CHISQ.TEST(B3:C4,B10:C11)
e that effectiveness is independent with
ent. Use 0.05 as the level of significance.

e null and alternative hypothesis


tiveness of faculty members is independent with their highest educational attainment
tiveness of faculty members is dependent with their highest educational attainment
of Significance

t statistic and compute its value Chi square test for independence

0.086471
0.079819

e critical value of the test using the chi square distribution table
=(number of rows-1)*(number of clumns-1)
1
value with corresponding tabular value, then
nclusion based on the following guidelines
Absolute Calculated Value < Tabular Value
Absolute Calculated Value ≥ Tabular Value

4.63703 > 3.841

P ValueApproach

Accept Ho p value > α


Reject Ho p value ≤ α

0.031289 < 0.05


Chi-square Distribution Table
Suppose that the rating of employee performance were as follows Test the hypothesis that th

Employee Rating Observed Expected (0-2)2/e Step 1.


A 78 84 0.428571
B 86 84 0.047619
C 91 84 0.583333 Step 2.
D 84 84 0
E 81 84 0.107143 Step 3.
1.166667

84

Step 4.

Step 5
Test the hypothesis that the distribution of grades is uniform. Use 0.05 level of significance.

Formulate the null and alternative hypothesis


H0: The rating of employee performance is uniform
Ha: The rating of employee performance is not uniform
Set the level of Significance
0.05
Select the test statistic and compute its value

Determine the critical value of the test using the chi square distribution table
df=n-1 4

Compare the value with corresponding tabular value, then


state your conclusion based on the following guidelines
Accept Ho Absolute Calculated Value < Tabular Value
Reject Ho Absolute Calculated Value ≥ Tabular Value

1.1667 < 9.488

Accept Ho p value > α


Reject Ho p value ≤ α

p value =CHISQ.TEST(C4:C8,D4:D8) 0.883556 > 0.05


Chi-square Distribution Table