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21st Century Literature 1.

The first Filipino alphabet called

Alibata was replaces by the Roman
Philippine Literature during the Spanish
Alphabet (Modern Filipino Alphabet:
Colonial Period
28 letters).
March 31, 1951 2. Religious Practices became based
on teachings of Christian Doctrine.
Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the
3. The Spanish Language which
Philippines particularly in Limasawa, Leyte.
became the literary language during
The first Catholic mass was celebrated
this time, lent many of this words to
our language
April 14, 1521 4. European Legends and traditions
brought here became assimilated in
Father Pedro Valderama baptized 500
our songs, corridos and moro-moros
natives including Rajah Humabon.
5. Ancient Literature was collected and
1546- Starts of Spanish Colonization. translated to Tagalog and other
King Philip appointed Miguel Lopez de
6. Our periodicals during the Spanish
Legazpi as the first Governor-General of
colonization gained a religious tone.
the Philippines.
Acrostic Poem- is a poem in which
1898: End of the Spanish Colonization, the first letter of each line spells out a
Lasted for 333 years. word, message or the alphabet.


1. Spice Trade (e.g. ginger and  Bilingual poem with religious themes
cinnamon) Bilingual with Tagalog and Spanish
2. Converting Filipinos to Christianity
Ladino- Someone who is fluent in speaking
Propaganda Movement led by the Spanish and Tagalog language.
Fernando Bagongbanta
1. Jose P. Rizal (Laong Laan/
Salamat ng walang hanggan.
2. Marcelo H. Del Pilar (Plaridel) Types of poems during the Spanish Colonial
3. Mariano Ponce (Tikbalang/ Period
 Pasyon
La Solidaridad by Graciano Lopez Jaena Narrative poem about the passion,
death and resurrection of Jesus
The revolutionaries
1. Andres Bonifacio (May Pag-asa) Consist of 5 stanzas and 8 syllables
2. Emilio Jacinto (Dimasilaw) per line
Ang mahal na pasyon ni Jesu
Christong Panginoon natin na tola.
The Poem of Passion of our Lord
Jesus Christ
Gaspar Aquino de Belen. Padre Francisco Blancas de Jose.
 Awit Librong Pinag aaralan ng mga
Narrative poem that expresses tagalog nang uicang castilla.
adoration of the blessed Virgin Mary A book for the tagalog to study the
as well as platonic and courtly love. Spanish language.
Consist of 4-line stanzas and 12 First published book by a Filipino.
syllables of line. Tomas Pinpin
Rhythm is slow and usually
accompanied by the use of guitar or
Types of Prose during the Spanish Colonial
Florante at Laura
Francisco Baltazar/Balagtas  Anecdote
Master of traditional poetry A short and amusing stories that
 Kurido contains lesson in life.
Consist of 4-line stanzas with 8  Planticas
syllable per line. These are religious lectures
The rhythm is faster compare with presented by Spanish Priest that
that of an awit. deals with religious, Biblical and
Ibong Adarna Moral Topics.
The story is commonly attributed to  Novenas
the Tagalog poet José de la Cruz or These are series of prayers repeated
"Huseng Sisiw", but, until now, its for nine consecutive days and are
exact authorship is disputed. Another usually prayers for petition and
legend claims that the story was thanksgiving.
written in Spain during the mid-16th  Novels
century by Miguel Lopez de Legaspi, Are long narrative stories usually with
and brought to the Philippines in fictional characters and with a
1565 sequence of events, divided into
 Dalit chapters.
This is a religious poem in honor of “Ninay”
Blessed Virgin Mary First Philippine Novel
THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROSE Written by Pedro Alejandro Paterno
Doctrina Christiana en Lengua  Essays
Espanola Y Tagala These are personal pieces of writing
A prayer book that use the Point of view of the
One of the first book printed in the writer.
Philippines. Ang dapat mabatid ng mga
Juan de Plasencia tagalog
Christian Doctrine in the Spanish and Written by andres Bonifacio
Tagalog Language. Types of Drama during Spanish
Artes y reglas dela lengua tagala Colonial Period
The art and rules of tagalog  Karagatan
language. This is a poetic vehicle of a socio-
The first book that explains the religious nature celebrated during
principle of Tagalog language. the death of a person.
A form of poetic contest usually It is play written about the capture of
played as part of their rites held Christian Filipino Army.
connection with the death of a  Sarswela
person. It is a play with songs and dances
How do they perform karagatan? with up to five acts. Depicting the
Starts with an extemporaneous vagaries of romantic love among
speech, then they spin a tabo with a idealized Filipino characters, and
white line, when the spinning stops, often incorporating contemporary
She will ask a riddle and if he’s able social, political, economic or cultural
to answer then he can ask for a issues for relevance and interest.
hand in marriage. Father of Philippine Sarswela
 Duplo Alejandro Cubero
It is another poetic contest held  Panunuluyan
when a person died or during a This is a presentation of the search of
wake. the Virgin Mary and St. Joseph for an
Contains Puns, Jokes and Riddles in a inn where Mary can give birth to
vernacular to ease or relieve Jesus.
sadness.  Salubong
Trained Characters Salubong depicts the moment when
Biyako ( Male ) the risen Christ met his mother. This is
Biyaka ( Female) a play shown during the Easter
King morning. They arrive at a designated
 Cenaculo meeting place, usually in front of a
A play that portrays the life, passion church, where a little girl dressed as
and crucifixion of Jesus an angel removes the black
 Tibag mourning veil from the statue of
It tells how Reyna Elena and her son Mary.
Constantino searched for Jesus cross  Carillo ( Shadow play)
in Mount Calvary. This is a form of dramatic
 Moriones Festival entertainment performed on a
It is a festival in celebration of the life moonless night during town fiestas in
of St. Longinus dark night after harvest.
Morion means Mask
Beheading of St. Longinus
 Moro-Moro
Moro-moro is a play that became
popular in the Philippines during the
Spanish colonial period where the
Moros were portrayed as perpetual
villains who always lost to Christians
in the end. It depicts battles, in a
rather comedic way, between
Christians and Moros as Muslims in
the Philippines prefer to be called.
 This is the art form of language
through the combine use of words,
 The expression or application of
creative meaning and experiences.
human creative skills and
imagination, typically in visual from Theater
 The various branches of creative
 This is the art form of performance .
Dramatic text are portrayed on
 Within the reach of everyone.
stage by actors and actresses and
Form of Arts. are enhanced by props, light and
 Picture
 Sculpture Cinema
 Architecture
 This art form is a technological
 Music
translation of theater. In films, Special
 Literature
effects are utilized to enhance the
 Literature
story telling.
 Theatre
 Dance Dance
 Cinema
 This is the art of human for. The body
Pictures (Drawing, Painting, Print-making is used, mobilized and
and Photography) choreographed n a specific time,
form and space.
 This is a two-dimensional image of
various subject ranging from real life
images to visually abstract. It may be Reason to study art
created using different media such
1. The internet has created an
as chalk, charcoal, graphite, ink, oil
explosion of opportunity for digital
painting and watercolor.
designers and multimedia art.
Sculpture 2. Fine artist can reach a worldwide
 This is a three-dimensional artwork
3. Student can achieve recognition
that maybe created using stone,
while studying
marble wood and concrete.
4. Those with a wide skill set have an
Architecture advantage in any career.
5. Studying art improves performance
 These are structure that meant to be
in other subject.
used as shelter. The art of
6. Coursework teaches you discipline.
architecture relies on the design and
7. Art makes you happy.
purpose of structure.
Humanities and Science.
 The art forms appeals to the sense of
hearing. Music is composed by
combining notes into harmony.
 Deals with the expression of the  Incorporating arts into other subject
internal world of a person. A world helps in accelerating and facilitating
where everything is subjective. the learning process.
 Art promotes Creativity.
Science and Humanites
 Are more economical than separate
 Are two different disciplines, both are instruction in each area.
needed to provide a balance
knowledge of the world.
 Two can also be integrated to
create something that is both Subject
functional and delightful.
 Subject or a topic in any person,
animal. Things or issue that is
Precise and Not as accurate
describes or presented in a work
structured and structured
Objective, Giving Subjective,  Generate the question (What is it?)
out facts and Expressing  Everything under the sun sis
evidences personal views considered as a subject in arts.
and opinions.  Simple Ideas or Personal Ideas from
Can be measured More difficult to the artist.
It is easier to Difficult to grade
grade a science an art  Is a broad idea or messages
project conveyed by a piece of art.
Scientist think up Artist imagine  Recurring idea or element in a
ways to make life ways to make life work of art.
easier and delightful and  Fundamental and Universal Idea.
comfortable. pleasing
Example: Subject: Monalisa
Theme: Portrait
 Refers to the ideas, thoughts
 These art forms are interactive and and feelings of an artist.
multi-disciplinary in nature, that is Tableau
consisting of ideas, practices from  View or sight that looks like
different branches of learning. picture.
 The outcome, being the unity of
separate areas of learning. In visual design, artworks with subject that
 It is the “cross-breading” of are recognizable are called Realistic,
contemporary world. Representation or Objective Art.
Those that are not recognizable are Non-
representational or Non-objective art.
The fundamental principle for Integration
of Arts can be thought as follows.
 There is a similarity across art and Realism
other subjects.  The subject is done the way it
actually looks.
 Artist use his/her imagination  Void
and alters the subject  Emptiness can be positive (Space
according to his or her design enclosed) and Negative (Denotes
Abstraction the opposite)
 The artist break upon a subject  Refers to the area between around,
and rearrange it in a different above, below in object while 3
manner. dimensional space can be define a
Non-Objectivism space over, under, behind, and
 Totally no subject at all, just an around a form.
interplay of pure elements like LINE
line, shape or color and so on.  Extension of a point. A short or long
“Subject is lifeless without a mark drawn or carved into surface.
Theme”  Implied path suggesting-
ELEMENTS OF ART 1. Direction (Vertical, Horizontal,
Line Diagonal)
 Thick, Thin, Curvy, Straight and 2. Characters (Jugged, Curly ,
Implied line. Dotted lines and broken lines)
 Direction: Vertical, Horizontal SHAPE AND FORM
and Diagonal.  It can be describe as a figure,
 Most basic element of Art. separate from its surrounding area or
Shape and Form background.
 Two-dimensional and geometric  It can be either geometric (angular)
(Shape) or organic (curly)
 Three-dimensional and Organic  Form is an enclosed lines, a figure
(Form) separate from its background.
Perspective COLOR
 Depth, Illusion and Detailed.  It is a sensation created by visible
Color wavelengths of light caught in a
 Primary color (Red, Blue, Yellow) prism
 Secondary (Green, Orange, Purple)  It is a measure of organic or synthetic
Value and Intensity substances called pigments, used as
 Degree of Lightness and Brightness of paint or dye.
a Color. o RED Passion, Anger, Love
 Black and White (Neutral) o BLUE Peace, Nobility, Sadness
Texture o YELLOW Gaiety, Innocence, Jealousy
 Surface of an artwork VALUE
 Soft and Hard  It is the degree of lightness and
 Wood and Tactile. darkness of a color.
ELEMENTS OF ART  It suggest an atmosphere or mood.
1. Nature TEXTURE
2. Man Made Environment  It is the surface of an artwork
 Most basic tools of expression in any  It can be actual or tactile meaning,
art form. It can be felt by touch or it can be
simulated or illusory, which means it
SPACE can only be seen, not felt.
 Value
 Texture
 Organized the elements of art.
 Elements is the Word while Principle is
the Sentences.
Illusion- two-dimension
Six ways in detail of Space
1. Overlapping
2. Placement of the paper
3. Size
4. Detail
5. Color and Value
6. Perspective


 Wholeness of the design, the
arrangement of parts.
 Regular, repeated pattern. The flow
of the movement, achieved by the
distribution of visual unit.
Proportion Scale
 There are certain rules with regard
to saying whether a certain digit
in a measured value is significant
or not.
 All non-zero digits are significant
 However, Zeros in a measurement
may or may not be significant.
RULE NO.1 (Nonzero digits)
All nonzero digits are significant.
 124 ml
 6453 ml
 6.453 mm
RULE NO. 2 (Captive Zeros)
Zeros between nonzero digits are
 8.09 g
Measurement  80.9 g
 Tends to result in an estimate of the  236.005 g
result of counting large numbers RULE NO.3 (Leading Zeros)
Accuracy Zeros to the left of the first nonzero digit
 Refers to the closeness of the are not significant. They are placeholders
average value to the actual or true and are used to locate a decimal point.
value or most probable value.  0.04 L
Precision  0.000071 km
 Measurement refers to how close  0.00373 m
each measurement is to one RULE NO.4 (Trailing Zeros)
another Zeros at the end of number and to
KEY POINTS the right of a decima point are significant.
 It is important to note that when  0.500 g
reporting measurement, one must  125.00 ml
be honest in doing so.  3.000000000 mm
 The measurement must not appear Rounding
to be more accurate than what is  In rounding a number, it is first
allowed by the equipment used to necessary to know how many
make the measurement. significant figures the answer should
 This can be achieved by controlling have.
the number of digits used to report  This depends on the given
the measurement. measurements and the
Significant Figures mathematical operation used to
 Group of digits consist of all the arrive at the answer
measured digits known or  For instance, you want to round the
estimated measurements 4.584 meters and
Determining the number of Significant 5.357 meters to three significant
figures. figures. How do you go about it? 4.58
m and 5.36m
Addition and Subtraction Characteristic of the three-sub particle
 When measurements are added atoms.
or subtracted, the answer cannot
have more decimal places than
those in the least accurate
 This means that the answer should
be rounded to the same number
of decimal places as the
measurement with the least
number of decimal places.
Multiplication and Division
 When measurements are
multiplied or divided, it is the Proton Electron Neutron
significant figures, not the number Relative 1 1/1840 1
of decimal places, in each Mass
measurements that are counted. Relative +1 -1 0
 The answer cannot contain more Charge (Neutral)
significant figures than those in Location Nucleus Electron Nucleus
the least accurate measurement. Shell
ATOMS, IONS AND MOLECULES.  An atom has equal numbers of
proton and electron. The total
Atoms number of positively charge proton is
 There are more than 100 types of neutralized by an equal number of
elements existing naturally in this negatively charged electrons. So, an
world. atom is electrically neutral because
 An element is a substance consisting there is no net charge.
of one type of atom only. It cannot PROTON AND MASS NUMBER
be broken down chemically into  Proton number (or atomic number) Z
simpler substances is the number of protons in the
 Atom of different elements are nucleus of an atom
different in size.  Nucleon number (or Mass number) A
 An atom is the smallest particle of a is the total number of proton and
substance. neutron in the nucleus of an atom.
 It has nucleus which contains protons
and neutrons.
 Electrons move around the nucleus
in the electron shell or orbit.
 The number of protons and neutrons
remain the same. Therefore, proton
number and mass number are not
 In the formation of ions:
1. Metal lose electron to form
positive ions.
2. Non-Metals gain electrons to
form negative ions.

Formation of Positive Ions.

 The symbol of positive ion
 Proton number also indicates the contains the following:
number of electrons in an atom. 1. A Positive sign indicating loss of
Isotopes electron.
 Are atoms that have the same 2. A numerical number
number of protons but different indicating number of electron

number of neutrons. being lost.
 Due to the differences in the
number of neutrons, isotopes
have different mass number.
 All atoms are electrically neutral. Formation of Negative Ions
They have equal number of
 The symbol for a negative ions
protons and electrons.
contains the following:
 When an atom loose or gain
1. A negative sign indicating
electrons, the number of protons
gain of electron.
is not equal to the number of
2. A numerical number
electrons anymore. Therefore, the
indicating number of electron
atom will not be electrically

being gained.

 When an atom is not electrically
neutral, it is called an ion.
 There are two types of ions:
1. If an atom loses
electron(s), it becomes
 Molecules are two or more atoms
a positive ion.
chemically joined together.\
2. If an atom gains
 A molecule can be made up of
electron(s), it becomes
atoms of the same element or of
a negative ion.
different element.
 In the formation of ions, the process
 A molecule which contains two
only involves the gaining or loosing
atoms of the same or different
of electrons. Therefore, electrons are
type chemically joined together is
responsible for chemical properties
called a diatomic molecule.
of an atom.
Isotope Abundance Fraction of Mass
in Abundance abundance, expressed as
Percentage decimal.
85-Rb 72.2 % 0.722 85 2. Add the products.
Amu Sample Problem.
87-Rb 27.8% 0.278 87 o Rubidium has two common isotopes,
Amu 85-Rb and 87-Rb. If the abundance
Molecule of an element of 88-Rb is 72.2% and the
 A molecule of an element is a abundance of 87-Rb is 27.8%. What is
substance containing two or more of the average atomic mass of
the same type of atom chemically rubidium.
joined together. 61.37+ 24.186+ 85.556 amu
Molecule of a compound
 A molecule of a compound is a Ions
substance containing two or more of  An ion is an atom or group of atoms
different type of atom chemically that has either a positive charge or a
joined together. negative charge.
Chemical Formula  Ions form when atoms gain or lose
 A chemical formula of a substance electrons to become stable.
indicates two important information  An atom is stable when the valence
about the substance. shell is full.
a. Type of element Positive Ion Example
b. Total number of each  Sodium loses one electron to
type of atom. become stable.
CALCULATING THE AVERAGE ATOMIC  Result in an ion that has a positive
MASS charge.
 List the 3 subatomic particle of an  The symbol “+” is written as a
atom and their charge. superscript to indicate that the
Isotopes sodium has a charge of 1+
 Atoms that have the same number Negative Ion Example
of protons but different numbers of  Chlorine gains one electron to
neutrons are called isotopes. become stable.
 Isotopes of an element has different  Results in an ion with a negative
number of neutrons, they also have charge.
different mass number.  The Symbol “-“ is written as a
Average Atomic Mass superscript to indicate that the
 Most elements occur naturally as chlorine ion has a charge of 1-
mixtures of isotopes. Ion
 The mass number on the periodic  Both ions have a full valence shell
table are the weighted average of containing the maximum number of
the most abundant isotopes’ mass electron possible.
numbers.  This new arrangement of valence
To calculate the atomic mass of an electrons has less energy than the
element: previous arrangement and is stable
1. Multiply the mass of each Cation
isotopes by its natural
 When an atom gives up one or more  When an ion has a charged of 1+
electrons it becomes positive. and 1- the symbol has no number in
 Called a cation “cat-eye-on” the superscript.
Anion Example: Sodium ion is Na+ and not
When an atom gains one or more electron Na1+
it become negative, Naming Cations
 Called an anion “an-eye-on”  A metal that has lost electrons to
 Ca+ion are posi+ive while anion are become and ion has the same
negative. name as the element.
Noble Gas  Eg: Ca2+ = Calcium Ion
 A mental atom that has lost Naming Anions
electrons (cation) and a  A nonmental that has gained
nonmental atom that has gained electrons to became an ion has the
electrons (anions) will have the same name as the element but with
same number of electron as its the ending changed to -ide
nearest.  Eg: Cl- = Chloride Ion
Cation Naming Anions
 A mental atom has lost electrons 1. Nitrogen- Nitride
(cation) will have the same 2. Oxygen- Oxide
number of electrons as its nearest 3. Fluorine- Flouride
noble gas. 4. Phosphorous- Phosphide
 For example, Neon is the closest 5. Sulfur- Sulfide
noble gas in the periodic table to 6. Chlorine- Chloride
sodium, magnesium, and 7. Bromine- Bromide
aluminum. 8. Iodine- Iodide
 The cations Na+, Mg2+ and Al3+ Univalent
have the same number of  An univalent element has only 1
electrons as atoms of neon. possible charge as an ion
 This relationship is known as being Multivalent
isoelectronic (having the same  A multivalent element can form an
number of electrons) ion in more than one way.
Anions Example:
 Apply concept to anions Copper can form two different ions, Cu+
 For example, neon is the or Cu2+
closest noble gas in the Naming Multivalent Cations
periodic table to nitrogen,  To name an ion of multivalent
oxygen and fluorine. element, always include the ion
How to write symbols for ions charge as roman numerals in
 Write the symbol of the element and brackets.
show the ion charge as a superscript Example: CU+
to the right of the element symbol. Named copper (1)
Example: The symbol of calcium ion Read as “ Copper One”
is Ca2+  Only multivalent metals have Roman
numerals on their names.
Ionic Reactivity
 Metal atoms tend to lose electron
 Non-metal atoms tend to gain
 The farther the valence electrons is
from its positive nucleus, the more
easily it is removes and the more
reactive the atom is.
Cation Reactivity
 Reactivity generally increases for
cations as you move down the
periodic table.
 Example: potassium is more reactive
than sodium
 Reactivity generally increases for
cations as you move down the ENTREPRENEURSHIP
periodic table. Traditional Definition
 Electrons that are further away from  It’s the process of designing,
the nucleus are more easily lost. launching and running a new
 Thus, Atoms with more orbitals will be business which typically begins as a
more reactive. small business such as start-up
Anion Reactivity company offering a product process
 Reactivity generally decreases for or service for sale or for hire.
anions as you move down the  The capacity and willingness to
periodic table. develop, organize, manage any
 Example: fluorine is more reactive expertise especially a business with
than chlorine. considerable initiative and risk rather
 Reactivity generally decreases for than working as an employee, an
cations as you move down the entrepreneur runs a small business
periodic table. and assumes all the risk and rewards
 Elements whose valence shell is of a given business venture, idea,
closer to the nucleus will gain goods or service offered for sale.
electrons more readily because they Discussion Definition
are closer to the nucleus.  Is a way of planning, designing,
 Negative electrons have stronger running and launching a new
attraction for the positive nucleus business. It is not merely transforming
when the valence shell is closer to or converting your ideas but making
the nucleus. use of opportunity and resources.
 You already realized an opportunity,
by the way of modification, you alter
or add something. It is a way of
improving something. A continuous
realization of opportunity for the
business to be sustained and keep
 Making partial or minor changes, to
alter, improve or make it less.
 One of the most powerful economic
force known to mankind.
Empowering individuals to seek
opportunity where others find
intractable problems.
 It is the symbol of business tenacity
and achievement.
 Vital source of change in all facets
of society.
Factor of successful entrepreneur is
1. Opportunities is the action to
make profit.
2. Taking risk involves action to
Entrepreneural Environment
achieve the goal.
New products and Services  Entrepreneurship does not emerge
 Indication that and grow spontaneously. It depends
entrepreneurship is the vital on the several economic, social,
source of change in society. political, and environmental factor.
4 virtues of successful product and services. Entrepreneural Factos
 Seeking opportunity
Economic Conditions
 Modification
 Innovation  Exercised perhaps the most direct
 Taking Risk and immediate influence to
Characteristics of an Entrepreneur  You don’t need to consider all
opportunities but you need to
1. Ability to Plan
educate yourself on what to take or
 Planning, you can’t attain a goal
what to risk.
without starting a plan.
3. Analyze the opportunities and
 Maintain a straight path in achieving
a goal. It’s a step by step process
 Process of Opportunity
that constitute your goals
a. Opportunity Seeking
2. Communication Skills
- Seeking all the opportunity in the
 It’s a non-stop interaction to
suppliers, government, investors,
b. Opportunity Screening
creditors etc.
- Screening the opportunities,
 Constitute within and outside of your
weighing the pros and cons to come
up with the best opportunity to grab.
 Maintain a harmonious relationship
c. Opportunity Seizing
by having a good communication
- In Seizing, you do something about a
specific opportunity, pushing through
3. Marketing Skills
the process.
 The kinds of strategies you make use
 As an entrepreneur, you need to
in order to gain sales.
know your threats and possible
 Things to consider in Marketing are
the 4p’s
 How can you make strategies that
a) Promotion
can counterattack your threat? By
b) Product
being aware of your environment.
c) Price
4. Preparation of your Business Plan
d) Place
 You can’t enter a venture if you
4. Human Skills
don’t have a concrete plan.
 Ability to interact with other people.
 Business Plan contains every aspect
5. Risk Tolerance
of your business,
 Ability to moderate the risk.
5. Organize your venture
6. Clear Objectives
 It is based on your business plan
 It will help you to reach your goal
 In this part, you make your business
 Objectives are the things you need
plan into reality.
to accomplish.
6. Development and Growth of the
7. Leadership Skills
 Expect the employees to work
 Adapting in the changes in
 A good leader is the one who
 It is where you seek growth in your
disseminate the task.
business venture.
7. Supervision and Control
 Knowing what’s happening in the
Functions of an entrepreneur
1. Innovation
Types of an entrepreneur
2. Risk measurement and Risk Taking
1. Administrative Entrepreneurship
 The traditional research and 5. Acquisitive Entrepreneurship
development approach or R and D  Ability of entrepreneurs to acquire
approach competitors’ technical capabilities.
 Cover such loopholes  The entrepreneurship that learns
 The entrepreneurial activity under from other competencies is
this category is centered around acquisitive entrepreneurship.
administrative techniques and  It acquires something new of value
functions. It gives a new option to front, the competitive environment
handle prevailing or future situations or achieves the competitors’
in a more effective way that technical capacities. It keeps
provides advantages and entrepreneurship sustainable in a
competitive edge. competitive environment.
2. Opportunistic Entrepreneurship  The failure never restraints them from
 Ability to catch at the right time the acquisition but motivates them
fruits of an internal as well external further to discover such a thing with
technological development. a new visitor.
 The entrepreneurship that identifies,
National benefits of Entrepreneurship
exploits and executes the
opportunity in the first hand 1. Foster Economic Group
regarded as opportunistic  It creates changes to economy.
entrepreneurship.  It will redowned to the benefit of
3. Incubative Entrepreneurship ecoomy.
 Ability to initiate and nurture a new  Most powerful economic growth.
venture development within the 2. Creates new technology, products
company with special care and services.
 Development of a business  Many goods in the market.
 Expansive 3. Changes and rejuvenate market
 This category of entrepreneurship competition.
generates and nurses new ideas and  In entrep, Competition is benefit of
ventures within the organization. the customer. The buyer and seller
 It executes them in a productive determine the price.
manner and ensures material gain 4. Increase productivity
for the organization.  New venture will need people
4. Imitative Entrepreneurship resulting in creation of jobs and more
 The replication or creative product and services.
innovation of innovative technical
achievement made by another
form. Hazards and Negative aspect of
1. Risk of losing invested capital
 Twist the existing product done
 Everything you trade off is called
with appropriate modification
opportunity cost.
and refinements in case
 In investing, its either you will have a
protected of property rights are
profit (success) and loss (failure).
 The things you need to have when  The main goal will not be always
investing are: wealth but success instead.
a. Money 3. Economic Factors
b. Time  It is the status of the economy.
c. Effort  If the economy is suffering crisis like
d. Property shortage or inflation rate, the status
2. Irregularity and uncertainty of will redown to small and large
income often facing bankruptcy entreprises.
 Companies are doing monthly  Can lead to investment.
reports because in business venture 4. Socio- Cultural Factors.
there are changes in transaction.  Considering the 4ps in the society.
 One way to control is having a 5. Political Support
Supervision and control to your 6. Psychological Background
venture.  Fiduciary means involving trust,
3. Lack of suitable temperament especially with regard to the
 Ability to adapt in certain conditions relationship between a trustee and a
 If your business is losing profit you beneficiary
need to have a temperament to
Entrepreneurial Environment
counter the problem.
4. Uncertain leisure 1. Economic Condition
 No time for yourself  Adapting different strategies
5. Familial Misunderstanding  It is the most direct and important
 Most of an entrepreneur time will be entrepreneurial environment.
allotted in the business therefore, the Market
lack of time in the family. - Is the interaction of buyers and sellers
 Root of familial understanding is - Market segmentation is the size and
Money. composition. Target market is found
6. Unnecessary victim of conspiracies in market segmentation.
by partner, competitors, aggrieved Capital
powerful politicians etc. - Things you need to have: Human
abilities and money.
Variables determining to the growth of an
- The ability of capital facilities to bring
together the labor of an important
1. Family Background element in economic development.
 If you are related to a business or a Raw materials
famous family even if they are not - The things you combine.
affiliated with your business, investors 2. Social Factors
tend to invest in your business  Social environment in a country
venture because they think that you exercise a significant impact on the
have connections. emergence of entrepreneurship.
2. Personal Characteristics  Social mobility is the capacity to
 It is you who manage the totality of move from different status.
your business.  One of the important facilitator of
 Can be use in the interaction with entrepreneurial factor is the security
the customer. of the business.
 Legitimacy of the business businesses understand various
3. Psychology Factors economic pieces of the
 Many entrepreneurial theorist have marketplace and how these various
produced theories of pieces may be used to gain a
entrepreneurship that concentrate competitive advantage.
specifically upon psychological b. Growth prospect of the Study
factors. c. Logic of the business ( Value
4. Governmental Influence Chain)
 Any interest government in  A value chain is a set of activities
economic development can help that a firm operating in a specific
through its clearly expressed industry performs in order to deliver a
industrial policy, promote valuable product or service for the
entrepreneurship in one way or market.
another. d. Important trends
 Plays a vital role, the one who i. Politico Legal
regulates, provides limitation and ii. Economic
policy. iii. Socio-Cultural
iv. Technological
Opportunity v. Environmental
There are two types of Opportunity
1. External (Outside and Broad)
2. Internal (Inside and narrow) II. Micro market Study
a. Customer analysis
Process of Opportunity
 Seeking Result
- Finding and seeking opportunities b. Location Analysis
- Observing the environment III. Key Success Factors
IV. Summary of
Opportunities and
Chapter 3 ( External Analysis)
I. Macro market study
 Macro marketing focuses on the
majority of consumers rather than
individuals. The goal is to determine
how to reach a mass market. To do Marketing
so, companies focus on advertising,
 Marketing is the study and
product features, in-store availability
management of exchange
and packaging.
relationships. Marketing is the
a. Industry Study
business process of creating
 An industry analysis is a business
relationships with and satisfying
function completed by business
customers. With its focus on the
owners and other individuals to
customer, marketing is one of the
assess the current business
environment. This analysis helps
premier components of business
 Strategy, the creative minds of the
people to satisfied the customer
needs and wants.
 Market is the interaction between
buyers and sellers.
 To know how, can you sell your
 It is after to the satisfaction of the
 Strategies in order to gain profit.
 It is how are you going to approach
the market.
 Gain Profit is not the only goal, but
you are after the establishing a good
relationship with customers.
 It is important to establish a loyalty
(Suki System)
1. Brand awareness
 Being Unique. Brand awareness
refers to the extent to which
customers are able to recall or
recognize a brand. Brand awareness
is a key consideration in consumer
behavior, advertising management,
brand management and strategy
2. Generating higher sales
 Having a position in the market.
 You will have loyalty and brand
 You need technically everything.
 Small scale first and plot it in the
basic human survival or shared
human experiences.
Orientation in viewing other cultures

 This basically pertains to the belief

that one own’s culture is superior or
 Is a social construct that is used more natural among other cultures.
interchangeably with society.  An ethnocentric person sees or
weight other cultures by his or her
own vales and standard.
 Is a group of people bound together  The word ethnocentrism was coined
in a more or less permanent by American Social Scientist, William
association organized for collective Sumner in 1906 to provide a
activity. technical term for viewing one
 It is made up of interacting ethnicity, (ethno-) and center of all
individuals using shared culture. culture (centrism)
 According to Paul Horton and  Highly appreciating one’s culture is
Chester Hunt, they define society as good for the oneness of a society
a relatively independent and self- but criticizing or belittling another
perpetuating group of human may cause conflict between
beings who occupy a territory, share different cultures.
a culture, and have most their  In reality, everyone has a bit of
association within this group. ethnocentrism; it cannot be
avoided. However, a highly
“ Culture is a system of shared behavior
ethnocentric person, when exposed
while society is a group of people who
to another cultures, may experience
share a common culture”
culture shock.
Cultural Universals  It will be difficult to adapt to the new
culture and may feel severe
 Culture varies from one society to
confusion and disturbance.
another. However, it is important
to note that all cultures share Cultural Imperialism
patterns that are quite common
 The case where a person imposes
to all societies in the globe.
his/her own culture upon another
 George Murdock was
person with an intention to help
acknowledge as first of his
his/her detach from what the former
contemporaries to recognize the
thinks is an essentially inferior culture.
existence of cultural universals
when he was studying the kinship Xenocentrism
system in different parts of the
 It is the belief that one culture is
inferior to others.
 He discovered that cultural
universals often revolve around Cultural Relativism
 The practice of viewing another  Are the first one to use stone for
culture by its own context rather survival.
than assessing it based on the  They have expanded brains,
standard of one’s own culture. enlarged bodies, less sexual
 Cultural relativism requires an open dimorphism, narrower limb
mind and enthusiasm to adapt to proportion and reduced size of
new cultures. cheek, teeth and crania.
 It can be associated with the value
Homo Rudolfensis
of respect
 There are also cases where cultural  It is the first hominid discovered by
relativism may be hard to practice. anthropologist, Richard Leakey and
There are cultures, especially pain- Meave Leakey in Kenya in 1972.
inflicting ones, in some parts of the  Its molar and pre-molar teeth
globe which majority-even the most resembles from their predecessor,
culturally relativist people cannot Australopithecus.
understand.  Its brain is similar to those hominids.
 The idea behind is to remind
Homo habilis
everyone the importance of cultural
tolerance.  Anthropologist suggest that people
owe their first relics of tool to homo
Human biocultural and sociopolitical  They have shown a remarkable
evolution revolutionary efficiency in a creative
“Everything in the universe has an origin”
 Early traces dated back
 In the book of Charles Darwin, the approximately 1.9 million years ago
Origin of species, he stated that all in Olduvai, George, Tanzania.
organism have undergone evolution.  Skills of tool-making
 Evolution is the process by which
Homo Erectus
beings developed from earlier
beings.  Best represented by Java man that
 In the Descent of man, he gave a was discovered in Java, Indonesia.
precise theory on how humans must  Has the capacity to manipulate their
have evolved through eons. environment in order to survive.
 Failure to evolve means extinction  Late form of homo erectus left
behind the earliest surviving traces pf
constructed dwellings, earliest
 Is the evolutionary development of worked wood, the first wooden
human characteristics that made spear and the earliest container,
hominids distinct from their primitive wooden bowl.
ancestors. It is at this stage people  Hunting that made hominids from
have found the first sign of human herbivores to omnivores.
achievement.  Approximately 1 million years ago
fire was discovered.
Homo Neanderthalensis and occurs through social
interaction and transmission of
 Similar to homo erectus, walk
culture in a particular group.
erect and a big crania.
 It helps share and develop an
 Found in Africa and Asia and
individual’s personality to adopt and
were more primitive in
learn the culture of the society
comparison to modern human.
he/she belongs to.
 They exhibited mental
sophistication with modern Personality
humans by wearing animal skim
 American Anthropologist, Victor
and furs to protect them from
Barnouw (1963) defined personality
changing weather conditions
as an organization of forces-
 First to bury their dead.
consistent attitudes, values, and
 Burial practices mirrored concern
modes of perception- within an
for other individuals which
individual which results in his/her
resulted from great
consistent behavior.
interdependence among group
 Psychologist Richard Sanford Dewey
and Wilbur J. Humber (1981) defined
Homo Sapiens personality as the interrelation of an
individual’s ideas, action, and
 Originated from Africa
attitudes with the many non-human
 In Philippines:
aspects of his/her own environment
- Tabon man (20 thousand years ago)
and heritage.
- Callao man (60 thousand years ago)
 Based on the premises, personality
 First species to alter their
may then be describes as an
environment and utilize resources.
individual’s way of carrying and
 Farming and herding of animals
presenting his/her attitudes, value
 They settle to one place to another
and ideas that make up the entirely
to develop further their food
of being that the people around
him/her see or perceive.
 Learned how to communicate,
symbols and language are born. Personality vs Identity
 Begin to study science and
 Golden era of Homo genus.  Consider personality as the body of
a person. The person acquired that
body since his/her conception and
Identity and Personality Formation he/she has no or less chances in
changing it completely
 It’s the thumbmark, the symbol of
 Chester Hunt (1982) says that it being and the major evidence of
primarily consist of processes and existence.
techniques observed by members of
the society towards an acceptable,
proper, and desirable way of living
 Identity maybe likened to sense of experiences in response to the stimuli
fashion. A person’s sense of fashion is posed by the physical world
the piece that is observed by other  Cultural Environment
people’s eyes. - Refers to the learned ways of living-
 It is what other mostly remember of the norms, values and beliefs one
him/her. gets accustomed in a society.
 A person may adopted it from a - It’s a constant company that
friend a colleague or family and he determines what a person will learn
can change it if he wills to. as a member off the society.
- Early in life, a person incorporates
Determinants of Personality Formation
the patterns, values and attitudes of
 According to Panopio, et.al (1994) the group he/she belongs to into
Personality is determined by both his/her personality.
nature and nurture. - Regular exposure to certain culture
regulates the type of behavior a
Biological Inheritance (Nature)
person makes.
 The genetic characteristics of one’s - Goes on to shape the personality
parents have something to do with from a person’s birth too his/her
his/her personality. death. As stated by anthropologist,
 Genetics provide “raw materials” Ralph Linton, Culture serves as a
from which personality is formed, guide of an individual living his/her
such as biological reflexes, life. It allows him/her to became a
processes, urges, capacity, “ready member” of the society.
intelligence and traits.  Social Environment
 Whatever characteristics a child Interaction happening in a particular
inherits from his/her parents may group are all parts of a person’s
shape his/her personality and how social environment. One’s social role
she react to situations happening is also a contributing factor in
around her. developing one’s personality.

Environment (Nurture) Culture and Personality

 Environment can influence - Francis Boaz, Ruth Benedict,

personality formation and Margaret Mead, and Edward Sapir
development. This determinant can argued that among the
be further subdivided into three. determinants that affect the
 Geographic Environment personality, cultural environment is
- The location, climate, topography, the main factor that determines the
and natural resources in one’s human behavior.
society are all parts of his - They believe that one’s personality
environment development is a result of them
- Differences in personality are found learning their culture
among individuals living in different - Culture has a deep and permanent
climate and topography. effect on the individual especially if
- Panopio et.Al., pointed that the culture has been imbedded
geography is responsible for varying since childhood.
Socialization Process  This is defined as person’s position
in a social system. It can be either
 Chester Hunt (1982) Describe a
ascribed or achieved.
human being as “weak dependent,
helpless creature” whose need can Ascribed Status
only be filled through socialization.
 This is a predetermined status,
 The mother acts as the first
which means that an individual
determiner of the child by providing
with this type of status that has no
him/her with emotional satisfaction.
choice to choose his/her position
 As the child gets older, he/she learns
in the society since this is what is
how to behave differently, produce
given to him/her at his/her birth
favorable reactions, avoid
unpleasant deeds, and does the role Achieved Status
he/she expected to do as a
 This is obtained by choice, such
member of family.
as club membership, educational
 Eventually, they go beyond the
degree, and more.
boundaries of their families to create
 Status exist In pairs, such as
new relationship, which then
parent and child, husband and
become another factor in his/her
wife, teacher and students. Status
personal development.
can be classified into two types,
 Chester Hunt said that socialization is
namely complementary status
based on the communication of
and symmetrical status.
meaning and value.
 In his/her own effort to conform to Complementary Status
the expectations of society, a person
 In complementary status, pairs are
absorbs culture into his/her
expected to behave in different but
compatible ways
 The process by which the individual
learns, internalizes, and practices a Symmetrical Status
culture are all parts of socialization.
 In symmetrical status, two or more
Statuses and Roles holders of the same status are
expected to react to one another in
 Relative to socialization is the
similar ways.
learning patterns of behavior that
represent a person’s social status Role Strain
or roles.
 This happens when multiple
Social Roles expectations are required from a
single one.
 A person can have different roles
to play, depending upon the Agents of Socialization
group he/she in.
1. Family
Status  Prime agent of socialization
 Person can get most of his/her
significant traits, ranging from
hereditary to social ones in family.
 Through family, one first recognizes  Manner in which a person learns to
his/her own roles in the society. adopt the culture followed by his/her
co-members in the society.
Peer Group
 The influence of a peer group can
become more prominent in one’s  This is the process in which a person
personality. adapts to the influence to the
 Barkada or peers help a person influence of other culture by
experience things beyond what borrowing many of its aspects.
his/her family allows.  It was coined by John Wesley Powell
 In this sense, a person becomes (1883)
more comfortable in showing his/her  Refers to the psychological changes
true personality to his/her peers than simulated by cross-cultural imitation.
to his/her family.  It occurs when two
societies/groups/individuals are
interacting directly.
 Plays a vital role in socialization  The manifestation is more evident in
 In this institution, an average person social media.
spends most of his/her young life.
 In school, She meets different type of
people with varying beliefs, cultural  Denotes complete or almost total
orientations attitude and the like. adaptation of minor culture to major
Socio-Civic Group
 In Assimilation, an individual learns a
 Membership in socio-civic groups, new culture, tending to lose entirely
such as church and interest groups his/her previously held cultural
also has a share in person’s life. identity.

Mass media Cooperation

 The agent of socialization that is too  Sociologist F.E Merill and H.W
influential at present Eldredge (1965) defined
 As the name suggest, it reaches a cooperation as a form of social
significant number of people across interaction wherein two or more
all ages, cultural backgrounds, and person work together for a common
sociopolitical affinities. end or purpose
 As Panopio and Reymundo (1992)
Social Process
stated, It is a central feature of social
 It is impossible for socialization to life.
happen without social processes or  Ranges from small and wide
the repetitive patterns of interaction degrees.
commonly found in a social life.  Actualized with minimum or even the
complete absence of formal
 One of the basic social processes
that happen within a family
 Israeli Sociologist, Shmuel Einsenstadt  Conflict manifest in different forms
(1971) defined differentiation as the and levels such as intrapersonal,
ways through which major social interpersonal, intragroup and
spears become disconnected in intergroup conflicts.
order to focus on specialized roles  A conflict involves individuals,
and create a stronger organizational groups, or a combination of both. In
framework. most cases, conflict happens when
 Process of designating each a party fails to communicate
member of society to achieve effectively its message to offer thus
stability and order, thus, the increase creating a misunderstanding.
of social units.  Competition suggest the struggle
between two or more persons or
groups that can be translated to
 Two families or group become innovation in the long run.
one through formal union, such as
 It promotes Enculturation and
Assimilation, and it’s the opposite
of Differentiation since it reduces
the number of social unit.

 Division of society into social

categories that in turn develop
social groups. It is mainly based on
wealth and income differences.
 Dividing the members of society into
different strata. Each stratum or
social class is made of individuals
who posses similar economic,
political, and cultural interest
 Members of different strata have
varied privileges, responsibilities,
ideas, disposition, and attitudes
towards society.
Conflict and Competition

 Conflict and competition are two

social processes that are
interchangeably used since both
suggest vying for a particular source.
 Sociologist, Lewis Coser (1956)
defined conflict as a struggle over
values and claims to scarce